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1.  A genome-wide search for linkage to chronic kidney disease in a community-based sample: the SAFHS 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2008;23(10):3184-3191.
Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) phenotypes such as albuminuria measured by urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR), elevated serum creatinine (SrCr) and/or decreased creatinine clearance (CrCl) and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are major risk factors for renal and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies have reported that CKD phenotypes cluster in families suggesting a genetic predisposition. However, studies reporting chromosomal regions influencing CKD are very limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify susceptible chromosomal regions for CKD phenotypes in Mexican American families enrolled in the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS).
Methods. We used the variance components decomposition approach (implemented in the software package SOLAR) to perform linkage analysis on 848 participants from 26 families. A total of 417 microsatellite markers were genotyped at an average interval of 10 cM spanning 22 autosomal chromosomes.
Results. All phenotypes were measured by standard procedures. Mean ± SD values of ACR, SrCr, CrCl and eGFR were 0.06 ± 0.38, 0.85 ± 0.72 mg/dl, 129.85 ± 50.37 ml/min and 99.18 ± 25.69 ml/min/1.73 m2 body surface area, respectively. All four CKD phenotypes exhibited significant heritabilities (P < 0.0001). A genome-wide scan showed linkage on chromosome 2p25 for SrCr, CrCl and eGFR. Significant linkage was also detected on chromosome 9q21 for eGFR [logarithm of the odds (LOD) score = 3.87, P = 0.00005] and SrCr (LOD score = 2.6, P = 0.00026). ACR revealed suggestive evidence for linkage to a region on chromosome 20q12 (LOD score = 2.93, P = 0.00020).
Conclusion. Findings indicate that chromosomal regions 2p25, 9q21 and 20q12 may have functional relevance to CKD phenotypes in Mexican Americans.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfn215
PMCID: PMC2720810  PMID: 18443212
chronic kidney disease; genome-wide search; SAFHS
2.  A Genomewide Linkage Scan of Cocaine Dependence and Major Depressive Episode in Two Populations 
Neuropsychopharmacology  2011;36(12):2422-2430.
Cocaine dependence (CD) and major depressive episode (MDE) frequently co-occur with poorer treatment outcome and higher relapse risk. Shared genetic risk was affirmed; to date, there have been no reports of genomewide linkage scans (GWLSs) surveying the susceptibility regions for comorbid CD and MDE (CD–MDE). We aimed to identify chromosomal regions and candidate genes susceptible to CD, MDE, and CD–MDE in African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). A total of 1896 individuals were recruited from 384 AA and 355 EA families, each with at least a sibling-pair with CD and/or opioid dependence. Array-based genotyping of about 6000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms was completed for all individuals. Parametric and non-parametric genomewide linkage analyses were performed. We found a genomewide-significant linkage peak on chromosome 7 at 183.4 cM for non-parametric analysis of CD–MDE in AAs (lod=3.8, genomewide empirical p=0.016; point-wise p=0.00001). A nearly genomewide significant linkage was identified for CD–MDE in EAs on chromosome 5 at 14.3 cM (logarithm of odds (lod)=2.95, genomewide empirical p=0.055; point-wise p=0.00012). Parametric analysis corroborated the findings in these two regions and improved the support for the peak on chromosome 5 so that it reached genomewide significance (heterogeneity lod=3.28, genomewide empirical p=0.046; point-wise p=0.00053). This is the first GWLS for CD–MDE. The genomewide significant linkage regions on chromosomes 5 and 7 harbor four particularly promising candidate genes: SRD5A1, UBE3C, PTPRN2, and VIPR2. Replication of the linkage findings in other populations is warranted, as is a focused analysis of the genes located in the linkage regions implicated here.
doi:10.1038/npp.2011.122
PMCID: PMC3194068  PMID: 21849985
genomewide linkage scan; affected sib-pair; comorbidity; cocaine dependence; depression; drug dependence; addiction and substance abuse; depression, unipolar/bipolar; neurogenetics; biological psychiatry; genomewide linkage scan; affected sib-pair; comorbidity; cocaine dependence; depression
3.  Genetic variants in Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily M 1 (TRPM1) and their risk of albuminuria-related traits in Mexican Americans 
Background
Evidence for linkage of albuminuria to GABRB3 marker region on chromosome 15q12 was previously reported in Mexican Americans. The objective of this study is to scan a positional candidate gene, Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily M 1 (TRPM1), for genetic variants that may contribute to the variation in albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR).
Methods
To identify the sequence variants, the exons and 2 kb putative promoter region of TRPM1 were PCR amplified and sequenced in 32 selected individuals. Identified variants were genotyped in the entire data set (N=670; 39 large families) by TaqMan assays. Association analyses between the sequence variants and ACR, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related phenotypes were carried out using a measured genotype approach as implemented in the program SOLAR.
Results
Sequencing analysis identified 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 8 SNPs in the coding regions, 7 SNPs in the promoter region and 3 SNPs in introns. Of the 8 SNPs identified in the coding regions, 3 were non synonymous [Met(1)Thr, Ser(32)Asn, Val(1395)Ile] and one SNP caused stop codon (Glu1375/*). Of the SNPs examined, none of them exhibited statistically significant association with ACR after accounting for the effect of age, sex, diabetes, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure and anti-hypertensive medications. However, a SNP (rs11070811) located in the putative promoter region showed a modest association with triglycerides levels (P = 0.039).
Conclusion
The present investigation found no evidence for an association between sequence variation at the TRPM1 gene and ACR in Mexican Americans, although it appears to have modest influence on T2DM risk factors.
doi:10.1016/j.cca.2011.03.024
PMCID: PMC3206641  PMID: 21439949
TRPM1; Type 2 diabetes; Albumin to creatinine ration; polymorphisms; association analysis; Mexican Americans
4.  Differential Effects of MYH9 and APOL1 Risk Variants on FRMD3 Association with Diabetic ESRD in African Americans 
PLoS Genetics  2011;7(6):e1002150.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MYH9 and APOL1 on chromosome 22 (c22) are powerfully associated with non-diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans (AAs). Many AAs diagnosed with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) have non-diabetic kidney disease, potentially masking detection of DN genes. Therefore, genome-wide association analyses were performed using the Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 in 966 AA with T2DN and 1,032 non-diabetic, non-nephropathy (NDNN) controls, with and without adjustment for c22 nephropathy risk variants. No associations were seen between FRMD3 SNPs and T2DN before adjusting for c22 variants. However, logistic regression analysis revealed seven FRMD3 SNPs significantly interacting with MYH9—a finding replicated in 640 additional AA T2DN cases and 683 NDNN controls. Contrasting all 1,592 T2DN cases with all 1,671 NDNN controls, FRMD3 SNPs appeared to interact with the MYH9 E1 haplotype (e.g., rs942280 interaction p-value = 9.3E−7 additive; odds ratio [OR] 0.67). FRMD3 alleles were associated with increased risk of T2DN only in subjects lacking two MYH9 E1 risk haplotypes (rs942280 OR = 1.28), not in MYH9 E1 risk allele homozygotes (rs942280 OR = 0.80; homogeneity p-value = 4.3E−4). Effects were weaker stratifying on APOL1. FRMD3 SNPS were associated with T2DN, not type 2 diabetes per se, comparing AAs with T2DN to those with diabetes lacking nephropathy. T2DN-associated FRMD3 SNPs were detectable in AAs only after accounting for MYH9, with differential effects for APOL1. These analyses reveal a role for FRMD3 in AA T2DN susceptibility and accounting for c22 nephropathy risk variants can assist in detecting DN susceptibility genes.
Author Summary
African Americans have high rates of kidney disease attributed to type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, approximately 25% of patients are misclassified and have non-diabetic kidney disease on renal biopsy. The APOL1-MYH9 gene region on chromosome 22 is powerfully associated with non-diabetic kidney diseases in African Americans. Therefore, we tested for interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome with APOL1 and MYH9 non-diabetic nephropathy risk variants in African Americans with presumed diabetic nephropathy. Markers in FRMD3, a gene associated with type 1 diabetic nephropathy in Caucasians, appeared to interact with MYH9; however, increased nephropathy risk was seen in diabetic cases lacking two MYH9 risk haplotypes, and protective effects were seen in those with two MYH9 risk haplotypes. Stratified analyses based on the chromosome 22 nephropathy risk haplotypes demonstrated that FRMD3 variants were associated with diabetic nephropathy risk in cases without two MYH9 (or APOL1) risk haplotypes. It appears that African Americans with diabetes and kidney disease who are not chromosome 22 nephropathy risk variant homozygotes are enriched for the presence of diabetic nephropathy and FRMD3 risk alleles. This genetic dissection ultimately allowed for detection of the FRMD3 diabetic nephropathy gene association in a subset of cases enriched for this disorder.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002150
PMCID: PMC3116917  PMID: 21698141
5.  A Genome-Wide Search for Linkage of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81888.
Objective
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function, is heritable, suggesting that genes influence renal function. Genes that influence eGFR have been identified through genome-wide association studies. However, family-based linkage approaches may identify loci that explain a larger proportion of the heritability. This study used genome-wide linkage and association scans to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence eGFR.
Methods
Genome-wide linkage and sparse association scans of eGFR were performed in families ascertained by probands with advanced diabetic nephropathy (DN) from the multi-ethnic Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) study. This study included 954 African Americans (AA), 781 American Indians (AI), 614 European Americans (EA) and 1,611 Mexican Americans (MA). A total of 3,960 FIND participants were genotyped for 6,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the Illumina Linkage IVb panel. GFR was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula.
Results
The non-parametric linkage analysis, accounting for the effects of diabetes duration and BMI, identified the strongest evidence for linkage of eGFR on chromosome 20q11 (log of the odds [LOD] = 3.34; P = 4.4×10−5) in MA and chromosome 15q12 (LOD = 2.84; P = 1.5×10−4) in EA. In all subjects, the strongest linkage signal for eGFR was detected on chromosome 10p12 (P = 5.5×10−4) at 44 cM near marker rs1339048. A subsequent association scan in both ancestry-specific groups and the entire population identified several SNPs significantly associated with eGFR across the genome.
Conclusion
The present study describes the localization of QTL influencing eGFR on 20q11 in MA, 15q21 in EA and 10p12 in the combined ethnic groups participating in the FIND study. Identification of causal genes/variants influencing eGFR, within these linkage and association loci, will open new avenues for functional analyses and development of novel diagnostic markers for DN.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081888
PMCID: PMC3866106  PMID: 24358131
6.  Polymorphisms in the Nonmuscle Myosin Heavy Chain 9 Gene (MYH9) Are Associated with Albuminuria in Hypertensive African Americans: The HyperGEN Study 
American journal of nephrology  2009;29(6):626-632.
Background
MYH9 is a podocyte-expressed gene encoding nonmuscle myosin IIA that is associated with idiopathic and human immunodeficiency virus-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and hypertensive end-stage renal disease in African Americans.
Methods
Four single nucleotide polymorphisms comprising the major MYH9 E1 risk haplotype were tested for association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) in 2,903 HyperGEN participants (1,458 African Americans (AA) in 895 families and 1,445 European Americans (EA) in 859 families) to determine the role of MYH9 in subclinical nephropathy. Association analyses employed general linear models in unrelated probands and generalized estimating equations in families. Adjustment was performed for age, sex, diabetes, BMI, medications, and mean arterial pressure separately in each race.
Results
Mean (SD) eGFR and ACR were 74.3 (16.0) ml/min/1.73 m2 and 20.3 (119.9) mg/g in EA, and 88.6 (20.9) ml/min/1.73 m2 and 76.8 (394.5) mg/g in AA (both p < 0.0001 across ethnicities). Urine ACR was associated with rs3752462 (p = 0.01) and rs4821481 (p = 0.05) in unrelated AA and with rs4821481 (p = 0.03), rs2032487 (p = 0.04) and the E1 3224 haplotype (p = 0.013) in AA families. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and the haplotype were not associated with ACR in EA or with eGFR in either ethnic group.
Conclusions
MYH9 variants are associated with albuminuria in hypertensive AA. The strength of the association was weaker than that in FSGS and hypertensive end-stage renal disease. MYH9 risk variants appear to be associated with primary FSGS with secondary hypertension, although nephrosclerosis may develop in response to hypertension in subjects homozygous for the MYH9 E1 risk haplotype.
doi:10.1159/000194791
PMCID: PMC2749685  PMID: 19153477
African Americans; Albuminuria; Chronic kidney disease; Essential hypertension; HyperGEN study; MYH9 gene
7.  Polymorphisms in the Nonmuscle Myosin Heavy Chain 9 Gene (MYH9) Are Associated with Albuminuria in Hypertensive African Americans: The HyperGEN Study 
American Journal of Nephrology  2009;29(6):626-632.
Background
MYH9 is a podocyte-expressed gene encoding nonmuscle myosin IIA that is associated with idiopathic and human immunodeficiency virus-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and hypertensive end-stage renal disease in African Americans.
Methods
Four single nucleotide polymorphisms comprising the major MYH9 E1 risk haplotype were tested for association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) in 2,903 HyperGEN participants (1,458 African Americans (AA) in 895 families and 1,445 European Americans (EA) in 859 families) to determine the role of MYH9 in subclinical nephropathy. Association analyses employed general linear models in unrelated probands and generalized estimating equations in families. Adjustment was performed for age, sex, diabetes, BMI, medications, and mean arterial pressure separately in each race.
Results
Mean (SD) eGFR and ACR were 74.3 (16.0) ml/min/1.73 m2 and 20.3 (119.9) mg/g in EA, and 88.6 (20.9) ml/min/1.73 m2 and 76.8 (394.5) mg/g in AA (both p < 0.0001 across ethnicities). Urine ACR was associated with rs3752462 (p = 0.01) and rs4821481 (p = 0.05) in unrelated AA and with rs4821481 (p = 0.03), rs2032487 (p = 0.04) and the E1 3224 haplotype (p = 0.013) in AA families. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and the haplotype were not associated with ACR in EA or with eGFR in either ethnic group.
Conclusions
MYH9 variants are associated with albuminuria in hypertensive AA. The strength of the association was weaker than that in FSGS and hypertensive end-stage renal disease. MYH9 risk variants appear to be associated with primary FSGS with secondary hypertension, although nephrosclerosis may develop in response to hypertension in subjects homozygous for the MYH9 E1 risk haplotype.
doi:10.1159/000194791
PMCID: PMC2749685  PMID: 19153477
African Americans; Albuminuria; Chronic kidney disease; Essential hypertension; HyperGEN study; MYH9 gene
8.  Genome-wide linkage scans for type 2 diabetes mellitus in four ethnically diverse populations; significant evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in African Americans: the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) Research Group 
Background
Previous studies have shown that, in addition to environmental influences, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a strong genetic component. The goal of the current study is to identify regions of linkage for T2DM in ethnically diverse populations.
Methods
Phenotypic and genotypic data were obtained from African American (AA; total number of individuals (N)=1004), American Indian (AI; N=883), European American (EA; N=537), and Mexican American (MA; N=1634) individuals from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes. Nonparametric linkage analysis, using an average of 4,404 SNPs, was performed in relative pairs affected with T2DM in each ethnic group. In addition, family-based tests were performed to detect association with T2DM.
Results
Statistically significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 4q21.1 (LOD=3.13; genome-wide p=0.04) in AA. In addition, a total of eleven regions showed suggestive evidence for linkage (estimated at LOD>1.71), with the highest LOD scores on chromosomes 12q21.31 (LOD=2.02) and 22q12.3 (LOD=2.38) in AA, 2p11.1 (LOD=2.23) in AI, 6p12.3 (LOD=2.77) in EA, and 13q21.1 (LOD=2.24) in MA. While no region overlapped across all ethnic groups, at least five loci showing LOD>1.71 have been identified in previously published studies.
Conclusions
The results from this study provide evidence for the presence of genes affecting T2DM on chromosomes 4q, 12q, and 22q in AA, 6p in EA, 2p in AI, and 13q in MA. The strong evidence for linkage on chromosome 4q in AA provides important information given the paucity of diabetes genetic studies in this population.
doi:10.1002/dmrr.1031
PMCID: PMC2783577  PMID: 19795399
FIND; Type 2 Diabetes; linkage analysis; ethnicity
9.  Association of Arachidonate 12 Lipoxygenase Genotype Variation and Glycemic Control With Albuminuria in Type 2 Diabetes 
Background
Glycemic exposure activates 12-lipoxygenase (12LO) expression and formation of arachidonic acid-derived products. These products can induce cell hypertrophy, cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition, potentially leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN).
Study Design
cross-sectional study.
Settings & Participants
955 European American siblings from 369 Diabetes Heart Study families. Participants were categorized as: non-diabetic, diabetic with hemoglobin A1c < 6.5%, and diabetic with hemoglobin A1c > 6.5% (uncontrolled T2DM).
Predictor
Four haplotype-tagging variants in the arachidonate 12LO gene (ALOX12), glycemic control, and other covariates.
Outcomes & Measurements
Albuminuria measured by urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR).
Results
The median ACR was 11.9 mg/g (interquartile range, 5.6–39.1). The overall test of the Arg261Gln genotypic association with ACR was significant (p=0.009). Compared to the 261Arg allele carriers, adjusted mean ACR was 42% higher among the 189 carriers of two 261Gln alleles (95% confidence interval, 10% to 83%; p = 0.007). This association was confined to the uncontrolled T2DM group (N=623) with the highest ACR values (P<0.001). Adjustments for additional determinants of ACR yielded similar results.
Limitations
Urine ACR was measured in duplicate on only a single occasion. This study was limited to European Americans.
Conclusions
Consistent with animal and cellular studies, these results provide further evidence of the importance of the 12LO pathway in the pathogenesis of human DN.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.12.033
PMCID: PMC2585503  PMID: 18640486
lipoxygenase; ALOX12 gene; albuminuria; diabetic nephropathy; genetics; type 2 diabetes mellitus
10.  Genome-Wide Linkage Scan for Genes Influencing Plasma Triglyceride Levels in the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study 
Diabetes  2009;58(1):279-284.
OBJECTIVE—Elevated plasma triglyceride concentration is a component of the insulin resistance syndrome and is commonly associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and coronary heart disease. The goal of our study was to perform a genome-wide linkage scan to identify genetic regions that influence variation in plasma triglyceride levels in families that are enriched with individuals with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 1,026 individuals distributed across 294 Mexican-American families, who were ascertained for type 2 diabetes, from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Plasma triglyceride values were transformed, and a variance-components technique was used to conduct multipoint linkage analysis.
RESULTS—After adjusting for the significant effects of sex and BMI, heritability for plasma triglycerides was estimated as 46 ± 7% (P < 0.0001). Multipoint linkage analysis yielded the strongest evidence for linkage of plasma triglycerides near marker D12S391 on chromosome 12p (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 2.4). Our linkage signal on chromosome 12p provides independent replication of a similar finding in another Mexican-American sample from the San Antonio Family Diabetes Study (SAFDS). Combined multipoint linkage analysis of the VAGES and SAFDS data yielded significant evidence for linkage of plasma triglycerides to a genetic location between markers GATA49D12 and D12S391 on 12p (LOD = 3.8, empirical P value = 2.0 × 10−5). This region on 12p harbors the gene-encoding adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2), where we previously have shown that multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations in the SAFDS. In the present study, we provided suggestive evidence in favor of association for rs929434 with triglyceride concentrations in the VAGES.
CONCLUSIONS—Collectively, these results provide strong evidence for a major locus on chromosome 12p that influences plasma triglyceride levels in Mexican Americans.
doi:10.2337/db08-0491
PMCID: PMC2606886  PMID: 18931038
11.  Genome-Wide Linkage and Admixture Mapping of Type 2 Diabetes in African American Families From the American Diabetes Association GENNID (Genetics of NIDDM) Study Cohort 
Diabetes  2009;58(1):268-274.
OBJECTIVE—We used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map in a large cohort of 580 African American families to identify regions linked to type 2 diabetes, age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis, and BMI.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—After removing outliers and problematic samples, we conducted linkage analysis using 5,914 SNPs in 1,344 individuals from 530 families. Linkage analysis was conducted using variance components for type 2 diabetes, age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis, and BMI and nonparametric linkage analyses. Ordered subset analyses were conducted ranking on age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis, BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and amount of European admixture. Admixture mapping was conducted using 4,486 markers not in linkage disequilibrium.
RESULTS—The strongest signal for type 2 diabetes (logarithm of odds [LOD] 4.53) was a broad peak on chromosome 2, with weaker linkage to age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis (LOD 1.82). Type 2 diabetes and age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis were linked to chromosome 13p (3–22 cM; LOD 2.42 and 2.46, respectively). Age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis was linked to 18p (66 cM; LOD 2.96). We replicated previous reports on chromosome 7p (79 cM; LOD 2.93). Ordered subset analysis did not overlap with linkage of unselected families. The best admixture score was on chromosome 12 (90 cM; P = 0.0003).
CONCLUSIONS—The linkage regions on chromosomes 7 (27–78 cM) and 18p overlap prior reports, whereas regions on 2p and 13p linkage are novel. Among potential candidate genes implicated are TCF7L1, VAMP5, VAMP8, CDK8, INSIG2, IPF1, PAX8, IL18R1, members of the IL1 and IL1 receptor families, and MAP4K4. These studies provide a complementary approach to genome-wide association scans to identify causative genes for African American diabetes.
doi:10.2337/db08-0931
PMCID: PMC2606884  PMID: 18840782
12.  Linkage of Type 2 Diabetes on Chromosome 9p24 in Mexican Americans: Additional Evidence from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES) 
Human heredity  2013;76(1):36-46.
Objective
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease and is more prevalent in certain ethnic groups such as the Mexican Americans. The goal of our study was to perform a genome-wide linkage analysis to localize T2DM susceptibility loci in Mexican Americans.
Methods
We used the phenotypic and genotypic data from 1,122 Mexican American individuals (307 families) who participated in the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Genome-wide linkage analysis was performed, using the variance components approach. Data from two additional Mexican American family studies, the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS) and the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (SAFDGS), were combined with the VAGES data to test for improved linkage evidence.
Results
After adjusting for covariate effects, T2DM was found to be under significant genetic influences (h2 = 0.62, P = 2.7 × 10−6). The strongest evidence for linkage of T2DM occurred between markers D9S1871 and D9S2169 on chromosome 9p24.2-p24.1 (LOD = 1.8). Given that we previously reported suggestive evidence for linkage of T2DM at this region in SAFDGS also, we found the significant and increased linkage evidence (LOD = 4.3, empirical P = 1.0 × 10−5, genome-wide P = 1.6 × 10−3) for T2DM at the same chromosomal region when we performed genome-wide linkage analysis of the VAGES data combined with SAFHS and SAFDGS data.
Conclusion
Significant T2DM linkage evidence was found on chromosome 9p24 in Mexican Americans. Importantly, the chromosomal region of interest in this study overlaps with several recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) involving T2DM related traits. Given its overlap with such findings and our own initial T2DM association findings in the 9p24 chromosomal region, high throughput sequencing of the linked chromosomal region could identify the potential causal T2DM genes.
doi:10.1159/000354849
PMCID: PMC3919448  PMID: 24060607
Type 2 diabetes; Linkage; Chromosome 9p24; Mexican Americans; VAGES
13.  Confirmation and Generalization of an Alcohol Dependence Locus on Chromosome 10q 
Several genome scans on alcohol dependence (AD) and AD-related traits have been published. In this article, we present the results of a genomewide linkage scan on AD and several related traits in 322 European-American (EA) families, and results of additional analysis in 335 African-American (AA) families that were the subject of a prior report. All families were initially ascertained for cocaine and/or opioid dependence. Non-parametric linkage analysis in the EA sample revealed suggestive linkages on chromosomes 7 (LOD = 2.1 at 82.8 cM, p=0.0009) and 10 (LOD = 3.0 at 137.7 cM, p=0.0001). The chromosome 10 linkage peak is 20 cM distal from a genomewide-significant linkage peak we observed previously in the AA sample. Parametric linkage analysis on chromosome 10 (assuming a recessive model, 80% penetrance, disease allele frequency = 0.3) resulted in LOD scores of 2.7 at 136.7 cM and 1.9 at 121.7 cM in the EA and AA samples, respectively, with a combined sample genomewide-significant LOD score of 4.1 at 131.7 cM. To reduce heterogeneity of the AD phenotype, we also assessed linkage of chromosome 10 markers with the presence of alcohol withdrawal symptoms, one of the seven components of the DSM-IV diagnosis of AD. Suggestive evidence for linkage was observed in both populations with only 5 cM separating the location of the peak LOD scores despite a loss of power due to a smaller number of families informative for this trait. Results of our study confirm a chromosome 10 risk locus for AD in two genetically distinct populations and suggest that this locus may correspond more precisely to a specific component of the disorder.
doi:10.1038/npp.2010.1
PMCID: PMC2855759  PMID: 20147890
alcohol dependence; genetic linkage; genomewide scan; chromosome 10q
14.  Genetic Analysis of Diabetic Nephropathy on Chromosome 18 in African Americans: Linkage Analysis and Dense SNP Mapping 
Human genetics  2009;126(6):805-817.
Genetic studies in Turkish, Native American, European American, and African American (AA) families have linked chromosome 18q21.1-23 to susceptibility for diabetes associated nephropathy. In this study we have carried out fine linkage mapping in the 18q region previously linked to diabetic nephropathy in AAs by genotyping both microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for linkage analysis in an expanded set of 223 AA families multiplexed for type 2 diabetes associated ESRD (T2DM-ESRD). Several approaches were used to evaluate evidence of linkage with the strongest evidence for linkage in ordered subset analysis with an earlier age of T2DM diagnosis compared to the remaining pedigrees (LOD 3.9 at 90.1cM, ΔP=0.0161, NPL P value = 0.00002). Overall, the maximum LODs and LOD-1 intervals vary in magnitude and location depending upon analysis. The linkage mapping was followed up by performing a dense SNP map, genotyping 2,814 SNPs in the refined LOD-1 region in 1,029 AA T2DM-ESRD cases and 1,027 AA controls. Of the top 25 most associated SNPs, 10 resided within genic regions. Two candidate genes stood out: NEDD4L and SERPINB7. SNP rs512099, located in intron 1 of NEDD4L, was associated under a dominant model of inheritance (P value = 0.0006; Odds ratio (95% Confidence Interval) (OR (95%CI)) = 0.70 (0.57-0.86)). SNP rs1720843, located in intron 2 of SERPINB7, was associated under a recessive model of inheritance (P value = 0.0017; OR (95% CI) = 0.65 (0.50-0.85)). Collectively, these results suggest that multiple genes in this region may influence diabetic nephropathy susceptibility in AAs.
doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0732-8
PMCID: PMC2937163  PMID: 19690890
African American; diabetes type 2; nephropathy; linkage analysis; SNP; association analysis
15.  Metabolic Syndrome is linked to Chromosome 7q21 and associated with genetic variants in CD36 and GNAT3 in Mexican Americans 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2012;20(10):2083-2092.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has been rising alarmingly worldwide, including in the United States, but knowledge on specific genetic determinants of MS is very limited. Therefore, we planned to identify the genetic determinants of MS as defined by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII) criteria. We performed linkage screen for MS using data from 692 Mexican Americans, who participated in the San Antonio Family Diabetes/Gallbladder Study (SAFDGS). We found strong evidence for linkage of MS on chromosome 7q (LOD = 3.6, empirical P = 6.0 × 10−5), between markers D7S2212 and D7S821. In addition, six chromosomal regions exhibited potential evidence for linkage (LOD ≥ 1.2) with MS. Further, we examined 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the fatty acid translocase (FAT or CD36, 18 SNPs) gene and guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 3 (GNAT3, 11 SNPs) gene, located within the 1-LOD support interval region for their association with MS and its related traits. Several SNPs were associated with MS and its related traits. Remarkably, rs11760281 in GNAT3 and rs1194197 near CD36 exhibited the strongest associations with MS (P = 0.0003, relative risk [RR] = 1.6 and P = 0.004, RR = 1.7 respectively) and several other related traits. These two variants explained about 18% of the MS linkage evidence on chromosome 7q21, and together conferred approximately 3-fold increase in MS risk (RR = 2.7). In conclusion, our linkage and subsequent association studies implicate a region on chromosome 7q21 to influence MS in Mexican Americans.
doi:10.1038/oby.2012.74
PMCID: PMC4287372  PMID: 22456541
Metabolic syndrome; NCEP/ATPIII; linkage/genome scan; variance components linkage analysis; single nucleotide polymorphisms; association analysis; Mexican Americans; CD36/FAT; GNAT3
16.  Genomewide linkage scan of schizophrenia in a large multicenter pedigree sample using single nucleotide polymorphisms 
Molecular psychiatry  2009;14(8):786-795.
A genomewide linkage scan was carried out in eight clinical samples of informative schizophrenia families. After all quality control checks, the analysis of 707 European-ancestry families included 1,615 affected and 1,602 unaffected genotyped individuals, and the analysis of all 807 families included 1900 affected and 1839 unaffected individuals. Multipoint linkage analysis with correction for marker-marker linkage disequilibrium was carried out with 5,861 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; Illumina 4.0 linkage map). Suggestive evidence for linkage (European families) was observed on chromosomes 8p21, 8q24.1, 9q34 and 12q24.1 in non-parametric and/or parametric analyses. In a logistic regression allele-sharing analysis of linkage allowing for intersite heterogeneity, genomewide significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosome 10p12. Significant heterogeneity was also observed on chromosome 22q11.1. Evidence for linkage across family sets and analyses was most consistent on chromosome 8p21, with a one-lod support interval that does not include the candidate gene NRG1, suggesting that one or more other susceptibility loci might exist in the region. In this era of genomewide association and deep resequencing studies, consensus linkage regions deserve continued attention, given that linkage signals can be produced by many types of genomic variation, including any combination of multiple common or rare SNPs or copy number variants in a region.
doi:10.1038/mp.2009.11
PMCID: PMC2714870  PMID: 19223858
Genome; Human; Genotype; Humans; Schizophrenia/*genetics; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; *Linkage (Genetics)
17.  Dissecting the genetic heterogeneity of myopia susceptibility in an Ashkenazi Jewish population using ordered subset analysis 
Molecular Vision  2011;17:1641-1651.
Purpose
Despite many years of research, most of the genetic factors contributing to myopia development remain unknown. Genetic studies have pointed to a strong inherited component, but although many candidate regions have been implicated, few genes have been positively identified.
Methods
We have previously reported 2 genomewide linkage scans in a population of 63 highly aggregated Ashkenazi Jewish families that identified a locus on chromosome 22. Here we used ordered subset analysis (OSA), conditioned on non-parametric linkage to chromosome 22 to detect other chromosomal regions which had evidence of linkage to myopia in subsets of the families, but not the overall sample.
Results
Strong evidence of linkage to a 19-cM linkage interval with a peak OSA nonparametric allele-sharing logarithm-of-odds (LOD) score of 3.14 on 20p12-q11.1 (ΔLOD=2.39, empirical p=0.029) was identified in a subset of 20 families that also exhibited strong evidence of linkage to chromosome 22. One other locus also presented with suggestive LOD scores >2.0 on chromosome 11p14-q14 and one locus on chromosome 6q22-q24 had an OSA LOD score=1.76 (ΔLOD=1.65, empirical p=0.02).
Conclusions
The chromosome 6 and 20 loci are entirely novel and appear linked in a subset of families whose myopia is known to be linked to chromosome 22. The chromosome 11 locus overlaps with the known Myopia-7 (MYP7, OMIM 609256) locus. Using ordered subset analysis allows us to find additional loci linked to myopia in subsets of families, and underlines the complex genetic heterogeneity of myopia even in highly aggregated families and genetically isolated populations such as the Ashkenazi Jews.
PMCID: PMC3123157  PMID: 21738393
18.  Genome-Wide Scan for Linkage to Type 1 Diabetes in 2,496 Multiplex Families From the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium 
Diabetes  2009;58(4):1018-1022.
OBJECTIVE
Type 1 diabetes arises from the actions of multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Considerable success at identifying common genetic variants that contribute to type 1 diabetes risk has come from genetic association (primarily case-control) studies. However, such studies have limited power to detect genes containing multiple rare variants that contribute significantly to disease risk.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) has assembled a collection of 2,496 multiplex type 1 diabetic families from nine geographical regions containing 2,658 affected sib-pairs (ASPs). We describe the results of a genome-wide scan for linkage to type 1 diabetes in the T1DGC family collection.
RESULTS
Significant evidence of linkage to type 1 diabetes was confirmed at the HLA region on chromosome 6p21.3 (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 213.2). There was further evidence of linkage to type 1 diabetes on 6q that could not be accounted for by the major linkage signal at the HLA class II loci on chromosome 6p21. Suggestive evidence of linkage (LOD ≥2.2) was observed near CTLA4 on chromosome 2q32.3 (LOD = 3.28) and near INS (LOD = 3.16) on chromosome 11p15.5. Some evidence for linkage was also detected at two regions on chromosome 19 (LOD = 2.84 and 2.54).
CONCLUSIONS
Five non–HLA chromosome regions showed some evidence of linkage to type 1 diabetes. A number of previously proposed type 1 diabetes susceptibility loci, based on smaller ASP numbers, showed limited or no evidence of linkage to disease. Low-frequency susceptibility variants or clusters of loci with common alleles could contribute to the linkage signals observed.
doi:10.2337/db08-1551
PMCID: PMC2661598  PMID: 19136655
19.  High-Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genome-Wide Linkage Scan for Susceptibility Genes for Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes  2008;57(9):2519-2526.
OBJECTIVE— Epidemiological and family studies have demonstrated that susceptibility genes play an important role in the etiology of diabetic nephropathy, defined as persistent proteinuria or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— To efficiently search for genomic regions harboring diabetic nephropathy genes, we conducted a scan using 5,382 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms on 100 sibpairs concordant for type 1 diabetes but discordant for diabetic nephropathy. In addition to being powerful for detecting linkage to diabetic nephropathy, this design allows linkage analysis on type 1 diabetes via traditional affected sibpair (ASP) analysis. In weighing the evidence for linkage, we considered maximum logarithm of odds score (maximum likelihood score [MLS]) values and corresponding allelic sharing patterns, calculated and viewed graphically using the software package SPLAT.
RESULTS— Our primary finding for diabetic nephropathy, broadly defined, is on chromosome 19q (MLS = 3.1), and a secondary peak exists on chromosome 2q (MLS = 2.1). Stratification of discordant sibpairs based on whether disease had progressed to ESRD suggested four tertiary peaks on chromosome 1q (ESRD only), chromosome 20p (proteinuria only), and chromosome 3q (two loci 58 cm apart, one for ESRD only and another for proteinuria only). Additionally, analysis of 130 ASPs for type 1 diabetes confirmed the linkage to the HLA region on chromosome 6p (MLS = 9.2) and IDDM15 on chromosome 6q (MLS = 3.1).
CONCLUSIONS— This study identified several novel loci as candidates for diabetic nephropathy, none of which appear to be the sole genetic determinant of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes. In addition, this study confirms two previously reported type 1 diabetes loci.
doi:10.2337/db07-1086
PMCID: PMC2518505  PMID: 18559660
20.  Genome-Wide Linkage Scan in Gullah-Speaking African American Families With Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes  2009;58(1):260-267.
OBJECTIVE—The Gullah-speaking African American population from the Sea Islands of South Carolina is characterized by a low degree of European admixture and high rates of type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications. Affected relative pairs with type 2 diabetes were recruited through the Sea Islands Genetic African American Registry (Project SuGAR).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan, genotyping 5,974 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 471 affected subjects and 50 unaffected relatives from 197 pedigrees. Data were analyzed using a multipoint engine for rapid likelihood inference and ordered subsets analyses (OSAs) for age at type 2 diabetes diagnosis, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and BMI. We searched for heterogeneity and interactions using a conditional logistic regression likelihood approach.
RESULTS—Linkage peaks on chromosome 14 at 123–124 cM were detected for type 2 diabetes (logarithm of odds [LOD] 2.10) and for the subset with later age at type 2 diabetes diagnosis (maximum LOD 4.05). Two linkage peaks on chromosome 7 were detected at 44–45 cM for type 2 diabetes (LOD 1.18) and at 78 cM for type 2 diabetes (LOD 1.64) and the subset with earlier age at type 2 diabetes diagnosis (maximum LOD 3.93). The chromosome 14 locus and a peak on 7p at 29.5 cM were identified as important in the multilocus model. Other regions that provided modest evidence for linkage included chromosome 1 at 167.5 cM (LOD 1.51) and chromosome 3 at 121.0 cM (LOD 1.61).
CONCLUSIONS—This study revealed a novel type 2 diabetes locus in an African American population on 14q that appears to reduce age of disease onset and confirmed two loci on chromosome 7.
doi:10.2337/db08-0198
PMCID: PMC2606883  PMID: 18835935
21.  Fine Mapping of Candidate Regions for Bipolar Disorder Provides Strong Evidence for Susceptibility Loci on Chromosomes 7q 
Genomewide scans of bipolar disorder (BP) have not produced consistent linkage findings. Follow-up studies using enlarged samples and enhanced marker density can bolster or refute claims of linkage and pave the way to gene discovery. We conducted linkage and association analyses, using a ~3-cM density map of 10 candidate regions, in a large BP pedigree sample (865 individuals from 56 pedigrees). The candidate regions were identified in a previous 10-cM genome-wide scan using a subset of this sample (373 individuals from 40 pedigrees). The present sample consists of the expanded original pedigrees (‘core’ pedigrees) and 16 additional pedigrees. We obtained experiment-wide significant linkage on chromosome 7q34 (LOD score 3.53, p<0.001), substantially stronger than that observed in the genome-wide scan. Support for linkage was sustained on chromosomes 2p13, 4q31, 8q13, 13q32, 14q21 and 17q11, though at a more modest level. Family-based association analysis was consistent with the linkage results at all regions with linkage evidence, except 4q an 8q, but the results fell short of statistical significance. Three of the previously implicated regions – 9q31, 10q21 and 10q24 – showed substantial reduction in evidence of linkage. Our results strongly support 7q34 as a region harboring susceptibility locus for BP. Somewhat lesser, yet notable support was obtained for 2p13, 4q31, 8q13, 13q32, 14q21 and 17q11. These regions could be considered prime candidates for future gene finding efforts.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.31151
PMCID: PMC3084374  PMID: 21302345
bipolar; linkage; genome scan; follow-up
22.  Missense mutations in the APOL1 gene are highly associated with end stage kidney disease risk previously attributed to the MYH9 gene 
Human Genetics  2010;128(3):345-350.
MYH9 has been proposed as a major genetic risk locus for a spectrum of nondiabetic end stage kidney disease (ESKD). We use recently released sequences from the 1000 Genomes Project to identify two western African-specific missense mutations (S342G and I384M) in the neighboring APOL1 gene, and demonstrate that these are more strongly associated with ESKD than previously reported MYH9 variants. The APOL1 gene product, apolipoprotein L-1, has been studied for its roles in trypanosomal lysis, autophagic cell death, lipid metabolism, as well as vascular and other biological activities. We also show that the distribution of these newly identified APOL1 risk variants in African populations is consistent with the pattern of African ancestry ESKD risk previously attributed to MYH9.
Mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD) localized an interval on chromosome 22, in a region that includes the MYH9 gene, which was shown to contain African ancestry risk variants associated with certain forms of ESKD (Kao et al. 2008; Kopp et al. 2008). MYH9 encodes nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIa, a major cytoskeletal nanomotor protein expressed in many cell types, including podocyte cells of the renal glomerulus. Moreover, 39 different coding region mutations in MYH9 have been identified in patients with a group of rare syndromes, collectively termed the Giant Platelet Syndromes, with clear autosomal dominant inheritance, and various clinical manifestations, sometimes also including glomerular pathology and chronic kidney disease (Kopp 2010; Sekine et al. 2010). Accordingly, MYH9 was further explored in these studies as the leading candidate gene responsible for the MALD signal. Dense mapping of MYH9 identified individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sets of such SNPs grouped as haplotypes that were found to be highly associated with a large and important group of ESKD risk phenotypes, which as a consequence were designated as MYH9-associated nephropathies (Bostrom and Freedman 2010). These included HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), primary nonmonogenic forms of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and hypertension affiliated chronic kidney disease not attributed to other etiologies (Bostrom and Freedman 2010). The MYH9 SNP and haplotype associations observed with these forms of ESKD yielded the largest odds ratios (OR) reported to date for the association of common variants with common disease risk (Winkler et al. 2010). Two specific MYH9 variants (rs5750250 of S-haplotype and rs11912763 of F-haplotype) were designated as most strongly predictive on the basis of Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis (Nelson et al. 2010). These MYH9 association studies were then also extended to earlier stage and related kidney disease phenotypes and to population groups with varying degrees of recent African ancestry admixture (Behar et al. 2010; Freedman et al. 2009a, b; Nelson et al. 2010), and led to the expectation of finding a functional African ancestry causative variant within MYH9. However, despite intensive efforts including re-sequencing of the MYH9 gene no suggested functional mutation has been identified (Nelson et al. 2010; Winkler et al. 2010). This led us to re-examine the interval surrounding MYH9 and to the detection of novel missense mutations with predicted functional effects in the neighboring APOL1 gene, which are significantly more associated with ESKD than all previously reported SNPs in MYH9.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-010-0861-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s00439-010-0861-0
PMCID: PMC2921485  PMID: 20635188
23.  Polymorphisms in MYH9 are associated with diabetic nephropathy in European Americans 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2011;27(4):1505-1511.
Background.
Polymorphisms in the non-muscle myosin IIA gene (MYH9) are associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and non-diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans and FSGS in European Americans. We tested for association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MYH9 with T2DM–ESRD in European Americans; additionally, three APOL1 gene variants were evaluated.
Methods.
Fifteen MYH9 SNPs and two APOL1 SNPs plus a 6-bp deletion were genotyped in 1963 European Americans, 536 cases with T2DM–ESRD and 1427 non-nephropathy controls (467 with T2DM and 960 without diabetes).
Results.
Comparing T2DM–ESRD cases with the 467 T2DM non-nephropathy controls, single variant associations trending toward significance were detected with SNPs rs4821480, rs2032487 and rs4281481 comprising part of the major MYH9 E1 risk haplotype [P-values 0.053–0.055 recessive, odds ratio (OR) 6.08–6.14]. Comparing T2DM–ESRD cases to all 1427 non-nephropathy controls, we confirmed evidence of association in these three SNPs as well as in the fourth E1 SNP (rs3752462) (P-values 0.017–0.035, OR 1.41–3.72). APOL1 G1/G2 nephropathy risk variants were rare in individuals of European American heritage, present in 0.28% of chromosomes in T2DM–ESRD cases and 0.32% of controls.
Conclusions.
MYH9 SNPs rs4821480, rs2032487, rs4281481 and rs3752462 are associated with T2DM–ESRD susceptibility in European Americans. The APOL1 risk variants are not present at appreciable frequency in this cohort with T2DM–ESRD. Therefore, polymorphisms in MYH9 appear to influence nephropathy risk in this sample.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfr522
PMCID: PMC3315672  PMID: 21968013
APOL1; diabetic nephropathy; end-stage renal disease; MYH9; type 2 diabetes mellitus
24.  Genomewide Linkage Scans for Ocular Refraction and Meta-analysis of Four Populations in the Myopia Family Study 
PURPOSE
Genomewide linkage scans were performed in Caucasian (CAUC) and Old Order Amish (OOA) families to identify genomic regions containing genes responsible for refractive error control. We also performed a meta-analysis by combining these results with our previous linkage results from Ashkenazi Jewish (ASHK) and African American (AFRAM) families.
METHODS
Two hundred seventy-one CAUC and 411 OOA participants (36 and 61 families, respectively) were recruited to participate in the Myopia Family Study. Recruitment criteria were designed to enrich the sample for multiplex myopic families. Genomewide, model-free, multipoint linkage analyses were performed separately for each population by using >370 microsatellite markers. Empirical significance levels were determined via gene-dropping simulations. A meta-analysis was performed by combining linkage results from the CAUC, OOA, AFRAM, and ASHK samples, and results were compared to previously reported loci for myopia and refraction.
RESULTS
Suggestive evidence of linkage was found at 12q24 (LOD = 4.583, P = 0.00037) and 4q21 (LOD = 2.72, P = 0.0028) in the CAUC sample and at 5qter (LOD = 3.271, P = 0.0014) in the OOA. Meta-analysis linkage results were largely driven by population-specific signals from ASHK and AFRAM families. The meta-analysis showed suggestive evidence of linkage to 4q21-22 (meta-P = 0.00214) adjacent to the previously reported MYP9 and MYP11 loci.
CONCLUSIONS
The results showed suggestive evidence of linkage of ocular refraction to 12q24 and 4q21 in CAUC and to 5qter in OOA families. The meta-analysis supports the view that several genes play a role in refractive development across populations. In MFS families, four broad genomic regions (on 1p, 4q, 7p, and 12q) most likely contain genes that influence ocular refraction.
doi:10.1167/iovs.08-2848
PMCID: PMC2885973  PMID: 19151385
25.  Genetic Association and Gene-Gene Interaction Analyses in African American Dialysis Patients With Nondiabetic Nephropathy 
Background
African Americans (AAs) have increased susceptibility to non-diabetic nephropathy relative to European Americans.
Study Design
Follow-up of a pooled genome-wide association study (GWAS) in AA dialysis patients with nondiabetic nephropathy; novel gene-gene interaction analyses.
Setting & Participants
Wake Forest sample: 962 AA nondiabetic nephropathy cases; 931 non-nephropathy controls. Replication sample: 668 Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) AA nondiabetic nephropathy cases; 804 non-nephropathy controls.
Predictors
Individual genotyping of top 1420 pooled GWAS-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 54 SNPs in six nephropathy susceptibility genes.
Outcomes
APOL1 genetic association and additional candidate susceptibility loci interacting with, or independently from, APOL1.
Results
The strongest GWAS associations included two non-coding APOL1 SNPs, rs2239785 (odds ratio [OR], 0.33; dominant; p = 5.9 × 10−24) and rs136148 (OR, 0.54; additive; p = 1.1 × 10−7) with replication in FIND (p = 5.0 × 10−21 and 1.9 × 10−05, respectively). Rs2239785 remained significantly associated after controlling for the APOL1 G1 and G2 coding variants. Additional top hits included a CFH SNP(OR from meta-analysis in above 3367 AA cases and controls, 0.81; additive; p = 6.8 × 10−4). The 1420 SNPs were tested for interaction with APOL1 G1 and G2 variants. Several interactive SNPs were detected, the most significant was rs16854341 in the podocin gene (NPHS2) (p = 0.0001).
Limitations
Non-pooled GWAS have not been performed in AA nondiabetic nephropathy.
Conclusions
This follow-up of a pooled GWAS provides additional and independent evidence that APOL1 variants contribute to nondiabetic nephropathy in AAs and identified additional associated and interactive non-diabetic nephropathy susceptibility genes.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.09.020
PMCID: PMC3259209  PMID: 22119407
African American; APOL1; CFH; end-stage renal disease; FIND; FSGS; hypertension

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