To determine if children with white coat hypertension (WCH) have evidence of target-organ damage by comparing left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of subjects with WCH to that of matched normotensive and hypertensive controls.
Each WCH subject was matched by body mass index (± 10%), age (± 1 year), and sex to a normotensive control and to a hypertensive control. Echocardiograms were reviewed to determine LVMI for each subject. These triple matches were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance to detect differences in LVMI between the three groups.
Twenty-seven matched triplets were established. The groups were comparable for sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Mean LVMI was 29.2, 32.3, and 35.1 g/m2.7, for normotensives, WCH, and sustained hypertensives, respectively (normotensive vs. WCH, p = 0.028; WCH vs. sustained hypertensive, p = 0.07). Left ventricular hypertrophy was not present in any subject in the normotensive or WCH groups, but was present in 26% of the sustained hypertensive subjects (p < 0.001).
After controlling closely for BMI, children with WCH had a LVMI which was intermediate between that of normotensives and sustained hypertensives, suggesting that WCH may be associated with hypertensive end-organ effects.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of olmesartan combined with either azelnidipine or amlodipine on central blood pressure (CBP) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in hypertensive patients.
Patient and methods:
Patients with brachial systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg received olmesartan monotherapy (20 mg daily) for 12 weeks. The patients were then randomly assigned to fixed-dose add-on therapy with azelnidipine (16 mg daily) or amlodipine (5 mg daily) (25 patients/group) for a further 24 weeks. CBP and LVMI were measured at baseline and at the end of the study.
Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The decrease in brachial BP was similar in both groups. CBP and LVMI decreased significantly in both groups (both, P < 0.001). However, the decreases in CBP and LVMI were significantly greater with olmesartan/azelnidipine than with olmesartan/amlodipine (CBP, P < 0.001; LVMI, P = 0.002).
These findings indicate that olmesartan/azelnidipine had greater effects on CBP and LVMI than did olmesartan/amlodipine, even though the reduction in brachial BP was similar in both groups. These differential effects on CBP and LVMI may have important implications for cardiovascular risk reduction.
central blood pressure; left ventricular mass index; augmentation index; brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity; olmesartan/azelnidipine
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of nitrates on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Sixty-four PD patients with hypertension were enrolled in this study. All patients accepted antihypertensive drugs at baseline. Thirty-two patients (nitrate group) took isosorbide mononitrate for 24 weeks. The remaining 32 patients (non-nitrate group) took other antihypertensive drugs. Blood pressure (BP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were monitored. Subjects with normal renal function were included as the control group (n = 30). At baseline, plasma ADMA levels in PD patients were significantly higher than the control group, but there was no significant difference in plasma ADMA levels between the two groups. At the end of the 24-week period, BP, LVMI, LVH prevalence and plasma ADMA levels in the nitrate group were significantly lower than those in the non-nitrate group. BP did not show a significant difference between 12 and 24 weeks in the nitrate group with a reduced need for other medication. Logistic regression analysis showed that nitrate supplementation and SBP reduction were independent risk factors of LVMI change in PD patients after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes history and CCB supplementation. It was concluded that organic nitrates favor regression of LVH in hypertensive patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis, and nitrates may be considered for use before employing the five other antihypertensive agents other than nitrates.
nitrate; ADMA; hypertension; left ventricular hypertrophy; renal dialysis
Hypertensive diabetic patients, when compared with essential hypertensive patients, have a higher left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and an impaired cardiac diastolic function (CDF). Autonomic neuropathy (AN) could contribute to this finding.
To evaluate the relationship between AN tests, and LVMI and CDF in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and without AN symptoms or left ventricular hypertrophy.
In 21 normotensive patients with DM2 (group 1) and 16 control subjects (group 2), LVMI and CDF were evaluated using atrial deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time, E wave, A wave and E/A wave ratio. AN tests performed included a deep breathing test, Valsalva manoeuvre and lying-to-standing test.
Groups did not differ in clinical and echocardiographic characteristics. None of the patients in either group presented with left ventricular hypertrophy. In group 1, there were correlations between the deep breathing test and LVMI (r=−0.6; P<0.01) and between the deep breathing test and E/A wave ratio (r=0.4; P<0.05). No correlations were found in the control group.
In DM2 patients, AN tests correlated with LVMI and CDF before left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertension, impaired CDF and diabetic AN symptoms were present. The present study suggests that AN tests could be regularly performed in DM2 patients. Any abnormalities in tests should be followed by a cardiac evaluation.
Diabetes mellitus type 2; Diabetic autonomic neuropathy; Diabetic cardiomyopathy
Objective: Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) are considered as a risk group for atherosclerosis. Increased aortic intima-media thickness has been reported in IDM. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and atherosclerotic risk factors in IDM.
Methods: Thirty IDM and 25 healthy controls were included in the study. Of these infants, 14 were appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) and 16 were large-for-gestational age (LGA). CA-IMT and LVMI were obtained by M-mode echocardiographic examination. The relationship between parameters of atherosclerosis and echocardiographic measurements was assessed by Pearson’s correlation analysis.
Results: LVMI was higher in LGA IDM when compared to AGA IDM and controls. CA-IMT was not significantly different between the groups and was also not related to atherosclerotic risk factors. Serum lipid and insulin levels were higher in LGA IDM when compared with AGA IDM
and controls. There were no correlations between CA-IMT, LVMI and atherosclerotic risk factors.
Conclusions: In contrast to previous reports indicating an increase in CA-IMT in IDM, no differences were found between IDM and controls in this study. Our results indicate that macrosomic IDM are prone to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but not to atherosclerotic changes in the blood vessels.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Intima-media thickness; left ventricular mass; macrosomic newborns
Increased muscle mass index of the left ventricle (LVMi) is an independent predictor for the development of symptoms in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). While the onset of clinical symptoms and left ventricular systolic dysfunction determines a poor prognosis, the standard echocardiographic evaluation of LV dysfunction, only based on measurements of the LV ejection fraction (EF), may be insufficient for an early assessment of imminent heart failure. Contrary, 2-dimensional speckle tracking (2DS) seems to be superior in detecting subtle changes in myocardial function. The aim of the study was to assess these LV function deteriorations with global longitudinal strain (GLS) analysis and the relations to LVMi in patients with AS and normal EF.
50 patients with moderate to severe AS and 31 controls were enrolled. All patients underwent echocardiography, including 2DS imaging. LVMi measures were performed with magnetic resonance imaging in 38 patients with AS and indexed for body surface area.
The total group of patients with AST showed a GLS of -15,2 ± 3,6% while the control group reached -19,5 ± 2,7% (p < 0,001). By splitting the group with AS in normal, moderate and severe increased LVMi, the GLS was -17,0 ± 2,6%, -13,2 ± 3,8% and -12,4 ± 2,9%, respectively (p = 0,001), where LVMi and GLS showed a significant correlation (r = 0,6, p < 0,001).
In conclusion, increased LVMi is reflected in abnormalities of GLS and the proportion of GLS impairment depends on the extent of LV hypertrophy. Therefore, simultaneous measurement of LVMi and GLS might be useful to identify patients at high risk for transition into heart failure who would benefit from aortic valve replacement irrespectively of LV EF.
Background. An early sign of ventricular remodeling is increased left ventricular mass (LVM) which over time may lead to left ventricular hypertrophy, the strongest predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, other than advancing age. Methods. 62 (30 TM; 32 CTL) African American adolescents (age 16.2 ± 1.3 years) with high normal systolic BP were randomly assigned to either 4-month Transcendental Meditation (TM) or health education control groups. The echocardiographic-derived measure of LVM index (LVMI = LVM/ht2.7) was measured before and after the 4-month TM study and at 4-month followup. 2D-guided M-mode echocardiography using a Hewlett Packard 5500 echosonograph was used to determine LVMI. Results. The TM group exhibited a greater decrease in LVMI at 4-month followup compared to the CTL group (−2.6 versus +0.3 gm/ht2.7, P < 0.04). The TM group exhibited a lesser increase in BMI at 4-month follow-up compared to the CTL group (0.2 ± 1.6 versus 1.1 ± 1.4, P < 0.03). Conclusion. These findings indicate that among a group of prehypertensive African American adolescents, 4 months of TM compared to heath education resulted in a significant decrease in LVMI, and these changes were maintained at 4-month follow-up.
HIV patients have increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities among asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals compared to HIV-uninfected individuals.
We performed echocardiography in 196 HIV-infected adults and 52 controls. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass indexed to the body surface area (LVMI), and diastolic function were assessed according to American Society of Echocardiography standards. LVMI was higher in HIV-infected patients (77.2g/m2 in HIV patients vs. 66.5g/m2 in controls, p<0.0001). LVEF was similar in both groups. Eight(4%) of the HIV patients had evidence of LV systolic dysfunction (defined as an EF<50%) versus none of the controls; 97(50%) had mild diastolic dysfunction compared to 29% of the HIV-uninfected subjects (p=0.008). After adjustment for hypertension and race, HIV-infected participants had a mean 8g/m2 larger LVMI compared to controls (p=0.001). Higher LVMI was independently associated with lower nadir CD4 T cell count, suggesting that immunodeficiency may play a role in this process. After adjustment for age and traditional risk factors, HIV patients had a 2.4 greater odds of having diastolic dysfunction as compared to controls (p=0.019).
HIV-infected patients had a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction and higher LVMI compared to controls. These differences were not readily explained by differences in traditional risk factors and were independently associated with HIV infection. These results suggest that contemporary asymptomatic HIV patients manifest mild functional and morphological cardiac abnormalities which are independently associated with HIV infection.
AIDS; diastole; echocardiography; hypertrophy; inflammation
Objective: To investigate the relationships between metabolic syndrome (MS), other metabolic features and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in a population of obese children and adolescents with MS.
Methods: Two hundred and eight obese children and adolescents (119 females and 89 males, mean age: 11.9±2.7 years) and control subjects (24 females and 26 males, mean age: 11.4±2.9 years) were enrolled in the study. The insulin sensitivity index and LVMI were determined. The International Diabetes Federation criteria were used to diagnose MS.
Results: The obese patients were divided into MS group (n=55) and non-MS (n=153) group. The values of LVMI in the MS group were significantly higher than those in the non-MS group (p=0.014). The present LVMI cut-off point of 33g/m2 for the diagnosis of MS yielded a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 98%. LVMI was found to be positively correlated in univariate analysis with height, weight, body mass index (BMI) SDS, fasting insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting glucose to insulin ratio (FGIR) and negatively correlated with quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICK-I).
Conclusions: We suggest that our optimal LVMI cut-off value for identifying MS may be considered as a sensitive index in screening obese children and adolescents for pediatric MS. Assessment of LVMI in obese children and adolescents may be used as a tool in predicting the presence of MS and its associated cardiovascular risks.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
obesity; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular disease; left ventricular mass index; children
Aim and Methods
We investigated the association between polymorphisms of the angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II type one receptor (AT1RA1166C) genes and the causation of renal disease in 76 advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) pediatric patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) or conservative treatment (CT). Serum ACE activity and creatine kinase-MB fraction (CK-MB) were measured in all groups. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated according to echocardiographic measurements. Seventy healthy controls were also genotyped.
The differences of D allele and DI genotype of ACE were found significant between MHD group and the controls (p = 0.0001). ACE-activity and LVMI were higher in MHD, while CK-MB was higher in CT patients than in all other groups. The combined genotype DD v/s ID+II comparison validated that DD genotype was a high risk genotype for hypertension .~89% of the DD CKD patients were found hypertensive in comparison to ~ 61% of patients of non DD genotype(p = 0.02). The MHD group showed an increased frequency of the C allele and CC genotype of the AT1RA1166C polymorphism (P = 0.0001). On multiple linear regression analysis, C-allele was independently associated with hypertension (P = 0.04).
ACE DD and AT1R A/C genotypes implicated possible roles in the hypertensive state and in renal damage among children with ESRD. This result might be useful in planning therapeutic strategies for individual patients.
angiotensin-converting enzyme; angiotensin II type one receptor; DNA polymorphisms; end-stage renal disease, Children
Adiponectin directly protects against cardiac remodeling. Despite this beneficial effect, most epidemiological studies have reported a negative relationship between adiponectin level and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). However, a positive relationship has also been reported in subjects at high risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Based on these conflicting results, we hypothesized that the relationship between serum adiponectin level and LVMI varies with the risk of LVH.
A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed on 1414 subjects. LVMI was measured by echocardiography. Log-transformed adiponectin levels (Log-ADPN) were used for the analysis.
Serum adiponectin level had a biphasic distribution (an increase after a decrease) with increasing LVMI. Although Log-ADPN did not correlate with LVMI, Log-ADPN was modestly associated with LVMI in the multivariate analysis (β = 0.079, p = 0.001). The relationship between adiponectin level and LVMI was bidirectional according to the risk of LVH. In normotensive subjects younger than 50 years, Log-ADPN negatively correlated with LVMI (r = −0.204, p = 0.005); however, Log-ADPN positively correlated with LVMI in ≥50-year-old obese subjects with high arterial stiffness (r = 0.189, p = 0.030). The correlation coefficient between Log-ADPN and LVMI gradually changed from negative to positive with increasing risk factors for LVH. The risk of LVH significantly interacted with the relationship between Log-ADPN and LVMI. In the multivariate analysis, Log-ADPN was associated with LVMI in the subjects at risk of LVH; however, Log-ADPN was either not associated or negatively associated with LVMI in subjects at low risk of LVH.
Adiponectin level and LVMI are negatively associated in subjects at low risk of LVH and are positively associated in subjects at high risk of LVH. Therefore, the relationship between adiponectin and LVMI varies with the risk of LVH.
To relate ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) to cardiac target organ measurement in children at risk for primary hypertension (HTN).
Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and ABP were measured concomitantly in children (6 to 18 years) at risk for hypertension using a cross-sectional study design.
LVMI showed a significant positive correlation with 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) load, SBP index (SBPI), and standard deviation score (SDS). When subjects were stratified by LVMI percentile, there were significant differences in SBP load, 24-hour SBPI, and 24-hour SSDS. The odds ratio (OR) of having elevated LVMI increased by 54% for each incremental increase of SDS in 24-hour SSDS after controlling for race and BMI (OR = 1.54, unit = 1 SDS, CI = 1.1, 2.15, P = .011) and increased by 88% for each increase of 0.1 in BPI (OR = 1.88, CI = 1.03, 3.45, P = .04). Subjects with stage 3 HTN had significantly greater mean LVMI compared with normal subjects (P = .002 by ANOVA; LMVI, 31.6 ± 7.9 versus 39.5 ± 10.4).
As systolic ABP variables increase, there is greater likelihood for increased LVMI. Staging based on ABPM allows assessment of cardiovascular risk in children with primary hypertension.
Brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a measure of endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. Endothelial nitric oxide controls vascular tone and is likely to modify the ventricular muscle coupling mechanism. The association between left ventricular mass and FMD is not well understood. We assessed the association between left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and FMD in participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). MESA is a population-based study of 6814 adults free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline who were recruited from six US clinics. LVMI (left ventricular mass per body surface area) and FMD were measured in 2447 subjects. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association. The subjects had a mean age of 61.2 ± 9.9 years, 51.2% females with 34.3% Caucasians, 21.6% Chinese, 19.4% African Americans and 24.7% Hispanics. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.4 ± 4.8 kg m−2, 9.4% had diabetes, 11% were current smokers and 38% hypertensives. The mean ± s.d. LVMI was 78.1 ± 15.9 g m−2 and mean ± s.d. FMD was 4.4% ± 2.8%. In univariate analysis, LVMI was inversely correlated with FMD (r = −0.20, P < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, LVMI was associated with FMD (β coefficient (se) = −0.50 (0.11), P < 0.001 (0.5 g m−2 reduction in LVMI per 1% increase in FMD)) after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, smoking, weight, statin use, antihypertensive medication use, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. The association between brachial flow mediated dilation and LVMI maybe independent of traditional CV risk factors in population based adults.
left ventricular mass; endothelial function; brachial flow-mediated dilation; population
OBJECTIVE—Echocardiographic and Doppler analysis of myocardial mass and diastolic function in patients infected with HIV.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre, Huelva, Spain.
PATIENTS—61 asymptomatic patients with HIV infection and 32 healthy controls.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Time motion, cross sectional, and Doppler echocardiographic studies were performed, and left ventricular mass and diastolic function variables determined (peak velocity of early and late mitral outflow and isovolumic relaxation time).
RESULTS—Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was decreased in patients compared with healthy controls (mean (SD): 76.7 (23.6) v 118.8 (23.5) g/m2, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis showed a correlation between LVMI and brachial fat and muscle areas. The ratio of peak velocities of early and late mitral outflow was decreased in HIV infected patients compared with controls (1.19 (0.44) v 1.58 (0.38), p < 0.001). This ratio was exclusively related to haemodynamic variables (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures). HIV infected patients had a prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (103.0 (10.5) v 72.9 (12.9) ms, p < 0.001). Isovolumic relaxation time was correlated only with brachial muscle area on multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS—HIV infected patients had a reduced left ventricular mass index and diastolic functional abnormalities. These cardiac abnormalities are predominantly related to nutritional status.
Keywords: HIV infection; cardiac function; nutrition
Aims. Patients with diabetic nephropathy are reported to have a high prevalence of left
ventricular structural and functional abnormalities. This study was designed to assess
the determinants of left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and left ventricular ejection
fraction (LVEF) in diabetic patients at various stages of chronic kidney disease
Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 285 diabetic patients with CKD stages 3
to 5 from our outpatient department of internal medicine. Clinical and
echocardiographic parameters were compared and analyzed.
Results. We found a significant stepwise increase in LVMI (P < 0.001), LVH (P < 0.001), and LVEF <55% (P = 0.013) and a stepwise decrease in LVEF (P = 0.038)
corresponding to advance in CKD stages.
Conclusions. Our findings suggest that increases in LVMI and decreases in LVEF coincide
with advances in CKD stages in patients with diabetes.
Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction has been associated with impaired glucometabolic status. However, studies of older subjects are lacking. We examined associations between echocardiographic indices of LV diastolic function and LV mass index (LVMI) and glucometabolic status among middle-aged and elderly subjects free from heart disease, hypothesizing that the associations would be comparative to younger cohorts.
We examined the AGES-RS (Iceland; n=607, 76±6 years) and MPP-RES cohorts (Sweden; n=1519, 67±6 years), evaluating associations with multivariable regression analysis.
In AGES-RS, LVMI was positively correlated with HbA1c (p=0.001). Otherwise, echocardiographic variables were not associated with glucometabolic status. In MPP-RES, LVMI increased with increasing glucometabolic disturbance among both older (70–80 years) and middle-aged (57–69 years) subjects. Among older subjects, HbA1c was positively correlated with two variables reflecting LV diastolic function: late transmitral peak flow velocity (A) (p=0.001) and early transmitral peak flow velocity (E)/early diastolic peak tissue velocity (Em) (p=0.046). In middle-aged MPP-RES subjects, increasing glucometabolic disturbance was correlated with increasing late diastolic peak tissue velocity (Am) (p=0.002) and, after age-adjustment, with increasing A (p=0.001) and decreasing Em/Am (p=0.009). With age-adjustment, Am and A were positively correlated with fasting glucose and HbA1c.
Contrary to our hypothesis, in two independent cohorts of older individuals, associations between glucometabolic status and LV diastolic function were generally weak. This contrasts with previous reports, as well as with observations among middle-aged subjects in the present study. Changes in LV diastolic function may be more age-related than associated with glucose metabolism in older subjects.
Unlike the general population, among hemodialysis patients body-mass index(BMI)is inversely related to blood pressure (BP) and mortality. To explore the reasons for this risk-factor paradox the cross-sectional association of obesity with the following factors was examined: the prevalence of hypertension, its control and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Longitudinal follow-up explored the relationship of BMI with all-cause mortality. Further it explored whether poorer survival in leaner individuals was related to either high BP or greater LVMI. Among 368 hemodialysis patients both the prevalence of hypertension and its poor control were inversely related to BMI. BMI was also inversely associated with evidence of excess extracellular fluid volume but adjustment for this variable did not completely remove the inverse relationship between BP and BMI. Over 1122 patient-years of cumulative follow up (median 2.7 years) 119 (32%) patients died. In the first two years of follow up, the mortality hazard for the lowest BMI group was increased; thereafter, the survival curves were similar. Adjusting for several risk factors including BP and LVMI did not remove the inverse relationship of BMI with mortality. In conclusion, leaner patients on dialysis have a higher prevalence of hypertension, poorer control of hypertension, more LVMI, and greater evidence of extracellular fluid volume excess. However, volume only partially explains the greater prevalence or poorer control of hypertension. Leaner patients have an accelerated mortality rate in the first two years; this is not completely explained by BP, LVMI or other cardiovascular or dialysis-specific risk factors.
Body mass index; epidemiology; hemodialysis; ambulatory blood pressure; left ventricular hypertrophy; survival
Masked hypertension (MHT) and prehypertension (PHT) are both associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, relative to sustained normotension. This study examined the diagnostic overlap between MHT and PHT, and their interrelationships with left ventricular (LV) mass index (LVMI), a marker of cardiovascular end-organ damage.
A research nurse performed three manual clinic blood pressure (CBP) measurements on three occasions over a 3-week period (total of nine readings, which were averaged) in 813 participants without treated hypertension from the Masked Hypertension Study, an ongoing worksite-based, population study. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was assessed by using a SpaceLabs 90207 monitor. LVMI was determined by echocardiography in 784 (96.4%) participants.
Of the 813 participants, 769 (94.6%) had normal CBP levels (<140/90 mm Hg). One hundred and seventeen (15.2%) participants with normal CBP had MHT (normal CBP and mean awake ABP ≥135/85 mm Hg) and 287 (37.3%) had PHT (mean CBP 120–139/80–89 mm Hg). 83.8% of MHT participants had PHT and 34.1% of PHT participants had MHT. MHT was infrequent (3.9%) when CBP was optimal (<120/80 mm Hg). After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, history of high cholesterol, history of diabetes, current smoking, family history of hypertension, and physical activity, compared with optimal CBP with MHT participants, LVMI was significantly greater in PHT without MHT participants and in PHT with MHT participants.
In this community sample, there was substantial diagnostic overlap between MHT and PHT. The diagnosis of MHT using an ABP monitor may not be warranted for individuals with optimal CBP.
ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; blood pressure; echocardiography; hypertension
The effect of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) on left ventricular (LV) geometry and function was compared to traditional aortic replacement (AVR) by major surgery.
45 patients with aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing TAVI and 33 AVR were assessed by standard echo Doppler the day before and 2 months after the implantation. 2D echocardiograms were performed to measure left ventricular (LV) mass index (LVMi), relative wall thickness (RWT), ejection fraction (EF) and the ratio between transmitral E velocity and early diastolic velocity of mitral annulus (E/e’ ratio). Valvular-arterial impedance (Zva) was also calculated.
At baseline, the 2 groups were comparable for blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index mean transvalvular gradient and aortic valve area. TAVI patients were older (p<0.0001) and had greater LVMi (p<0.005) than AVR group. After 2 months, both the procedures induced a significant reduction of transvalvular gradient and Zva but the decrease of LVMi and RWT was significant greater after TAVI (both p<0.0001). E/e’ ratio and EF were significantly improved after both the procedure but E/e’ reduction was greater after TAVI (p<0.0001). TAVI exhibited greater percent reduction in mean transvalvular gradient (p<0.05), Zva (p<0.02), LVMi (p<0.0001), RWT (p<0.0001) and E/e’ ratio (p<0.0001) than AVR patients. Reduction of E/e’ ratio was positively related with reduction of RWT (r = 0.46, p<0.002) only in TAVI group, even after adjusting for age and percent reduction of Zva (r =0.43, p<0.005).
TAVI induces a greater improvement of estimated LV filling pressure in comparison with major prosthetic surgery, due to more pronounced recovery of LV geometry, independent on age and changes of hemodynamic load.
Transcatheter aAortic valve implantation; Doppler echocardiography; Relative wall thickness; Left ventricular mass
We examined skin autofluorescence (sAF) in chronic kidney disease children (CKD) in relation to renal function and dialysis modality.
Twenty children on hemodialysis (HD), 20 on peritoneal dialysis (PD), 36 treated conservatively, and 26 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. In all children sAF, pulse-wave velocity indexed to height (PWV/ht), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), blood pressure (BP), serum lipid profile, phosphate (P), calcium (Ca), and homocysteine were measured.
sAF was significantly elevated in CKD groups vs. controls and was significantly associated with PWV/ht, LVMI, BP, P, Ca × P product and homocysteine. sAF in HD and PD groups was positively correlated with dialysis vintage, and in the predialysis group negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Multiple regression analysis showed significant association of sAF with LVMI and P in the CKD patient group, and with dialysis treatment duration and BP in dialyzed children.
In CKD children, tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) was observed. This was aggravated as eGFR declined and was related to early cardiovascular changes and some biochemical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. sAF as a non-invasive method may be a useful tool for identification of a clinical risk factors of cardiovascular disease in CKD children.
Cardiovascular risk factors; Children; Dialysis; Nephrology
Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of bromocriptine (BEC) on left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and residual renal function (RRF) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Research Design and Methods. A 6-month double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in 28 patients with T2D and stage 4 CKD with increased LVMI. Fourteen patients received BEC (2.5 mg, initially 1 tablet with subsequent increase to three times a day) and 14 received a placebo (PBO; initially 1 tablet with subsequent increase to three times a day). Cardiovascular changes were assessed by monitoring 24 h ambulatory blood pressure, two-dimensional-guided M-mode echocardiography, and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) plasma levels. RRF was evaluated by creatinine clearance and cystatin-C plasma levels. Results. Both BEC and PBO groups decreased blood pressure—but the effect was more pronounced in the BEC group. Average 24 h, diurnal and nocturnal blood pressures, and circadian profile showed improved values compared to the PBO group; LVMI decreased by 14% in BEC and increased by 8% in PBO group. NT-proBNP decreased in BEC (0.54 ± 0.15 to 0.32 ± 0.17 pg/mL) and increased in PBO (0.37 ± 0.15 to 0.64 ± 0.17 pg/mL). Creatinine clearance did not change in the BEC group and decreased in the PBO group. Conclusions. BEC resulted in a decrease on blood pressure and LVMI. BEC also prevented the progression of CKD while maintaining the creatinine clearance unchanged.
Implanting a valve that will reduce left ventricular mass is critical in aortic stenosis. Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in 46 aortic valve replacement (AVR) patients receiving a St. Jude Medical (SJM) valve was assessed by serial electrocardiographic and echocardiographic studies during the preoperative, immediate, and late postoperative periods. The patients were divided into three groups according to valve size; 19 mm group (n=9), 21 mm group (n=20), and 23+mm group (n=17). There was no surgical mortality. The NYHA functional class improved from an average of 2.2+/-0.8 preoperatively to 1.3+/-0.5 post-operatively. Left ventricular muscle mass index (LVMI) regression failed to reach statistical significance in the 19 mm group, whereas in the other two groups a steady decrease in the LVMI occurred with follow up. ECG findings were less remarkable showing insignificant differences in voltage among the three groups (p=0.000). In conclusion, the current data suggest that the 19 mm SJM valve may not result in satisfactory left ventricular muscle mass regression despite adequate function, even in small patients. Therefore, additional procedures to accommodate a larger valve may be warranted in the aortic annulus smaller than 21 mm.
An altered ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) profile is related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiorenal syndrome. In this study, we examined the effects of aliskiren, when added to angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, on ambulatory BP and cardiorenal function in CKD. Thirty-six hypertensive CKD patients were randomly assigned to the aliskiren add-on group (n = 18) or the benazepril add-on group (n = 18). Ambulatory BP and cardiorenal function parameters were measured at baseline and 24 weeks after treatment. Compared with the benazepril group, nighttime systolic BP variability in the aliskiren group was lower after treatment. Albuminuria was decreased in the aliskiren group, but not in the benazepril group. In addition, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was significantly lower in the aliskiren group than in the benazepril group after treatment. In the aliskiren group, multivariate linear regression analysis showed an association between changes in albuminuria and changes in nighttime systolic BP. Furthermore, there were associations between changes in LVMI and changes in daytime HR variability, as well as between changes in LVMI and changes in plasma aldosterone concentration. These results suggest that aliskiren add-on therapy may be beneficial for suppression of renal deterioration and pathological cardiac remodeling through an improvement that is effected in ambulatory BP and HR profiles.
albuminuria; ambulatory blood pressure; direct renin inhibitor; left ventricular hypertrophy; hypertension (kidney)
African-Americans with hypertension are susceptible to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Serum osteoprotegerin level has been reported to be associated with LVH. We investigated the association of osteoprotegerin with LV mass (LVM) in 898 African-Americans with hypertension (mean age 65 years, 71% women).
Osteoprotegerin levels were measured in serum by an immunoassay and log-transformed for analyses. LVM index (LVMi; LVM/height2.7) was estimated using M-mode echocardiography. Linear regression analyses using generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association of osteoprotegerin with LVMi.
Serum osteoprotegerin was correlated with LVMi (r = 0.21; P < 0.0001), an estimated increase in LVMi of 5.05 (95% confidence interval 2.93, 7.17) g/m2.7 in the highest compared to the lowest osteoprotegerin quartile. This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, body mass index (BMI), history of smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure (BP), total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), estimated renal function, history of myocardial infarction and stroke, lifestyle factors (physical activity score, years of education, amount of alcohol consumption), medications (aspirin, antihypertensives, statins, estrogens), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = 0.02). Additionally, osteoprotegerin was correlated with early/atrial (E/A) ratio (r = −0.16; P < 0.0001), LV mean wall thickness (r = 0.17; P < 0.0001) and relative wall thickness (r = 0.14; P < 0.0001) but not ejection fraction (r = 0.04; P = 0.24) or internal end-diastolic dimension (r = 0.02; P = 0.60).
In African-Americans with hypertension, a higher serum osteoprotegerin level is weakly but independently associated with a higher LVM.
African-American; biomarker; blood pressure; cardiology; echocardiography; epidemiology; hypertension; hypertrophy; osteoprotegerin
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent predictor of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients. Current guidelines for the management of hypertension are based on cardiovascular risk stratification. This study evaluated the possibility that an inexpensive, simple random, single-void urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) would be associated to left ventricular (LV) mass in a black African setting, and therefore direct appropriate management of these patients.
We measured echocardiographic LV mass and a random spot UPCR in 34 untreated newly diagnosed hypertensive patients attending the cardiology consultation unit at the Yaoundé General Hospital. LV mass was indexed to height (in m2.7) to obtain the LV mass index (LVMI). A regression model was used to verify the independent association between UPCR and LVMI.
The mean age of our patients was 52.65 years, and the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 152.44 and 92.84 mm Hg, respectively. The prevalence of LVH was 41.2%. UPCR was higher in patients with LVH compared to those without (p = 0.043). There was a significant correlation between UPCR and LVMI (r = 0.581, p < 0.001). In the multiple linear regression model, UPCR was associated with LVMI independent of systolic blood pressure (p < 0.001).
Random spot UPCR is associated with an increased LV mass and may be very useful in screening and guiding appropriate management of high-risk untreated hypertensive patients.
Proteinuria; Left ventricular hypertrophy; Hypertension