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1.  Left ventricular mass index in children with white coat hypertension 
The Journal of pediatrics  2008;153(1):50-54.
Objective
To determine if children with white coat hypertension (WCH) have evidence of target-organ damage by comparing left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of subjects with WCH to that of matched normotensive and hypertensive controls.
Study design
Each WCH subject was matched by body mass index (± 10%), age (± 1 year), and sex to a normotensive control and to a hypertensive control. Echocardiograms were reviewed to determine LVMI for each subject. These triple matches were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance to detect differences in LVMI between the three groups.
Results
Twenty-seven matched triplets were established. The groups were comparable for sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Mean LVMI was 29.2, 32.3, and 35.1 g/m2.7, for normotensives, WCH, and sustained hypertensives, respectively (normotensive vs. WCH, p = 0.028; WCH vs. sustained hypertensive, p = 0.07). Left ventricular hypertrophy was not present in any subject in the normotensive or WCH groups, but was present in 26% of the sustained hypertensive subjects (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
After controlling closely for BMI, children with WCH had a LVMI which was intermediate between that of normotensives and sustained hypertensives, suggesting that WCH may be associated with hypertensive end-organ effects.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.01.025
PMCID: PMC2516747  PMID: 18571535
2.  Organic Nitrates Favor Regression of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Patients on Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis 
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of nitrates on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Sixty-four PD patients with hypertension were enrolled in this study. All patients accepted antihypertensive drugs at baseline. Thirty-two patients (nitrate group) took isosorbide mononitrate for 24 weeks. The remaining 32 patients (non-nitrate group) took other antihypertensive drugs. Blood pressure (BP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were monitored. Subjects with normal renal function were included as the control group (n = 30). At baseline, plasma ADMA levels in PD patients were significantly higher than the control group, but there was no significant difference in plasma ADMA levels between the two groups. At the end of the 24-week period, BP, LVMI, LVH prevalence and plasma ADMA levels in the nitrate group were significantly lower than those in the non-nitrate group. BP did not show a significant difference between 12 and 24 weeks in the nitrate group with a reduced need for other medication. Logistic regression analysis showed that nitrate supplementation and SBP reduction were independent risk factors of LVMI change in PD patients after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes history and CCB supplementation. It was concluded that organic nitrates favor regression of LVH in hypertensive patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis, and nitrates may be considered for use before employing the five other antihypertensive agents other than nitrates.
doi:10.3390/ijms14011069
PMCID: PMC3565307  PMID: 23296279
nitrate; ADMA; hypertension; left ventricular hypertrophy; renal dialysis
3.  Effects of Azelnidipine plus OlmesaRTAn versus amlodipine plus olmesartan on central blood pressure and left ventricular mass index: the AORTA study 
Purpose:
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of olmesartan combined with either azelnidipine or amlodipine on central blood pressure (CBP) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in hypertensive patients.
Patient and methods:
Patients with brachial systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg received olmesartan monotherapy (20 mg daily) for 12 weeks. The patients were then randomly assigned to fixed-dose add-on therapy with azelnidipine (16 mg daily) or amlodipine (5 mg daily) (25 patients/group) for a further 24 weeks. CBP and LVMI were measured at baseline and at the end of the study.
Results:
Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. The decrease in brachial BP was similar in both groups. CBP and LVMI decreased significantly in both groups (both, P < 0.001). However, the decreases in CBP and LVMI were significantly greater with olmesartan/azelnidipine than with olmesartan/amlodipine (CBP, P < 0.001; LVMI, P = 0.002).
Conclusions:
These findings indicate that olmesartan/azelnidipine had greater effects on CBP and LVMI than did olmesartan/amlodipine, even though the reduction in brachial BP was similar in both groups. These differential effects on CBP and LVMI may have important implications for cardiovascular risk reduction.
doi:10.2147/VHRM.S21991
PMCID: PMC3141910  PMID: 21796252
central blood pressure; left ventricular mass index; augmentation index; brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity; olmesartan/azelnidipine
4.  Autonomic neuropathy tests correlate with left ventricular mass and cardiac diastolic function in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without left ventricular hypertrophy 
BACKGROUND:
Hypertensive diabetic patients, when compared with essential hypertensive patients, have a higher left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and an impaired cardiac diastolic function (CDF). Autonomic neuropathy (AN) could contribute to this finding.
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the relationship between AN tests, and LVMI and CDF in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and without AN symptoms or left ventricular hypertrophy.
METHODS:
In 21 normotensive patients with DM2 (group 1) and 16 control subjects (group 2), LVMI and CDF were evaluated using atrial deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time, E wave, A wave and E/A wave ratio. AN tests performed included a deep breathing test, Valsalva manoeuvre and lying-to-standing test.
RESULTS:
Groups did not differ in clinical and echocardiographic characteristics. None of the patients in either group presented with left ventricular hypertrophy. In group 1, there were correlations between the deep breathing test and LVMI (r=−0.6; P<0.01) and between the deep breathing test and E/A wave ratio (r=0.4; P<0.05). No correlations were found in the control group.
CONCLUSION:
In DM2 patients, AN tests correlated with LVMI and CDF before left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertension, impaired CDF and diabetic AN symptoms were present. The present study suggests that AN tests could be regularly performed in DM2 patients. Any abnormalities in tests should be followed by a cardiac evaluation.
PMCID: PMC2907882  PMID: 20664771
Diabetes mellitus type 2; Diabetic autonomic neuropathy; Diabetic cardiomyopathy
5.  Absence of Increase in Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Infants of Diabetic Mothers  
Objective: Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) are considered as a risk group for atherosclerosis. Increased aortic intima-media thickness has been reported in IDM. The purpose of this study was to assess carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and atherosclerotic risk factors in IDM.
Methods: Thirty IDM and 25 healthy controls were included in the study. Of these infants, 14 were appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) and 16 were large-for-gestational age (LGA). CA-IMT and LVMI were obtained by M-mode echocardiographic examination. The relationship between parameters of atherosclerosis and echocardiographic measurements was assessed by Pearson’s correlation analysis.
Results: LVMI was higher in LGA IDM when compared to AGA IDM and controls. CA-IMT was not significantly different between the groups and was also not related to atherosclerotic risk factors. Serum lipid and insulin levels were higher in LGA IDM when compared with AGA IDM
and controls. There were no correlations between CA-IMT, LVMI and atherosclerotic risk factors.
Conclusions: In contrast to previous reports indicating an increase in CA-IMT in IDM, no differences were found between IDM and controls in this study. Our results indicate that macrosomic IDM are prone to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but not to atherosclerotic changes in the blood vessels.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
doi:10.4274/jcrpe.v3i3.28
PMCID: PMC3184516  PMID: 21911328
Intima-media thickness; left ventricular mass; macrosomic newborns
6.  Reduced global longitudinal strain in association to increased left ventricular mass in patients with aortic valve stenosis and normal ejection fraction: a hybrid study combining echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging 
Background
Increased muscle mass index of the left ventricle (LVMi) is an independent predictor for the development of symptoms in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). While the onset of clinical symptoms and left ventricular systolic dysfunction determines a poor prognosis, the standard echocardiographic evaluation of LV dysfunction, only based on measurements of the LV ejection fraction (EF), may be insufficient for an early assessment of imminent heart failure. Contrary, 2-dimensional speckle tracking (2DS) seems to be superior in detecting subtle changes in myocardial function. The aim of the study was to assess these LV function deteriorations with global longitudinal strain (GLS) analysis and the relations to LVMi in patients with AS and normal EF.
Methods
50 patients with moderate to severe AS and 31 controls were enrolled. All patients underwent echocardiography, including 2DS imaging. LVMi measures were performed with magnetic resonance imaging in 38 patients with AS and indexed for body surface area.
Results
The total group of patients with AST showed a GLS of -15,2 ± 3,6% while the control group reached -19,5 ± 2,7% (p < 0,001). By splitting the group with AS in normal, moderate and severe increased LVMi, the GLS was -17,0 ± 2,6%, -13,2 ± 3,8% and -12,4 ± 2,9%, respectively (p = 0,001), where LVMi and GLS showed a significant correlation (r = 0,6, p < 0,001).
Conclusions
In conclusion, increased LVMi is reflected in abnormalities of GLS and the proportion of GLS impairment depends on the extent of LV hypertrophy. Therefore, simultaneous measurement of LVMi and GLS might be useful to identify patients at high risk for transition into heart failure who would benefit from aortic valve replacement irrespectively of LV EF.
doi:10.1186/1476-7120-8-29
PMCID: PMC2923627  PMID: 20659321
7.  Impact of Transcendental Meditation on Left Ventricular Mass in African American Adolescents 
Background. An early sign of ventricular remodeling is increased left ventricular mass (LVM) which over time may lead to left ventricular hypertrophy, the strongest predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, other than advancing age. Methods. 62 (30 TM; 32 CTL) African American adolescents (age 16.2 ± 1.3 years) with high normal systolic BP were randomly assigned to either 4-month Transcendental Meditation (TM) or health education control groups. The echocardiographic-derived measure of LVM index (LVMI = LVM/ht2.7) was measured before and after the 4-month TM study and at 4-month followup. 2D-guided M-mode echocardiography using a Hewlett Packard 5500 echosonograph was used to determine LVMI. Results. The TM group exhibited a greater decrease in LVMI at 4-month followup compared to the CTL group (−2.6 versus +0.3 gm/ht2.7, P < 0.04). The TM group exhibited a lesser increase in BMI at 4-month follow-up compared to the CTL group (0.2 ± 1.6 versus 1.1 ± 1.4, P < 0.03). Conclusion. These findings indicate that among a group of prehypertensive African American adolescents, 4 months of TM compared to heath education resulted in a significant decrease in LVMI, and these changes were maintained at 4-month follow-up.
doi:10.1155/2012/923153
PMCID: PMC3364733  PMID: 22675392
8.  Impact of HIV Infection on Diastolic Function and Left Ventricular Mass 
Circulation. Heart failure  2009;3(1):132-139.
Background
HIV patients have increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities among asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals compared to HIV-uninfected individuals.
Methods/Results
We performed echocardiography in 196 HIV-infected adults and 52 controls. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass indexed to the body surface area (LVMI), and diastolic function were assessed according to American Society of Echocardiography standards. LVMI was higher in HIV-infected patients (77.2g/m2 in HIV patients vs. 66.5g/m2 in controls, p<0.0001). LVEF was similar in both groups. Eight(4%) of the HIV patients had evidence of LV systolic dysfunction (defined as an EF<50%) versus none of the controls; 97(50%) had mild diastolic dysfunction compared to 29% of the HIV-uninfected subjects (p=0.008). After adjustment for hypertension and race, HIV-infected participants had a mean 8g/m2 larger LVMI compared to controls (p=0.001). Higher LVMI was independently associated with lower nadir CD4 T cell count, suggesting that immunodeficiency may play a role in this process. After adjustment for age and traditional risk factors, HIV patients had a 2.4 greater odds of having diastolic dysfunction as compared to controls (p=0.019).
Conclusions
HIV-infected patients had a higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction and higher LVMI compared to controls. These differences were not readily explained by differences in traditional risk factors and were independently associated with HIV infection. These results suggest that contemporary asymptomatic HIV patients manifest mild functional and morphological cardiac abnormalities which are independently associated with HIV infection.
doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.109.854943
PMCID: PMC2837081  PMID: 19933410
AIDS; diastole; echocardiography; hypertrophy; inflammation
9.  Relationship of Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness with Early Indicators of Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Functional Changes in Obese Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome 
Objective: Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT) is suggested as a new cardiometabolic risk factor. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a potential indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). We investigated the association of EATT with carotid IMT and cardiac functional changes in obese adolescents with MS.
Methods: One hundred thirty-eight obese adolescents and 63 lean subjects were enrolled in the study. The obese subjects were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of MS (MS group and non-MS group). All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiographic examination for determination of left ventricular (LV) function, LV mass index (LVMI), and myocardial performance index (MPI). EATT and carotid IMT were also measured during echocardiography.
Results: The average LVMI measurements were higher in both MS and non-MS obese patients in comparison with the lean children. The MS group had significantly higher LVMI measurements than the non-MS and lean groups (88.5±23.0, 67.5±24.8 g/m2, and 62.4±18.2 g/m2, respectively; p<0.01). Carotid IMT was higher in both the MS and non-MS obese patients in comparison with the lean group. The MS group had significantly higher carotid IMT measurements than the non-MS and lean groups (0.91±0.23, 0.78±0.18, and 0.52±0.08 mm, respectively; p<0.01). The EATT was also increased significantly in patients with MS compared to lean adolescents (7.42±1.55 vs. 4.28±0.79mm; p=0.001). EATT was positively correlated with body mass index-SDS, waist circumference, fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglyceride levels, LV thickness, LVMI, and MPI in the MS obese group. EATT was the only independent predictor of carotid IMT in the multivariate analysis (β= 0.69, p<0.001).
Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrate a close relationship of EATT with carotid IMT and early cardiac dysfunction in obese adolescents with MS. Assessment of EATT and carotid IMT in routine echocardiographic examinations is suggested as a feasible and reliable method for the evaluation of obesity with MS and its related cardiovascular risks in children and adolescents.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
doi:10.4274/Jcrpe.1064
PMCID: PMC3814530  PMID: 24072083
metabolic syndrome; epicardial adipose; tissue; carotid intima-media thickness
10.  The Relationship Between Metabolic Syndrome and Left Ventricular Mass Index in Obese Children  
Objective: To investigate the relationships between metabolic syndrome (MS), other metabolic features and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in a population of obese children and adolescents with MS.
Methods: Two hundred and eight obese children and adolescents (119 females and 89 males, mean age: 11.9±2.7 years) and control subjects (24 females and 26 males, mean age: 11.4±2.9 years) were enrolled in the study. The insulin sensitivity index and LVMI were determined. The International Diabetes Federation criteria were used to diagnose MS.
Results: The obese patients were divided into MS group (n=55) and non-MS (n=153) group. The values of LVMI in the MS group were significantly higher than those in the non-MS group (p=0.014). The present LVMI cut-off point of 33g/m2 for the diagnosis of MS yielded a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 98%. LVMI was found to be positively correlated in univariate analysis with height, weight, body mass index (BMI) SDS, fasting insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting glucose to insulin ratio (FGIR) and negatively correlated with quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICK-I).
Conclusions: We suggest that our optimal LVMI cut-off value for identifying MS may be considered as a sensitive index in screening obese children and adolescents for pediatric MS. Assessment of LVMI in obese children and adolescents may be used as a tool in predicting the presence of MS and its associated cardiovascular risks.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
doi:10.4274/jcrpe.v3i3.26
PMCID: PMC3184514  PMID: 21911326
obesity; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular disease; left ventricular mass index; children
11.  Genetic polymorphism of ACE and the angiotensin II type1 receptor genes in children with chronic kidney disease 
Aim and Methods
We investigated the association between polymorphisms of the angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II type one receptor (AT1RA1166C) genes and the causation of renal disease in 76 advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) pediatric patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) or conservative treatment (CT). Serum ACE activity and creatine kinase-MB fraction (CK-MB) were measured in all groups. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated according to echocardiographic measurements. Seventy healthy controls were also genotyped.
Results
The differences of D allele and DI genotype of ACE were found significant between MHD group and the controls (p = 0.0001). ACE-activity and LVMI were higher in MHD, while CK-MB was higher in CT patients than in all other groups. The combined genotype DD v/s ID+II comparison validated that DD genotype was a high risk genotype for hypertension .~89% of the DD CKD patients were found hypertensive in comparison to ~ 61% of patients of non DD genotype(p = 0.02). The MHD group showed an increased frequency of the C allele and CC genotype of the AT1RA1166C polymorphism (P = 0.0001). On multiple linear regression analysis, C-allele was independently associated with hypertension (P = 0.04).
Conclusion
ACE DD and AT1R A/C genotypes implicated possible roles in the hypertensive state and in renal damage among children with ESRD. This result might be useful in planning therapeutic strategies for individual patients.
doi:10.1186/1476-9255-8-20
PMCID: PMC3167745  PMID: 21859496
angiotensin-converting enzyme; angiotensin II type one receptor; DNA polymorphisms; end-stage renal disease, Children
12.  The Relationship between Adiponectin and Left Ventricular Mass Index Varies with the Risk of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e70246.
Background
Adiponectin directly protects against cardiac remodeling. Despite this beneficial effect, most epidemiological studies have reported a negative relationship between adiponectin level and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). However, a positive relationship has also been reported in subjects at high risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Based on these conflicting results, we hypothesized that the relationship between serum adiponectin level and LVMI varies with the risk of LVH.
Methods
A community-based, cross-sectional study was performed on 1414 subjects. LVMI was measured by echocardiography. Log-transformed adiponectin levels (Log-ADPN) were used for the analysis.
Results
Serum adiponectin level had a biphasic distribution (an increase after a decrease) with increasing LVMI. Although Log-ADPN did not correlate with LVMI, Log-ADPN was modestly associated with LVMI in the multivariate analysis (β = 0.079, p = 0.001). The relationship between adiponectin level and LVMI was bidirectional according to the risk of LVH. In normotensive subjects younger than 50 years, Log-ADPN negatively correlated with LVMI (r = −0.204, p = 0.005); however, Log-ADPN positively correlated with LVMI in ≥50-year-old obese subjects with high arterial stiffness (r = 0.189, p = 0.030). The correlation coefficient between Log-ADPN and LVMI gradually changed from negative to positive with increasing risk factors for LVH. The risk of LVH significantly interacted with the relationship between Log-ADPN and LVMI. In the multivariate analysis, Log-ADPN was associated with LVMI in the subjects at risk of LVH; however, Log-ADPN was either not associated or negatively associated with LVMI in subjects at low risk of LVH.
Conclusion
Adiponectin level and LVMI are negatively associated in subjects at low risk of LVH and are positively associated in subjects at high risk of LVH. Therefore, the relationship between adiponectin and LVMI varies with the risk of LVH.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070246
PMCID: PMC3722139  PMID: 23894624
13.  Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Increased Left Ventricular Mass in Children at Risk for Hypertension 
The Journal of pediatrics  2007;152(3):343-348.
Objective
To relate ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) to cardiac target organ measurement in children at risk for primary hypertension (HTN).
Study design
Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and ABP were measured concomitantly in children (6 to 18 years) at risk for hypertension using a cross-sectional study design.
Results
LVMI showed a significant positive correlation with 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) load, SBP index (SBPI), and standard deviation score (SDS). When subjects were stratified by LVMI percentile, there were significant differences in SBP load, 24-hour SBPI, and 24-hour SSDS. The odds ratio (OR) of having elevated LVMI increased by 54% for each incremental increase of SDS in 24-hour SSDS after controlling for race and BMI (OR = 1.54, unit = 1 SDS, CI = 1.1, 2.15, P = .011) and increased by 88% for each increase of 0.1 in BPI (OR = 1.88, CI = 1.03, 3.45, P = .04). Subjects with stage 3 HTN had significantly greater mean LVMI compared with normal subjects (P = .002 by ANOVA; LMVI, 31.6 ± 7.9 versus 39.5 ± 10.4).
Conclusions
As systolic ABP variables increase, there is greater likelihood for increased LVMI. Staging based on ABPM allows assessment of cardiovascular risk in children with primary hypertension.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.07.014
PMCID: PMC2763428  PMID: 18280838
14.  Effect of tanshinone IIA on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats 
In the present study, the effects of tanshinone IIA (TSN) on the prevention of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and apoptotic processes were observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). A total of 18 SHRs (age, 8 weeks) were randomly divided into three groups. The SHRs in the control group (group S8) were sacrificed at week 8 of the experiment. The SHRs in the treatment group (group D18) and the placebo group (group S18) were injected with TSN and distilled water (1 ml/kg body weight/day), respectively, for 10 weeks, commencing at week 8, and were subsequently sacrificed at week 18. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were determined. Using hematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson staining, together with immunohistological methods, cardiomyocyte size and diameter, collagen volume fraction (CVF) and perivascular circumferential area (PVCA) were measured. Evaluation of Bcl-2, Bax and p53 expression levels for apoptosis analysis was performed using western blotting. It was observed that the SBP, LVMI, cardiomyocyte size and diameter, CVF, PCVA and cardiomyocyte apoptosis index (Bax and p53 expression) were increased significantly in group S18 compared with group S8. However, Bcl-2 expression levels were decreased in group S18 compared with group S8. The administration of TSN in group D18 resulted in higher Bcl-2 expression levels and significantly decreased LVMI, cardiomyocyte size and diameter, CVF, PCVA, Bax and p53 expression levels compared with group S18. LVH and apoptosis of the cardiac tissues increased with the increasing age of the SHRs. TSN may inhibit the development of LVH and decrease the level of apoptosis in SHRs, possibly via the upregulation of Bcl-2 and the downregulation of Bax and p53 expression.
doi:10.3892/etm.2013.1339
PMCID: PMC3829736  PMID: 24255684
left ventricular hypertrophy; apoptosis; tanshinone IIA; p53; Bcl-2; Bax
15.  Endothelial dysfunction is associated with left ventricular mass (assessed using MRI) in an adult population (MESA) 
Journal of human hypertension  2010;25(1):25-31.
Brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a measure of endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. Endothelial nitric oxide controls vascular tone and is likely to modify the ventricular muscle coupling mechanism. The association between left ventricular mass and FMD is not well understood. We assessed the association between left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and FMD in participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). MESA is a population-based study of 6814 adults free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline who were recruited from six US clinics. LVMI (left ventricular mass per body surface area) and FMD were measured in 2447 subjects. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association. The subjects had a mean age of 61.2 ± 9.9 years, 51.2% females with 34.3% Caucasians, 21.6% Chinese, 19.4% African Americans and 24.7% Hispanics. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.4 ± 4.8 kg m−2, 9.4% had diabetes, 11% were current smokers and 38% hypertensives. The mean ± s.d. LVMI was 78.1 ± 15.9 g m−2 and mean ± s.d. FMD was 4.4% ± 2.8%. In univariate analysis, LVMI was inversely correlated with FMD (r = −0.20, P < 0.0001). In the multivariable analysis, LVMI was associated with FMD (β coefficient (se) = −0.50 (0.11), P < 0.001 (0.5 g m−2 reduction in LVMI per 1% increase in FMD)) after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, smoking, weight, statin use, antihypertensive medication use, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. The association between brachial flow mediated dilation and LVMI maybe independent of traditional CV risk factors in population based adults.
doi:10.1038/jhh.2010.25
PMCID: PMC3037860  PMID: 20237502
left ventricular mass; endothelial function; brachial flow-mediated dilation; population
16.  Ventricular mass and diastolic function in patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus 
Heart  2000;84(6):620-624.
OBJECTIVE—Echocardiographic and Doppler analysis of myocardial mass and diastolic function in patients infected with HIV.
DESIGN—Case-control study.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre, Huelva, Spain.
PATIENTS—61 asymptomatic patients with HIV infection and 32 healthy controls.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Time motion, cross sectional, and Doppler echocardiographic studies were performed, and left ventricular mass and diastolic function variables determined (peak velocity of early and late mitral outflow and isovolumic relaxation time).
RESULTS—Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was decreased in patients compared with healthy controls (mean (SD): 76.7 (23.6) v 118.8 (23.5) g/m2, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis showed a correlation between LVMI and brachial fat and muscle areas. The ratio of peak velocities of early and late mitral outflow was decreased in HIV infected patients compared with controls (1.19 (0.44) v 1.58 (0.38), p < 0.001). This ratio was exclusively related to haemodynamic variables (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures). HIV infected patients had a prolonged isovolumic relaxation time (103.0 (10.5) v 72.9 (12.9) ms, p < 0.001). Isovolumic relaxation time was correlated only with brachial muscle area on multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSIONS—HIV infected patients had a reduced left ventricular mass index and diastolic functional abnormalities. These cardiac abnormalities are predominantly related to nutritional status.


Keywords: HIV infection; cardiac function; nutrition
doi:10.1136/heart.84.6.620
PMCID: PMC1729508  PMID: 11083740
17.  Aldosterone Contributes to Elevated Left Ventricular Mass in Black Boys 
Background
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) poses a great risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults and may pose a serious risk in children. Adult studies have shown Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) levels are directly correlated with left ventricular mass index (LVMI). This purpose of this study is to explore race and sex-related effects of the RAAS on LVMI in adolescents.
Methods
Data was collected from a sample of 89 blacks (44 girls, 45 boys) and 102 whites (40 girls, 62 boys) ages 15–19. Data collected included, sex, age, body mass index (BMI), LVMI, baseline blood pressure, and levels of aldosterone and angiotensin II.
Results
In black males, increased aldosterone levels were correlated with decreased sodium excretion (r=−0.336, p=0.024), increased blood pressure (r=0.358, p=0.016), and increased LVMI (r=0.342, p=0.022). In black females, increased aldosterone levels correlated with increased baseline blood pressure (r=0.356, p=0.018). In white males, increased aldosterone was correlated decreased sodium excretion (r=−0.391, p=0.002). In white females, aldosterone levels correlated with increased baseline blood pressure (r=0.323, p=0.042) and decreased sodium excretion (r=−0.342, p=0.031).
Conclusions
The results suggest the following model in black males: increased aldosterone leads to increased sodium retention, causing a volume-mediated increase in blood pressure; increased blood pressure results in increased left ventricular mass and eventually LVH.
doi:10.1007/s00467-012-2367-6
PMCID: PMC3594547  PMID: 23179199
hypertension; renin; angiotensin; aldosterone; left ventricular hypertrophy; adolescents
18.  Stepwise Increases in Left Ventricular Mass Index and Decreases in Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Correspond with the Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in Diabetes Patients 
Experimental Diabetes Research  2011;2012:789325.
Aims. Patients with diabetic nephropathy are reported to have a high prevalence of left ventricular structural and functional abnormalities. This study was designed to assess the determinants of left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in diabetic patients at various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 285 diabetic patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 from our outpatient department of internal medicine. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were compared and analyzed. Results. We found a significant stepwise increase in LVMI (P < 0.001), LVH (P < 0.001), and LVEF <55% (P = 0.013) and a stepwise decrease in LVEF (P = 0.038) corresponding to advance in CKD stages. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that increases in LVMI and decreases in LVEF coincide with advances in CKD stages in patients with diabetes.
doi:10.1155/2012/789325
PMCID: PMC3155789  PMID: 21860616
19.  Defining cardiac adaptations and safety of endurance training in patients with m.3243A>G-related mitochondrial disease☆☆☆☆☆☆ 
International Journal of Cardiology  2013;168(4):3599-3608.
Background
Cardiac hypertrophic remodelling and systolic dysfunction are common in patients with mitochondrial disease and independent predictors of morbidity and early mortality. Endurance exercise training improves symptoms and skeletal muscle function, yet cardiac adaptations are unknown.
Methods and results
Before and after 16-weeks of training, exercise capacity, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and phosphorus-31 spectroscopy, disease burden, fatigue, quality of life, heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) were assessed in 10 adult patients with m.3243A>G-related mitochondrial disease, and compared to age- and gender-matched sedentary control subjects. At baseline, patients had increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI, p < 0.05) and LV mass to end-diastolic volume ratio, and decreased longitudinal shortening and myocardial phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate ratio (all p < 0.01). Peak arterial–venous oxygen difference (p < 0.05), oxygen uptake (VO2) and power were decreased in patients (both p < 0.01) with no significant difference in cardiac power output. All patients remained stable and completed ≥ 80% sessions. With training, there were similar proportional increases in peak VO2, anaerobic threshold and work capacity in patients and controls. LVMI increased in both groups (p < 0.01), with no significant effect on myocardial function or bioenergetics. Pre- and post-exercise training, HRV and BPV demonstrated increased low frequency and decreased high frequency components in patients compared to controls (all p < 0.05).
Conclusion
Patients with mitochondrial disease and controls achieved similar proportional benefits of exercise training, without evidence of disease progression, or deleterious effects on cardiac function. Reduced exercise capacity is largely mediated through skeletal muscle dysfunction at baseline and sympathetic over-activation may be important in pathogenesis.
doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.05.062
PMCID: PMC3819621  PMID: 23742928
Mitochondrial DNA; Endurance exercise; Autonomic function; Cardio-pulmonary exercise testing; Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; Cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopy
20.  Risk factors for increased left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with chronic kidney disease 
Background
Although left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been established as a predictor of cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease (CKD), the relationship between the prevalence of LVH and CKD stage during the predialysis period has not been fully examined.
Methods
We measured left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in a cross-sectional cohort of participants in the Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort (CKD-JAC) study in order to identify factors that are associated with increased LVMI in patients with stage 3–5 CKD. LVH was defined as LVMI > 125 g/m2 in male patients and >110 g/m2 in female patients.
Results
We analyzed baseline characteristics in 1185 participants (male 63.7 %, female 36.3 %). Diabetes mellitus was the underlying disease in 41.3 % of patients, and mean age was 61.8 ± 11.1 years. LVH was detected in 21.7 % of patients at baseline. By multivariate logistic analysis, independent risk factors for LVH were past history of cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [OR] 0.574; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.360–0.916; P = 0.020), systolic blood pressure (OR 1.179; 95 % CI 1.021–1.360; P = 0.025), body mass index (OR 1.135; 95 % CI 1.074–1.200; P < 0.001), and serum calcium level (OR 0.589; 95 % CI 0.396–0.876; P = 0.009).
Conclusion
Cross-sectional baseline data from the CKD-JAC study shed light on the association between LVH and risk factors in patients with decreased renal function. Further longitudinal analyses of the CKD-JAC cohort are needed to evaluate the prognostic value of LVH in CKD patients.
doi:10.1007/s10157-012-0758-4
PMCID: PMC3824297  PMID: 23318981
Chronic kidney disease; Left ventricular hypertrophy; Hypertension; Body mass index; Albuminuria; Mineral metabolism; Antihypertensive agent
21.  Myocardial structure and function by echocardiography in relation to glucometabolic status in elderly subjects from two population-based cohorts: a cross-sectional study 
American heart journal  2010;159(3):414-420.e4.
Background
Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction has been associated with impaired glucometabolic status. However, studies of older subjects are lacking. We examined associations between echocardiographic indices of LV diastolic function and LV mass index (LVMI) and glucometabolic status among middle-aged and elderly subjects free from heart disease, hypothesizing that the associations would be comparative to younger cohorts.
Methods
We examined the AGES-RS (Iceland; n=607, 76±6 years) and MPP-RES cohorts (Sweden; n=1519, 67±6 years), evaluating associations with multivariable regression analysis.
Results
In AGES-RS, LVMI was positively correlated with HbA1c (p=0.001). Otherwise, echocardiographic variables were not associated with glucometabolic status. In MPP-RES, LVMI increased with increasing glucometabolic disturbance among both older (70–80 years) and middle-aged (57–69 years) subjects. Among older subjects, HbA1c was positively correlated with two variables reflecting LV diastolic function: late transmitral peak flow velocity (A) (p=0.001) and early transmitral peak flow velocity (E)/early diastolic peak tissue velocity (Em) (p=0.046). In middle-aged MPP-RES subjects, increasing glucometabolic disturbance was correlated with increasing late diastolic peak tissue velocity (Am) (p=0.002) and, after age-adjustment, with increasing A (p=0.001) and decreasing Em/Am (p=0.009). With age-adjustment, Am and A were positively correlated with fasting glucose and HbA1c.
Conclusions
Contrary to our hypothesis, in two independent cohorts of older individuals, associations between glucometabolic status and LV diastolic function were generally weak. This contrasts with previous reports, as well as with observations among middle-aged subjects in the present study. Changes in LV diastolic function may be more age-related than associated with glucose metabolism in older subjects.
doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2009.12.028
PMCID: PMC3242727  PMID: 20211303
22.  Body mass index-mortality paradox in hemodialysis: can it be explained by blood pressure? 
Hypertension  2011;58(6):1014-1020.
Unlike the general population, among hemodialysis patients body-mass index(BMI)is inversely related to blood pressure (BP) and mortality. To explore the reasons for this risk-factor paradox the cross-sectional association of obesity with the following factors was examined: the prevalence of hypertension, its control and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Longitudinal follow-up explored the relationship of BMI with all-cause mortality. Further it explored whether poorer survival in leaner individuals was related to either high BP or greater LVMI. Among 368 hemodialysis patients both the prevalence of hypertension and its poor control were inversely related to BMI. BMI was also inversely associated with evidence of excess extracellular fluid volume but adjustment for this variable did not completely remove the inverse relationship between BP and BMI. Over 1122 patient-years of cumulative follow up (median 2.7 years) 119 (32%) patients died. In the first two years of follow up, the mortality hazard for the lowest BMI group was increased; thereafter, the survival curves were similar. Adjusting for several risk factors including BP and LVMI did not remove the inverse relationship of BMI with mortality. In conclusion, leaner patients on dialysis have a higher prevalence of hypertension, poorer control of hypertension, more LVMI, and greater evidence of extracellular fluid volume excess. However, volume only partially explains the greater prevalence or poorer control of hypertension. Leaner patients have an accelerated mortality rate in the first two years; this is not completely explained by BP, LVMI or other cardiovascular or dialysis-specific risk factors.
doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.180091
PMCID: PMC3241970  PMID: 22042814
Body mass index; epidemiology; hemodialysis; ambulatory blood pressure; left ventricular hypertrophy; survival
23.  Masked hypertension and prehypertension: diagnostic overlap and interrelationships with left ventricular mass: the masked hypertension study 
American Journal of Hypertension  2012;25(6):664-671.
Background
Masked hypertension (MHT) and prehypertension (PHT) are both associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, relative to sustained normotension. This study examined the diagnostic overlap between MHT and PHT, and their interrelationships with left ventricular (LV) mass index (LVMI), a marker of cardiovascular end-organ damage.
Methods
A research nurse performed three manual clinic blood pressure (CBP) measurements on three occasions over a 3-week period (total of nine readings, which were averaged) in 813 participants without treated hypertension from the Masked Hypertension Study, an ongoing worksite-based, population study. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was assessed by using a SpaceLabs 90207 monitor. LVMI was determined by echocardiography in 784 (96.4%) participants.
Results
Of the 813 participants, 769 (94.6%) had normal CBP levels (<140/90 mm Hg). One hundred and seventeen (15.2%) participants with normal CBP had MHT (normal CBP and mean awake ABP ≥135/85 mm Hg) and 287 (37.3%) had PHT (mean CBP 120–139/80–89 mm Hg). 83.8% of MHT participants had PHT and 34.1% of PHT participants had MHT. MHT was infrequent (3.9%) when CBP was optimal (<120/80 mm Hg). After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, history of high cholesterol, history of diabetes, current smoking, family history of hypertension, and physical activity, compared with optimal CBP with MHT participants, LVMI was significantly greater in PHT without MHT participants and in PHT with MHT participants.
Conclusions
In this community sample, there was substantial diagnostic overlap between MHT and PHT. The diagnosis of MHT using an ABP monitor may not be warranted for individuals with optimal CBP.
doi:10.1038/ajh.2012.15
PMCID: PMC3668422  PMID: 22378035
ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; blood pressure; echocardiography; hypertension
24.  Parallel improvement of left ventricular geometry and filling pressure after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in high risk aortic stenosis: comparison with major prosthetic surgery by standard echo Doppler evaluation 
Purpose
The effect of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) on left ventricular (LV) geometry and function was compared to traditional aortic replacement (AVR) by major surgery.
Methods
45 patients with aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing TAVI and 33 AVR were assessed by standard echo Doppler the day before and 2 months after the implantation. 2D echocardiograms were performed to measure left ventricular (LV) mass index (LVMi), relative wall thickness (RWT), ejection fraction (EF) and the ratio between transmitral E velocity and early diastolic velocity of mitral annulus (E/e’ ratio). Valvular-arterial impedance (Zva) was also calculated.
Results
At baseline, the 2 groups were comparable for blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index mean transvalvular gradient and aortic valve area. TAVI patients were older (p<0.0001) and had greater LVMi (p<0.005) than AVR group. After 2 months, both the procedures induced a significant reduction of transvalvular gradient and Zva but the decrease of LVMi and RWT was significant greater after TAVI (both p<0.0001). E/e’ ratio and EF were significantly improved after both the procedure but E/e’ reduction was greater after TAVI (p<0.0001). TAVI exhibited greater percent reduction in mean transvalvular gradient (p<0.05), Zva (p<0.02), LVMi (p<0.0001), RWT (p<0.0001) and E/e’ ratio (p<0.0001) than AVR patients. Reduction of E/e’ ratio was positively related with reduction of RWT (r = 0.46, p<0.002) only in TAVI group, even after adjusting for age and percent reduction of Zva (r =0.43, p<0.005).
Conclusions
TAVI induces a greater improvement of estimated LV filling pressure in comparison with major prosthetic surgery, due to more pronounced recovery of LV geometry, independent on age and changes of hemodynamic load.
doi:10.1186/1476-7120-11-18
PMCID: PMC3679950  PMID: 23731705
Transcatheter aAortic valve implantation; Doppler echocardiography; Relative wall thickness; Left ventricular mass
25.  Skin autofluorescence as a marker of cardiovascular risk in children with chronic kidney disease 
Background
We examined skin autofluorescence (sAF) in chronic kidney disease children (CKD) in relation to renal function and dialysis modality.
Methods
Twenty children on hemodialysis (HD), 20 on peritoneal dialysis (PD), 36 treated conservatively, and 26 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. In all children sAF, pulse-wave velocity indexed to height (PWV/ht), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), blood pressure (BP), serum lipid profile, phosphate (P), calcium (Ca), and homocysteine were measured.
Results
sAF was significantly elevated in CKD groups vs. controls and was significantly associated with PWV/ht, LVMI, BP, P, Ca × P product and homocysteine. sAF in HD and PD groups was positively correlated with dialysis vintage, and in the predialysis group negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Multiple regression analysis showed significant association of sAF with LVMI and P in the CKD patient group, and with dialysis treatment duration and BP in dialyzed children.
Conclusions
In CKD children, tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) was observed. This was aggravated as eGFR declined and was related to early cardiovascular changes and some biochemical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. sAF as a non-invasive method may be a useful tool for identification of a clinical risk factors of cardiovascular disease in CKD children.
doi:10.1007/s00467-012-2280-z
PMCID: PMC3505501  PMID: 22976887
Cardiovascular risk factors; Children; Dialysis; Nephrology

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