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1.  Ethnic and racial differences in patients with Ewing sarcoma 
Cancer  2010;116(4):983-988.
Background
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a malignant tumor of bone or soft tissue. One of the few risk factors for developing ES is race, with a higher incidence in populations of European rather than African or Asian ancestry. The goal of this study was to evaluate racial and ethnic differences in presentation and overall survival (OS) among patients diagnosed with ES before age 40.
Methods
Data from the SEER database identified1715 patients with ES <40 years of age from 1973–2005. Racial and ethnic group differences were compared using chi square tests. OS was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using log-rank tests and Cox models.
Results
Black patients had significantly more soft-tissue tumors compared to white non-Hispanic patients (p < 0.0001). Asian and white Hispanic patients had an intermediate frequency of soft tissue tumors that also differed from white non-Hispanic patients (p < 0.0001). White Hispanic patients presented with a higher proportion of larger tumors compared to white non-Hispanic patients (p = 0.042). Black patients were older than white non-Hispanic patients (p = 0.012). Sex, frequency of pelvic tumors, and metastatic status did not differ by ethnicity or race. OS was different according to race and ethnicity. Even after controlling for known confounders, OS was significantly worse for black, Asian, and white Hispanic patients compared to white non-Hispanic patients (p=0.0031, p= 0.0182 and p=0.0051, respectively).
Conclusion
Ethnic and racial differences in characteristics and outcomes for patients with ES exist. Understanding the etiology of these differences requires further study.
doi:10.1002/cncr.24865
PMCID: PMC2819622  PMID: 20052725
Ewing sarcoma family of tumors; prognosis; soft-tissue; race; ethnicity; SEER
2.  Survival Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Treatment for Localized Hepatocellular Carcinoma Within the United States 
Digestive Diseases and Sciences  2009;54(9):2031-2039.
Racial differences among hepatocellular carcinoma survival have been reported, but the etiology behind these disparities remains unclear. Using multi-variable logistic regression analysis, our restrospective cohort study investigated the demographic disparities in survival among localized hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. From 1998 to 2001, 2,776 cases of localized hepatocellular carcinoma were identified. Significant racial/ethnic disparities in overall survival and utilization of therapies were identified. Compared with non-Hispanic white males, black females were 56% less likely to survive 3 years (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.21–0.93). Treatment-specific models also demonstrated disparities, e.g., compared with non-Hispanic whites, Asians receiving transplantation were 77% more likely to survive 3 years (OR, 1.77; 95% CI 1.28–2.44). There are significant racial/ethnic disparities in 3-year survival among patients with localized hepatocellular carcinoma. These differences are partially explained by demographic differences in utilization of therapy and in stage-specific survival for each therapy.
doi:10.1007/s10620-008-0661-8
PMCID: PMC2715467  PMID: 19117131
Racial disparities; Cancer epidemiology; Survival differences; Primary liver cancer
3.  Examining racial and ethnic disparities in site of usual source of care. 
Little is known about why minorities have a lower propensity to use private doctors' offices for their usual source of care than non-Hispanic whites. This study used the 2001 Commonwealth Fund's Health Care Quality Survey of adults to determine if this disparity is due to racial and ethnic differences in attitudes about health and healthcare, and perceptions of racial and ethnic discrimination in healthcare. We found that race and ethnic disparities at the site of the usual source of care persisted even after controlling for individuals' attitudes about health and healthcare, and their perceptions about racial and ethnic discrimination in healthcare. We found that the impact of attitudes and perceptions did vary by subgroups. These factors were important for Asians' site of usual source of care but had little impact on African Americans' site of usual of care. However, despite their differential impact by race and ethnicity, attitudes and perceptions were not the source of observed disparities in site of care. Therefore, in addition to focusing on provider-patient relationships, perhaps future research and policymakers should focus on system-level factors to explain and increase minority use of care in private physicians' offices.
PMCID: PMC2569590  PMID: 17304965
4.  Differences in the Prevalence and Impact of Arthritis Among Racial/Ethnic Groups in the United States, National Health Interview Survey, 2002, 2003, and 2006 
Preventing Chronic Disease  2010;7(3):A64.
We describe the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis and its impact on activities, work, and joint pain for 6 racial/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Asians and Pacific Islanders, and multiracial or "other" respondents. We combined data from the 2002, 2003, and 2006 National Health Interview Survey (n = 85,784) and, after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, compared racial/ethnic differences. Arthritis-attributable activity limitation, arthritis-attributable work limitation, and severe joint pain were higher for non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and multiracial or other respondents with arthritis compared with non-Hispanic whites with arthritis. Our finding that arthritis disproportionately affects certain racial/ethnic minorities may be useful for planning interventions.
PMCID: PMC2879996  PMID: 20394703
5.  Disparities in access to care and satisfaction among U.S. children: the roles of race/ethnicity and poverty status. 
Public Health Reports  2005;120(4):431-441.
OBJECTIVES: The study assessed the progress made toward reducing racial and ethnic disparities in access to health care among U.S. children between 1996 and 2000. METHODS: Data are from the Household Component of the 1996 and 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Bivariate associations of combinations of race/ethnicity and poverty status groups were examined with four measures of access to health care and a single measure of satisfaction. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of race/ethnicity with access, controlling for sociodemographic factors associated with access to care. To highlight the role of income, we present models with and without controlling for poverty status. RESULTS: Racial and ethnic minority children experience significant deficits in accessing medical care compared with whites. Asians, Hispanics, and blacks were less likely than whites to have a usual source of care, health professional or doctor visit, and dental visit in the past year. Asians were more likely than whites to be dissatisfied with the quality of medical care in 2000 (but not 1996), while blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to be dissatisfied with the quality of medical care in 1996 (but not in 2000). Both before and after controlling for health insurance coverage, poverty status, health status, and several other factors associated with access to care, these disparities in access to care persisted between 1996 and 2000. CONCLUSIONS: Continued monitoring of racial and ethnic differences is necessary in light of the persistence of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in access to care. Given national goals to achieve equity in health care and eliminate racial/ ethnic disparities in health, greater attention needs to be paid to the interplay of race/ethnicity factors and poverty status in influencing access.
PMCID: PMC1497738  PMID: 16025723
6.  Racial and Ethnic Differences in Adjuvant Hormonal Therapy Use 
Journal of Women's Health  2012;21(9):950-958.
Abstract
Background
In the United States, 5-year breast cancer survival is highest among Asian American women, followed by non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and African American women. Breast cancer treatment disparities may play a role. We examined racial/ethnic differences in adjuvant hormonal therapy use among women aged 18–64 years, diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, using data collected by the Northern California Breast Cancer Family Registry (NC-BCFR), and explored changes in use over time.
Methods
Odds ratios (OR) comparing self-reported ever-use by race/ethnicity (African American, Hispanic, non-Hispanic white vs. Asian American) were estimated using multivariable adjusted logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by recruitment phase (phase I, diagnosed January 1995–September 1998, phase II, diagnosed October 1998–April 2003) and genetic susceptibility, as cases with increased genetic susceptibility were oversampled.
Results
Among 1385 women (731 phase I, 654 phase II), no significant racial/ethnic differences in use were observed among phase I or phase II cases. However, among phase I cases with no susceptibility indicators, African American and non-Hispanic white women were less likely than Asian American women to use hormonal therapy (OR 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]0.06–0.60; OR 0.40, CI 0.17–0.94, respectively). No racial/ethnic differences in use were observed among women with 1+ susceptibility indicators from either recruitment phase.
Conclusions
Racial/ethnic differences in adjuvant hormonal therapy use were limited to earlier diagnosis years (phase I) and were attenuated over time. Findings should be confirmed in other populations but indicate that in this population, treatment disparities between African American and Asian American women narrowed over time as adjuvant hormonal treatments became more commonly prescribed.
doi:10.1089/jwh.2011.3254
PMCID: PMC3430474  PMID: 22731764
7.  Race/Ethnic Disparities in Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in a Tri-Ethnic Community Cohort 
American heart journal  2010;160(1):152-158.
Background
Racial-ethnic disparities exist in cardiovascular risk factors, morbidity and mortality. Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is a predictor of mortality and of cardiovascular outcome including incident heart failure. We sought to assess whether race-ethnic differences in diastolic function exist. Such differences may contribute to the observed disparities in cardiovascular outcomes.
Methods
Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed in 760 participants (539 Hispanic, 117 non-Hispanic black, 104 non-Hispanic white) from the Cardiac Abnormalities and Brain Lesions (CABL) study. LV diastolic function was assessed by standard Doppler flow profile and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Early (E) and late (A) trans-mitral diastolic flow, and mitral annulus early diastolic velocities (E’) were recorded and E/A and E/E’ ratios were calculated.
Results
Blacks and Hispanics had higher body mass index (p=0.04, p<0.01), higher prevalence of hypertension (both p≤0.05) and diabetes (both p<0.01), and lower level of education (both p<0.01) compared to whites. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, Hispanics and blacks showed worse indices of diastolic function than whites. Hispanics had lower E/A ratio (p=0.01), lower E’ and higher E/E’ (both p<0.01) than whites, whereas blacks had lower E’ (p<0.05) and a trend toward a higher E/E’ ratio (p=0.09) compared with whites. These race-ethnic differences in diastolic function were attenuated in multivariate models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors.
Conclusions
Differences in LV diastolic function exist between race-ethnic groups. However, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and socio-demographic variables, rather than intrinsic race-ethnic heterogeneity, seem to explain most of the observed differences.
doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2010.04.010
PMCID: PMC2898748  PMID: 20598986
Diastolic function; Race; Ethnicity; Risk factors; Echocardiography
8.  Ethical Issues for Control-Arm Patients After Revelation of Benefits of Experimental Therapy: A Framework Modeled in Neuroblastoma 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2013;31(5):641-646.
In 2009, the Children's Oncology Group (COG) phase III randomized controlled trial, ANBL0032, found that adding immunotherapy (Ch14.18) to standard therapy significantly improved outcomes in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma when administered within 110 days after autologous stem-cell transplantation (SCT). After careful deliberation and consultation, the COG Neuroblastoma Committee decided to offer Ch14.18 to prior trial participants who had been randomly assigned to the control arm (no immunotherapy), regardless of the time that had elapsed since SCT. This decision occurred in the context of a limited supply of Ch14.18 and no data regarding its role when administered beyond 110 days. In this article, we analyze the numerous ethical challenges highlighted by the ANBL0032 trial, including the limits of researchers' reciprocity-based obligations to study participants, post-trial access to beneficial therapies, and the balance between scientific knowledge and parental hope. These deliberations may be useful to other researchers when considering their ethical obligations to control-arm participants in the wake of a positive randomized trial.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.47.1227
PMCID: PMC3565183  PMID: 23295797
9.  Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Screening 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2003;18(12):1028-1035.
CONTEXT
Racial/ethnic groups comprised largely of foreign-born individuals have lower rates of cancer screening than white Americans. Little is known about whether these disparities are related primarily to their race/ethnicity or birthplace.
OBJECTIVE
To determine whether foreign birthplace explains some racial/ethnic disparities in cancer screening.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS
Cross-sectional study using 1998 data from the National Health Interview Survey.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Completion of cervical, breast, or colorectal cancer screening.
RESULTS
Of respondents, 15% were foreign born. In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and illness burden, black respondents were as or more likely to report cancer screening than white respondents; however, Hispanic and Asian-American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) respondents were significantly less likely to report screening for most cancers. When race/ethnicity and birthplace were considered together, U.S.-born Hispanic and AAPI respondents were as likely to report cancer screening as U.S.-born whites; however, foreign-born white (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.82), Hispanic (AOR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79), and AAPI respondents (AOR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.39) were less likely than U.S.-born whites to report Pap smears. Foreign-born Hispanic and AAPI respondents were also less likely to report fecal occult blood testing (FOBT); AORs, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.98; and 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.96, respectively); and sigmoidoscopy (AORs, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.97; and 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.99, respectively). Furthermore, foreign-born AAPI respondents were less likely to report mammography (AOR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.86). Adjusting for access to care partially attenuated disparities among foreign-born respondents.
CONCLUSION
Foreign birthplace may explain some disparities previously attributed to race or ethnicity, and is an important barrier to cancer screening, even after adjustment for other factors. Increasing access to health care may improve disparities among foreign-born persons to some degree, but further study is needed to understand other barriers to screening among the foreign-born.
doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2003.20807.x
PMCID: PMC1494963  PMID: 14687262
cervical cancer; breast cancer; colorectal cancer; cancer screening; race/ethnicity; immigrant status; health disparities
10.  The Geography of Inequality: Why Separate Means Unequal in American Public Schools* 
Sociology of education  2012;85:10.1177/0038040711431588.
Persistent school segregation does not only mean that children of different racial and ethnic backgrounds attend different schools, but their schools are also unequal in their performance. This study documents nationally the extent of disparities in school performance between schools attended by whites and Asians compared to blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. It further examines the geography of school inequality in two ways. First it analyzes the segregation of students between different types of school profiles based on racial composition, poverty and metropolitan location. Second it estimates the independent effects of these and other school and school district characteristics on school performance, identifying which aspects of school segregation are the most important sources of disadvantage. A focus on schools at the bottom of the distribution as in No Schools Left Behind would not ameliorate wide disparities between groups that are found run across the whole spectrum of school performance.
doi:10.1177/0038040711431588
PMCID: PMC3832260  PMID: 24259754
11.  Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mortality of Hemodialysis Patients: Role of Dietary and Nutritional Status and Inflammation 
American Journal of Nephrology  2011;33(2):157-167.
Background
Racial/ethnic disparities prevail among hemodialysis patients. We hypothesized that significant differences exist between Black and non-Hispanic and Hispanic White hemodialysis patients in nutritional status, dietary intake and inflammation, and that they account for racial survival disparities.
Methods
In a 6-year (2001–2007) cohort of 799 hemodialysis patients, we compared diet and surrogates of nutritional-inflammatory status and their mortality-predictabilities between 279 Blacks and 520 Whites using matched and regression analyses and Cox with cubic splines.
Results
In age-, gender- and diabetes-matched analyses, Blacks had higher lean body mass and serum prealbumin, creatinine and homocysteine levels than Whites. In case-mix-adjusted analyses, dietary intakes in Blacks versus Whites were higher in energy (+293 ± 119 cal/day) and fat (+18 ± 5 g/day), but lower in fiber (−2.9 ± 1.3 g/day) than Whites. In both races, higher serum albumin, prealbumin and creatinine were associated with greater survival, whereas CRP and IL-6, but not TNF-α, were associated with increased mortality. The highest (vs. lowest) quartile of IL-6 was associated with a 2.4-fold (95% CI: 1.3–3.8) and 4.1-fold (2.2–7.2) higher death risk in Blacks and Whites, respectively.
Conclusions
Significant racial disparities exist in dietary, nutritional and inflammatory measures, which may contribute to hemodialysis outcome disparities. Testing race-specific dietary and/or anti-inflammatory interventions is indicated.
doi:10.1159/000323972
PMCID: PMC3202917  PMID: 21293117
Black race; Hispanic ethnicity; African Americans; Non-Hispanic White; Nutritional status; Inflammatory markers; Dietary intake; Survival
12.  Ethnic differences in bladder cancer survival 
Urology  2011;78(3):544-549.
Objectives
Racial disparities in bladder cancer outcomes have been documented with poorer survival observed among blacks. Bladder cancer outcomes in other ethnic minority groups are less well described. We examined trends in bladder cancer survival among whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders in the US over a 30-year period.
Methods
From the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer registry data, we identified patients diagnosed with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder between 1975 and 2005. This cohort included 163,973 white, 7,731 black, 7,364 Hispanic and 5,934 Asian/Pacific Islander patients. We assessed the relationship between ethnicity and patient characteristics. Disease-specific 5-year survival was estimated for each ethnic group and for subgroups of stage and grade.
Results
Blacks presented with higher stage disease than whites, Hispanics and Asian/Pacific Islanders, although a trend toward earlier stage presentation was observed in all groups over time. Five-year disease-specific survival was consistently worse for blacks than for other ethnic groups, even when stratified by stage and grade. Five-year disease-specific survival was 82.8% in whites compared with 70.2% in blacks, 80.7% in Hispanics and 81.9% in Asian/Pacific Islanders. There was a persistent disease-specific survival disadvantage in black patients over time which was not seen in the other ethnic groups.
Conclusions
Ethnic disparities in bladder cancer survival persist between whites and blacks, while survival in other ethnic minority groups appears similar to that of whites. Further study of access to care, quality of care and treatment decision making among black patients is needed to better understand these disparities.
doi:10.1016/j.urology.2011.02.042
PMCID: PMC3710780  PMID: 21782222
ethnic groups; healthcare disparities; survival; urinary bladder; urinary bladder neoplasms
13.  Racial disparities in renal replacement therapy. 
Renal replacement therapy (RRT)--encompassing hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation--provides life-sustaining treatment for the expanding end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. There is an excess burden of ESRD in African-American, Hispanic, Native Americans, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Moreover, there is mounting evidence to suggest that significant racial and ethnic disparities exist in RRT--including referral and initiation of dialysis, adequacy of dialysis, and anemia management--with non-white patients usually at a disadvantage. In addition, there are cultural and sociodemographic differences that lead to racial variation in the choice of ESRD modality. Lastly, in certain ethnic ESRD populations, there are a series of complex issues, from biologic to socioeconomic, which limit kidney transplantation--the treatment of choice. Despite these inequalities, which are often associated with negative outcomes, these non-white groups have better hemodialysis survival rates than white patients. It is essential to develop strategies to address the disparities in ESRD treatment among minority groups in order to minimize the differences in RRT provision and identify the factors that confer improved dialysis survival-thus improving care for all Americans with kidney disease.
PMCID: PMC2594174  PMID: 12152912
14.  Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Risks and Mortality in Atherothrombotic Disease: Insights From the REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings  2011;86(10):960-967.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether ethnic-specific differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes exist worldwide among individuals with stable arterial disease.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From December 1, 2003, to June 30, 2004, the prospective, observational REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry enrolled 49,602 out-patients with coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and/or peripheral arterial disease from 7 predefined ethnic/racial groups: white, Hispanic, East Asian, South Asian, Other Asian, black, and Other (comprising any race distinct from those specified). The baseline demographic and risk factor profiles, medication use, and 2-year cardiovascular outcomes were assessed among these groups.
RESULTS: The prevalence of traditional atherothrombotic risk factors varied significantly among the ethnic/racial groups. The use of medical therapies to reduce risk was comparable among all groups. At 2-year follow-up, the rate of cardiovascular death was significantly higher in blacks (6.1%) compared with all other ethnic/racial groups (3.9%; P=.01). Cardiovascular death rates were significantly lower in all 3 Asian ethnic/racial groups (overall, 2.1%) compared with the other groups (4.5%; P<.001).
CONCLUSION: The REACH Registry, a large international study of individuals with atherothrombotic disease, documents the important ethnic-specific differences in cardiovascular risk factors and variations in cardiovascular mortality that currently exist worldwide.
doi:10.4065/mcp.2011.0010
PMCID: PMC3184025  PMID: 21964173
15.  Racial/Ethnic Differences in Early Life Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity 
Pediatrics  2010;125(4):10.1542/peds.2009-2100.
Background
By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence are already present.
Objective
To examine racial/ethnic differences in early life risk factors for childhood obesity.
Design, Setting, Participants
343 white, 355 black, and 128 Hispanic mother-child pairs in a prospective study.
Main Exposure
Mother’s report of child’s race/ethnicity.
Main Outcome Measures
Risk factors from the prenatal period through age 4 years known to be associated with child obesity.
Results
In multivariable models, compared to their white counterparts, black and Hispanic children exhibited a range of risk factors related to child obesity. In pregnancy, these included higher rates of maternal depression (OR: 1.55 for blacks; 1.89 for Hispanics); in infancy more rapid weight gain (OR: 2.01 for blacks; 1.75 for Hispanics), more likely to introduce solid foods before 4 months of age (OR: 1.91 for blacks; 2.04 for Hispanics), higher rates of maternal restrictive feeding practices (OR: 2.59 for blacks; 3.35 for Hispanics), and after age 2 years, more televisions in their bedrooms (OR: 7.65 for blacks; 7.99 for Hispanics), higher intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (OR: 4.11 for blacks; 2.48 for Hispanics), and higher intake of fast food (OR: 1.65 for blacks; 3.14 for Hispanics). Blacks and Hispanics also had lower rates of exclusive breastfeeding and were less likely to sleep at least 12 hours/day in infancy.
Conclusions
Racial/ethnic differences in risk factors for obesity exist prenatally and in early childhood. Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity may be determined by factors operating at the earliest stages of life.
doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2100
PMCID: PMC3836212  PMID: 20194284
Obesity; Race/Ethnicity; Pregnancy; Infancy; Childhood; Prevention
16.  Blacks And Hispanics Are Less Likely Than Whites To Complete Addiction Treatment, Largely Due To Socioeconomic Factors 
Health affairs (Project Hope)  2013;32(1):135-145.
More than one-third of the approximately two million people entering publicly funded substance abuse treatment in the United States do not complete treatment. Additionally, racial and ethnic minorities with addiction disorders, who constitute approximately 40 percent of the admissions in publicly funded substance abuse treatment programs, may be particularly at risk for poor outcomes. Using national data, we found that blacks and Hispanics were 3.5–8.1 percentage points less likely than whites to complete treatment for alcohol and drugs, and Native Americans were 4.7 percentage points less likely to complete alcohol treatment. Only Asian Americans fared better than whites for both types of treatment. Completion disparities for blacks and Hispanics were largely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and, in particular, greater unemployment and housing instability. However, the alcohol treatment disparity for Native Americans was not explained by socioeconomic or treatment variables, a finding that warrants further investigation. The Affordable Care Act could reduce financial barriers to treatment for minorities, but further steps, such as increased Medicaid funding for residential treatment and better cultural training for providers, would improve the likelihood of completing treatment and increase treatment providers’ cultural competence.
doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0983
PMCID: PMC3570982  PMID: 23297281
17.  Changes in Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes by Obesity Level among U.S. Adults 
Ethnicity & health  2009;14(5):439-457.
Objective
Ethnic minority status and obesity are two independent risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). There is no clear understanding of how they may have interacted and influenced disparities in T2D prevalence over time. This study examined the trends in racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of T2D by weight status among US adults.
Methods
We used nationally representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) I (1971–1975), II (1976–80), and III (1988–1994), and 1999–2004 among 49,574 adults aged 20–74 years. The prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2D were estimated by race/ethnicity groups (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American) and body mass index (BMI) groups (normal, 18.5–24.9; overweight, 25–29.9; obese, 30–34.9; severely obese, >=35). We used logistic regression controlling for age, gender, and education to estimate the odd ratio of T2D across race/ethnicity and BMI groups.
Results
Trends in racial/ethnic disparities in prevalence of diagnosed T2D varied by BMI. Normal weight group saw increasing racial disparities. In the overweight group, ethnic disparities worsened as diabetes prevalence increased 33.3% in whites, compared to 60.0% in blacks and 227.3% in Mexican Americans. Minimal racial/ethnic disparities were observed in obese and severely obese groups over time. In contrast to diagnosed diabetes, overall racial/ethnic disparities in undiagnosed T2D declined in all BMI groups.
Conclusions
Racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes prevalence have become most pronounced among normal and overweight groups. Eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes will require prevention efforts not only in obese minority individuals, but also in normal and overweight minority individuals.
doi:10.1080/13557850802699155
PMCID: PMC2744849  PMID: 19360513
Diabetes; Obesity; Racial/Ethnic Disparities; Trends
18.  Ethnic-immigrant Disparities in Total and Abdominal Obesity in the US 
Objectives
To examine sex-specific disparities in total and abdominal obesity prevalence across 6 ethnic-immigrant groups and explore whether the observed differences were attributable to diet and physical activity (PA).
Methods
Data were from 4331 respondents age 18–64 from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sex-specific multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
Results
Regardless of race-ethnicity, immigrants exhibited lower prevalence of total and abdominal obesity than natives. Among the US-born, Whites had the lowest total obesity prevalence followed by Hispanics and then Blacks; but racial-ethnic disparities for immigrants were different. In abdominal obesity, US-born white men had the highest prevalence. PA helped explain some ethnic-immigrant disparities.
Conclusions
Complex interactions of sex by race-ethnicity and nativity exist for obesity prevalence.
doi:10.5993/AJHB.37.6.10
PMCID: PMC3914658  PMID: 24001630
obesity disparity; accelerometer
19.  An Examination of Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Children’s Oral Health in the United States 
Objective
Assess the extent apparent racial/ethnic disparities in children’s oral health and oral health care are explained by factors other than race/ethnicity.
Data Source
2007 National Survey of Children’s Health, for children 2–17 years (N=82,020). Outcomes included parental reports of child’s oral health status, receipt of preventive dental care, and delayed dental care/unmet need. Model-based survey data analysis examined racial/ethnic disparities, controlling for other child, family, and community/state (contextual) factors.
Results
Unadjusted results show large oral health disparities by race/ethnicity. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks were markedly more likely to be reported in only fair/poor oral health (odds ratios (ORs) [95% confidence intervals] 4.3 [4.0–4.6], 2.2 [2.0–2.4], respectively), lack preventive care (ORs 1.9 [1.8–2.0], 1.4 [1.3–1.5]), and experience delayed care/unmet need (ORs 1.5 [1.3–1.7], 1.4 [1.3–1.5]). Adjusting for child, family, and community/state factors reduced or eliminated racial/ethnic disparities. Adjusted ORs (AORs) for Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks attenuated for fair/poor oral health, to 1.6 [1.5–1.8] and 1.2 [1.1–1.4], respectively. Adjustment eliminated disparities in each group for lacking preventive care (AORs 1.0 [0.9–1.1], 1.1 [1.1–1.2]), and in Hispanics for delayed care/unmet need (AOR 1.0). Among non-Hispanic Blacks, adjustment reversed the disparity for delayed care/unmet need (AOR 0.6 [0.6–0.7]).
Conclusions
Racial/ethnic disparities in children’s oral health status and access were found to be attributable largely to determinants such as socioeconomic and health insurance factors. Efforts to decrease disparities may be more efficacious if targeted at the social, economic, and other factors associated with minority racial/ethnic status, and may also have collateral positive effects on sectors of the majority population who share similar social, economic and cultural characteristics.
doi:10.1111/j.1752-7325.2012.00367.x
PMCID: PMC3702186  PMID: 22970900
children; oral health; race/ethnic disparities
20.  Determinants of Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Incidence of Diabetes in Postmenopausal Women in the U.S. 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(11):2226-2234.
OBJECTIVE
To examine determinants of racial/ethnic differences in diabetes incidence among postmenopausal women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Data on race/ethnicity, baseline diabetes prevalence, and incident diabetes were obtained from 158,833 women recruited from 1993–1998 and followed through August 2009. The relationship between race/ethnicity, other potential risk factors, and the risk of incident diabetes was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models from which hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were computed.
RESULTS
Participants were aged 63 years on average at baseline. The racial/ethnic distribution was 84.1% non-Hispanic white, 9.2% non-Hispanic black, 4.1% Hispanic, and 2.6% Asian. After an average of 10.4 years of follow-up, compared with whites and adjusting for potential confounders, the HRs for incident diabetes were 1.55 for blacks (95% CI 1.47–1.63), 1.67 for Hispanics (1.54–1.81), and 1.86 for Asians (1.68–2.06). Whites, blacks, and Hispanics with all factors (i.e., weight, physical activity, dietary quality, and smoking) in the low-risk category had 60, 69, and 63% lower risk for incident diabetes. Although contributions of different risk factors varied slightly by race/ethnicity, most findings were similar across groups, and women who had both a healthy weight and were in the highest tertile of physical activity had less than one-third the risk of diabetes compared with obese and inactive women.
CONCLUSIONS
Despite large racial/ethnic differences in diabetes incidence, most variability could be attributed to lifestyle factors. Our findings show that the majority of diabetes cases are preventable, and risk reduction strategies can be effectively applied to all racial/ethnic groups.
doi:10.2337/dc12-0412
PMCID: PMC3476929  PMID: 22833490
21.  Racial and Ethnic Differences in Advance Care Planning Among Patients With Cancer: Impact of Terminal Illness Acknowledgment, Religiousness, and Treatment Preferences 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2008;26(25):4131-4137.
Purpose
Despite well-documented racial and ethnic differences in advance care planning (ACP), we know little about why these differences exist. This study tested proposed mediators of racial/ethnic differences in ACP.
Patients and Methods
We studied 312 non-Hispanic white, 83 non-Hispanic black, and 73 Hispanic patients with advanced cancer in the Coping with Cancer study, a federally funded multisite prospective cohort study designed to examine racial/ethnic disparities in ACP and end-of-life care. We assessed the impact of terminal illness acknowledgment, religiousness, and treatment preferences on racial/ethnic differences in ACP.
Results
Compared with white patients, black and Hispanic patients were less likely to have an ACP (white patients, 80%; black patients, 47%; Hispanic patients, 47%) and more likely to want life-prolonging care even if he or she had only a few days left to live (white patients, 14%; black patients, 45%; Hispanic patients, 34%) and to consider religion very important (white patients, 44%; black patients, 88%; Hispanic patients, 73%; all P < .001, comparison of black or Hispanic patients with white patients). Hispanic patients were less likely and black patients marginally less likely to acknowledge their terminally ill status (white patients, 39% v Hispanic patients, 11%; P < .001; white v black patients, 27%; P = .05). Racial/ethnic differences in ACP persisted after adjustment for clinical and demographic factors, terminal illness acknowledgment, religiousness, and treatment preferences (has ACP, black v white patients, adjusted relative risk, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.49 to 0.83]; Hispanic v white patients, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.47 to 0.89]).
Conclusion
Although black and Hispanic patients are less likely to consider themselves terminally ill and more likely to want intensive treatment, these factors did not explain observed disparities in ACP.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.14.8452
PMCID: PMC2654372  PMID: 18757326
22.  ARID5B Genetic Polymorphisms Contribute to Racial Disparities in the Incidence and Treatment Outcome of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2012;30(7):751-757.
Purpose
Recent genome-wide screens have identified genetic variations in ARID5B associated with susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We sought to determine the contribution of ARID5B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to racial disparities in ALL susceptibility and treatment outcome.
Patients and Methods
We compared the association between ARID5B SNP genotype and ALL susceptibility in whites (> 95% European genetic ancestry; 978 cases and 1,046 controls) versus in Hispanics (> 10% Native American ancestry; 330 cases and 541 controls). We determined the relationships between ARID5B SNP genotype and ALL relapse risk in 1,605 children treated on the Children's Oncology Group (COG) P9904/9905 clinical trials.
Results
Among 49 ARID5B SNPs interrogated, 10 were significantly associated with ALL susceptibility in both whites and Hispanics (P < .05), with risk alleles consistently more frequent in Hispanics than in whites. rs10821936 exhibited the most significant association in both races (P = 8.4 × 10−20 in whites; P = 1 × 10−6 in Hispanics), and genotype at this SNP was highly correlated with local Native American genetic ancestry (P = 1.8 × 10−8). Multivariate analyses in Hispanics identified an additional SNP associated with ALL susceptibility independent of rs10821936. Eight ARID5B SNPs were associated with both ALL susceptibility and relapse hazard; the alleles related to higher ALL incidence were always linked to poorer treatment outcome and were more frequent in Hispanics.
Conclusion
ARID5B polymorphisms are important determinants of childhood ALL susceptibility and treatment outcome, and they contribute to racial disparities in this disease.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.38.0345
PMCID: PMC3295551  PMID: 22291082
23.  Racial and Ethnic Differences in Diabetes Mellitus among People with and without Psychiatric Disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions 
General hospital psychiatry  2011;33(2):107-115.
Objective
This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a nationally representative sample of adults with and without common psychiatric disorders.
Method
Data were drawn from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N= 34,653). Logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic variables and diabetes risk factors were used to examine racial/ethnic differences in 12-month prevalence rates of diabetes by psychiatric status.
Results
Among people without psychiatric disorders, African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaska Natives, but not Asians/Pacific Islanders, had significantly higher rates of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites even after adjusting for socio-demographic variables and diabetes risk factors. In the presence of psychiatric disorders, these health disparities persisted for African Americans and Hispanics, but not for American Indians/Alaska Natives. No significant interactions between race/ethnicity and psychiatric disorders in the odds of diabetes were found across any group.
Conclusion
Policies and services that support culturally appropriate prevention and treatment strategies are needed to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes among people with and without psychiatric disabilities.
doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2010.11.011
PMCID: PMC3099036  PMID: 21596203
diabetes mellitus; psychiatric disorders; health disparities; NESARC
24.  Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Indicators of Physical Health Status: Do They Still Exist Throughout Late Life? 
Physical health problems become more common as people age and are associated with a great deal of disability. Although racial/ethnic disparities have been reported in physical health, little is known about whether these disparities remain in the latest part of older adulthood. Accordingly, the current study sought to examine racial/ethnic differences in the physical health status of three age groups of older adults, using the 2005 and 2007 California Health Interview Survey. The sample for the current study included 40,631 individuals aged 55 and older, with 33,488 non-Hispanic whites, 1,858 African American/blacks, 2,872 Asian/Pacific Islanders, and 2,412 Latinos. Respondents were compared with regard to three indicators of physical health, which included presence of four chronic health conditions, difficulties with activities of daily living, and self-rated health. Analyses were conducted with and without adjustment for gender, marital status, education, English language proficiency, nativity, and insurance status. Results revealed that, in general, racial/ethnic disparities existed for physical health in late adulthood, with differences less pronounced for Asian/Pacific Islanders and Latinos ≥ 75 years after multivariable adjustment. Disparities between African American/blacks and non-Hispanic whites, as well as disparities across all racial/ethnic minorities in self-rated health, still existed, however. These findings suggest that in order to reduce racial/ethnic disparities, clinicians need to address specific sociodemographic and lifestyle factors related to racial/ethnic differences in health before these conditions are manifested in late adulthood.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03033.x
PMCID: PMC2953730  PMID: 20929470
indicators of physical health status; older adults; racial and ethnic disparities; California Health Interview Survey
25.  Racial and ethnic differences in ADHD and LD in young school-age children: parental reports in the National Health Interview Survey. 
Public Health Reports  2005;120(4):383-392.
OBJECTIVES: Racial and ethnic disparities have been documented for many physical health outcomes in children. Less is known, however, about disparities in behavioral and learning disorders in children. This study uses data from a national health survey to examine racial and ethnic differences in identified attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD). METHODS: The 1997-2001 National Health Interview Surveys obtained information from parents about the health and sociodemographic characteristics of children. Using these data, prevalence rates of identified ADHD and/or LD were estimated for Hispanic, African American, and white children 6-11 years of age. Racial and ethnic differences in health conditions, income, and insurance coverage were examined as possible explanations for disparities in parental reports of ADHD and LD, as well as the use of any prescription medication among children with ADHD. RESULTS: Hispanic and African American children, compared to white children, had parental reports of identified ADHD without LD less often, and adjustments for the confounding variables-birthweight, income, and insurance coverage-did not eliminate these differences. Hispanic and African American children, compared to white children, also had parental reports of ADHD with LD less often after adjustments for the effects of confounding variables. By contrast, after adjustments for confounding variables, Hispanic and African American children were as likely as white children to have LD without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, use of any prescription medication was reported less often for Hispanic and African American children than white children. These disparities in medication use persisted after adjustments for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ADHD and the use of any prescription medication among children with ADHD differed among Hispanic, African American, and white children. These disparities could not be explained by racial and ethnic differences in other health conditions and sociodemographic variables.
PMCID: PMC1497740  PMID: 16025718

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