The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in fronto-insular cortex (FI) and anterior limbic area (LA) in great apes and humans but not in other primates. Our stereological counts of VENs in FI and LA show them to be more numerous in humans than in apes. In humans, small numbers of VENs appear the 36th week post conception, with numbers increasing during the first eight months after birth. There are significantly more VENs in the right hemisphere in postnatal brains; this may be related to asymmetries in the autonomic nervous system. VENs are also present in elephants and whales and may be a specialization related to very large brain size. The large size and simple dendritic structure of these projection neurons suggest that they rapidly send basic information from FI and LA to other parts of the brain, while slower neighboring pyramids send more detailed information. Selective destruction of VENs in early stages of fronto-temporal dementia implies that they are involved in empathy, social awareness, and self-control, consistent with evidence from functional imaging.
fronto-temporal dementia; autism; schizophrenia; empathy; disgust; self-awareness; hemispheric specialization
Suicide is the most important incident in psychiatric disorders. Psychological pain and empathy to pain involves a neural network that involves the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the anterior insula (AI). At the neuronal level, little is known about how complex emotions such as shame, guilt, self-derogation and social isolation, all of which feature suicidal behavior, are represented in the brain. Based on the observation that the ACC and the AI contain a large spindle-shaped cell type, referred to as von Economo neuron (VEN), which has dramatically increased in density during human evolution, and on growing evidence that VENs play a role in the pathophysiology of various neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, psychosis and dementia, we examined the density of VENs in the ACC of suicide victims. The density of VENs was determined using cresyl violet-stained sections of the ACC of 39 individuals with psychosis (20 cases with schizophrenia, 19 with bipolar disorder). Nine subjects had died from suicide. Twenty specimen were available from the right, 19 from the left ACC. The density of VENs was significantly greater in the ACC of suicide victims with psychotic disorders compared with psychotic individuals who died from other causes. This effect was restricted to the right ACC. VEN density in the ACC seems to be increased in suicide victims with psychosis. This finding may support the assumption that VEN have a special role in emotion processing and self-evaluation, including negative self-appraisal.
Purpose of review
The molecular neuroscience revolution has begun to rekindle interest in fundamental neuroanatomy. Blending these disciplines may prove critical to our understanding of neurodegenerative diseases, which target specific anatomical systems. Recent research on frontotemporal dementia highlights the potential value of these approaches.
The behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD) leads to progressive social-emotional processing deficits accompanied by anterior cingulate and frontal insular degeneration. These sites form a discrete human neural network and feature a class of Layer 5b projection neurons, von Economo neurons (VENs), found only in large-brained, socially complex mammals. VENs have been shown to represent an early target in bvFTD but not in Alzheimer’s disease.
Integrative approaches to selective vulnerability may help clarify neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis.
frontotemporal dementia; von Economo neuron; anterior cingulate; insula
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) erodes complex social–emotional functions as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and frontoinsula (FI) degenerate, but the early vulnerable neuron within these regions has remained uncertain. Previously, we demonstrated selective loss of ACC von Economo neurons (VENs) in bvFTD. Unlike ACC, FI contains a second conspicuous layer 5 neuronal morphotype, the fork cell, which has not been previously examined. Here, we investigated the selectivity, disease-specificity, laterality, timing, and symptom relevance of frontoinsular VEN and fork cell loss in bvFTD. Blinded, unbiased, systematic sampling was used to quantify bilateral FI VENs, fork cells, and neighboring neurons in 7 neurologically unaffected controls (NC), 5 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 9 patients with bvFTD, including 3 who died of comorbid motor neuron disease during very mild bvFTD. bvFTD showed selective FI VEN and fork cell loss compared with NC and AD, whereas in AD no significant VEN or fork cell loss was detected. Although VEN and fork cell losses in bvFTD were often asymmetric, no group-level hemispheric laterality effects were identified. Right-sided VEN and fork cell losses, however, correlated with each other and with anatomical, functional, and behavioral severity. This work identifies region-specific neuronal targets in early bvFTD.
Alzheimer's disease; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia; fork cell; frontoinsula; von Economo neuron
To assess the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine (VEN) and its major metabolite o-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) in freely moving mice using automated dosing/infusion (ADI) and automated blood sampling (ABS) systems. In addition, concentration of VEN and its metabolite ODV were also measured in brain by microdialysis.
Materials and Methods:
Venlafaxine was administered directly via jugular vein or gastric catheterization and blood samples were collected through carotid artery. A series of samples with 10 μl of blood was collected from the mouse using ADI/ABS and analyzed with a validated LC-MS/MS system. Extracellular concentrations of VEN and ODV in brain were investigated by using microdialysis procedure.
The bioavailability of VEN was 11.6%. The percent AUC ratios of ODV to VEN were 18% and 39% following intravenous and intragastric administration, respectively. The terminal half-life of venlafaxine was about two hours. Extracellular concentration of VEN contributed 3.4% of the blood amount, while ODV was not detected in dialysate.
This study suggests that besides rapid absorption of VEN, the first-pass metabolism is likely to contribute for its lower bioavailability in the mouse. The proposed automated technique can be used easily to conduct pharmacokinetic studies and is applicable to high-throughput manner in mouse model.
Pharmacokinetics; microdialysis; O-desmethylvenlafaxine; venlafaxine
Longitudinal neuroimaging investigations of antidepressant treatment offer the opportunity to identify potential baseline biomarkers associated with poor outcome.
To explore the neural correlates of nonresponse to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or venlafaxine (VEN), we compared pretreatment (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography scans of participants with major depressive disorder responding to either 16 weeks of CBT (n = 7) or VEN treatment (n = 9) with treatment nonresponders (n = 8).
Nonresponders to CBT or VEN, in contrast to responders, exhibited pretreatment hypermetabolism at the interface of the pregenual and subgenual cingulate cortices.
Limitations of our study include the small sample sizes and the absence of both arterial sampling to determine absolute glucose metabolism and high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging coregistration for region-of-interest analyses.
Our current findings are consistent with those reported in previous studies of relative hyperactivity in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex in treatment-resistant populations.
The posterior parahippocampal gyrus (PPHG) of the non-human primate brain has a distinct dual role in cortical neural systems. On the one hand, it is a critical link in providing the entorhinal cortex and hippocampal formation with cortical input, while on the other hand it receives output from these structures and projects widely by disseminating the medial temporal lobe output to the cortex. Layer III of TF and TH areas (temporal areas F, H of von Economo and Koskinas (1925) and von Bonin and Bailey (1947) largely mediate the former (input) while layer V mediates the latter (output). We have examined areas TF and TH in the normal human brain and in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using pathological stains (Nissl, Thioflavin S) and phenotype specific stains non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (SMI-32) and parvalbumin (PV). Seven clinically and pathologically confirmed AD cases have been studied along with six age-compatible normal cases. Our observations reveal that neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) heavily invest the area TF and TH neurons that form layers III and V. In both cortical areas, the large pyramids that form layer V contain a greater number of NFTs. These changes, and possibly, pyramidal cell loss, greatly alter the cytoarchitectural picture and diminish SMI-32 staining patterns. Layer III of area TH loses the majority of SMI-32 immunoreactivity, whereas this change is more conspicuous in layer V of area TF. PV-staining in both areas is largely unaffected. Normal cases contained no evidence of pathology or altered cytoarchitecture. These observations reveal a further disruption of memory related temporal neural systems in AD where pathology selectively alters both the input to the hippocampal formation and its output to the cortex.
Alzheimer’s disease; neurofibrillary tangles; posterior parahippocampal gyrus; hippocampal formation; memory; laminar pattern
2011 marks the 80th anniversary of the death of Constantin Alexander von Economo who conducted advanced research on the cytoarchitectonics of the brain. This Austrian neurologist and the pioneer of aviation described encephalitis lethargica, discovered the spindle neurons, and postulated the existence of the sleep and wakefulness centre in the brain. What is more he realized two of the biggest dreams of humankind: conquering space and getting to know the secrets of the human brain.
Constantin von Economo; History of neurology; von Economo neurons; Encephalitis lethargica; Brain
The temporal pole (TP) is the rostralmost portion of the human temporal lobe. Characteristically, it is only present in human and nonhuman primates. TP has been implicated in different cognitive functions such as emotion, attention, behavior, and memory, based on functional studies performed in healthy controls and patients with neurodegenerative diseases through its anatomical connections (amygdala, pulvinar, orbitofrontal cortex). TP was originally described as a single uniform area by Brodmann area 38, and von Economo (area TG of von Economo and Koskinas), and little information on its cytoarchitectonics is known in humans. We hypothesize that 1) TP is not a homogenous area and we aim first at fixating the precise extent and limits of temporopolar cortex (TPC) with adjacent fields and 2) its structure can be correlated with structural magnetic resonance images. We describe here the macroscopic characteristics and cytoarchitecture as two subfields, a medial and a lateral area, that constitute TPC also noticeable in 2D and 3D reconstructions. Our findings suggest that the human TP is a heterogeneous region formed exclusively by TPC for about 7 mm of the temporal tip, and that becomes progressively restricted to the medial and ventral sides of the TP. This cortical area presents topographical and structural features in common with nonhuman primates, which suggests an evolutionary development in human species.
cytoarchitecture; humans; MRI; temporal pole; temporopolar cortex
Human genetic findings and murine neuroanatomical expression mapping have intersected to implicate Met receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in the development of forebrain circuits controlling social and emotional behaviors that are atypical in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To clarify roles for Met signaling during forebrain circuit development in vivo, we generated mutant mice (Emx1Cre/Metfx/fx) with an Emx1-Cre-driven deletion of signaling-competent Met in dorsal pallially-derived forebrain neurons. Morphometric analyses of Lucifer Yellow-injected pyramidal neurons in postnatal day 40 anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) revealed no statistically significant changes in total dendritic length, but a selective reduction in apical arbor length distal to the soma in Emx1Cre/Metfx/fx neurons relative to wild type, consistent with a decrease in the total tissue volume sampled by individual arbors in the cortex. The effects on dendritic structure appear to be circuit-selective, as basal arbor length was increased in Emx1Cre/Metfx/fx layer 2/3 neurons. Spine number was not altered on Emx1Cre/Metfx/fx pyramidal cell populations studied, but spine head volume was significantly increased (~20%). Cell-nonautonomous, circuit-level influences of Met signaling on dendritic development were confirmed by studies of medium spiny neurons (MSN), which do not express Met, but receive Met-expressing corticostriatal afferents during development. Emx1Cre/Metfx/fx MSN exhibited robust increases in total arbor length (~20%). Like in the neocortex, average spine head volume was also increased (~12%). These data demonstrate that a developmental loss of presynaptic Met receptor signaling can affect postsynaptic morphogenesis and suggest a mechanism whereby attenuated Met signaling could disrupt both local and long-range connectivity within circuits relevant to ASD.
It is well-known that children show gradual and protracted improvement in an array of behaviors involved in the conscious control of thought and emotion. Non-invasive neuroimaging in developing populations has revealed many neural correlates of behavior, particularly in the developing cingulate cortex and fronto-striatal circuits. These brain regions, themselves, undergo protracted molecular and cellular change in the first two decades of human development and, as such, are ideal regions of interest for cognitive- and imaging-genetic studies that seek to link processes at the biochemical and synaptic levels to brain activity and behavior. We review our research to-date that employs both adult and child-friendly versions of the Attention Network Task (ANT) in an effort to begin to describe the role of specific genes in the assembly of a functional attention system. Presently, we constrain our predictions for genetic association studies by focusing on the role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and of dopamine in the development of executive attention.
Nicotine is the principle addictive agent delivered via cigarette smoking. The addictive activity of nicotine is due to potent interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on neurons in the reinforcement and reward circuits of the brain. Beyond its addictive actions, nicotine is thought to have positive effects on performance in working memory and short-term attention-related tasks. The brain areas involved in such behaviors are part of an extensive cortico-limbic network that includes relays between prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cingulate cortex (CC), hippocampus, amygdala, ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (nAcc). Nicotine activates a broad array of nAChRs subtypes that can be targeted to pre- as well as peri- and post-synaptic locations in these areas. Thereby, nicotine not only excites different types of neurons, but it also perturbs baseline neuronal communication, alters synaptic properties and modulates synaptic plasticity.
In this review we focus on recent findings on nicotinic modulation of cortical circuits and their targets fields, which show that acute and transient activation of nicotinic receptors in cortico-limbic circuits triggers a series of events that affects cognitive performance in a long lasting manner. Understanding how nicotine induces long-term changes in synapses and alters plasticity in the cortico-limbic circuits is essential to determining how these areas interact in decoding fundamental aspects of cognition and reward.
Nicotine; Cognition; Limbic; Acetylcholine; Synaptic plasticity
In the search for antidepressants' (ADs') mechanisms of action beyond their influence on monoaminergic neurotransmission, we analyzed the effects of three structurally and pharmacologically different ADs on autophagic processes in rat primary astrocytes and neurons. Autophagy has a significant role in controlling protein turnover and energy supply. Both, the tricyclic AD amitriptyline (AMI) and the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (CIT) induced autophagy as mirrored by pronounced upregulation and cellular redistribution of the marker LC3B-II. Redistribution was characterized by formation of LC3B-II-positive structures indicative of autophagosomes, which associated with AVs in a time-dependent manner. Deletion of Atg5, representing a central mediator of autophagy in MEFs, led to abrogation of AMI-induced LC3B-I/II conversion. By contrast, VEN, a selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, did not promote autophagic processes in either cell type. The stimulatory impact of AMI on autophagy partly involved class-III PI3 kinase-dependent pathways as 3-methyladenine slightly diminished the effects of AMI. Autophagic flux as defined by autophagosome turnover was vastly undisturbed, and degradation of long-lived proteins was augmented upon AMI treatment. Enhanced autophagy was dissociated from drug-induced alterations in cholesterol homeostasis. Subsequent to AMI- and CIT-mediated autophagy induction, neuronal and glial viability decreased, with neurons showing signs of apoptosis. In conclusion, we report that distinct ADs promote autophagy in neural cells, with important implications on energy homeostasis.
autophagosome; lysosome; amitriptyline; class-III PI3 kinase; mitochondria; antidepressants; second messengers; molecular and cellular neurobiology; depression; unipolar/bipolar; autophagosome; lysosome; amitriptyline; citalopram; mitochondria
The primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) focus attention on relevant signals and suppress noise in cognitive tasks. However, their synaptic interactions and unique roles in cognitive control are unknown. We report that two distinct pathways to DLPFC area 9, one from the neighboring area 46 and the other from the functionally distinct ACC, similarly innervate excitatory neurons associated with selecting relevant stimuli. However, ACC has more prevalent and larger synapses with inhibitory neurons and preferentially innervates calbindin inhibitory neurons, which reduce noise by inhibiting excitatory neurons. In contrast, area 46 mostly innervates calretinin inhibitory neurons, which disinhibit excitatory neurons. These synaptic specializations suggest that ACC has a greater impact in reducing noise in dorsolateral areas during challenging cognitive tasks involving conflict, error, or reversing decisions, mechanisms that are disrupted in schizophrenia. These observations highlight the unique roles of the DLPFC and ACC in cognitive control.
Macaca mulatta; anterior cingulate; dorsolateral prefrontal; calbindin; calretinin; parvalbumin; inhibitory neurons
Weddell Sea hydrography and circulation is driven by influx of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) at its eastern margin. Entrainment and upwelling of this high-nutrient, oxygen-depleted water mass within the Weddell Gyre also supports the mesopelagic ecosystem within the gyre and the rich benthic community along the Antarctic shelf. We used Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Satellite Relay Data Loggers (CTD-SRDLs) to examine the importance of hydrographic variability, ice cover and season on the movements and diving behavior of southern elephant seals in the eastern Weddell Sea region during their overwinter feeding trips from Bouvetøya. We developed a model describing diving depth as a function of local time of day to account for diel variation in diving behavior. Seals feeding in pelagic ice-free waters during the summer months displayed clear diel variation, with daytime dives reaching 500-1500 m and night-time targeting of the subsurface temperature and salinity maxima characteristic of CDW around 150–300 meters. This pattern was especially clear in the Weddell Cold and Warm Regimes within the gyre, occurred in the ACC, but was absent at the Dronning Maud Land shelf region where seals fed benthically. Diel variation was almost absent in pelagic feeding areas covered by winter sea ice, where seals targeted deep layers around 500–700 meters. Thus, elephant seals appear to switch between feeding strategies when moving between oceanic regimes or in response to seasonal environmental conditions. While they are on the shelf, they exploit the locally-rich benthic ecosystem, while diel patterns in pelagic waters in summer are probably a response to strong vertical migration patterns within the copepod-based pelagic food web. Behavioral flexibility that permits such switching between different feeding strategies may have important consequences regarding the potential for southern elephant seals to adapt to variability or systematic changes in their environment resulting from climate change.
The ATP-binding cassette family of transporter proteins, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 1 (ABCB1) (P-glycoprotein) transporter is a key component of the blood–brain barrier. Many antidepressants are subject to ABCB1 efflux. Functional polymorphisms of ABCB1 may influence central nervous system bioavailability of antidepressants subject to efflux. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at rs1045642 (C3435T) of ABCB1 have been associated with efflux pump efficiency. This may explain part of the interindividual variation in antidepressant dose needed to remit. Individuals (N=113) with DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated with escitalopram (ESC) or venlafaxine (VEN) over 8 weeks. The17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was assessed serially, blind to genotype. SNP rs1045642 of ABCB1 along with two SNPs previously reported to be in linkage disequilibrium with it (rs2032582 and rs1128503) were genotyped. Demographic features, clinical features, P450 metabolizer status and 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region) genotype were controlled for. Carriers of rs1045642 TT needed on average 11 mg of ESC to remit, whereas TC and CC carriers required 24 and 19 mg, respectively (P=0.0001). This equates to a 2.0- (95% confidence interval=1.5–3.4; P<0.001) fold greater ESC dose needed to remit for C carriers compared with TT carriers at rs1045642. Of VEN-treated subjects carrying TT genotype at rs1045642, 73.3% remitted compared with 12.5% for CC genotype (odds ratio=6.69; 95% confidence interval=1.72–25.9, P=0.006). These data suggest that antidepressant dose needed to remit can be predicted by an ABCB1 SNP. This has the potential clinical translation implications for dose selection and remission from MDD.
ABCB1; pharmacogenetics; antidepressant; major depression; blood–brain barrier; P-glycoprotein
Neural communication is disrupted in autism by unknown mechanisms. Here we examined whether in autism there are changes in axons, which are the conduit for neural communication. We investigated single axons and their ultrastructure in the white matter of post-mortem human brain tissue below the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal (OFC), and lateral (LPFC) prefrontal cortices, which are associated with attention, social interactions, and emotions and have been consistently implicated in the pathology of autism. Area-specific changes below ACC (area 32) included a decrease in the largest axons that communicate over long distances. In addition, below ACC there was over-expression of the Growth Associated Protein 43 accompanied by excessive number of thin axons that link neighboring areas. In OFC (area 11) axons had decreased myelin thickness. Axon features below LPFC (area 46) appeared to be unaffected, but the altered white matter composition below ACC and OFC changed the relationship between all prefrontal areas examined, and could indirectly affect LPFC function. These findings provide a mechanism for disconnection of long distance pathways, excessive connections between neighboring areas, and inefficiency in pathways for emotions, and may help explain why individuals with autism do not adequately shift attention, engage in repetitive behavior, and avoid social interactions. These changes below specific prefrontal areas appear to be linked through a cascade of developmental events affecting axon growth and guidance, and suggest targeting the associated signaling pathways for therapeutic interventions in autism.
white matter; anterior cingulate; orbitofrontal cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; myelin; GAP-43
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in higher brain functions including learning, memory, and persistent pain. Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission has been observed in the ACC after digit amputation, which might contribute to plastic changes associated with the phantom pain. Here we report a long-lasting membrane potential depolarization in ACC neurons of adult rats after digit amputation in vivo. Shortly after digit amputation of the hind paw, the membrane potential of intracellularly recorded ACC neurons quickly depolarized from ~-70 mV to ~-15 mV and then slowly repolarized. The duration of this amputation-induced depolarization was about 40 min. Intracellular staining revealed that these neurons were pyramidal neurons in the ACC. The depolarization is activity-dependent, since peripheral application of lidocaine significantly reduced it. Furthermore, the depolarization was significantly reduced by a NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Our results provide direct in vivo electrophysiological evidence that ACC pyramidal cells undergo rapid and prolonged depolarization after digit amputation, and the amputation-induced depolarization in ACC neurons might be associated with the synaptic mechanisms for phantom pain.
The social brain hypothesis proposes that large neocortex size in Homonoids evolved to cope with the increasing demands of complex group living and greater numbers of interindividual relationships. Group living requires that individuals communicate effectively about environmental and internal events. Recent data have highlighted the complexity of chimpanzee communication, including graded facial expressions and referential vocalizations. Among Hominoids, elaborate facial communication is accompanied by specializations in brain areas controlling facial movement. Finally, the evolution of empathy, or emotional awareness, might have a neural basis in specialized cells in the neocortex, that is, spindle cells that have been associated with self-conscious emotions, and mirror neurons that have recently been shown to activate in response to communicative facial gestures.
The neural processes underlying empathy are a subject of intense interest within the social neurosciences1-3. However, very little is known about how brain empathic responses are modulated by the affective link between individuals. We show here that empathic responses are modulated by learned preferences, a result consistent with economic models of social preferences4-7. We engaged male and female volunteers in an economic game, in which two confederates played fairly or unfairly, and then measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while these same volunteers observed the confederates receiving pain. Both sexes exhibited empathy-related activation in pain-related brain areas (fronto-insular and anterior cingulate cortices) towards fair players. However, these empathy-related responses were significantly reduced in males when observing an unfair person receiving pain. This effect was accompanied by increased activation in reward-related areas, correlated with an expressed desire for revenge. We conclude that in men (at least) empathic responses are shaped by valuation of other people's social behaviour, such that they empathize with fair opponents while favouring the physical punishment of unfair opponents, a finding that echoes recent evidence for altruistic punishment.
Functional human brain imaging studies have indicated the essential role of cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), in romantic love and sex. However, the neurobiological basis of how the ACC neurons are activated and engaged in sexual attraction remains unknown. Using transgenic mice in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) is controlled by the promoter of the activity-dependent gene c-fos, we found that ACC pyramidal neurons are activated by sexual attraction. The presynaptic glutamate release to the activated neurons is increased and pharmacological inhibition of neuronal activities in the ACC reduced the interest of male mice to female mice. Our results present direct evidence of the critical role of the ACC in sexual attraction, and long-term increases in glutamate mediated excitatory transmission may contribute to sexual attraction between male and female mice.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD.
adolescence; brain imaging; depression; functional connectivity; resting-state functional MRI; subgenual anterior cingulate cortex
This study describes cytoarchitectonic criteria to define the prefrontal cortical areas in the mouse brain (C57BL/6 strain). Currently, well-illustrated mouse brain stereotaxic atlases are available, which, however, don't provide a description of the distinctive cytoarchitectonic characteristics of individual prefrontal areas. Such a description is of importance for stereological, neuronal tracing, physiological, molecular and neuroimaging studies in which a precise parcellation of the prefrontal cortex is required. The present study describes and illustrates: medial prefrontal areas, i.e., the infralimbic, prelimbic, dorsal and ventral anterior cingulate and Fr2 area; areas of the lateral prefrontal cortex, i.e., the dorsal agranular insular cortical areas, and areas of the ventral prefrontal cortex, i.e., the lateral -, ventrolateral -, ventral - and medial orbital areas. Each cytoarchitectonically defined boundary is corroborated by one or more chemoarchitectonic stainings: i.e., acetylcholine esterase, SMI32, SMI311, dopamine, parvalbumin, calbindin and myelin staining.
cortical parcellation; infralimbic, prelimbic, anterior cingulate, Fr2, agranular insular and orbital cortical areas; Nissl; myelin; acetylcholinesterase; Dopamine; calcium binding proteins; SMI-32; SMI-311
This study describes cytoarchitectonic criteria to define the prefrontal cortical areas in the mouse brain (C57BL/6 strain). Currently, well-illustrated mouse brain stereotaxic atlases are available, which, however, do not provide a description of the distinctive cytoarchitectonic characteristics of individual prefrontal areas. Such a description is of importance for stereological, neuronal tracing, and physiological, molecular and neuroimaging studies in which a precise parcellation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is required. The present study describes and illustrates: the medial prefrontal areas, i.e., the infralimbic, prelimbic, dorsal and ventral anterior cingulate and Fr2 area; areas of the lateral PFC, i.e., the dorsal agranular insular cortical areas and areas of the ventral PFC, i.e., the lateral, ventrolateral, ventral and medial orbital areas. Each cytoarchitectonically defined boundary is corroborated by one or more chemoarchitectonic stainings, i.e., acetylcholine esterase, SMI32, SMI311, dopamine, parvalbumin, calbindin and myelin staining.
Cortical parcellation; Infralimbic, prelimbic, anterior cingulate, Fr2, agranular insular and orbital cortical areas; Nissl; Myelin; Acetylcholinesterase; Dopamine; Calcium binding proteins; SMI-32; SMI-311
Endogenous retrovirus-like elements (ERV-Ls, primed with tRNA leucine) are a diverse group of reiterated sequences related to foamy viruses and widely distributed among mammals. As shown in previous investigations, in many primates and rodents this class of elements has remained transpositionally active, as reflected by increased copy number and high sequence diversity within and among taxa.
Here we examine whether proviral-like sequences may be suitable molecular probes for investigating the phylogeny of groups known to have high element diversity. As a test we characterized ERV-Ls occurring in a sample of extant members of superorder Uranotheria (Asian and African elephants, manatees, and hyraxes). The ERV-L complement in this group is even more diverse than previously suspected, and there is sequence evidence for active expansion, particularly in elephantids. Many of the elements characterized have protein coding potential suggestive of activity.
In general, the evidence supports the hypothesis that the complement had a single origin within basal Uranotheria.