Ethanol is a known teratogen but the mechanisms by which this simple compound affects fetal development remain unresolved. The goal of the current study was to determine the mechanism by which ethanol affects lymphoid differentiation using an in vitro model of ethanol exposure. Primitive hematopoietic oligoclonal neonatal progenitor cells (ONP), with the phenotype Lin−HSAloCD43loSca-1−c-Kit+ that are present in neonatal but not adult bone marrow were sorted from the bone marrow of 2-week-old C57BL/6J mice and cultured under conditions that favor either B cell or myeloid cell differentiation with or without addition of ethanol. The overall growth of the ONP cells was not significantly affected by inclusion of up to 100mM ethanol in the culture medium. However, the differentiation of the progenitor cells along the B-cell pathway was significantly impaired by ethanol in a dose dependent manner. Exposure of ONP cells to 100mM ethanol resulted in greater than 95% inhibition of B cell differentiation. Conversely, ethanol concentrations up to and including 100mM had no significant effect on differentiation along the myeloid pathway. The effect of ethanol on transcription factor expression was consistent with the effects on differentiation. ONP cells grown in 100mM ethanol failed to up-regulate Pax5 and EBF, transcriptional regulators that are necessary for B cell development. However, ethanol had no significant effect on the up-regulation of PU.1, a transcription factor that, when expressed in high concentration, favors myeloid cell development. Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol has specificity in its effects on differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors.
Rodent; B cells; Monocytes/macrophages; Cell differentiation; Hematopoiesis
The stepwise commitment from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (BM) to T lymphocyte-restricted progenitors in the thymus represents a paradigm for understanding the requirement for distinct extrinsic cues during different stages of lineage restriction from multipotent to lineage restricted progenitors. However, the commitment stage at which progenitors migrate from the BM to the thymus remains unclear. Here we provide functional and molecular evidence at the single cell level that the earliest progenitors in the neonatal thymus possessed combined granulocyte-monocyte, T and B lymphocyte, but not megakaryocyte-erythroid lineage potential. These potentials were identical to those of thymus-seeding progenitors in the BM, which were closely related at the molecular level. These findings establish the distinct lineage-restriction stage at which the T lineage commitment transits from the BM to the remote thymus.
Megakaryopoiesis encompasses hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) commitment to the megakaryocytic cell (Mk) lineage, expansion of Mk progenitors and mature Mks, polyploidization, and platelet release. pH and pO2 increase from the endosteum to sinuses, and different cytokines are important for various stages of differentiation. We hypothesized that mimicking the changing conditions during Mk differentiation in the bone marrow would facilitate expansion of progenitors that could generate many high-ploidy Mks.
CD34+ HSPCs were cultured at pH 7.2 and 5% O2 with stem cell factor (SCF), thrombopoietin (Tpo), and all combinations of Interleukin (IL)-3, IL-6, IL-11, and Flt-3 ligand to promote Mk progenitor expansion. Cells cultured with selected cytokines were shifted to pH 7.4 and 20% O2 to generate mature Mks, and treated with nicotinamide to enhance polyploidization.
Using Tpo+SCF+IL-3+IL-11, we obtained 3.5 CD34+CD41+ Mk progenitors per input HSPC, while increasing purity from 1% to 17%. Cytokine cocktails with IL-3 yielded more progenitors and mature Mks, although the purities were lower. Mk production was much greater at higher pH and pO2. Although fewer progenitors were present, shifting to 20% O2/pH 7.4 at day 5 (versus days 7 or 9) yielded the greatest mature Mk production, 14 per input HSPC. Nicotinamide more than doubled the percentage of high-ploidy Mks to 40%.
We obtained extensive Mk progenitor expansion, while ensuring that the progenitors could produce high-ploidy Mks. We anticipate that subsequent optimization of cytokines for mature Mk production and delayed nicotinamide addition will greatly increase high-ploidy Mk production.
hematopoietic stem cells; megakaryocytic cells; nicotinamide; megakaryocyte progenitor cells
Bipotent progenitors for T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes are thought to exist among early precursor thymocytes. The identification and functional properties of such a progenitor population remain undefined. We report the identification of a novel developmental stage during fetal thymic ontogeny that delineates a population of T/NK-committed progenitors (NK1.1+/CD117+/CD44+/CD25−). Thymocytes at this stage in development are phenotypically and functionally distinguishable from the pool of multipotent lymphoid-restricted (B, T, and NK) precursor thymocytes. Exposure of multipotent precursor thymocytes or fetal liver– derived hematopoietic progenitors to thymic stroma induces differentiation to the bipotent developmental stage. Continued exposure to a thymic microenvironment results in predominant commitment to the T cell lineage, whereas coculture with a bone marrow–derived stromal cell line results in the generation of mature NK cells. Thus, the restriction point to T and NK lymphocyte destinies from a multipotent progenitor stage is marked by a thymus-induced differentiation step.
Bone-marrow-derived progenitors must continually enter the thymus of an adult mouse to sustain T-cell homeostasis, yet only a few input cells per day are sufficient to support a yield of 5 × 107 immature T-cells per day and an eventual output of 1–2 × 106 mature cells per day. While substantial progress has been made to delineate the developmental pathway of T-cell lineage commitment, still little is known about the relationship between differentiation competence and the remarkable expansion of the earliest (DN1 stage) T-cell progenitors. To address this question, we developed computational models where the probability to progress to the next stage (DN2) is related to division number. To satisfy differentiation kinetics and overall cell yield data, our models require that adult DN1 cells divide multiple times before becoming competent to progress into DN2 stage. Our findings were subsequently tested by in vitro experiments, where putative early and later-stage DN1 progenitors from the thymus were purified and their progression into DN2 was measured. These experiments showed that the two DN1 sub-populations divided with similar rates, but progressed to the DN2 stage with different rates, thus providing experimental evidence that DN1 cells increase their commitment probability in a cell-intrinsic manner as they undergo cell division. Proliferation-linked shifts in eligibility of DN1 cells to undergo specification thus control kinetics of T-cell generation.
T-cell progenitors; population dynamics; Notch response thresholds; thymus; T-cell development
Signaling through the Notch pathway plays an essential role in inducing T-lineage commitment and promoting the maturation of immature thymocytes. Using an in vitro culture system, we show that 2 different classes of Notch ligands, Jagged1 or Delta1, transmit distinct signals to T-cell progenitors. OP9 stromal cells expressing either Jagged1 or Delta1 inhibit the differentiation of DN1 thymocytes into the B-cell lineage, but only the Delta1-expressing stromal cells promote the proliferation and maturation of T-cell progenitors through the early double-negative (DN) stages of thymocyte development. Whereas the majority of bone marrow-derived stem cells do not respond to Jagged1 signals, T-cell progenitors respond to Jagged1 signals during a brief window of their development between the DN1 and DN3 stages of thymic development. During these stages, Jagged1 signals can influence the differentiation of immature thymocytes along the natural killer (NK) and γδ T-cell lineages.
Granulocytopenia frequently occurs in alcohol abusers suffering from severe bacterial infection, which strongly correlates with poor clinical outcome. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the granulopoietic response to bacterial infection remains limited. This study investigated the involvement of Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Sca-1) expression by granulocyte lineage-committed progenitors in the granulopoietic response to septicemia and how alcohol affected this response.
Male Balb/c mice.
Thirty minutes after intraperitoneal injection of alcohol (20% ethanol in saline at 5g of ethanol/Kg) or saline, mice received intravenous Escherichia coli (E.coli) challenge.
Measurements and Main Results
E. coli septicemia activated Sca-1 expression by marrow immature granulocyte differentiation antigen-1 (Gr1)lo precursors which correlated with an increase in proliferation, CFU-GM production, and expansion of this granulopoietic precursor cell pool. Acute alcohol treatment suppressed Sca-1 activation and inhibited the infection-induced increases in proliferation, CFU-GM production, and expansion the of Gr1lo cell population. Consequently, recovery of the marrow mature Gr1hi cell population following E.coli challenge was impaired. Sca-1 was induced in sorted Gr1+Sca1- cells by LPS-stimulated JNK activation that was also inhibited by alcohol. Furthermore, Sca-1 knockout (KO) mice failed to expand the marrow Gr1lo cell pool and demonstrated fewer newly produced granulocytes in the circulation following E.coli challenge.
Alcohol suppresses the Sca-1 response in granulocyte lineage-committed precursors and restricts granulocyte production during septicemia, which may serve as a novel mechanism underlying impaired host defense in alcohol abusers.
Hematopoietic Progenitor; Granulopoiesis; Sca-1; Septicemia; Immunosuppression; Neutrophil
The human endometrium is a dynamic tissue, which undergoes cycles of growth and regression with each menstrual cycle. Adult progenitor stem cells are likely responsible for this remarkable regenerative capacity; these same progenitor stem cells may also have an enhanced capacity to generate endometriosis if shed in a retrograde fashion. The progenitor stem cells reside in the uterus, however less committed mesenchymal stem cells may also travel from other tissues such as bone marrow to repopulate the progenitor population. Mesenchymal stem cells are also involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and may be the principle source of endometriosis outside of the peritoneal cavity when they differentiate into endometriosis in ectopic locations. Finally, besides progenitor stem cells, recent publications have identified multipotent stem cells in the endometrium. These multipotent stem cells are a readily available source of cells that are useful in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Endometrial stem cells have been used to generate chondrocytes, myocytes, neurons and adiposites in vitro as well as to replace dopiminergic neurons in a murine model of Parkinson disease.
endometrium; endometriosis; stem cells
Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family and represent the main cytotoxic population. NK cells develop from bone marrow common lymphoid progenitors and undergo terminal differentiation in the periphery, where they finally gain their cytotoxic competence as well as the ability to produce IFN-γ in response to engagement of activating receptors. This process has been at least partially elucidated and several markers have been identified to discriminate different NK cell stages and other ILC populations. NK cell terminal differentiation is not only associated with progressive phenotypic changes but also with defined effector signatures. In this essay, we will describe the phenotypic and functional characteristics of the main stages of NK cell development and terminal differentiation and discuss them in light of recent discoveries of novel ILC populations.
NK cells; ILC; differentiation; IFN-γ; CD62L; CD57; NKG2A; KIR
Adult multipotent neural progenitor cells can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the mammalian central nervous system, but the molecular mechanisms that control their differentiation are not yet well understood. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) can promote the differentiation of cells already committed to an oligodendroglial lineage during development. However, it is unclear whether IGF-I affects multipotent neural progenitor cells. Here, we show that IGF-I stimulates the differentiation of multipotent adult rat hippocampus-derived neural progenitor cells into oligodendrocytes. Modeling analysis indicates that the actions of IGF-I are instructive. Oligodendrocyte differentiation by IGF-I appears to be mediated through an inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein signaling. Furthermore, overexpression of IGF-I in the hippocampus leads to an increase in oligodendrocyte markers. These data demonstrate the existence of a single molecule, IGF-I, that can influence the fate choice of multipotent adult neural progenitor cells to an oligodendroglial lineage.
glia; neural stem cell; insulin; BMP; hippocampus
T cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow but complete their development in the thymus. HSCs give rise to a variety of non-renewing hematopoietic progenitors, among which a rare subset migrates to the thymus via the bloodstream. The earliest T-cell progenitors identified in the thymus are not T-lineage restricted but possess the ability to give rise to cells of many different lineages. Alternative lineage potentials are gradually lost as progenitors progress towards later developmental stages. Here, we review the early developmental events that might be involved in T-cell lineage fate determination, including the properties of possible thymus settling progenitors, their homing into the thymus, and their T-cell lineage specification and commitment.
lineage commitment/specification; thymus settling progenitors; early thymic progenitors; Notch signal; transcription factors
Bone-marrow-derived cells-mediated postnatal vasculogenesis has been reported as the main responsible for the regulation of vascular homeostasis in adults. Since their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells have been depicted as mediators of postnatal vasculogenesis for their peculiar phenotype (partially staminal and partially endothelial), their ability to differentiate in endothelial cell line and to be incorporated into the vessels wall during ischemia/damage. Diabetes mellitus, a condition characterized by cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and micro- and macroangiopathy, showed a dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms involved in diabetes-related dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells, highlighting how hyperglycemia affects the different steps of endothelial progenitor cells lifetime (i.e., bone marrow mobilization, trafficking into the bloodstream, differentiation in endothelial cells, and homing in damaged tissues/organs). Finally, we review preclinical and clinical strategies that aim to revert diabetes-induced dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells as a means of finding new strategies to prevent diabetic complications.
Thymopoiesis depends on recruitment and expansion of bone marrow-derived progenitors, tight regulation of which is required to maintain T-lineage homeostasis. Lyl1, a transcription factor regulating hematopoietic progenitors, is expressed in thymocyte progenitors until T cell commitment. Here we demonstrate a requirement for Lyl1 in lymphoid specification and the maintenance of early T lineage progenitors (ETPs). Lyl1 deficiency resulted in profound defects in generation of lymphoid primed multipotent progenitors (LMPPs), common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and ETPs. Lyl1-deficient ETPs and DN2 thymocyte progenitors showed increased apoptosis, blocked differentiation and impaired expansion. We identified Gfi1 as a critical transcriptional target of Lyl1-mediated T-lymphopoiesis. Thus, Lyl1 is a pivotal component of a transcriptional program that controls lymphoid specification and maintenance of ETPs.
The thymus plays a crucial role in the development of T lymphocytes by providing an inductive microenvironment in which committed progenitors undergo proliferation, T-cell receptor gene rearrangements and thymocyte differentiate into mature T cells. The thymus microenvironment forms a complex network of interaction that comprises non lymphoid cells (e.g., thymic epithelial cells, TEC), cytokines, chemokines, extracellular matrix elements (ECM), matrix metalloproteinases and other soluble proteins. The thymic epithelial meshwork is the major component of the thymic microenvironment, both morphologically and phenotypically limiting heterogeneous regions in thymic lobules and fulfilling an important role during specific stages of T-cell maturation. The process starts when bone marrow-derived lymphocyte precursors arrive at the outer cortical region of the thymic gland and begin to mature into functional T lymphocytes that will finally exit the thymus and populate the peripheral lymphoid organs. During their journey inside the thymus, thymocytes must interact with stromal cells (and their soluble products) and extracellular matrix proteins to receive appropriate signals for survival, proliferation and differentiation. The crucial components of the thymus microenvironment, and their complex interactions during the T-cell maturation process are summarized here with the objective of contributing to a better understanding of the function of the thymus, as well as assisting in the search for new therapeutic approaches to improve the immune response in various pathological conditions.
thymus; T-cell maturation; thymic microenvironment; thymocyte differantiation; chemokines; extracellular matrix; thymic nurse cells; metalloproteinases
Cells of the hemopoietic system arise by proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells. This process begins with multipotential stem cells which can self-renew and also undergo progressive differentiation to progenitor cells committed to particular lineages, ultimately yielding mature blood cells (D. Metcalf and M. A. S. Moore, Haematopoietic Cells, 1971). Early commitment of lymphoid progenitors is generally believed to separate the lymphoid lineage from the myeloid and erythroid lineages, whose progenitors are separated late in differentiation (Metcalf and Moore, 1971). We recently developed a derivative of Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) in which the enhancer sequences from simian virus 40 were substituted into the M-MuLV long terminal repeat. This recombinant virus (delta Mo + SV M-MuLV) induces pre-B and B lymphoid leukemia with long latency after inoculation of 2-day-old NIH Swiss mice (R. Hanecak, P. K. Pattengale, and H. Fan, J. Virol. 62:2427-2436, 1988). In this report, we describe the derivation of a permanent, virus-producing cell line with the phenotypic characteristics of mature macrophages from a B-cell-derived lymphoblastic lymphoma induced by delta Mo + SV M-MuLV. Comparison studies of immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene rearrangements and also delta Mo + SV M-MuLV proviral integration sites confirmed that the macrophage cell line was derived from the original B-lymphoblastic lymphoma. Moreover, inoculation of the macrophage cell line into animals resulted in histiocytic sarcomas of the macrophage type, thus reflecting stable conversion of B-lymphoid tumor cells to the macrophage phenotype. These results suggest a closer relationship between lymphoid and myeloid cells than previously believed.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most frequent malignancy of childhood. Substantial progress on understanding the cell hierarchy within ALL bone marrow (BM) has been recorded in the last few years, suggesting that both primitive cell fractions and committed lymphoid blasts with immature stem cell-like properties contain leukemia-initiating cells. Nevertheless, the biology of the early progenitors that initiate the lymphoid program remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of lymphoid progenitors from B-cell precursor ALL BM to proliferate and undergo multilineage differentiation. By phenotype analyses, in vitro proliferation assays, and controlled culture systems, the lymphoid differentiation potentials were evaluated in BM primitive populations from B-cell precursor ALL pediatric patients. When compared to their normal counterparts, functional stem and progenitor cell contents were substantially reduced in ALL BM. Moreover, neither B nor NK or dendritic lymphoid-cell populations developed recurrently from highly purified ALL-lymphoid progenitors, and their proliferation and cell cycle status revealed limited proliferative capacity. Interestingly, a number of quiescence-associated transcription factors were elevated, including the transcriptional repressor Gfi-1, which was highly expressed in primitive CD34+ cells. Together, our findings reveal major functional defects in the primitive hematopoietic component of ALL BM. A possible contribution of high levels of Gfi-1 expression in the regulation of the stem/progenitor cell biology is suggested.
Human adult olfactory neural progenitors (hONPs) can differentiate along several neural lineages in response to morphogenic signals in vitro. This study engrafted cells modified by the most efficient transfection paradigm for dopaminergic neural restriction and pretransfected controls into a unilateral neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced parkinsonian rat model. The results suggest that human adult olfactory epithelial-derived progenitors represent a unique autologous cell type with promising potential for future use in a cell-based therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease.
Human adult olfactory epithelial-derived neural progenitors (hONPs) can differentiate along several neural lineages in response to morphogenic signals in vitro. A previous study optimized the transfection paradigm for the differentiation of hONPs to dopaminergic neurons. This study engrafted cells modified by the most efficient transfection paradigm for dopaminergic neural restriction and pretransfected controls into a unilateral neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced parkinsonian rat model. Approximately 35% of the animals engrafted with hONPs had improved behavioral recovery as demonstrated by the amphetamine-induced rotation test, as well as a corner preference and cylinder paw preference, over a period of 24 weeks. The pre- and post-transfected groups produced equivalent responses, indicating that the toxic host environment supported hONP dopaminergic differentiation in situ. Human fibroblasts used as a cellular control did not diminish the parkinsonian rotational deficits at any point during the study. Increased numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells were detected in the engrafted brains compared with the fibroblast-implanted and medium-only controls. Engrafted TH-positive hONPs were detected for a minimum of 6 months in vivo; they were multipolar, had long processes, and migrated beyond their initial injection sites. Higher dopamine levels were detected in the striatum of behaviorally improved animals than in equivalent regions of their nonrecovered counterparts. Throughout these experiments, no evidence of tumorigenicity was observed. These results support our hypothesis that human adult olfactory epithelial-derived progenitors represent a unique autologous cell type with promising potential for future use in a cell-based therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease.
Adult stem cells; Autologous; Autologous stem cell transplantation; Cell transplantation; Cellular therapy; Parkinson's disease; Stem cell-microenvironment interactions; Transcription factors
Stem/progenitor cell niches in tissues regulate stem/progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation through local signalling.
To examine the composition and formation of stem progenitor cell niches.
The composition of the hepatic progenitor cell niche in independent models of liver injury and hepatic progenitor cell activation in rodents and humans was studied. To identify the origin of the progenitor and niche cells, sex-mismatched bone marrow transplants in mice, who had received the choline—ethionine-deficient-diet to induce liver injury and progenitor cell activation, were used. The matrix surrounding the progenitor cells was described by immunohistochemical staining and its functional role controlling progenitor cell behaviour was studied in cell culture experiments using different matrix layers.
The progenitor cell response in liver injury is intimately surrounded by myofibroblasts and macrophages, and to a lesser extent by endothelial cells. Hepatic progenitor cells are not of bone marrow origin; however, bone marrow-derived cells associate intimately with these cells and are macrophages. Laminin always surrounds the progenitor cells. In vitro studies showed that laminin aids maintenance of progenitor and biliary cell phenotype and promotes their gene expression (Dlk1, Aquaporin 1, γGT) while inhibiting hepatocyte differentiation and gene expression (CEPB/α).
During liver damage in rodents and humans a stereotypical cellular and laminin niche forms around hepatic progenitor cells. Laminin helps maintenance of undifferentiated progenitor cells. The niche links the intrahepatic progenitor cells with bone marrow-derived cells and links tissue damage with progenitor cell-mediated tissue repair.
Lineage commitment in B lymphopoiesis remains poorly understood due to the inability to clearly define newly committed B lineage progenitors and their multipotential descendants. We examined the potential of three recently described progenitor populations in adult mouse bone marrow to differentiate into each hematopoietic lineage. The earliest of these, termed fraction (Fr.) A0, exhibited myeloid, erythroid, and B and T lymphoid progenitor activity and included individual cells with myeloid/B lymphoid potential. In sharp contrast, two later populations, termed Frs. A1 and A2 and characterized by surface B220 expression and transcription of the germline immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus, lacked progenitor activity for all hematopoietic lineages except B lymphocytes. These observations, together with single cell polymerase chain reaction analysis showing a lack of DHJH rearrangements in each population and experiments showing identical precursor potentials when these populations were derived from recombination activating gene (Rag)-1−/− and JH−/− mice, demonstrate that commitment to the B lymphoid lineage occurs before and independently of VHDHJH recombination.
lineage restriction; B lymphopoiesis; progenitor; hematopoiesis; stem cell
The c-kit receptor plays a vital role in self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent progenitors (MPPs). We have discovered that besides c-kit, the murine multipotent HSC/MPP-like cell line EML expresses the transcript and protein for a truncated intracellular form of c-kit receptor, called tr-kit. Notably, the tr-kit transcript and protein levels were down-regulated during cytokine-induced differentiation of the HSC/MPP-like cell line EML into myeloerythroid lineages. These findings prompted us to analyze tr-kit expression in purified murine fetal liver and bone marrow cell populations containing long-term repopulating (LTR) HSCs, short-term repopulating (STR) HSCs, MPPs, lineage-committed progenitors, and immature blood cells. Remarkably, these studies have revealed that in contrast to more widespread expression of c-kit, tr-kit is transcribed solely in cell populations enriched for LTR-HSCs, STR-HSCs, and MPPs. On the other hand, cell populations in which HSCs and MPPs are either present at a much lower frequency or are absent altogether, cells representing more advanced stages of differentiation into lymphoid and myeloid lineages do not express tr-kit. The observation that tr-kit is co-expressed with c-kit only in more primitive HSC- and MPP-enriched cell populations raises an exciting possibility that tr-kit functions either as a new component of the stem cell factor (SCF)/c-kit pathway or is involved in a novel signaling pathway, present exclusively in HSC and MPPs. Taken together, these findings necessitate functional characterization of tr-kit and analysis of its potential role in the self-renewal, proliferation, and/or differentiation of HSC and multipotent progenitors.
Mesenchymal progenitor stem cells (MPCs) are a group of bone marrow stromal progenitor cells processing osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic and myogenic lineages differentiations. Previous studies have demonstrated that bone morphogeneic protein 9(BMP9) is one of the most osteogenic BMPs both in vitro and in vivo, however, the underlying molecular mechanism of osteogenesis induced by BMP9 is needed to be deep explored. Here, we used the recombinant adenoviruses assay to introduce BMP9 into C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells to elucidate the role of CXCL12/CXCR4 signal axis during BMP9-incuced osteogenic differentiation. The results showed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 expressions were down-regulated at the stage of BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation, in a dose- and time-dependent. Pretreatment of C3H10T1/2 cells with CXCL12/CXCR4 could significantly affect the early and mid osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), the transcription factors of Runx2, Osx, Plzf and Dlx5 expression, through activating the Smad, MAPK signaling pathway. Addition of exogenous CXCL12 did not affect the changes of the late osteogenic marker calcium deposition. Thus, our findings suggest a co-requirement of the CXCL12/CXCR4 signal axis in BMP9-induced the early- and mid-process of osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.
CXCL 12; CXCR4; Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Osteogenic Differentiation.
The expression of CD10 has long been used to define human lymphoid commitment. We report a unique lymphoid-primed population in human bone marrow that was generated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) before the onset of CD10 expression and B cell commitment. This subset was identified by high expression of the homing molecule L-selectin (CD62L). CD10−CD62Lhi progenitors possessed full lymphoid and monocytic potential, but lacked erythroid potential. Gene expression profiling placed the CD10−CD62Lhi population at an intermediate stage of differentiation between HSCs and lineage-negative (Lin−) CD34+CD10+ progenitors. L-selectin was expressed on immature thymocytes and its ligands were expressed at the cortico-medullary junction, suggesting a possible role in thymic homing. These studies identify the earliest stage of lymphoid priming in human bone marrow.
The Mixed Lineage Leukemia (Mll) gene is essential for embryonic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development but its role during adult hematopoiesis is unknown. Using an inducible knockout model, we demonstrate that Mll is essential for the maintenance of adult HSCs and progenitors, with fatal bone marrow failure occurring within 3 weeks of Mll deletion. Mll-deficient cells are selectively lost from mixed bone marrow chimeras demonstrating their failure to self-renew even in an intact bone marrow environment. Surprisingly, HSCs lacking Mll exhibit ectopic cell cycle entry resulting in the depletion of quiescent HSCs. In contrast, Mll deletion in myelo-erythroid progenitors results in reduced proliferation and reduced response to cytokine-induced cell cycle entry. Committed lymphoid and myeloid cells no longer require Mll, defining the early multipotent stages of hematopoiesis as Mll-dependent. These studies demonstrate that Mll plays selective and independent roles within the hematopoietic system, maintaining quiescence in HSCs and promoting proliferation in progenitors.
hematopoiesis; MLL; histone methyltransferase; leukemia; hematopoietic stem cell
During erythropoiesis, hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis increases from early progenitors to mature enucleated erythrocytes. Although Hb is one of the most extensively studied proteins, the role of Hb in erythroid lineage commitment, differentiation, and maturation remains unclear. In this study, we generate mouse embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells with all of the adult α and β globin genes deleted (Hb Null). While Hb Null embryos die in midgestation, adult globin genes are not required for primitive or definitive erythroid lineage commitment. In vitro differentiation of Hb Null ES cells generates viable definitive proerythroblasts that undergo apoptosis upon terminal differentiation. Surprisingly, all stages of Hb Null-derived definitive erythroblasts develop normally in vivo in chimeric mice, and Hb Null erythroid cells undergo enucleation to form reticulocytes. Free heme toxicity is not observed in Hb Null-derived erythroblasts. Transplantation of Hb Null-derived bone marrow cells provides short-term radioprotection of lethally irradiated recipients, whose progressive anemia results in an erythroid hyperplasia composed entirely of Hb Null-derived erythroblasts. This novel experimental model system enables the role played by Hb in erythroid cell enucleation, cytoskeleton maturation, and heme and iron regulation to be studied.
During hippocampal development, the Cornus Ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG) undergo waves of neurogenesis and neuronal migration and maturation independently. This stage is widely known to be vulnerable to environmental stresses, but its underlying mechanism is unclear. Alcohol exposure has been shown to alter the expression of genes that regulate the fate, survival, migration and differentiation of pyramidal and granule cells. Undermining this process might compromise hippocampal development underlying the learning and memory deficits known in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). We have previously demonstrated that DNA methylation was programmed along with neural tube development. Here, we demonstrated that DNA methylation program (DMP) proceeded along with hippocampal neuronal differentiation and maturation, and how this DMP was affected by fetal alcohol exposure. C57BL/6 mice were treated with 4% v/v ethanol through a liquid diet along with pair-fed and chow-fed controls from gestation day (E) 7 to E16. We found that a characteristic DMP, including 5-methylcytidine (5mC), 5-hydroxylmethylcytidine (5hmC) and their binding proteins, led the hippocampal neuronal differentiation and maturation spatiotemporally as indicated by their phenotypic marks in the CA and DG pre- and post-natally. Alcohol hindered the acquisition and progression of methylation marks, and altered the chromatin translocation of these marks in the nucleus, which was correlated with developmental retardation.