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1.  Surgical Treatment of Retrograde Peristalsis Following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass 
Reverse peristaltic activity is a rare complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Symptoms may be nonspecific. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of complicated postoperative gastric bypass patients.
Background:
Retrograde Roux limb peristalsis following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a rare complication that can be difficult to identify. It may present as persistent nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or even gastrointestinal bleeding related to an anastomotic ulcer. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series is an important diagnostic modality to identify this motility disorder; however, it may not be readily identifiable without specific delayed imaging. The etiology of this phenomenon is unclear, but attributing factors include the presence of ectopic pacemaker cells, variable lengths of the Roux limb and misconstructions. When this problem is identified, revisional surgery is indicated.
Case Description:
A 51-y-old female with morbid obesity presented with persistent nausea and vomiting following a laparoscopic gastric bypass. A CT scan showed a dilated Roux limb. Reverse peristalsis from the jejunojejunostomy toward the gastric pouch was identified on a UGI. Two laparoscopic revisions of the jejunojunostomy were attempted to correct this dysfunction.
Discussion:
An attempt at widening and relaxing the anastomosis was unsuccessful at providing relief of symptoms. A second revision with an anastomosis between the Roux limb and common channel provided long-term improvement. Identifying complications of gastric bypass surgery can be challenging. Imaging studies may be limited, and often diagnostic and revisional surgery is indicated.
doi:10.4293/108680812X13462882736574
PMCID: PMC3535792  PMID: 23318076
Reverse peristalsis; Gastric bypass; Obstruction; Jejunojejunostomy
2.  Causes and outcomes of revisional bariatric surgery: initial experience at a single center 
Purpose
Bariatric surgery has become more prevalent owing to the worldwide obesity epidemic. With the growing number of bariatric procedures performed annually, the requirement for revisional and secondary operations is increasing accordingly. This study aimed to evaluate the initial experience of revisional bariatric surgery at a single specialized center.
Methods
A retrospective review of the prospectively established database identified all patients who underwent revisional bariatric surgery between January 2008 and August 2013. The causes, surgical outcomes, and efficacy of the revisional surgeries were analyzed.
Results
Twenty-two revisional surgeries were performed laparoscopically during the study period (13 laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, 9 laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy). The most common indication for revision was weight regain or insufficient weight loss (12/23, 52.2%), and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was the most commonly performed secondary procedure (17/23, 73.9%, including four resectional RYGB procedures). Gastric pouch leak occurred in one patient following revisional RYGB, which required reoperation on the first postoperative day. The mean body mass index decreased from 35.9 to 28.8 kg/m2 at a mean follow-up period of 10 months after revision. The percent excess weight losses at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively were 18.8%, 41.1%, 40.1%, and 47.4%, respectively.
Conclusion
Revisional bariatric surgery can be successfully performed via a laparoscopic approach with acceptable risk. Deliberate selection for the proper revisional procedure can efficiently manage undesirable results from the primary surgery.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.86.6.295
PMCID: PMC4062454  PMID: 24949320
Morbid obesity; Bariatric surgery; Gastric bypass; Reoperation
3.  Pouch Roux-en-Y vs No Pouch Roux-en-Y following total gastrectomy: a meta-analysis based on 12 studies 
Journal of Biomedical Research  2011;25(2):90-99.
After a total resection of the stomach, the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract can be restored either by Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy with or without a pouch. There is still no consensus on the best reconstruction technique. The aim of this report was to derive a more precise estimation of Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy with a pouch compared with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy without a pouch. Studies were identified by PubMed and Embase searches, and the inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing reconstruction techniques between Roux-en-Y with and without a pouch. A total of 12 studies including 1,018 patients were included. The meta-analysis shows that pouch Roux-en-Y does not significantly increase total postoperative complications, anastomotic leakage or mortality. Importantly, there is no significant difference in 5-year survival rates between the two groups. Patients with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy complained significantly less of reflux symptoms and dumping syndrome, and had significantly less severe reflux esophagitis. Quality of life was significantly improved in patients with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy with a pouch compared with patients who received Roux-en-Y reconstruction without a pouch. The results indicate the need for Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy with a pouch is a gastric substitute after total gastrectomy by comparison with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy without a pouch.
doi:10.1016/S1674-8301(11)60011-0
PMCID: PMC3596699  PMID: 23554676
gastric cancer; total gastrectomy; reconstruction; meta-analysis
4.  Gastrojejunal Strictures after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass With a 21-MM Circular Stapler 
Introduction:
Intraluminal staplers for gastrojejunostomy construction during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) may be associated with postoperative strictures. We analyzed outcomes of a transabdominal circular-stapled RYGBP with evaluation of short- and long-term anastomotic complications.
Methods:
All laparoscopic RYGBPs performed between January 2004 and December 2005 at an academic institution were reviewed. The gastrojejunostomy was created by using the transabdominal passage of a 21-mm intraluminal circular stapler into an antecolic, antegastric Roux limb. This retrospective chart review analyzes patient demographics, anastomotic complications, and weight loss.
Results:
Between January 2004 and December 2005, 159 patients underwent transabdominal circular-stapled RYGBP. Fifteen patients developed a stenosis at the gastrojejunostomy, all requiring endoscopic balloon dilatation. One of these patients required laparoscopic revision of the gastrojejunostomy. Eleven strictures occurred after 30 days, whereas only 4 strictures occurred within 30 days of surgery. Two marginal ulcerations were seen within 1 year of surgery.
Conclusion:
Our 9.4% stricture rate parallels what has been reported in the literature. The majority of strictures were amenable to one endoscopic treatment session. Transabdominal circular-stapled gastrojejunostomy is a reproducible construct for use in bariatric surgery.
PMCID: PMC3015978  PMID: 19793467
Stricture; Laparoscopic gastric bypass; Endoscopy; Morbid obesity
5.  Laparoscopic adjustable banded roux-en-y gastric bypass as a primary procedure for the super-super-obese (body mass index > 60 kg/m2) 
BMC Surgery  2010;10:33.
Background
Currently, there is no consensus opinion regarding the optimal procedure of choice in super-super-morbid obesity (Body mass index, BMI > 60 kg/m2). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with failure to achieve or maintain 50% excess weight loss (EWL) or BMI < 35 in approximately 15% of patients. Also, percent EWL is significantly less after 1-year in the super-super-obese group as compared with the less obese group and many patients are still technically considered to be obese (lowest post-surgical BMI > 35) following RYGB surgery in this group. The addition of adjustable gastric band (AGB) to RYGB has been reported as a revisional procedure but this combined bariatric procedure has not been explored as a primary operation.
Methods
In a primary laparoscopic RYGB, an AGB is drawn around the gastric pouch through a small opening between the blood vessels on the lesser curve and the gastric pouch. The band is then fixed by suturing the gastric remnant to the gastric pouch both above and below the band to prevent slippage.
Results
Between November 2009 and March 2010, 6 consecutive super-super-obese patients underwent a primary laparoscopic adjustable banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure at our institution. One male patient (21 years, BMI 70 kg/m²) developed a pneumonia postoperatively. No other postoperative complications were observed.
Conclusion
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first series of patients that underwent a laparoscopic adjustable banded RYGB as a primary operation for the super-super obese in the indexed literature. With the combined procedure, a sequential action mechanism for weight loss is to be expected. The restrictive, malabsorptive and hormonal working mechanism of the RYGB will induce weight loss from the start reaching a stabilised plateau of weight after 12 - 18 months. At that time, filling of the band can be started resulting in further gastric pouch restriction and increased weight loss. Moreover, besides improving the results of total weight loss, a gradual filling of the band can as well prevent the RYGB patient from weight regain if restriction would fade away with time.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-10-33
PMCID: PMC2992483  PMID: 21073750
6.  Early migration of fully covered double-layered metallic stents for post-gastric bypass anastomotic strictures 
INTRODUCTION
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is well recognized for its efficiency in morbidly obese patients. Anastomotic strictures present in 5–15% of cases and have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. Endoscopic balloon dilation is the recommended treatment but management of refractory cases is challenging.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
Two patients with anastomotic stenoses refractory to dilations were treated with fully covered esophageal stents. Both cases presented early stent migration. The first patient finally underwent surgical revision of the anastomosis. For the second patient, a double-layered stent was installed after the first incident. After the migration of this second stent, three sessions of intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide were performed. Both patients were free of obstructive symptoms at a follow-up of 9 months.
DISCUSSION
Treatment of post-gastric bypass strictures with stents is based on years of successful experience with endoscopic stenting of malignant esophageal strictures, gastric outlet obstruction in addition to anastomotic stenoses after esophageal cancer surgery. The actual prosthesis are however inadequate for the particularities of the LRYGB anastomosis with a high migration rate. Intralesional corticosteroid injection therapy has been reported to be beneficial in the management of refractory benign esophageal strictures and seems to have prevented recurrence of the stenosis in this post-LRYGB.
CONCLUSION
Stents are aimed at preventing a complex surgical reintervention but are not yet specifically designed for that indication. Local infiltration of corticosteroids at the time of dilation may prevent recurrence of the anastomotic stricture.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.03.022
PMCID: PMC3356525  PMID: 22516420
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; Anastomotic strictures; Endoscopy; Dilation; Stent; Triamcinolone acetonide
7.  Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma Arising in the Gastric Stump After Duodenopancreatectomy for Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas: A Case Report 
Clinical Medicine. Oncology  2008;2:109-112.
The development of malignancy in the gastric stump following surgery for peptic ulcer disease is well recognized. There are also few reports on carcinomas occurring after surgery for malignant gastric disease. However, carcinoma of the gastric stump after duodenopancreatectomy is extremely rare. We describe what we believe to be an unusual case of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the gastric stump developing at the anastomotic site 5 years after duodenopancreatectomy for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head. We performed remnant gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy as a curative resection. This experience clearly underlies that g astric stump carcinoma (GSC) may mimic metastatic disease recurrence leading to diagnostic confusion after surgery for malignancy. Although an increased risk of gastric stump carcinoma after pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer has not been established, the possibility of such a complication should be kept in mind when evaluating patients after gastric resection who present with symptoms of metastatic disease recurrence years after the primary operation. Investigations should be independent of the entity of the primary disease or its localization, since GSC may well be amenable to surgical cure as demonstrated in the presented case. Outpatient follow up results of the last four years indicated no recurrence in this case.
PMCID: PMC3161654  PMID: 21892272
gastric stump carcinoma; peptic ulcer disease; pancreatic carcinoma
8.  Gastric Electrical Stimulation 
Executive Summary
Objective
The objective of this analysis was to assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for the treatment of chronic, symptomatic refractory gastroparesis and morbid obesity.
Background
Gastroparesis - Epidemiology
Gastroparesis (GP) broadly refers to impaired gastric emptying in the absence of obstruction. Clinically, this can range from the incidental detection of delayed gastric emptying in an asymptomatic person to patients with severe nausea, vomiting and malnutrition. Symptoms of GP are nonspecific and may mimic structural disorders such as ulcer disease, partial gastric or small bowel obstruction, gastric cancer, and pancreaticobiliary disorders.
Gastroparesis may occur in association with diabetes, gastric surgery (consequence of peptic ulcer surgery and vagotomy) or for unknown reasons (idiopathic gastroparesis). Symptoms include early satiety, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and weight loss. The majority of patients with GP are women.
The relationship between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the rate of gastric emptying is considered to be weak. Some patients with markedly delayed gastric emptying are asymptomatic and sometimes, severe symptoms may remit spontaneously.
Idiopathic GP may represent the most common form of GP. In one tertiary referral retrospective series, the etiologies in 146 GP patients were 36% idiopathic, 29% diabetic, 13% postgastric surgery, 7.5% Parkinson’s disease, 4.8% collagen vascular disorders, 4.1% intestinal pseudoobstruction and 6% miscellaneous causes.
The true prevalence of digestive symptoms in patients with diabetes and the relationship of these symptoms to delayed gastric emptying are unknown. Delayed gastric emptying is present in 27% to 58% of patients with type 1 diabetes and 30% with type 2 diabetes. However, highly variable rates of gastric emptying have been reported in type 1 and 2 diabetes, suggesting that development of GP in patients with diabetes is neither universal nor inevitable. In a review of studies examining gastric emptying in patients with diabetes compared to control patients, investigators noted that in many cases the magnitude of the delay in gastric emptying is modest.
GP may occur as a complication of a number of different surgical procedures. For example, vagal nerve injury may occur in 4% to 40% of patients who undergo laparoscopic fundoplication1 for gastroesophageal reflux disease.
The prevalence of severe, refractory GP is scantily reported in the literature. Using data from a past study, it has been estimated that the prevalence of severe, symptomatic and refractory GP in the United States population is 0.017%. Assuming an Ontario population of 13 million, this would correspond to approximately 2,000 people in Ontario having severe, symptomatic, refractory GP.
The incidence of severe refractory GP estimated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is approximately 4,000 per year in the United States. This corresponds to about 150 patients in Ontario. Using expert opinion and FDA data, the incidence of severe refractory GP in Ontario is estimated to be about 20 to 150 per year.
Treatment for Gastroparesis
To date, there have been no long-term studies confirming the beneficial effects of maintaining euglycemia on GP symptoms. However, it has been suggested that consistent findings of physiologic studies in healthy volunteers and diabetes patients provides an argument to strive for near-normal blood glucose levels in affected diabetes patients.
Dietary measures (e.g., low fibre, low fat food), prokinetic drugs (e.g., domperidone, metoclopramide and erythromycin) and antiemetic or antinausea drugs (e.g, phenothiazines, diphenhydramine) are generally effective for symptomatic relief in the majority of patients with GP.
For patients with chronic, symptomatic GP who are refractory to drug treatment, surgical options may include jejunostomy tube for feeding, gastrotomy tube for stomach decompression and pyloroplasty for gastric emptying.
Few small studies examined the use of botulinum toxin injections into the pyloric sphincter. However, the contribution of excessive pyloric contraction to GP has been insufficiently defined and there have been no controlled studies of this therapy.
Treatment with GES is reversible and may be a less invasive option compared to stomach surgery for the treatment of patients with chronic, drug-refractory nausea and vomiting secondary to GP. In theory, GES represents an intermediate step between treatment directed at the underlying pathophysiology, and the treatment of symptoms. It is based on studies of gastric electrical patterns in GP that have identified the presence of a variety of gastric arrhythmias. Similar to a cardiac pacemaker, it was hypothesized that GES could override the abnormal rhythms, stimulate gastric emptying and eliminate symptoms.
Morbid Obesity Epidemiology
Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of at last 30 kg/m2. Morbid obesity is defined as a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 or at least 35 kg/m2 with comorbid conditions. Comorbid conditions associated with obesity include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, obstructive sleep apnea, weight-related arthropathies, and stress urinary incontinence.
In the United States, the age-adjusted prevalence of extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) for adults aged 20 years and older has increased significantly in the population, from 2.9% (1988–1994) to 4.7% (1999–2000). An expert estimated that about 160,000 to 180,000 people are morbidly obese in Ontario.
Treatment for Morbid Obesity
Diet, exercise, and behavioural therapy are used to help people lose weight.
Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is considered an intervention of last resort for patients who have attempted first-line forms of medical management.
Gastric stimulation has been investigated for the treatment of morbid obesity; the intention being to reduce appetite and induce early satiety possibly due to inhibitory effects on gastric motility and effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and hormones related to satiety and/or appetite.
Possible advantages to GES for the treatment of morbid obesity include reversibility of the procedure, less invasiveness than some bariatric procedures, e.g., gastric bypass, and less side effects (e.g., dumping syndrome).
The Device
Electrical stimulation is delivered via an implanted system that consists of a neurostimulator and 2 leads. The surgical procedure can be performed via either an open or laparoscopic approach. An external programmer used by the physician can deliver instructions to the GES, i.e., adjust the rate and amplitude of stimulation (Figure 1). GES may be turned off by the physician at any time or may be removed. The battery life is approximately 4-5 years
For treatment of GP, the GES leads are secured in the muscle of the lower stomach, 10 cm proximal to the pylorus (the opening from the stomach to the intestine), 1 cm apart and connected to an implantable battery-powered neurostimulator which is placed in a small pocket in the abdominal wall
For treatment of morbid obesity, GES leads are implanted along the lesser curvature of the stomach where the vagal nerve branches spread, approximately 8 cm proximal to the pylorus. However, the implant positioning of the leads has been variably reported in the literature.
Regulatory Status
The Enterra Therapy System and the Transcend II Implantable Gastric Stimulation System (Medtronic Inc.) are both licensed as class 3 devices by Health Canada (license numbers 60264 and 66948 respectively). The Health Canada indications for use are:
Enterra Therapy System
“For use in the treatment of chronic intractable (drug-refractory) nausea and vomiting.”
Transcend II Implantable Gastric Stimulation System
“For use in weight reduction for obese adults with a body mass index greater than 35.”
The GES device that is licensed by Health Canada for treatment of GP, produces high-frequency GES. Most clinical studies examining GES for GP have used high-frequency (4 times the intrinsic slow wave frequency, i.e., 12 cycles per minute), low energy, short duration pulses. This type of stimulation does not alter gastric muscular contraction and has no effect on slow wave dysrhythmias. The mechanism of action is unclear but it is hypothesized that high-frequency GES may act on sensory fibers directed to the CNS.
The GES device licensed by Health Canada for treatment of morbid obesity produces low-frequency GES, which is close to or just above the normal/native gastric slow wave cycle (approximately 3 cycles/min.). This pacing uses low-frequency, high-energy, long-duration pulses to induce propagated slow waves that replace the spontaneous ones. Low-frequency pacing does not invoke muscular contractions.
Most studies examining the use of GES for the treatment of morbid obesity use low-frequency GES. Under normal circumstances, the gastric slow wave propagates distally and determines the frequency and propagation direction of gastric peristalsis. Low-frequency GES aims to produce abnormal gastric slow waves that can induce gastric dysrhythmia, disrupt regular propagation of slow waves, cause hypomotility of the stomach, delay gastric emptying, reduce food intake, prolong satiety, and produce weight loss.
In the United States, the Enterra Therapy System is a Humanitarian Use Device (HUD), meaning it is a medical device designated by the FDA for use in the treatment of medical conditions that affect fewer than 4,000 individuals per year.2 The Enterra Therapy System is indicated for “the treatment of chronic, drug- refractory nausea and vomiting secondary to GP of diabetes or idiopathic etiology” (not postsurgical etiologies).
GES for morbid obesity has not been approved by the FDA and is for investigational use only in the United States.
Review Strategy
The Medical Advisory Secretariat systematically reviewed the literature to assess the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of GES to treat patients who have: a) chronic refractory symptomatic GP; or b) morbid obesity.
The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases.
The GRADE approach was used to systematically and explicitly make judgments about the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.
Findings
As stated by the GRADE Working Group, the following definitions were used in grading the quality of the evidence in Tables 1 and 2.
GRADE Quality of Studies – Gastroparesis
Confounders related to diabetes.
Possible Type 2 error for subgroup analyses.
Subjective self-reported end point.
Posthoc change in primary end point analysis.
No sample size justification.
Concomitant prokinetic/antiemetic therapy.
Only 1 RCT (with different results for FDA and publication).
GES originally hypothesized to correct gastric rhythms, stimulate gastric emptying and therefore eliminate symptoms.
Now hypothesized to directly act on neurons to the CNS to control symptoms.
Weak correlation between symptoms and gastric emptying.
Unclear whether gastric emptying is still considered an end point to investigate.
GRADE Quality of Studies – Morbid Obesity
No sample size calculation.
Small sample size.
No ITT analysis.
Lack of detail regarding dropouts.
Possible Type 2 error.
Sparse details about randomization/blinding.
Full, final results not published.
Only 1 RCT (technically grey literature).
Economic Analysis
No formal economic analysis was identified in the literature search.
The Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research reported that the cost of implanting a GES in the United States for the treatment of GP is estimated to be $30,000 US. In Canada, the device costs approximately $10,700 Cdn; this does not include costs associated with the physician’s training, the implantation procedure, or device programming and maintenance.
Ontario Context
There is no Schedule of Benefits code for GES.
There is no Canadian Classification of Health Interventions Index (CCI) procedure code for GES.
Since the ICD-10 diagnosis code for gastroparesis falls under K31.8 “Other specified diseases of the stomach and duodenum”, it is impossible to determine how many patients in Ontario had discharge abstracts because of gastroparesis.
In 2005, there were less than 5 out-of-country requests for GES (for either consultation only or for surgery).
Gastroparesis
The prevalence of severe, refractory GP is variably reported in the literature.
The Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research estimated that the prevalence of severe, symptomatic and medically refractory GP in the United States population was 0.017%. Assuming a total Ontario population of 13 million, this would correspond to a budget impact of approximately $23.6 M
Cdn ($10,700 Cdn x 2,210 patients) for the device cost alone.
The incidence of severe refractory GP estimated by the FDA is approximately 4,000 per year in the United States. This corresponds to about 150 patients in Ontario. Using expert opinion and FDA data, the incidence of severe refractory GP in Ontario is estimated to be about 20 to 150 per year. This corresponds to a budget impact of approximately $107,000 Cdn to $1.6M Cdn per year for the device cost alone.
Morbid Obesity
An expert in the field estimated that there are 160,000 to 180,000 people in Ontario who are morbidly obese. This would correspond to a budget impact of approximately $1.7B Cdn to $1.9B Cdn for the device cost alone (assuming 100% uptake). However, the true uptake of GES for morbid obesity is unknown in relation to other types of bariatric surgery (which are more effective).
Conclusion
As per the GRADE Working Group, overall recommendations consider 4 main factors.
The tradeoffs, taking into account the estimated size of the effect for the main outcome, the confidence limits around those estimates and the relative value placed on the outcome.
The quality of the evidence.
Translation of the evidence into practice in a specific setting, taking into consideration important factors that could be expected to modify the size of the expected effects such as proximity to a hospital or availability of necessary expertise.
Uncertainty about the baseline risk for the population of interest.
The GRADE Working Group also recommends that incremental costs of healthcare alternatives should be considered explicitly alongside the expected health benefits and harms. Recommendations rely on judgments about the value of the incremental health benefits in relation to the incremental costs. The last column in Table 3 shows the overall trade-off between benefits and harms and incorporates any risk/uncertainty.
For GP, the overall GRADE and strength of the recommendation is “weak” – the quality of the evidence is “low” (uncertainties due to methodological limitations in the study design in terms of study quality, consistency and directness), and the corresponding risk/uncertainty is increased due to a budget impact of approximately $107,000 Cdn to $1.6M Cdn for the device cost alone, while the cost-effectiveness of GES is unknown and difficult to estimate considering that there are no high-quality studies of effectiveness. Further evidence of effectiveness should be available in the future since there is a RCT underway that is examining the use of GES in patients with severe refractory GP associated with diabetes and idiopathic etiologies (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00157755).
For morbid obesity, the overall GRADE and strength of the recommendation is “weak” – the quality of the evidence is “low” (uncertainties due to methodological limitations in the study design in terms of study quality and consistency), and the corresponding risk/uncertainty is increased due to a budget impact of approximately $1.7B Cdn to $1.9B Cdn for the device cost alone (assuming 100% uptake) while the cost-effectiveness of GES is unknown and difficult to estimate considering that there are no high quality studies of effectiveness. However, the true uptake of GES for morbid obesity is unknown in relation to other types of bariatric surgery (which are more effective).
Overall GRADE and Strength of Recommendation (Including Uncertainty)
PMCID: PMC3413096  PMID: 23074486
9.  Endoscopic gastric pouch plication - a novel endoluminal incision free approach to revisional bariatric surgery 
10–40% of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients regain significant weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery due to dilation of the pouch and/or the gastrojejunal (GJ) anastomosis. Traditional revision surgery is associated with significant morbidity (e.g. post-anastomotic GJ leak) where less invasive endoluminal procedures may represent safer alternatives. The present article reports a case of the safe and successful use of endoluminal gastric pouch plication (EGPP) using the StomaphyX™ device to correct both a dilated gastric pouch and a dilated gastrojejunostomy in a post-RYGB patient who regained significant weight.
doi:10.1093/jscr/2010.2.1
PMCID: PMC3649082  PMID: 24945982
10.  Laparoscopic Repair of a Free Perforation of a Marginal Ulcer After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: a Safe Alternative to Open Exploration 
Objectives:
We present 2 patients with free perforation of the anterior wall of the Roux limb due to marginal ulceration after an antecolic laparoscopic gastric bypass and describe the surgical management and laparoscopic repair technique.
Methods:
A 15 mm Hg pneumoperitoneum was established with a Veress needle via the left subcostal approach in both patients. Entrance into the abdomen was achieved with the 5 mm Optiview blunt trocar. The Genzyme liver retractor was used to lift the left lobe of the liver and expose the gastrojejunal anastomosis. A 30° 5 mm telescope was used for visualization. In both cases, free fluid and purulent material were noted in the subdiaphragmatic region and along the right paracolic gutter, but the gastrojejunal anastomoses was intact.A1cm perforation with surrounding inflammatory exudate was identified on the anterior surface of the Roux limb distal to the gastrojejunostomy. The edges were debrided and intracorporeal 1-layer repair of the ulcer was performed with simple interrupted 2- 0 Vicryl sutures. Fibrin glue was applied to the suture line and covered with an omental onlay patch. The anastomosis was tested with air insufflation and methylene blue dye with no evidence of a leak. A Jackson-Pratt drain was placed in the left upper quadrant.
Results:
Both patients underwent an unremarkable hospital course, and follow-up EGD examination after 3 months revealed no evidence of ulceration.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic exploration and the repair of the gastrointestinal perforations in patients with a recent history of laparoscopic RYGBP is safe, if patients are hemodynamically stable and present within the first 24 hours of the onset of symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3015824  PMID: 17931525
RYGBP; EGD; Gastrointestinal perforations; Gastrojejunal anastomoses
11.  Using the StomaphyXTM Endoplicator to Treat a Gastric Bypass Complication 
Rapid advances in endoluminal technology such as tissue placating devices offer an alternative for repair of some postbariatric surgical complications.
Background and Objectives:
As the number of bariatric operations performed increases, the number of patients requiring reoperation for failed weight loss is expected to proportionately increase. Natural orifice surgery is an alternative approach to revisional gastric bypass surgery when postoperative complications, such as dilatation of the gastrojejunostomy, gastrogastric fistula, and gastric pouch, dilation occur.
Methods:
The present article reports on the safe and successful use of an endoscopic tissue plicating device in a patient found to have a dilated gastric pouch and a gastrogastric fistula 12 years after an open, nondivided RYGB.
Results:
The procedure was performed without complications and resulted in a reduced pouch size to approximately 30cc to 50cc and redirection of the flow of gastric contents through her gastrojejunostomy. The patient's early satiety returned and, 1 year postoperatively, she had incurred a 45-pound weight loss.
Discussion:
The morbidity and mortality of revision gastric bypass was avoided while the patient's goal of moderate weight loss was achieved. Tissue plicating devices offer an alternative for repair of some postbariatric complications. With the rapid advances in endoluminal technology and increasing experience with natural orifice surgery, the ability to successfully address surgical problems through less invasive means will continue to improve.
doi:10.4293/108680811X13022985131570
PMCID: PMC3134684  PMID: 21902955
Bariatric surgery; Complications; Fistula; Endoscopy
12.  Gastrogastric Fistula: a Possible Complication of Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass 
Background:
Gastrogastric fistula is a communication between the proximal gastric pouch and the distal gastric remnant, rarely described in the realm of bariatric procedures. The aim of this study was to review the existing literature about this topic and to demonstrate its laparoscopic treatment.
Methods:
An extensive literature review found several articles reporting this complication. However, no citation was found describing the steps of the laparoscopic management of this situation.
Results:
Gastrogastric fistula occurs in up to 6% of Rouxen-Y gastric bypasses. Two theories exist for fistula formation: (1) it is a technical complication derived from the incomplete division of the stomach during the creation of the pouch, and (2) it occurs after a staple-line failure, developing a leak with an abscess, which then drains into the distal stomach forming the fistula. Early symptoms include fever, tachycardia, and abdominal pain. Failure in weigth loss is a late clinical sign observed in these patients. Diagnosis is based on radiologic study, upper endoscopy and computed tomography. When identified in the acute postoperative course, laparoscopic treatment is easy. Chronic fistulas are difficult to manage, and the laparoscopic approach is an alternative to open surgery.
Conclusions:
Gastrogastric fistula is a possible complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and its laparoscopic treatment is feasible.
PMCID: PMC3015713  PMID: 17212889
Bariatric surgery; Complications; Gastric bypass; Fistula
13.  Total Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Cholangiojejunostomy for the Treatment of Biliary Disease 
Total laparoscopic Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy may be a first choice for patients with biliary disease that requires biliary-jejunal anastomosis.
Background and Objectives:
Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy (RCJS) has been widely used in biliary bypass surgeries, but in most reported literature, an assisted mini-incision was needed, and studies reporting total laparoscopic Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy (TLRCJS) are rare. The goal of this study was to investigate how to treat hepatic portal bile duct diseases and perform jejunojejunostomy and cholangiojejunostomy totally laparoscopically. We evaluated the feasibility of TLRCJS in treating biliary tract diseases.
Methods:
TLRCJS were performed in 103 patients from January 2000 to August 2011. There were 28 cases of recurrent choledocholithiasis combined with stricture of the common bile duct (CBD) after several stone extractions, 3 patients with iatrogenic bile duct injury, 24 patients with choledochal cyst, 36 patients with hepatic portal cholangiocarcinoma, and 12 patients with cancer of the pancreatic head and periampullary cancer. All surgeries were performed through 5 trocars. First, laparoscopic surgery on the CBD was performed according to the original disease. The CBD was opened and stones were extracted in choledocholithiasis patients. In iatrogenic injury patients, strictured CBD was resected and repaired. Dilated CBD or choledochal cyst with tumor was transected. In patients with malignant jaundice, the CBD was opened longitudinally. At the same time, the bile duct was prepared for cholangiojejunostomy. Second, the positions of the laparoscope and surgeons were altered. The jejunal mesentery and jejunum were transected, and side-to-side jejunojejunostomy (JJS) was performed. The laparoscope and surgeon positions were exchanged again; the Roux-en-Y biliary limb was lifted close to the residual bile duct; and side-to-side or end-to-side choledochojejunostomy (CJS) was performed. Finally, an abdominal drainage tube was placed.
Results:
All the surgeries were performed successfully. The diameter of the residual bile duct ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 cm (average, 0.9 cm). Three patients had postoperative bile leakage and were treated from 1 week to approximately 1 month with abdominal drainage. Postoperative intraperitoneal hemorrhage and stress ulcer of the stomach occurred in 2 patients with biliary tract injury combined with obstructive jaundice. One with intraperitoneal hemorrhage was cured by another laparoscopic surgery. The other patient was cured after 2 days of abdominal drainage, antacids, and hemostatic drug therapy. The follow-up duration of 95 patients was 4 to 93 months (average, 48.3 months). The follow-up rate was 92.2% (95/103). Patients with cancer died of metastasis or cachexia during 14-month follow-up with no postoperative complication. Reflux cholangitis occurred in 3 patients 2, 3, and 5 years after the operation, respectively. No anastomotic stricture or other complication was found in other patients during the follow-up.
Conclusions:
TLRCJS is the best and first choice for patients with biliary tract diseases that need biliary-jejunal anastomosis. But it is essential that the surgeon has proficiency in laparoscopic surgeries.
doi:10.4293/108680813X13654754535232
PMCID: PMC3771782  PMID: 23815976
Laparoscopy; Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy; Common bile duct stone; Bile duct injury; Congenital choledochal cyst; Hepatic portal cholangiocarcinoma; Cancer of pancreatic head; Periampullary cancer
14.  Preoperative Upper Endoscopy is Useful Before Revisional Bariatric Surgery 
Background and Objectives:
We hypothesized that patients who have previously had bariatric surgery and are undergoing revision to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass would have abnormal findings detected by upper endoscopy that could potentially influence patient management. The procedures that are being revised include vertical banded gastroplasty, laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands, nonadjustable gastric bands and previous Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (open and laparoscopic).
Methods:
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who previously had undergone vertical banded gastroplasty or nonadjustable gastric banding. We preoperatively performed an upper endoscopy on all patients. The endoscopy reports were reviewed and the findings entered into a database.
Results:
Eighty-five percent of 46 patients undergoing revisional bariatric surgery had an abnormal upper endoscopy. Eleven percent had a gastrogastric fistula. Gastritis and esophagitis were noted in 65% and 37%, respectively. Eleven percent of patients had band erosion, 2 from a nonadjustable band, and 5 from vertical banded gastroplasties. Based on our findings, 65% of our patients required medical treatment.
Conclusions:
Preoperative upper endoscopy provides valuable information before revisional laparoscopic bariatric surgery. In addition to identifying patients who need preoperative medications, the preoperative upper endoscopy also provided valuable information regarding pouch size and anatomy. Preoperative upper endoscopy should be performed by the operating surgeon on every patient undergoing revisional bariatric surgery.
PMCID: PMC3015807  PMID: 17651565
Endoscopy; Bariatric surgery; Revisional surgery; Gastrogastric fistulae
15.  Factors Associated With Weight Loss After Gastric Bypass 
Background
Gastric bypass (GBP) is the most common operation performed in the United States for morbid obesity. However, weight loss is poor in 10% to 15% of patients. We sought to determine the independent factors associated with poor weight loss after GBP.
Design
Prospective cohort study. We examined demographic, operative, and follow-up data by means of multivariate analysis. Variables investigated were age, sex, race, marital and insurance status, initial weight and body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, joint disease, sleep apnea, hyperlipidemia, and psychiatric disease), laparoscopic vs open surgery, gastric pouch area, gastrojejunostomy technique, and alimentary limb length.
Setting
University tertiary referral center.
Patients
All patients at our institution who underwent GBP from January 1, 2003, through July 30, 2006.
Main Outcome Measures
Weight loss at 12 months defined as poor (≤40% excess weight loss) or good (>40% excess weight loss).
Results
Follow-up data at 12 months were available for 310 of the 361 patients (85.9%) undergoing GBP during the study period. Mean preoperative BMI was 52 (range, 36–108). Mean BMI and excess weight loss at follow-up were 34 (range, 17–74) and 60% (range, 8%–117%), respectively. Thirty-eight patients (12.3%) had poor weight loss. Of the 4 variables associated with poor weight loss in the univariate analysis (greater initial weight, diabetes, open approach, and larger pouch size), only diabetes (odds ratio, 3.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.35–7.09 [P=.007]) and larger pouch size (odds ratio, 2.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.81–4.22 [P<.001]) remained after the multivariate analysis.
Conclusions
Gastric bypass results in substantial weight loss in most patients. Diabetes and larger pouch size are independently associated with poor weight loss after GBP.
doi:10.1001/archsurg.143.9.877
PMCID: PMC2747804  PMID: 18794426
16.  Resolution of Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes after Laparoscopic Truncal Vagotomy, Subtotal Gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y Gastrojejunostomy for a Patient with Intractable Gastric Ulcers 
Case Reports in Surgery  2012;2012:102752.
Background. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has been shown to be an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with morbid obesity. However, it is unclear just how effective the LRYGB procedure is on T2DM for patients with BMI less than 35 kg/m2. We report one obese patient with T2DM who did not meet the current NIH criteria for morbid obesity surgery. This patient underwent a laparoscopic truncal vagotomy, subtotal gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy for intractable gastric ulcers and subsequently had full resolution of her T2DM. Methods. A 48-year-old patient with a BMI of 34.6 kg/m2 underwent a laparoscopic truncal vagotomy, subtotal gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy for intractable gastric ulcers. The patient was seen 3 months preoperatively, followed for 24 months postoperatively, and evaluated for postoperative complications, weight loss, and improvement in comorbidities. Results. The patient had no postoperative surgical complications. Her BMI decreased from 34.6 kg/m2 to 22.3 kg/m2 by 24 months postoperatively. Significant improvements in her fasting blood glucose levels were seen 10 days postoperatively from a preoperative level of 147 mg/dl to 97 mg/dl. Conclusion. Patients with a BMI less than 35 kg/m2 and uncontrolled T2DM may benefit from a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
doi:10.1155/2012/102752
PMCID: PMC3503277  PMID: 23198247
17.  Endoscopic Management of Drain Inclusion in the Gastric Pouch after Gastrojejunal Leakage after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for the Treatment of Morbid Obesity (LRYGBP) 
Background. Drain inclusion inside the gastric pouch is rare and can represent an important source of morbidity and mortality associated with laparocopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). These leaks can become chronic and challenging. Surgical options are often unsuccessful. We present the endoscopic management of four patients with drain inclusion. Patients. All four obese morbidly patients underwent LRYGBP and presented a gastro-jejunal fistula after acute anastomotic leakage. During follow-up endoscopy the drain was found inside the gastric pouch. It was moved into the abdominal cavity. Fistula debit reduced significantly and closed. Results. Gastric leak closure in less than 24 hours was achieved in all, with complete resolution of symptoms. These patients benefited exclusively from endoscopic treatment. Conclusions. Endoscopy is useful and technically feasible in chronic fistulas. This procedure is a less invasive alternative to traditional surgical revision. Other therapeutic strategies can be used such as clips and fibrin glue. Drains should not be placed in contact with the anastomosis or stapled lines. Drain inclusion must be suspected when fistula debit suddenly arises. If so, endoscopy is indicated for diagnostic accuracy. Under endoscopy vision, the drain is gently removed from the gastric reservoir leading to sudden and complete resolution of the fistula.
doi:10.1155/2010/891345
PMCID: PMC2903945  PMID: 20634928
18.  Frequent loss of RUNX3 gene expression in remnant stomach cancer and adjacent mucosa with special reference to topography 
British Journal of Cancer  2005;92(3):562-569.
Our previous studies suggest that a lack of RUNX3 function is causally related to the genesis and progression of human gastric cancer. This study was conducted to determine whether alteration of RUNX3 gene expression could be detected in the normal-looking gastric remnant mucosa, and to ascertain any difference in the potential of gastric carcinogenesis between the anastomotic site and other areas in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for peptic ulcer (RB group) or gastric cancer (RM group), by analysing RUNX3 expression with special reference to topography. A total of 89 patients underwent distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer from the intact stomach (GCI group) and 58 patients underwent resection of the remnant stomach for gastric cancer (RB group: 34 cases, RM group: 24 cases). We detected RUNX3 and gene promoter methylation by in situ hybridisation, quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), and methylation-specific PCR. The interval between the initial surgery and surgery for remnant gastric cancer (interval time) was 10.4 years in the RM group, and 27.5 years in the RB group. Cancers in the RB group were significantly more predominant in the anastomosis area (P<0.05). Within the tumour, downregulation of RUNX3 expression ranged from 74.7 to 85.7% in the three groups. The rate of downregulation of RUNX3 of adjacent mucosa was 39.2% (11 in 28 cases) in RB and 47.6% (10 in 21 cases) in RM, which are significantly higher than that of the GCI group (19.5%, 17 in 87 cases). In noncancerous mucosa of the remnant stomach in the RB group, RUNX3 expression decreased more near the anastomosis area. In the RM group, however, there were no significant differences in RUNX3 expression by sampling location. Based on RUNX3 downregulation and clinical features, residual stomach mucosa of the RM group would have a higher potential of gastric carcinogenesis compared to the RB or GCI group. Gastric stump mucosa of the RB group has higher potential especially than other areas of residual stomach mucosa. Measurement of RUNX3 expression and detection of RUNX3 methylation in remnant gastric mucosa may estimate the forward risk of carcinogenesis in the remnant stomach.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602372
PMCID: PMC2362072  PMID: 15685235
RUNX3; carcinogenesis; remnant stomach cancer
19.  Surgical Treatment of Anastomotic Recurrence after Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer 
Background
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of reoperation with curative intent for the treatment of anastomotic recurrent gastric cancer.
Methods
Ten patients with anastomotic recurrence of gastric cancer who underwent reoperation from November 1995 to February 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The time interval between the first operation and reoperation, recurrence pattern, type of surgery, survival, and postoperative outcome were analyzed.
Results
The average time to recurrence after initial surgery was 48.8 months (median, 23.5 months). Of the ten patients, eight (80.0%) had recurrence at the esophagojejunostomy, one (10.0 %) at the esophagogastrostomy, and two (20.0%) at the esophagus. Among these patients, five had combined metastasis or invasion to major organs in addition to anastomotic recurrence. Complete resection was achieved in five patients (50.0%), and incomplete resection or bypass surgery was performed in the remaining five patients (50.0%). The overall median survival time was 7.0 months (range, 2.2 to 105.5 months). The median survival time following complete resection and palliative surgery (incomplete resection or bypass surgery) was 28.1 months (range, 4.2 to 105.5 months) and 5.5 months (range, 2.2 to 7.5 months), respectively.
Conclusion
Surgical resection of anastomotic recurrent gastric cancer should be implemented only in selected patients in whom complete resection is possible.
doi:10.5090/kjtcs.2014.47.3.269
PMCID: PMC4157478  PMID: 25207225
1. Neoplasm recurrence; 2. Anastomosis; 3. Surgical procedures, operative; 4. Stomach neoplasms
20.  Three-Year Experience of Pouch Dilatation and Slippage Management after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;55(1):149-156.
Purpose
Pouch dilatation and band slippage are the most common long-term complications after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). The aim of the study is to present our experience of diagnosis and management of these complications.
Materials and Methods
The pars flaccida technique with anterior fixation of the fundus was routinely used. All band adjustments were performed under fluoroscopy. We analyzed the incidence, clinico-radiologic features, management, and revisional surgeries for treatment of these complications. We further presented the outcome of gastric plication techniques as a measure for prevention of these complications.
Results
From March 2009 to March 2012, we performed LAGB on 126 morbidly obese patients. Among them, 14 patients (11.1%) were diagnosed as having these complications. Four patients (3.2%) had concentric pouch dilatations, which were corrected by band adjustment. Ten (7.9%) had eccentric pouch with band slippage. Among the ten patients, there were three cases of posterior slippage, which were corrected by reoperation, and seven cases of eccentric pouch dilatation with anterior slippage. Three were early anterior slippage, which was managed conservatively. Two were acute anterior slippage, one of whom underwent a revision. There were two cases of chronic anterior slippage, one of whom underwent a revision. The 27 patients who underwent gastric plication did not present with eccentric pouch with band slippage during the follow-up period.
Conclusion
The incidence of pouch dilatation with/without band slippage was 11.1%. Management should be individualized according to clinico-radiologic patterns. Gastric plication below the band might prevent these complications.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.1.149
PMCID: PMC3874894  PMID: 24339300
Pouch dilatation; band slippage; laparoscopic adjustable gastric band
21.  Outcomes of a Third Bariatric Procedure for Inadequate Weight Loss 
Background and Objectives:
The robust volume of bariatric surgical procedures has led to significant numbers of patients requiring reoperative surgery because of undesirable results from primary operations. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and outcomes of the third bariatric procedure after previous attempts resulted in inadequate results.
Methods:
We retrospectively identified patients who underwent a third bariatric procedure for inadequate weight loss or significant weight regain after the second operation. Data were analyzed to establish patient demographic characteristics, perioperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes.
Results:
A total of 12 patients were identified. Before the first, second, and third procedures, patients had a mean body mass index of 67.1 ± 29.3 kg/m2, 60.9 ± 28.3 kg/m2, and 49.4 ± 19.8 kg/m2, respectively. The third operations (laparoscopic in 10 and open in 2) included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 5), revision of pouch and/or stoma of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 3), limb lengthening after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 3), and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). We encountered 5 early complications in 4 patients, and early reoperative intervention was needed in 2 patients. At 1-year follow-up, the excess weight loss of the cohort was 49.4% ± 33.8%. After a mean follow-up time of 43.0 ± 28.6 months, the body mass index of the cohort reached 39.9 ± 20.8 kg/m2, which corresponded to a mean excess weight loss of 54.4% ± 44.0% from the third operation. At the latest follow-up, 64% of patients had excess weight loss >50% and 45% had excess weight loss >80%.
Conclusion:
Reoperative bariatric surgery can be carried out successfully (often laparoscopically), even after 2 previous weight loss procedures.
doi:10.4293/JSLS.2014.00117
PMCID: PMC4208900  PMID: 25392664
Reoperative; Revision; Conversion; Weight regain; Bariatric surgery
22.  Management of jejunal pouch dysfunction following total gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction for gastric cancer: a case report 
INTRODUCTION
Total gastrectomy with oesophagojejunal pouch anastomosis and Roux-en-Y reconstruction is a well recognised procedure for patients undergoing curative resections for gastric malignancy. The formation of a jejunai pouch is thought by some to create a reservoir that, when compared with straight oesophagojejunal anastomosis, reduces the incidence of postoperative dumping.
CASE HISTORY
A patient presented two years after a total gastrectomy with oesophagojejunal pouch anastomosis and Roux-en-Y reconstruction for a T3N2M0 adenocarcinoma of the stomach, with postprandial vomiting and dysphagia resulting in massive weight loss and malnutrition. Recurrent cancer and stricturing was ruled out by gastroscopy and computed tomography, and distal obstruction was ruled out by an oral contrast study. The diagnosis of a functional jejunai pouch disorder was made by exclusion.
Balloon dilatation of the pouch and the oesophagojejunal anastomosis found little symptomatic improvement. The patient's deteriorating nutritional status prompted us to urgently perform revisionai surgery. A re-laparotomy and pouch-jejunal bypass procedure was performed. Post-operatively, the patient made a full symptomatic recovery and began gaining weight
CONCLUSIONS
A pouch-enteric bypass is a suitable treatment option for patients with functional jejunai pouch dysmotility following a total gastrectomy and jejunai pouch formation in the absence of distal obstruction and recurrent disease.
doi:10.1308/003588412X13171221500862
PMCID: PMC3705253  PMID: 22507705
Gastric cancer; Gastrectomy; Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
23.  Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass 
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome caused by weight loss after gastric bypass surgery may be successfully treated with laparoscopic intestinal bypass procedures.
Background and Objectives:
As bariatric surgery becomes more widespread, atypical complications will be seen with more frequency. In this case series, we report on 3 cases of superior mesenteric artery syndrome after gastric bypass and the laparoscopic treatment.
Methods:
This is a case series of 3 patients who presented with the persistent postprandial symptoms of pain and nausea after gastric bypass, and through an extensive workup were eventually diagnosed with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. All 3 patients had dramatic weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypasses. Gastric remnant distention was not a consistent finding, but persistent postprandial nausea, epigastric pain, and computed tomographic findings of a narrowed angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta were consistently found. Two patients were treated with a laparoscopic gastroduodenal jejunostomy anastomosis, and one patient had a duodenojejunostomy, all with resolution of their symptoms.
Results:
A laparoscopic gastroduodenal (or duodeno-) jejunal bypass was performed in each case, which resolved the obstruction caused by the superior mesenteric artery syndrome.
Conclusions:
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome can be caused by the dramatic weight loss induced by a gastric bypass. This post weight loss surgery phenomenon may be far more prevalent and underdiagnosed than reported, and should be considered in all patients with greater than average weight loss at one year and who have persistent postprandial nausea and epigastric pain. This can be successfully treated by bypassing the obstruction, while maintaining the weight loss induced by the Roux-en-y gastric bypass.
doi:10.4293/108680810X12674612765542
PMCID: PMC3021290  PMID: 20412638
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome; Bariatric surgery
24.  Role of Intraoperative Esophagogastroenteroscopy in Minimizing Gastrojejunostomy-Related Morbidity: Experience with 2,311 Laparoscopic Gastric Bypasses with Linear Stapler Anastomosis 
Obesity Surgery  2012;22(12):1928-1933.
Background
Anastomotic leaks and strictures of the gastrojejunostomy are a cause of major morbidity following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). Reported rates of leaks vary between 0 and 5.2 %. This has led bariatric surgeons to use a variety of intraoperative methods to detect incompetent suture lines. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of intraoperative endoscopy in reducing the rate of postoperative anastomotic complications. The setting of this study is in a community teaching hospital.
Methods
Medical records of 2,311 patients who underwent a LRYGB from 2002 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed utilizing the hospitals’ bariatric surgery database. Demographics, weight, body mass index, intraoperative endoscopy results, and postoperative outcomes within 90 days after surgery were analyzed.
Results
Endoscopy was attempted in 2,311 patients and completed in 2,308 (99.9 %). Intraoperative leak was detected in 80 (3.5 %) patients; suture line was reinforced in 46 patients (2 %), while in the other 34 patients the leak was transient at only high insufflation pressure. Postoperative clinical leaks were detected in four cases (0.2 %) two of which had initial leaks intraoperatively. In two cases, the anastomosis was too tight and required reconstruction. Twenty-five patients (1.1 %) developed early postoperative strictures requiring endoscopic dilatation within 90 days. Three patients (0.1 %) had iatrogenic injury at the time of intraoperative endoscopy, all three healed without delayed morbidity.
Conclusions
The routine use of intraoperative endoscopy in LRYGB with the linear stapler anastomosis technique is associated with a complication/failure rate of 0.3 % and low gastrojejunostomy-related morbidity after LRYGB within 90 days (leak rate of 0.2 % and stricture rate of 1.1 %).
doi:10.1007/s11695-012-0757-2
PMCID: PMC3505504  PMID: 22941393
Intraoperative esophagogastroenteroscopy; LRYGB; Gastrojejunostomy leak rate
25.  Role of surgery in severe ulcerative colitis in the era of medical rescue therapy 
Despite the growing use of medical salvage therapy, colectomy has remained a cornerstone in managing acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASC) both in children and in adults. Colectomy should be regarded as a life saving procedure in ASC, and must be seriously considered in any steroid-refractory patient. However, colectomy is not a cure for the disease but rather the substitution of a large problem with smaller problems, including fecal incontinence, pouchitis, irritable pouch syndrome, cuffitis, anastomotic ulcer and stenosis, missed or de-novo Crohn’s disease and, in young females, reduced fecundity. This notion has led to the widespread practice of offering medical salvage therapy before colectomy in most patients without surgical abdomen or toxic megacolon. Medical salvage therapies which have proved effective in the clinical trial setting include cyclosporine, tacrolimus and infliximab, which seem equally effective in the short term. Validated predictive rules can identify a subset of patients who will eventually fail corticosteroid therapy after only 3-5 d of steroid therapy with an accuracy of 85%-95%. This accuracy is sufficiently high for initiating medical therapy, but usually not colectomy, early in the admission without delaying colectomy if required. This approach has reduced the colectomy rate in ASC from 30%-70% in the past to 10%-20% nowadays, and the mortality rate from over 70% in the 1930s to about 1%. In general, restorative proctocolectomy (ileoanal pouch or ileal pouch-anal anastomosis), especially the J-pouch, is preferred over straight pull-through (ileo-anal) or ileo-rectal anastomosis, which may still be considered in young females concerned about infertility. Colectomy in the acute severe colitis setting, is usually performed in three steps due to the severity of the inflammation, concurrent steroid treatment and the generally reduced clinical condition. The first surgical step involves colectomy and constructing an ileal stoma, the second - constructing the pouch and the third - closing the stoma. This review focuses on the role of surgical treatment in ulcerative colitis in the era of medical rescue therapy.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v18.i29.3833
PMCID: PMC3413055  PMID: 22876035
Acute severe ulcerative colitis; Colectomy; Corticosteroids; Cyclosporine; Infliximab; Tacrolimus

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