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1.  Managing complications associated with laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2012;55(5):329-336.
Obesity has become a major health concern in Canada. This has resulted in a steady rise in the number of bariatric surgical procedures being performed nationwide. The laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is not only the most common bariatric procedure, but also the gold standard to which all others are compared. With this in mind, it is imperative that all gastrointestinal surgeons understand the LRYGB and have a working knowledge of the common postoperative complications and their management. Early postoperative complications following LRYGB that demand immediate recognition include anastomotic or staple line leak, postoperative hemorrhage, bowel obstruction and incorrect Roux limb reconstructions. Later complications may be challenging to differentiate from other gastrointestinal disorders and include anastomotic stricture, marginal ulceration, fistula formation, weight gain and nutritional deficiencies. We discuss the principles involved in the management of each complication and the timing of referral to specialist bariatric centres.
doi:10.1503/cjs.002011
PMCID: PMC3468646  PMID: 22854113
2.  Surgical Treatment of Retrograde Peristalsis Following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass 
Reverse peristaltic activity is a rare complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Symptoms may be nonspecific. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of complicated postoperative gastric bypass patients.
Background:
Retrograde Roux limb peristalsis following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a rare complication that can be difficult to identify. It may present as persistent nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or even gastrointestinal bleeding related to an anastomotic ulcer. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series is an important diagnostic modality to identify this motility disorder; however, it may not be readily identifiable without specific delayed imaging. The etiology of this phenomenon is unclear, but attributing factors include the presence of ectopic pacemaker cells, variable lengths of the Roux limb and misconstructions. When this problem is identified, revisional surgery is indicated.
Case Description:
A 51-y-old female with morbid obesity presented with persistent nausea and vomiting following a laparoscopic gastric bypass. A CT scan showed a dilated Roux limb. Reverse peristalsis from the jejunojejunostomy toward the gastric pouch was identified on a UGI. Two laparoscopic revisions of the jejunojunostomy were attempted to correct this dysfunction.
Discussion:
An attempt at widening and relaxing the anastomosis was unsuccessful at providing relief of symptoms. A second revision with an anastomosis between the Roux limb and common channel provided long-term improvement. Identifying complications of gastric bypass surgery can be challenging. Imaging studies may be limited, and often diagnostic and revisional surgery is indicated.
doi:10.4293/108680812X13462882736574
PMCID: PMC3535792  PMID: 23318076
Reverse peristalsis; Gastric bypass; Obstruction; Jejunojejunostomy
3.  Laparoscopic Repair of a Free Perforation of a Marginal Ulcer After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: a Safe Alternative to Open Exploration 
Objectives:
We present 2 patients with free perforation of the anterior wall of the Roux limb due to marginal ulceration after an antecolic laparoscopic gastric bypass and describe the surgical management and laparoscopic repair technique.
Methods:
A 15 mm Hg pneumoperitoneum was established with a Veress needle via the left subcostal approach in both patients. Entrance into the abdomen was achieved with the 5 mm Optiview blunt trocar. The Genzyme liver retractor was used to lift the left lobe of the liver and expose the gastrojejunal anastomosis. A 30° 5 mm telescope was used for visualization. In both cases, free fluid and purulent material were noted in the subdiaphragmatic region and along the right paracolic gutter, but the gastrojejunal anastomoses was intact.A1cm perforation with surrounding inflammatory exudate was identified on the anterior surface of the Roux limb distal to the gastrojejunostomy. The edges were debrided and intracorporeal 1-layer repair of the ulcer was performed with simple interrupted 2- 0 Vicryl sutures. Fibrin glue was applied to the suture line and covered with an omental onlay patch. The anastomosis was tested with air insufflation and methylene blue dye with no evidence of a leak. A Jackson-Pratt drain was placed in the left upper quadrant.
Results:
Both patients underwent an unremarkable hospital course, and follow-up EGD examination after 3 months revealed no evidence of ulceration.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic exploration and the repair of the gastrointestinal perforations in patients with a recent history of laparoscopic RYGBP is safe, if patients are hemodynamically stable and present within the first 24 hours of the onset of symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3015824  PMID: 17931525
RYGBP; EGD; Gastrointestinal perforations; Gastrojejunal anastomoses
4.  Early migration of fully covered double-layered metallic stents for post-gastric bypass anastomotic strictures 
INTRODUCTION
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is well recognized for its efficiency in morbidly obese patients. Anastomotic strictures present in 5–15% of cases and have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. Endoscopic balloon dilation is the recommended treatment but management of refractory cases is challenging.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
Two patients with anastomotic stenoses refractory to dilations were treated with fully covered esophageal stents. Both cases presented early stent migration. The first patient finally underwent surgical revision of the anastomosis. For the second patient, a double-layered stent was installed after the first incident. After the migration of this second stent, three sessions of intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide were performed. Both patients were free of obstructive symptoms at a follow-up of 9 months.
DISCUSSION
Treatment of post-gastric bypass strictures with stents is based on years of successful experience with endoscopic stenting of malignant esophageal strictures, gastric outlet obstruction in addition to anastomotic stenoses after esophageal cancer surgery. The actual prosthesis are however inadequate for the particularities of the LRYGB anastomosis with a high migration rate. Intralesional corticosteroid injection therapy has been reported to be beneficial in the management of refractory benign esophageal strictures and seems to have prevented recurrence of the stenosis in this post-LRYGB.
CONCLUSION
Stents are aimed at preventing a complex surgical reintervention but are not yet specifically designed for that indication. Local infiltration of corticosteroids at the time of dilation may prevent recurrence of the anastomotic stricture.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.03.022
PMCID: PMC3356525  PMID: 22516420
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; Anastomotic strictures; Endoscopy; Dilation; Stent; Triamcinolone acetonide
5.  Laparoscopic adjustable banded roux-en-y gastric bypass as a primary procedure for the super-super-obese (body mass index > 60 kg/m2) 
BMC Surgery  2010;10:33.
Background
Currently, there is no consensus opinion regarding the optimal procedure of choice in super-super-morbid obesity (Body mass index, BMI > 60 kg/m2). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is associated with failure to achieve or maintain 50% excess weight loss (EWL) or BMI < 35 in approximately 15% of patients. Also, percent EWL is significantly less after 1-year in the super-super-obese group as compared with the less obese group and many patients are still technically considered to be obese (lowest post-surgical BMI > 35) following RYGB surgery in this group. The addition of adjustable gastric band (AGB) to RYGB has been reported as a revisional procedure but this combined bariatric procedure has not been explored as a primary operation.
Methods
In a primary laparoscopic RYGB, an AGB is drawn around the gastric pouch through a small opening between the blood vessels on the lesser curve and the gastric pouch. The band is then fixed by suturing the gastric remnant to the gastric pouch both above and below the band to prevent slippage.
Results
Between November 2009 and March 2010, 6 consecutive super-super-obese patients underwent a primary laparoscopic adjustable banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure at our institution. One male patient (21 years, BMI 70 kg/m²) developed a pneumonia postoperatively. No other postoperative complications were observed.
Conclusion
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first series of patients that underwent a laparoscopic adjustable banded RYGB as a primary operation for the super-super obese in the indexed literature. With the combined procedure, a sequential action mechanism for weight loss is to be expected. The restrictive, malabsorptive and hormonal working mechanism of the RYGB will induce weight loss from the start reaching a stabilised plateau of weight after 12 - 18 months. At that time, filling of the band can be started resulting in further gastric pouch restriction and increased weight loss. Moreover, besides improving the results of total weight loss, a gradual filling of the band can as well prevent the RYGB patient from weight regain if restriction would fade away with time.
doi:10.1186/1471-2482-10-33
PMCID: PMC2992483  PMID: 21073750
6.  Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass 
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome caused by weight loss after gastric bypass surgery may be successfully treated with laparoscopic intestinal bypass procedures.
Background and Objectives:
As bariatric surgery becomes more widespread, atypical complications will be seen with more frequency. In this case series, we report on 3 cases of superior mesenteric artery syndrome after gastric bypass and the laparoscopic treatment.
Methods:
This is a case series of 3 patients who presented with the persistent postprandial symptoms of pain and nausea after gastric bypass, and through an extensive workup were eventually diagnosed with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. All 3 patients had dramatic weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypasses. Gastric remnant distention was not a consistent finding, but persistent postprandial nausea, epigastric pain, and computed tomographic findings of a narrowed angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta were consistently found. Two patients were treated with a laparoscopic gastroduodenal jejunostomy anastomosis, and one patient had a duodenojejunostomy, all with resolution of their symptoms.
Results:
A laparoscopic gastroduodenal (or duodeno-) jejunal bypass was performed in each case, which resolved the obstruction caused by the superior mesenteric artery syndrome.
Conclusions:
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome can be caused by the dramatic weight loss induced by a gastric bypass. This post weight loss surgery phenomenon may be far more prevalent and underdiagnosed than reported, and should be considered in all patients with greater than average weight loss at one year and who have persistent postprandial nausea and epigastric pain. This can be successfully treated by bypassing the obstruction, while maintaining the weight loss induced by the Roux-en-y gastric bypass.
doi:10.4293/108680810X12674612765542
PMCID: PMC3021290  PMID: 20412638
Superior mesenteric artery syndrome; Bariatric surgery
7.  Healing of Complicated Gastric Leaks in Bariatric Patients Using Endoscopic Clips 
The authors suggest that endoclip closure should be considered in stable patients with delayed presentation of foregut anastomotic leaks following bariatric surgery.
Introduction:
Endoscopists have used clipping devices to successfully close acute, iatrogenic perforations throughout the gastrointestinal tract. We applied this technology to our bariatric patients, who tend to present with a more delayed anastomotic leak, to determine whether these leaks and fistulae would also heal with endoclip application.
Case Description:
We describe a small series of 2 clinically stable bariatric patients who presented with postoperative anastomotic leaks who met criteria for nonoperative therapy. The first underwent a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and presented postoperatively with a leak at her gastrojejunal anastomosis. The location was not amenable to stent placement; therefore, 2 endoclips were placed. The leak was sealed by fluoroscopic examination 14 d later. The second had a reversal of a previous gastric bypass, creating a new gastrogastric anastomosis. A leak was found at this new connection postoperatively. After failure of a stent to seal the leak, 8 endoclips were used. This patient also had successful closure of her leak on fluoroscopy 14 d postprocedure.
Discussion:
Anastomotic leaks after bariatric surgery can incur severe morbidity, cost, and detriment to patients' quality of life. Unstable patients require operative intervention. Stable patients are candidates for more-conservative measures. Endoscopic stents have been successful in closing gastric leaks, though some are not anatomically amenable to stent placement, and stents also have the potential to migrate distally. We demonstrate 2 cases of successful closure of leaks in bariatric patients by using endoclips and suggest that this be considered an option in appropriate cases.
doi:10.4293/108680813X13693422521999
PMCID: PMC3771774  PMID: 24018092
Bariatrics; Anastomotic leak; Endoscopy instrumentation
8.  Delayed Massive Bleeding Two Years After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass 
Delayed massive bleeding from an ischemic ulcer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a rare and challenging event for the gastroenterologist as well as the bariatric surgeon.
Introduction:
Delayed massive bleeding from an ischemic ulcer is a complication after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Ischemic ulcers that present with massive bleeding are rare and challenging for the gastroenterologist as well as the bariatric surgeon.
Case Description:
This report reviews the case of a 63-year-old man who underwent an uncomplicated laparoscopic RYGB for morbid obesity and experienced two episodes of massive hemorrhage after the procedure, almost 1 year apart.
Conclusion:
To our knowledge, there are only a few such specific cases reported. Here, we describe the treatment and outcome for such a case and present a review of the literature.
doi:10.4293/108680813x13693422518470
PMCID: PMC3771773  PMID: 24018091
Roux-en Y gastric bypass; Bariatric surgery; Morbid obesity; Postoperative complications; Marginal ulcer; Anastomosis
9.  Reconstruction of short bowel syndrome after internal hernia in a pregnant woman with previous bariatric surgery☆ 
INTRODUCTION
Bariatric surgery is most often performed with the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A complication to the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is internal hernia, which occurs in up to 16% of the patients. Since the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is performed in women of fertile age, internal hernia may occur during pregnancy.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 22-year old woman with a history of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass suffered from massive internal hernia during pregnancy with widespread bowel necrosis. Extensive surgery was performed leaving the patient with an intact duodenum, 15 cm of jejunum, 35 cm of ileum and colon. Parenteral nutrition was initiated and ten months after the internal hernia, intestinal continuity was re-established. Ten weeks later the patient reached parenteral nutrition independence.
DISCUSSION
Internal hernia after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass can be difficult to diagnose, especially during pregnancy and might be severe and life threatening for both mother and child.
CONCLUSION
Obstetricians and abdominal surgeons must be aware of this condition. Surgery should be performed on a wide indication. When bowel necrosis is found it should be resected and in case of extensive bowel resection the patient should be evaluated in centres specialized in intestinal failure.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.08.025
PMCID: PMC3860043  PMID: 24240078
Internal hernia; Laparoscopic gastric bypass; Short bowel syndrome; Pregnancy
10.  Gastric Bypass and Abdominal Pain: Think of Petersen Hernia 
A “swirl sign” on computerized tomography is an indicator of internal herniation through Petersen’s space and should prompt immediate diagnostic laparoscopy in patients following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
Background:
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is one of the most commonly performed bariatric surgical procedures. A laparoscopic gastric bypass is associated with specific complications: internal herniation is one of these.
Case Report:
A 47-year-old woman had undergone a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) 18 months before presentation at our emergency department with mild abdominal complaints. Physical examination showed signs of an ileus in the absence of an acute abdomen. Laboratory investigations revealed no abnormalities (CRP 2.0 mg/L, white blood count 6.3 × 109/L). During admission, there was clinical deterioration on the third day. Emergency laparotomy was performed. An internal herniation through Petersen's space was found that strangulated and perforated the small bowel. A resection with primary anastomosis and closure of the defects was performed.
Conclusion:
Diagnosing an internal herniation through Petersen's space is difficult due to the nonspecific clinical presentation. The interpretation of the CT scan poses another diagnostic challenge. This sign is present in 74% of the cases with this herniation. A missed diagnosis of internal herniation may cause potentially serious complications. A patient with a gastric bypass who experiences intermittent abdominal complaints should undergo laparoscopy to rule out internal herniation.
doi:10.4293/108680812X13427982376581
PMCID: PMC3481246  PMID: 23477186
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; Peterson's space; Herniation; Laparoscopy
11.  Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma Arising in the Gastric Stump After Duodenopancreatectomy for Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas: A Case Report 
Clinical Medicine. Oncology  2008;2:109-112.
The development of malignancy in the gastric stump following surgery for peptic ulcer disease is well recognized. There are also few reports on carcinomas occurring after surgery for malignant gastric disease. However, carcinoma of the gastric stump after duodenopancreatectomy is extremely rare. We describe what we believe to be an unusual case of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the gastric stump developing at the anastomotic site 5 years after duodenopancreatectomy for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head. We performed remnant gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy as a curative resection. This experience clearly underlies that g astric stump carcinoma (GSC) may mimic metastatic disease recurrence leading to diagnostic confusion after surgery for malignancy. Although an increased risk of gastric stump carcinoma after pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic cancer has not been established, the possibility of such a complication should be kept in mind when evaluating patients after gastric resection who present with symptoms of metastatic disease recurrence years after the primary operation. Investigations should be independent of the entity of the primary disease or its localization, since GSC may well be amenable to surgical cure as demonstrated in the presented case. Outpatient follow up results of the last four years indicated no recurrence in this case.
PMCID: PMC3161654  PMID: 21892272
gastric stump carcinoma; peptic ulcer disease; pancreatic carcinoma
12.  Preoperative Upper Endoscopy is Useful Before Revisional Bariatric Surgery 
Background and Objectives:
We hypothesized that patients who have previously had bariatric surgery and are undergoing revision to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass would have abnormal findings detected by upper endoscopy that could potentially influence patient management. The procedures that are being revised include vertical banded gastroplasty, laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands, nonadjustable gastric bands and previous Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (open and laparoscopic).
Methods:
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who previously had undergone vertical banded gastroplasty or nonadjustable gastric banding. We preoperatively performed an upper endoscopy on all patients. The endoscopy reports were reviewed and the findings entered into a database.
Results:
Eighty-five percent of 46 patients undergoing revisional bariatric surgery had an abnormal upper endoscopy. Eleven percent had a gastrogastric fistula. Gastritis and esophagitis were noted in 65% and 37%, respectively. Eleven percent of patients had band erosion, 2 from a nonadjustable band, and 5 from vertical banded gastroplasties. Based on our findings, 65% of our patients required medical treatment.
Conclusions:
Preoperative upper endoscopy provides valuable information before revisional laparoscopic bariatric surgery. In addition to identifying patients who need preoperative medications, the preoperative upper endoscopy also provided valuable information regarding pouch size and anatomy. Preoperative upper endoscopy should be performed by the operating surgeon on every patient undergoing revisional bariatric surgery.
PMCID: PMC3015807  PMID: 17651565
Endoscopy; Bariatric surgery; Revisional surgery; Gastrogastric fistulae
13.  Endoscopic gastric pouch plication - a novel endoluminal incision free approach to revisional bariatric surgery 
10–40% of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients regain significant weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery due to dilation of the pouch and/or the gastrojejunal (GJ) anastomosis. Traditional revision surgery is associated with significant morbidity (e.g. post-anastomotic GJ leak) where less invasive endoluminal procedures may represent safer alternatives. The present article reports a case of the safe and successful use of endoluminal gastric pouch plication (EGPP) using the StomaphyX™ device to correct both a dilated gastric pouch and a dilated gastrojejunostomy in a post-RYGB patient who regained significant weight.
doi:10.1093/jscr/2010.2.1
PMCID: PMC3649082
14.  Catastrophic Bleeding From a Marginal Ulcer After Gastric Bypass 
The authors describe a case of life-threatening hemorrhagic marginal ulcer eroding into the splenic artery that required surgical intervention.
Marginal ulceration at the gastrojejunal anastomosis is a common complication following Roux-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Hemodynamically significant hemorrhagic marginal ulcers are usually treated either endoscopically or surgically. We describe a unique case of life-threatening hemorrhagic marginal ulcer eroding into the main splenic artery. This condition was initially managed with angiographic embolization, followed by surgical intervention.
doi:10.4293/108680812X13517013318274
PMCID: PMC3662735  PMID: 23743389
Marginal ulcer; Gastric bypass; Embolization; Morbid obesity
15.  Using the StomaphyXTM Endoplicator to Treat a Gastric Bypass Complication 
Rapid advances in endoluminal technology such as tissue placating devices offer an alternative for repair of some postbariatric surgical complications.
Background and Objectives:
As the number of bariatric operations performed increases, the number of patients requiring reoperation for failed weight loss is expected to proportionately increase. Natural orifice surgery is an alternative approach to revisional gastric bypass surgery when postoperative complications, such as dilatation of the gastrojejunostomy, gastrogastric fistula, and gastric pouch, dilation occur.
Methods:
The present article reports on the safe and successful use of an endoscopic tissue plicating device in a patient found to have a dilated gastric pouch and a gastrogastric fistula 12 years after an open, nondivided RYGB.
Results:
The procedure was performed without complications and resulted in a reduced pouch size to approximately 30cc to 50cc and redirection of the flow of gastric contents through her gastrojejunostomy. The patient's early satiety returned and, 1 year postoperatively, she had incurred a 45-pound weight loss.
Discussion:
The morbidity and mortality of revision gastric bypass was avoided while the patient's goal of moderate weight loss was achieved. Tissue plicating devices offer an alternative for repair of some postbariatric complications. With the rapid advances in endoluminal technology and increasing experience with natural orifice surgery, the ability to successfully address surgical problems through less invasive means will continue to improve.
doi:10.4293/108680811X13022985131570
PMCID: PMC3134684  PMID: 21902955
Bariatric surgery; Complications; Fistula; Endoscopy
16.  Role of Intraoperative Esophagogastroenteroscopy in Minimizing Gastrojejunostomy-Related Morbidity: Experience with 2,311 Laparoscopic Gastric Bypasses with Linear Stapler Anastomosis 
Obesity Surgery  2012;22(12):1928-1933.
Background
Anastomotic leaks and strictures of the gastrojejunostomy are a cause of major morbidity following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). Reported rates of leaks vary between 0 and 5.2 %. This has led bariatric surgeons to use a variety of intraoperative methods to detect incompetent suture lines. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of intraoperative endoscopy in reducing the rate of postoperative anastomotic complications. The setting of this study is in a community teaching hospital.
Methods
Medical records of 2,311 patients who underwent a LRYGB from 2002 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed utilizing the hospitals’ bariatric surgery database. Demographics, weight, body mass index, intraoperative endoscopy results, and postoperative outcomes within 90 days after surgery were analyzed.
Results
Endoscopy was attempted in 2,311 patients and completed in 2,308 (99.9 %). Intraoperative leak was detected in 80 (3.5 %) patients; suture line was reinforced in 46 patients (2 %), while in the other 34 patients the leak was transient at only high insufflation pressure. Postoperative clinical leaks were detected in four cases (0.2 %) two of which had initial leaks intraoperatively. In two cases, the anastomosis was too tight and required reconstruction. Twenty-five patients (1.1 %) developed early postoperative strictures requiring endoscopic dilatation within 90 days. Three patients (0.1 %) had iatrogenic injury at the time of intraoperative endoscopy, all three healed without delayed morbidity.
Conclusions
The routine use of intraoperative endoscopy in LRYGB with the linear stapler anastomosis technique is associated with a complication/failure rate of 0.3 % and low gastrojejunostomy-related morbidity after LRYGB within 90 days (leak rate of 0.2 % and stricture rate of 1.1 %).
doi:10.1007/s11695-012-0757-2
PMCID: PMC3505504  PMID: 22941393
Intraoperative esophagogastroenteroscopy; LRYGB; Gastrojejunostomy leak rate
17.  Safety and effectiveness of bariatric surgery: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is superior to gastric banding in the management of morbidly obese patients 
Background
The use of bariatric surgery in the management of morbid obesity is rapidly increasing. The two most frequently performed procedures are laparoscopic Roux-en-Y bypass and laparoscopic gastric banding. The objective of this short overview is to provide a critical appraisal of the most relevant scientific evidence comparing laparoscopic gastric banding versus laparoscopic Roux-en-Y bypass in the treatment of morbidly obese patients.
Results and discussion
There is mounting and convincing evidence that laparoscopic gastric banding is suboptimal at best in the management of morbid obesity. Although short-term morbidity is low and hospital length of stay is short, the rates of long-term complications and band removals are high, and failure to lose weight after laparoscopic gastric banding is prevalent.
Conclusion
The placement of a gastric band appears to be a disservice to many morbidly obese patients and therefore, in the current culture of evidence based medicine, the prevalent use of laparoscopic gastric banding can no longer be justified. Based on the current scientific literature, the laparoscopic gastric bypass should be considered the treatment of choice in the management of morbidly obese patients.
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-3-10
PMCID: PMC2698858  PMID: 19476654
18.  Duodeno-enteral omega switches – more physiological techniques in metabolic surgery 
Introduction
In bariatric surgery, still new surgical techniques are developed. On the one hand, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is one of the most common procedures used. However, many patients experience dumping syndrome or pain due to bile reflux. On the other hand, revisions after gastric banding are frequent and may be technically challenging.
Aim
To create a new bariatric procedure counterbalancing the drawbacks of conventional RYGB, also suitable as a redo option after gastric banding.
Material and methods
To diminish the complication rate and pathophysiological disadvantages in reoperations after gastric banding, we primarily combined a gastric plication (GP) with a single anastomosis duodeno-ileal omega switch (DIOS), bypassing 2/3 of the total bowel length. Further on, in patients with lower body mass index we combined a GP or LSG and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with a duodeno-jejunal omega switch (DJOS), performing an end-to side anastomosis after 1/3 of the total bowel length.
Results
The DIOS and DJOS techniques restrict food intake and bypass the duodenum and part (DJOS) or the whole (DIOS) jejunum. Restriction is achieved either through gastric plicature or conventional sleeve gastrectomy.
Conclusions
Similar bariatric and metabolic effects to proximal RYGB are expected in the case of DJOS, or to a conventional duodenal switch when performing a DIOS procedure. Performing a gastric plicature will reduce the risk of gastric leak when revising patients after failed gastric banding.
doi:10.5114/wiitm.2013.39647
PMCID: PMC3908648  PMID: 24501596
gastric plication; SADI-S; bariatric surgery; laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; biliopancreatic diversion
19.  Endoscopic Management of Drain Inclusion in the Gastric Pouch after Gastrojejunal Leakage after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for the Treatment of Morbid Obesity (LRYGBP) 
Background. Drain inclusion inside the gastric pouch is rare and can represent an important source of morbidity and mortality associated with laparocopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). These leaks can become chronic and challenging. Surgical options are often unsuccessful. We present the endoscopic management of four patients with drain inclusion. Patients. All four obese morbidly patients underwent LRYGBP and presented a gastro-jejunal fistula after acute anastomotic leakage. During follow-up endoscopy the drain was found inside the gastric pouch. It was moved into the abdominal cavity. Fistula debit reduced significantly and closed. Results. Gastric leak closure in less than 24 hours was achieved in all, with complete resolution of symptoms. These patients benefited exclusively from endoscopic treatment. Conclusions. Endoscopy is useful and technically feasible in chronic fistulas. This procedure is a less invasive alternative to traditional surgical revision. Other therapeutic strategies can be used such as clips and fibrin glue. Drains should not be placed in contact with the anastomosis or stapled lines. Drain inclusion must be suspected when fistula debit suddenly arises. If so, endoscopy is indicated for diagnostic accuracy. Under endoscopy vision, the drain is gently removed from the gastric reservoir leading to sudden and complete resolution of the fistula.
doi:10.1155/2010/891345
PMCID: PMC2903945  PMID: 20634928
20.  Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Developing after Eradication of Helicobacter pylori 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2011;5(2):355-360.
A 75-year-old man underwent endoscopic hemostatic therapy for hemorrhagic gastric ulcer in September 2002. After healing of the gastric ulcer, he underwent Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in February 2003. In August 2007, an irregular tumor was detected in the lower esophagus at annual checkup for gastric cancer screening using X-ray. Endoscopic examination showed that the lower margin of the tumor almost coincided with the esophagogastric junction and that a short segment of Barrett's epithelium existed near the tumor. Biopsies of the tumor showed moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Mild reflux esophagitis and minor hiatal hernia was also observed, and the previously treated gastric ulcer was not recurrent. Absence of H. pylori was confirmed by serum antibody and urea breath test. Surgical resection of the lower esophagus and proximal stomach was performed. The tumor invaded into the muscularis propria of the esophageal wall but had no evidence of lymph node metastasis. Based on macroscopic and pathological findings, the tumor was recognized as esophageal adenocarcinoma. Previous endoscopic examination did not detect any apparent signs of tumor in the esophagogastric junction. As far as we know, this is the first report documenting a newly developed esophageal adenocarcinoma after the successful eradication of H. pylori.
doi:10.1159/000329878
PMCID: PMC3134058  PMID: 21769287
Helicobacter pylori eradication; Esophageal adenocarcinoma
21.  Petersen's space hernia: A rare but expanding diagnosis 
Background
Petersen's space hernia is caused by the herniation of intestinal loops through the defect between the small bowel limbs, the transverse mesocolon and the retroperitoneum, after any type of gastrojejunostomy. The laparoscopic approach facilitates the occurrence of this type of hernia, due to the lack of post-operative adhesions which prevent bowel motility and hence, herniation.
Case report
We report the case of a 46 year-old male submitted to an open antrectomy and vagotomy with a Roux-en-Y reconstruction six-years before, for the treatment of bleeding gastric ulcer.He presented with epigastric abdominal pain radiating to the back and alimentary vomiting with a 3 days evolution, with an episode of hematemesis 2 h before admission. His abdomen was bloated and tender at the epigastric region. The laboratory exams revealed mild leucocytosis and CRP elevation with normal pancreatic tests. The abdominal CT scan revealed an intestinal occlusion. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, disclosing an incarcerated Petersen space hernia of the common limb, with obstruction and dilatation of the biliary limb.
Conclusion
The knowledge of this anatomic post-operative defect and a low threshold for diagnosis are crucial to its management, since its nonspecific clinical and laboratory findings. Early operative intervention is warranted in order to avoid the severe complications of bowel necrosis.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2011.03.004
PMCID: PMC3199621  PMID: 22096708
Gastrectomy; Roux-en-Y; Hernia; Intestinal obstruction
22.  Caution in using a unique technique of banded revision gastric bypass: Successful endosopic and surgical management of a rare complication 
INTRODUCTION
Revision surgery is increasingly performed as result of the increase in primary bariatric procedures. We describe a new technique of revision Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) acombining stapled gastroenterostomy with fixed band placement. We report two cases of unique complications and its successful endoscopic and surgical management.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
Two out of twenty patients undergoing this revision RYGB procedure presented with gastric outlet obstruction due to band erosion within 10 weeks. Endoscopic band retrieval was successful in the first patient but the second patient required surgical removal.
DISCUSSION
We report the new complication of band erosion in 10% patients using a unique revision RYGB technique combining restriction of the gastric outlet and band placement. We advise using one or the other technique but not both in combination. Surgeons need to be aware of this as erosion which occurs early due to close proximity of band with fresh staple line. We report successful endoscopic and surgical management.
CONCLUSION
Revision surgery using this technique predisposes to bande erosion, presenting as gastric outlet obstruction. Endoscopic management should be attempted prior to surgical removal.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.02.020
PMCID: PMC3650256  PMID: 23624361
Revision bypass surgery; Morbid obesity; Banded bypass; Complications
23.  Frequent loss of RUNX3 gene expression in remnant stomach cancer and adjacent mucosa with special reference to topography 
British Journal of Cancer  2005;92(3):562-569.
Our previous studies suggest that a lack of RUNX3 function is causally related to the genesis and progression of human gastric cancer. This study was conducted to determine whether alteration of RUNX3 gene expression could be detected in the normal-looking gastric remnant mucosa, and to ascertain any difference in the potential of gastric carcinogenesis between the anastomotic site and other areas in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for peptic ulcer (RB group) or gastric cancer (RM group), by analysing RUNX3 expression with special reference to topography. A total of 89 patients underwent distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer from the intact stomach (GCI group) and 58 patients underwent resection of the remnant stomach for gastric cancer (RB group: 34 cases, RM group: 24 cases). We detected RUNX3 and gene promoter methylation by in situ hybridisation, quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), and methylation-specific PCR. The interval between the initial surgery and surgery for remnant gastric cancer (interval time) was 10.4 years in the RM group, and 27.5 years in the RB group. Cancers in the RB group were significantly more predominant in the anastomosis area (P<0.05). Within the tumour, downregulation of RUNX3 expression ranged from 74.7 to 85.7% in the three groups. The rate of downregulation of RUNX3 of adjacent mucosa was 39.2% (11 in 28 cases) in RB and 47.6% (10 in 21 cases) in RM, which are significantly higher than that of the GCI group (19.5%, 17 in 87 cases). In noncancerous mucosa of the remnant stomach in the RB group, RUNX3 expression decreased more near the anastomosis area. In the RM group, however, there were no significant differences in RUNX3 expression by sampling location. Based on RUNX3 downregulation and clinical features, residual stomach mucosa of the RM group would have a higher potential of gastric carcinogenesis compared to the RB or GCI group. Gastric stump mucosa of the RB group has higher potential especially than other areas of residual stomach mucosa. Measurement of RUNX3 expression and detection of RUNX3 methylation in remnant gastric mucosa may estimate the forward risk of carcinogenesis in the remnant stomach.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602372
PMCID: PMC2362072  PMID: 15685235
RUNX3; carcinogenesis; remnant stomach cancer
24.  Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity 
Surgery is currently the only effective treatment for morbid obesity. The two most commonly accepted operations are the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and vertical banded gastroplasty. Although multiple authors have reported on a laparoscopic approach to gastric banding, the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a complex operation to be replicated using laparoscopic techniques. In this article, we describe our technique of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass using a laparoscopic approach in four cases.
PMCID: PMC3113154  PMID: 10527330
Laparoscopy; Obesity; Gastric bypass; Weight reduction
25.  Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome and Weight Loss: Review 
Sleep Disorders  2012;2012:163296.
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome is common, and obesity is a major risk factor. Increased peripharyngeal and central adiposity result in increased pharyngeal collapsibility, through increased mechanical loading around the upper airway, reduced tracheal traction on the pharynx, and reduced neuromuscular activity, particularly during sleep. Significant and sustained weight loss, if achieved, is likely to be a useful therapeutic option in the management of OSA and may be attempted by behavioural, pharmacological, and surgical approaches. Behavioural therapy programs that focus on aspects such as dietary intervention, exercise prescription patients and general lifestyle counselling have been tested. Bariatric surgery is an option in the severely obese when nonsurgical measures have failed, and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are the most commonly employed techniques in the United Kingdom. Most evidence for efficacy of surgery comes from cohort studies. The role of sibutramine in OSA in the obese patients has been investigated, however, there are concerns regarding associated cardiovascular risk. In this paper the links between obesity and OSA are discussed, and the recent studies evaluating the behavioural, pharmacological and surgical approaches to weight loss in OSA are reviewed.
doi:10.1155/2012/163296
PMCID: PMC3581237  PMID: 23471145

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