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1.  Midline Submental Orotracheal Intubation in Maxillofacial Injuries: A Substitute to Tracheostomy Where Postoperative Mechanical Ventilation is not Required 
Background:
Maxillofacial fractures present unique airway problems to the anaesthesiologist. Nasotracheal intubation is contraindicated due to associated Lefort I, II or III fractures. The requirement for intraoperative maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) to re-establish dental occlusion in such cases precludes orotracheal intubation. Tracheostomy has a high complication rate and in many patients, an alternative to the oral airway is not required beyond the perioperative period. Hernandez1 in 1986 first described “The submental route for endotracheal intubation”. Later some workers faced difficult tube passage, bleeding, and sublingual gland involvement with this approach. They modified this to strict midline submental intubation and there were no operative or postoperative complications in their cases.67&8. Therefore we used mid line approach for submental orotracheal intubation in this study to demonstrate its feasibility and reliability and that it can be used as an excellent substitute to short term tracheostomy.
Patients & Methods:
We used midline submental intubation in 25 cases selected out of 310 consecutively treated patients with maxillofacial trauma over a 3 year period. After induction orotracheal intubation was done with spiral re-inforced tube. A 1.5-2.0 cm skin incision was made in the submental region in the midline 2.0 cm behind the symphysis and endotracheal tube was taken out through this incision in all the cases. At the end of the surgery the procedure was reversed, the submental wound was stitched; all the patients could be extubated & none of them required post-operative mechanical ventilation.
Conclusion:
There were no significant operative or postoperative complications. Postoperative submental scarring was acceptable[6]. We conclude that midline submental intubation is a simple and useful technique with low morbidity. It can be chosen in selected cases of maxillofacial trauma and is an excellent substitute to tracheostomy where postoperative mechanical ventilation is not required.
PMCID: PMC3087271  PMID: 21547178
Submental orotracheal intubation; Maxillofacial injury; Tracheostomy
2.  Submental intubation in patients with panfacial fractures: A prospective study 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2011;55(3):299-304.
Submental intubation is an interesting alternative to tracheostomy, especially when short-term postoperative control of airway is desirable with the presence of undisturbed access to oral as well as nasal airways and a good dental occlusion. Submental intubation with midline incision has been used in 10 cases from October 2008 to March 2010 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore. All patients had fractures of the jaws disturbing the dental occlusion associated with fracture of the base of the skull, or/and a displaced nasal bone fracture. After standard orotracheal intubation, a passage was created by blunt dissection with a haemostat clamp through the floor of the mouth in the submental area. The proximal end of the orotracheal tube was pulled through the submental incision. Surgery was completed without interference from the endotracheal tube. At the end of surgery, the tube was pulled back to the usual oral route. There were no perioperative complications related to the submental intubation procedure. Average duration of the procedure was less than 6 minutes. Submental intubation is a simple technique associated with low rates of morbidity. It is an attractive alternative to tracheotomy in the surgical management of selected cases of panfacial trauma.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.82685
PMCID: PMC3141161  PMID: 21808409
Airway management; panfacial fractures; submental intubation
3.  Airway Management in Maxillofacial Trauma: Do We Really Need Tracheostomy/Submental Intubation 
Background: There are various techniques available for airway management in patients with maxillofacial trauma. Patients with panfacial injuries may need surgical airway access like submental intubation or tracheostomy, which have their associated problems. We have been managing these types of cases by a novel technique, i.e, intraoperative change of nasotracheal to orotracheal intubation.
Aim: To review our experience about various techniques for the airway management in patient with maxillofacial trauma. To analyse the possibility of using nasotracheal intubation and intraoperative change of nasotracheal to orotracheal intubation in panfacial fractures.
Materials and Methods: In a tertiary care centre four hundred eighty seven patients of maxillofacial injuries, operated over a period of 2 years were reviewed in relation to age, sex, mode of injury, type of facial fractures, methods of airway management and their associated complications.
Results: Young patients with male predominance is the most common affected population. Panfacial fracture is the most common type of injury (39.83%) among facial fractures. Airway was managed with intraoperative change of nasotracheal to orotracheal intubation in 33.05% of the patients whereas submental intubation or tracheostomy was done in 8.62% of the patients.
Conclusion: Nasal route for endotracheal intubation is not a contraindication in the presence of nasal fractures, base of skull fractures and CSF leak. By changing the nasotracheal intubation to orotracheal intubation intraoperatively in cases panfacial fractures, most of the tracheostomies and submental intubations can be avoided.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/7861.4112
PMCID: PMC4003693  PMID: 24783087
Maxillofacial trauma; Airway management; Naso-tracheal intubation; Oro-tracheal intubation
4.  Submental Intubation with Reinforced Tube for Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2005;46(4):571-574.
Submental endotracheal intubation is a simple and secure alternative to either nasoendotracheal intubation or a tracheostomy in the airway management of maxillofacial trauma. However, a submental endotracheal intubation is quite difficult to manage if adverse events such as a tube obstruction, accidental extubation, or a leaking cuff with the endotracheal tube in the submental route occur, which could endanger the patient. This paper describes the use of a LMA-Fastrach™ETT in the submental endotracheal intubation of patients suffering from maxillofacial trauma. One of the patients was a 16-year-old male, and the other was a 19-year-old male. They were scheduled for an open reduction and internal fixation of the maxillofacial fracture including naso-orbital-ethmoidal (NOE) complex, and a zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture. A submental intubation with a LMA-Fastrach™ETT was performed in both cases, and the operation proceeded without any difficulties. These cases show that the use of the LMA-Fastrach™ETT can improve the safety and efficacy of submental endotracheal intubation. This is because the LMA-Fastrach™ETT has a freely detachable connector, and is flexible enough to keep the patency despite the acute angle of airway.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2005.46.4.571
PMCID: PMC2815845  PMID: 16127785
LMA-Fastrach™ETT; maxillofacial trauma; submental intubation
5.  Submental tracheal intubation in oromaxillofacial surgery 
Background:
Oromaxillofacial surgical procedures present a unique set of problems both for the surgeon and for the anesthesist. Achieving dental occlusion is one of the fundamental aims of most oromaxillofacial procedures. Oral intubation precludes this surgical prerequisite of checking dental occlusion. Having the tube in the field of surgery is often disturbing for the surgeon too, especially in the patient for whom skull base surgery is planned. Nasotracheal intubation is usually contraindicated in the presence of nasal bone fractures seen either in isolation or as a component of Le Fort fractures. We utilized submental endotracheal intubation in such situations and the experience has been very satisfying.
Materials and Methods:
The technique has been used in 20 patients with maxillofacial injuries and those requiring Le Fort I approach with or without maxillary swing for skull base tumors. Initial oral intubation is done with a flexo-metallic tube. A small 1.5 cm incision is given in the submental region and a blunt tunnel is created in the floor of the mouth staying close to the lingual surface of mandible and a small opening is made in the mucosa. The tracheal end of tube is stabilized with Magil′s forceps, and the proximal end is brought out through submental incision by using a blunt hemostat taking care not to injure the pilot balloon. At the end of procedure extubation is done through submental location only.
Results:
The technique of submental intubation was used in a series of twenty patients from January 2005 to date. There were fifteen male patients and five female patients with a mean age of twenty seven years (range 10 to 52). Seven patients had Le Fort I osteotomy as part of the approach for skull base surgery. Twelve patients had midfacial fractures at the Le Fort II level, of which 8 patients in addition had naso-ethomoidal fractures and 10 patients an associated fracture mandible. Twelve patients were extubated in the theatre. Eight patients had delayed extubation in the post-operative ward between 1 and 3 days postoperatively.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, the submental intubation technique has proved to be a simple solution for many a difficult problem one would encounter during oromaxillofacial surgical procedures. It provides a safe and reliable route for the endotracheal tube during intubation while staying clear of the surgical field and permitting the checking of the dental occlusion, all without causing any significant morbidity for the patient. Its usefulness both in the emergency setting and for elective procedures has been proved. The simplicity of the technique with no specialized equipment or technical expertise required makes it especially advantageous. This technique therefore, when used in appropriate cases, allows both the surgeon and the anesthetist deliver a better quality of patient care.
doi:10.4103/0970-0358.41105
PMCID: PMC2739561  PMID: 19753195
Avoiding tracheostomy; oromaxillofacial surgery; intubation
6.  Current Perspectives in Intra Operative Airway Management in Maxillofacial Trauma 
Objective
Maxillofacial trauma presents a complex problem due to the disruption of normal anatomy. In such cases, we anticipate a difficult oral intubation that may hinder intraoperative IMF. Nasal and skull base fractures do not advocate use of nasotracheal intubation. Hence, other anesthetic techniques should be considered in management of maxillofacial trauma patients with occlusal derangement and nasal deformity. This study evaluates the indications and outcomes of anesthetic management by retromolar, nasal, submental intubation and tracheostomy.
Methodology
Of the 49 maxillofacial trauma cases reviewed, that required intraoperative IMF, 32 underwent nasal intubation, 9 patients had tracheostomy, 5 patients utilized submental approach and 3 underwent retromolar intubation.
Results
Among patients who underwent nasal intubation, eight cases needed fiberoptic assistance. In retromolar approach, though no complication was encountered, constant monitoring was mandatory to avoid risk of tube displacement. Consequently, submental intubation required a surgical procedure which could result in a cosmetically acceptable scar. Though invasive, tracheostomy has its benefits for long term ventilation.
Conclusion
Intubation of any form performed in a maxillofacial trauma patient is complex and requires both sound judgement and considerable experience.
doi:10.1007/s12663-011-0316-8
PMCID: PMC3386414  PMID: 23730059
Maxillofacial trauma; Nasal intubation; Submental intubation; Retromolar technique; Tracheostomy; Intermaxillary fixation
7.  A novel method using Seldinger's technique for submental intubation in major craniomaxillofacial fractures: A case series 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2014;58(1):48-50.
Airway management is a challenge to anesthesiologists particularly in maxillofacial surgeries. The oral tracheal tube is unsuitable because it interferes with the surgical field and prevents dental occlusion. Nasotracheal intubation may not always be possible due to structural deformity or trauma to the nasal bones. Tracheostomy and submental intubation have their drawbacks. To overcome these shortcomings we used Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy Kit (PDTK) to modify the technique of submental intubation. Serial dilatations were performed over the guide wire before passing the tracheal tube by submental route, using the PDT kit in four patients. Submental intubation could be achieved in all the four cases with this technique and there were no associated complications. Seldinger's technique is a simple and easy technique with minimal bleeding, imperceptible scar, and more importantly anesthesiologists feel more comfortable because of their familiarity with the Seldinger technique.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.126795
PMCID: PMC3968651  PMID: 24700899
Maxillofacial surgeries; percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy kit; seldinger's technique
8.  Submental orotracheal intubation: Our experience and review 
Introduction:
In maxillofacial injuries, a choice has often to be made between different ways of intubation when surgical access to fractured nasal bone and simultaneous establishment of occlusion are required. We report our experience with submental intubation in the airway management of complex maxillofacial trauma patients.
Aims:
To evaluate the outcome of airway management in patients with complex maxillofacial fracture by submental intubation, time required for intubation, accidental extubation, postoperative complications, and to discuss indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages of submental intubation.
Settings and Design:
A retrospective study is designed.
Materials and Methods:
The medical records of seven patients who underwent submental intubation from December 2008 to June 2010 were reviewed and no statistical analysis was used.
Results:
At the end of the procedure all seven patients were extubated without any complications. Postoperatively only one patient presented with superficial infection of the submental wound.
Conclusions:
Submental endotracheal intubation is a simple technique with very low morbidity and can be used as an alternative to tracheostomy in selected cases of maxillofacial trauma.
doi:10.4103/2231-0746.83154
PMCID: PMC3591038  PMID: 23482892
Panfacial trauma; submental orotracheal intubation; tracheostomy; transmylohyoid intubation
9.  Submental intubation: our experience 
Introduction
Airway management for patients who suffered midfacial fractures is complicated. In maxillofacial injuries, a choice has often to be made between different ways of intubation when surgical access to both the nasal and oral cavities is necessary. Submental intubation technique is an alternative to nasoendotracheal intubation and tracheostomy in the management of patients with severe midfacial fractures. This procedure is simple to do and has a low morbidity.
Material
Submental intubation-paramedian technique has been used in 15 cases from May 2005–April 2007 in Hosmat Hospital, Bangalore. All patients had fractures disturbing the dental occlusion plus either an associated fracture of the skull base or a displaced nasal fracture.
Results
Average duration of procedure was 7 minutes. Average duration of tube in vitro after surgery was 20 hours. There were 2 postoperative complications of tube obstruction which were successfully managed.
Conclusion
Submental intubation demands certain technical skills but it is simple, rapid and may avoid tracheostomy in selected patients.
doi:10.1007/s12663-010-0018-7
PMCID: PMC3453707  PMID: 23139571
Midfacial fractures; Submental intubation; Maxillofacial injuries
10.  Submental Orotracheal Intubation: An Alternative to Tracheotomy in Transfacial Cranial Base Surgery 
Skull Base  2003;13(4):189-195.
ABSTRACT
This retrospective study evaluated the safety and efficacy of submental intubation not only for trauma treatment but also for oncological cranial base surgery. The medical records of 24 patients who underwent submental intubation from 1996 to 2002 were reviewed. There were 6 procedures for craniofacial trauma, 12 transmaxillary approaches to the clivus for clivus chordomas, and 6 transmaxillary approaches to the cranial base for chondrosarcomas. Time required for intubation, accidental extubation, postoperative complications, and the healing of intraoral and submental scars were evaluated. The submental orotracheal intubation was completed successfully in all patients. No accidental extubations or tube injuries occurred. The mean time required for intubation was 5 minutes. The only complication was one case of superficial infection of the submental wound. The intraoral and submental accesses healed with minimal scarring in all patients. Submental orotracheal intubation is a useful and safe technique for airway management of craniomaxillofacial traumas and during transfacial approaches to the cranial base. It avoids the complications associated with tracheostomy. It also permits considerable downward retraction of the maxilla after a Le Fort I osteotomy and is associated with good clival exposure. Furthermore, it does not interfere with maxillomandibular fixation at the end of the surgery.
doi:10.1055/s-2004-817694
PMCID: PMC1131851  PMID: 15912177
Intubation; submental intubation; chordoma
11.  Submental intubation: An alternative to tracheostomy when nasoendotracheal intubation is unsuccessful – A case report 
Submental intubation (SI) has been proposed as an alternative to nasoendotracheal intubation when oral endotracheal intubation is contraindicated. In patients who require intubation for maxillofacial reconstruction, this is an alternative to a traditional tracheostomy. The present case report presents an 18-year-old woman who suffered a comminuted mandibular fracture. Two days after her accident, she was taken to the operating room for open reduction with internal fixation of her mandible; however, the anesthesia staff was unable to nasally intubate the patient. A SI was performed. The procedure was completed without complications and the surgery accomplished with the SI. The patient was able to avoid a tracheostomy for an isolated operation. SI avoids the dangers of nasoendotracheal intubation in patients with midfacial fractures and avoids complications related to tracheostomy. Thus, SI may serve as an alternative to tracheostomy in patients without other medical conditions and indications for long-term intubation.
PMCID: PMC2827288  PMID: 21119832
Facial fractures; Maxillomandibular fixation; Maxillofacial reconstruction; Submental intubation
12.  Submental intubation: A journey over the last 25 years 
Airway management in patients with faciomaxillary injuries is challenging due to disruption of components of upper airway. The anesthesiologist has to share the airway with the surgeons. Oral and nasal routes for intubation are often not feasible. Most patients have associated nasal fractures, which precludes use of nasal route of intubation. Intermittent intraoperative dental occlusion is needed to check alignment of the fracture fragments, which contraindicates the use of orotracheal intubation. Tracheostomy in such situations is conventional and time-tested; however, it has life-threatening complications, it needs special postoperative care, lengthens hospital stay, and adds to expenses. Retromolar intubation may be an option, But the retromolar space may not be adequate in all adult patients. Submental intubation provides intraoperative airway control, avoids use of oral and nasal route, with minimal complications. Submental intubation allows intraoperative dental occlusion and is an acceptable option, especially when long-term postoperative ventilation is not planned. This technique has minimal complications and has better patients’ and surgeons’ acceptability. There have been several modifications of this technique with an expectation of an improved outcome. The limitations are longer time for preparation, inability to maintain long-term postoperative ventilation and unfamiliarity of the technique itself. The technique is an acceptable alternative to tracheostomy for the good per-operative airway access.
doi:10.4103/0970-9185.98320
PMCID: PMC3409936  PMID: 22869933
Adult; intubation; intratracheal methods; maxillofacial injuries/surgery; oral/methods; surgery
13.  Airway management in patients with maxillofacial trauma – A retrospective study of 177 cases 
Background:
Airway management in maxillofacial injuries presents with a unique set of problems. Compromised airway is still a challenge to the anesthesiologist in spite of all modalities available. Maxillofacial injuries are the result of high-velocity trauma arising from road traffic accidents, sport injuries, falls and gunshot wounds. Any flaw in airway management may lead to grave morbidity and mortality in prehospital or hospital settings and as well as for reconstruction of fractures subsequently.
Methods:
One hundred and seventy-seven patients of maxillofacial injuries, operated over a period of one and half years during July 2008 to December 2009 in Al-Nahdha hospital were reviewed. All patients were reviewed in depth with age related type of injury, etiology and techniques of difficult airway management.
Results:
The major etiology of injuries were road traffic accidents (67%) followed by sport (15%) and fall (15%). Majority of patients were young in the age group of 11-30 years (71 %). Fracture mandible (53%) was the most common injury, followed by fracture maxilla (21%), fracture zygoma (19%) and pan-facial fractures (6%). Maxillofacial injuries compromise mask ventilation and difficult airway due to facial fractures, tissue edema and deranged anatomy. Shared airway with the surgeon needs special attention due to restrictions imposed during surgery. Several methods available for securing the airway, both decision-making and performance, are important in such circumstances. Airway secured by nasal intubation with direct visualization of vocal cords was the most common (57%), followed by oral intubation (17%). Other methods like tracheostomy and blind nasal intubation was avoided by fiberoptic bronchoscopic nasal intubation in 26% of patients.
Conclusion:
The results of this study indicated that surgically securing the airway by tracheostomy should be revised compared to other available methods. In the era of rigid fixation of fractures and the possibility of leaving the patient without wiring an open mouth and alternative techniques like fiberoptic bronchoscopic intubation, it is unnecessary to carry out tracheostomy for securing the airway as frequently as in the past.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.76476
PMCID: PMC3101764  PMID: 21655009
Difficult airway; fiberoptic bronchoscopic intubation; maxillofacial injuries; tracheostomy
14.  Early tracheostomy in closed head injuries: experience at a tertiary center in a developing country – a prospective study 
Background
An important factor contributing to the high mortality in patients with severe head trauma is cerebral hypoxia. The mechanical ventilation helps both by reduction in the intracranial pressure and hypoxia. Ventilatory support is also required in these patients because of patient's inability to protect the airway, persistence of excessive secretions, and inadequacy of spontaneous ventilation. Prolonged endotracheal intubation is however associated with trauma to the larynx, trachea, and patient discomfort in addition to requirement of sedatives. Tracheostomy has been found to play an integral role in the airway management of such patients, but its timing remains subject to considerable practice variation. In a developing country like India where the intensive care facilities are scarce and rarely available, these critical patients have to be managed in high dependency cubicles in the ward, often with inadequately trained nursing staff and equipment to monitor them. An early tracheostomy in the selected group of patients based on Glasgow Coma Score(GCS) may prove to be life saving.Against this background a prospective study was contemplated to assess the role of early tracheostomy in patients with isolated closed head injury.
Methods
The series consisted of a cohort of 50 patients admitted to the surgical emergency with isolated closed head injury, that were not considered for surgery by the neuro-surgeon or shifted to ICU, but had GCS score of less than 8 and SAPS II score of more than 50. First 50 case records from January 2001 that fulfilled the criteria constituted the control group. The patients were managed as per ATLS protocol and intubated if required at any time before decision to perform tracheostomy was taken. These patients were serially assessed for GCS (worst score of the day as calculated by senior surgical resident) and SAPS scores till day 15 to chart any changes in their status of head injuries and predictive mortality. Those patients who continued to have a GCS score of <8 and SAPS score of >50 for more than 24 hours (to rule out concussion or recovery) underwent tracheostomy.
All these patients were finally assessed for mortality rate and hospital stay, the statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS10 version.
The final outcome (in terms of mortality) was analyzed utilizing chi-square test and p value <0.05 was considered significant.
Results
At admission both tracheostomy and non-tracheostomy groups were matched with respect to GCS score and SAPS score.
The average day of tracheostomy was 2.18 ± 1.0038 days.
The GCS scores on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 between tracheostomy and non-tracheostomized group were comparable. However the difference in the GCS scores was statistically significant on day 15 being higher in the tracheostomy group.Thus early tracheostomy was observed to improve the mortality rate significantly in patients with isolated closed head injury
Conclusion
It may be concluded that early tracheostomy is beneficial in patients with isolated closed head injury which is severe enough to affect systemic physiological parameters, in terms of decreased mortality and intubation associated complications in centers where ICU care is not readily available. Also, in a selected group of patients, early tracheostomy may do away with the need for prolonged mechanical ventilation.
doi:10.1186/1471-227X-5-8
PMCID: PMC1266359  PMID: 16236181
15.  Submental Intubation in Maxillofacial Trauma Patients 
Introduction:
To describe a modified technique for submental intubation in severely traumatized maxillofacial patients and to evaluate complications arising from the procedure.
Materials and Methods:
Submental intubation was performed in twelve patients with maxillofacial trauma ,from 2007-2012, which were operated under general anesthesia for treatment of facial fractures.
Results:
The patients ranged in age from 14 to 39 years. No complications due to submental intubation, such as infection, hypertrophic scarring, lingual nerve injury, hematoma, bleeding, ranula formation, or orocutaneous fistula, were observed following submental intubation.
Conclusion:
Submental intubation is a very useful technique in the management of maxillofacial trauma patients, with a low complication rate.
PMCID: PMC3846236  PMID: 24303414
Intubation; Jaw fracture; Submental
16.  AB 63. Management of complex benign post-tracheostomy tracheal stenosis with bronchoscopic insertion of silicon tracheal stents, in patients with failed or contraindicated surgical reconstruction of trachea 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):AB63.
Background
Tracheal stenosis is a potentially life-threatening condition. Tracheostomy and endotracheal intubation remain the commonest causes of benign stenosis, despite improvements in design and management of tubes. Post-tracheostomy stenosis is more frequently encountered due to earlier performance of tracheostomy in intensive care units, while the incidence of post-intubation stenosis has decreased with application of high-volume low-pressure cuffs. We present tracheal stenting in complex post-tracheostomy stenoses.
Patients and methods
We inserted tracheal silicone stents (Dumon) under general anaesthesia through rigid bronchoscopy in two patients with benign post-tracheostomy stenoses: a 39-year old woman treated for acute respiratory failure (dyspnoea, hemoptysis, alveolar bleeding, attributed to seronegative lung vasculitis) who initially underwent surgical resection and end-to-end anastomosis, but developed restenosis (anastomotic granulation/scarring), and suffered continuous relapses after multiple bronchoscopic interventions, underwent silicone stenting (length 4.5 cm, diameter 12 mm). A 20-year old man treated for severe head trauma after a car accident developed a long tracheal stricture involving the subglottic larynx (lower posterior part), having inflamed tracheostomy site tissues (positive for methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus), underwent silicone stenting (length 7 cm, diameter 14 mm).
Results
The airway was immediately re-establish, without complications (tracheal rupture/pneumomediastinum, bleeding). At 15 and 10 months follow-up (respectively) there was no stent migration, luminal patency was maintained without: adjacent structure erosion, secretion adherence inside the stents, granulation at the ends. Tracheostomy tissue inflammation was resolved (2nd patient), new infection was not noted. The patients maintain good respiratory function and will be evaluated for scheduled stent removal.
Conclusions
In symptomatic benign tracheal stenosis the gold standard is surgical reconstruction (often after interventional bronchoscopy). Stenting is reserved for symptomatic tracheal narrowing deemed inoperable due to local or general reasons: inflammation, long strictures, previous failed operation, poor respiratory, cardiac or neurological status. When stenting is decided, silicone stent insertion is considered treatment of choice in the presence of inflammation and/or when removal is desirable. Silicone stents are removable, resistant to microbial colonization and are associated with minimal granulation. In benign post-tracheostomy stenosis silicone stenting was safe and effective in re-stenosis after surgery and multiple bronchoscopic interventions, and in long stenosis in the presence on inflammation and poor neurological status.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.s063
PMCID: PMC3537415
17.  Submental intubation: A useful adjunct in panfacial trauma 
Complex maxillofacial trauma requires a modification of intubation as it precludes both oral and nasal intubation. Tracheostomy is not preferred due to its associated complications. Submental intubation comes as a rescue in such situations as it provides an uninterrupted access to the operative field with due control over airway and minimal side effects.
doi:10.4103/0975-5950.69159
PMCID: PMC3304183  PMID: 22442557
Difficult intubation; submental intubation; Maxillofacial injury
18.  Comparative study of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy and conventional tracheostomy in the intensive care unit 
Objective: Tracheostomy is a one of the earliest described surgical procedure dating back to 2000 B.C. Percutaneous tracheostomy is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative method for conventional tracheostomy in the intensive care unit. In this study we compare the results of the use of these 2 techniques in 32 patients who underwent elective tracheostomy in the intensive care unit.Study Design: Prospective randomized comparative study.Setting: Tertiary care hospital.Patients: Adult intubated patients selected randomly in the intensive care unit with normal cervical soft tissue, laryngeal framework, palpable cricoid cartilage and normal coagulation parameters.Results: 17 patients underwent conventional tracheostomy and 15 patients underwent percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. Demographic data and duration of intubation comparable between two groups. The mean operative time, blood loss and complications were lower in percutaneous than in conventional tracheostomy.Conclusions: PDT is quicker to perform and has lower blood loss and complication rates compared to conventional tracheostomy. However percutaneous tracheostomy is not indicated in emergencies and in children. The cost of the percutaneous kit and use of bronchoscopy adds to the cost. It is a good alternative to conventional tracheostomy in properly selected patients.
doi:10.1007/BF03008014
PMCID: PMC3451352  PMID: 23120172
percutaneous dilatational tracheostoury; intensive care unit
19.  Tracheostomy must be individualized! 
Critical Care  2004;8(5):322-324.
Tracheostomy is one of the most frequent procedures carried out in critically ill patients with major advantages compared to translaryngeal endotracheal intubation such as reduced laryngeal anatomical alterations, reduced inspiratory load, better patient's tolerance and nursing. Thus, tracheostomy can enhance patient's care in patients who need prolonged mechanical ventilation and/or control of airways. The right timing of tracheostomy remains controversial, however it appears that early tracheostomy in selected severe trauma, burn and neurological patients could be effective to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation intensive care stay and costs. Percutaneous tracheostomy techniques are becoming the procedure of choice in the majority of the cases, since they are safe, easy and quick, and complications are minor. However, percutaneous tracheostomies should be always performed by experienced physicians to avoid unnecessary additional complications. It is not clear the superiority of one percutaneous technique compared to another, but experience of the operator and clinical individual anatomical, physiopathological characteristics of the patient should be always considered. We believe that the operator should have experience of at least one intrusive and one extrusive percutaneous technique. The general "optimal" tracheostomy technique and timing do not exist, but tracheostomy should be targeted on the patient's individual clinical characteristics.
doi:10.1186/cc2966
PMCID: PMC1065036  PMID: 15469591
neurological injury; open surgical tracheostomy; percutaneous dilational tracheostomy; respiratory failure; tracheostomy; trauma
20.  Early vs. late tracheostomy for the ICU patients: Experience in a referral hospital 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;6(2):152-154.
Objectives:
The aim of this study is to present our experience with elective surgical tracheostomy for intensive care unit (ICU) patients who needed prolonged translaryngeal intubation in order to evaluate the proper timing and advantages of early vs. late tracheostomy and to stress upon the risks associated with delayed tracheostomy.
Methods:
Medical records of all patients, who underwent elective tracheostomy for prolonged intubation from September 2006 to August 2010 at Jordan University hospital, were reviewed.
Results:
A total of 106 patients (74 males) were included; their age ranged from 2 months to 90 yr with mean age of 46.5 yr. The mean time at which tracheostomy was done after initial tracheal intubation was 23 days (range 3-7 weeks). Trauma was the most frequent cause of ICU admission 38 (35.8%), followed by post-surgery causes 14 (13.2%). An early tracheostomy showed less complication vs late procedure. The length of stay in the ICU for patients who had an early tracheostomy was 26 days while this period for patients who had late tracheostomy was 47 days. Mortality rate among patients who had early tracheostomy was 17.1% while for late tracheostomy patients, it was 36.1%.
Conclusion:
Proper assessment and early tracheostomy is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.97029
PMCID: PMC3385258  PMID: 22754442
Intensive care unit; prolonged tracheal intubation; tracheostomy
21.  Tracheo-brachiocephalic artery fistula after tracheostomy associated with thoracic deformity: a case report 
Introduction
Tracheo-brachiocephalic artery fistulae are critical long-term complications after tracheostomy, reported in 0.6% of patients within three to four weeks after the procedure. In 30% to 50% of cases there is some bleeding prior to onset. Since the onset involves sudden massive bleeding, the prognosis is poor; the reported survival rate is 10% to 30%. The direct cause of bleeding is the formation of a fistula with the trachea subsequent to arterial injury by the tracheostomy tube. Endo-tracheal factors are movement of the tracheostomy tube due to body movement and seizures, pressure exerted by the cuff of the tracheostomy tube, tracheostomy at lower levels, and the fragility of blood vessels and the trachea due to steroid or radiation therapy, and malnutrition. Extra-tracheal factors include prior surgery and deformity and shifting of the trachea and major blood vessels due to congenital kyphoscoliosis or thoracic deformity. There has been no report of the usefulness of contrast-enhanced computed tomography studies to identify the anatomical relationship between the trachea and brachiocephalic artery.
Case presentation
A 27-year-old Mongolian woman with congenital muscular dystrophy who underwent tracheal intubation for airway management due to pneumonia and granulation development developed a tracheo-brachiocephalic artery fistula during the placement of the tracheostomy tube. It was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography and repaired. About a month later she developed massive airway bleeding during replacement of the tracheostomy tube. Temporary hemostasis was achieved by compression via cuff inflation. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography scan demonstrated a narrowed brachiocephalic artery running along and ventral to the tube and a tracheo-brachiocephalic artery fistula was suspected. She underwent brachiocephalic artery resection and aorta, right common carotid artery, and subclavian artery bypass surgery with an innominate vein, tracheoplasty, and partial sternectomy. We noted marked thoracic deformity; the brachiocephalic artery was compressed by the trachea and chest wall resulting in localized wall necrosis and the development of a tracheo-brachiocephalic artery fistula, a fatal complication whose prevention is important.
Conclusions
We suggest that before tracheostomy, the anatomic relationship between the trachea and brachiocephalic artery must be confirmed by contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography scan.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-595
PMCID: PMC3275530  PMID: 22204458
22.  Submental Intubation Including Extubation: Airway Complications of Maxillomandibular Fixation 
Case Reports in Anesthesiology  2012;2012:841051.
Hernandez first described the submental route for endotracheal intubation in 1986 as an alternative airway maneuver for maxillofacial procedures. Since that time, several case studies have been performed demonstrating the efficacy of the submental approach. This method was recently implemented in the case of a patient with altered nasal anatomy who sustained a mandibular fracture necessitating maxillomandibular fixation. Unlike most of the cases described in the literature, this patient's operative course was confounded by the need to extubate through the submental tunnel. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was able to avoid other forms of surgical airway.
doi:10.1155/2012/841051
PMCID: PMC3530757  PMID: 23304563
23.  Parker Flex-Tip and Standard-Tip Endotracheal Tubes: A Comparison During Nasotracheal Intubation 
Anesthesia Progress  2010;57(1):18-24.
Abstract
The placement of endotracheal tubes in the airway, particularly through the nose, can cause trauma. Their design might be an important etiologic factor, but they have changed little since their introduction. Recently Parker Medical (Bridgewater, Conn ) introduced the Parker Flex-Tip (PFT) tube, suggesting that it causes less trauma. This study aimed to compare the PFT endotracheal tube to a side-beveled, standard-tip endotracheal tube (ETT) for nasotracheal intubation (Figures 1 and 2). Forty consecutive oral surgery patients requiring nasotracheal intubation were randomized to receive either a standard ETT or the PFT tube. Intubations were recorded using a fiber-optic camera positioned proximal to the Murphy eye of the tube. This allowed visualization of the path and action of the tube tip as it traversed the nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and tracheal airway regions. Video recordings made during intubation and extubation were evaluated for bleeding, trauma, and intubation time. Both bleeding and trauma were recorded using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and by 3 different evaluators. The PFT received significantly better VAS values than the standard tubes from all 3 raters (P < 0.05) in both the extent of trauma and bleeding. Since the intubations were purposefully conducted slowly for photographic reasons, neither tube displayed a time advantage. This study suggests that the PFT tube design may be safer by causing less trauma and bleeding than standard tube designs for nasotracheal intubation.
doi:10.2344/0003-3006-57.1.18
PMCID: PMC2844234  PMID: 20331335
Nasotracheal intubation; Parker Flex-Tip tube; Endotracheal intubation; Endotracheal tube; Fiber-optic intubation
24.  Management of complex benign post-tracheostomy tracheal stenosis with bronchoscopic insertion of silicon tracheal stents, in patients with failed or contraindicated surgical reconstruction of trachea 
Journal of Thoracic Disease  2012;4(Suppl 1):32-40.
Tracheal stenosis is a potentially life-threatening condition. Tracheostomy and endotracheal intubation remain the commonest causes of benign stenosis, despite improvements in design and management of tubes. Post-tracheostomy stenosis is more frequently encountered due to earlier performance of tracheostomy in the intensive care units, while the incidence of post-intubation stenosis has decreased with application of high-volume, low-pressure cuffs. In symptomatic benign tracheal stenosis the gold standard is surgical reconstruction (often after interventional bronchoscopy). Stenting is reserved for symptomatic tracheal narrowing deemed inoperable, due to local or general reasons: long strictures, inflammation, poor respiratory, cardiac or neurological status. When stenting is decided, silicone stent insertion is considered the treatment of choice in the presence of inflammation and/or when removal is desirable. We inserted tracheal silicone stents (Dumon) under general anaesthesia through rigid bronchoscopy in two patients with benign post-tracheostomy stenosis: a 39-year old woman with failed initial operation, and continuous relapses with proliferation after multiple bronchscopic interventions, and a 20-year old man in a poor neurological status, with a long tracheal stricture involving the subglottic larynx (lower posterior part), and inflamed tracheostomy site tissues (positive for methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus). The airway was immediately re-establish, without complications. At 15- and 10-month follow-up (respectively) there was no stent migration, luminal patency was maintained without: adjacent structure erosion, secretion adherence inside the stents, granulation at the ends. Tracheostomy tissue inflammation was resolved (2nd patient), new infection was not noted. The patients maintain good respiratory function and will be evaluated for scheduled stent removal. Silicone stents are removable, resistant to microbial colonization and are associated with minimal granulation. In benign post-tracheostomy stenosis silicone stenting appeared safe and effective in re-stenosis after surgery and multiple bronchoscopic interventions, and in long stenosis, involving the lower posterior subglottic larynx in the presence on inflammation and poor neurological status.
doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2012.s002
PMCID: PMC3537388  PMID: 23304439
Airway obstruction/therapy; tracheal stenosis/therapy; stents; airway stenting; benign tracheal stenosis
25.  Oral reconstruction with submental flap 
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery  2013;3(2):144-147.
Background:
Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients.
Materials and Methods:
Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects.
Results:
Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity.
Conclusion:
Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply.
doi:10.4103/2231-0746.119224
PMCID: PMC3814662  PMID: 24205473
Avascular necrosis; papillary squamous cell carcinoma; submental flap

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