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1.  QUBIC: a qualitative biclustering algorithm for analyses of gene expression data 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;37(15):e101.
Biclustering extends the traditional clustering techniques by attempting to find (all) subgroups of genes with similar expression patterns under to-be-identified subsets of experimental conditions when applied to gene expression data. Still the real power of this clustering strategy is yet to be fully realized due to the lack of effective and efficient algorithms for reliably solving the general biclustering problem. We report a QUalitative BIClustering algorithm (QUBIC) that can solve the biclustering problem in a more general form, compared to existing algorithms, through employing a combination of qualitative (or semi-quantitative) measures of gene expression data and a combinatorial optimization technique. One key unique feature of the QUBIC algorithm is that it can identify all statistically significant biclusters including biclusters with the so-called ‘scaling patterns’, a problem considered to be rather challenging; another key unique feature is that the algorithm solves such general biclustering problems very efficiently, capable of solving biclustering problems with tens of thousands of genes under up to thousands of conditions in a few minutes of the CPU time on a desktop computer. We have demonstrated a considerably improved biclustering performance by our algorithm compared to the existing algorithms on various benchmark sets and data sets of our own. QUBIC was written in ANSI C and tested using GCC (version 4.1.2) on Linux. Its source code is available at: http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/∼maqin/bicluster. A server version of QUBIC is also available upon request.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp491
PMCID: PMC2731891  PMID: 19509312
2.  SEAS: A System for SEED-Based Pathway Enrichment Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(7):e22556.
Pathway enrichment analysis represents a key technique for analyzing high-throughput omic data, and it can help to link individual genes or proteins found to be differentially expressed under specific conditions to well-understood biological pathways. We present here a computational tool, SEAS, for pathway enrichment analysis over a given set of genes in a specified organism against the pathways (or subsystems) in the SEED database, a popular pathway database for bacteria. SEAS maps a given set of genes of a bacterium to pathway genes covered by SEED through gene ID and/or orthology mapping, and then calculates the statistical significance of the enrichment of each relevant SEED pathway by the mapped genes. Our evaluation of SEAS indicates that the program provides highly reliable pathway mapping results and identifies more organism-specific pathways than similar existing programs. SEAS is publicly released under the GPL license agreement and freely available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~xizeng/research/seas/.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022556
PMCID: PMC3142180  PMID: 21799897
3.  AST: An Automated Sequence-Sampling Method for Improving the Taxonomic Diversity of Gene Phylogenetic Trees 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e98844.
A challenge in phylogenetic inference of gene trees is how to properly sample a large pool of homologous sequences to derive a good representative subset of sequences. Such a need arises in various applications, e.g. when (1) accuracy-oriented phylogenetic reconstruction methods may not be able to deal with a large pool of sequences due to their high demand in computing resources; (2) applications analyzing a collection of gene trees may prefer to use trees with fewer operational taxonomic units (OTUs), for instance for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events by identifying phylogenetic conflicts; and (3) the pool of available sequences is biased towards extensively studied species. In the past, the creation of subsamples often relied on manual selection. Here we present an Automated sequence-Sampling method for improving the Taxonomic diversity of gene phylogenetic trees, AST, to obtain representative sequences that maximize the taxonomic diversity of the sampled sequences. To demonstrate the effectiveness of AST, we have tested it to solve four problems, namely, inference of the evolutionary histories of the small ribosomal subunit protein S5 of E. coli, 16 S ribosomal RNAs and glycosyl-transferase gene family 8, and a study of ancient horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to plants. Our results show that the resolution of our computational results is almost as good as that of manual inference by domain experts, hence making the tool generally useful to phylogenetic studies by non-phylogeny specialists. The program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~zhouchan/AST.php.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098844
PMCID: PMC4044049  PMID: 24892935
4.  CINPER: An Interactive Web System for Pathway Prediction for Prokaryotes 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51252.
We present a web-based network-construction system, CINPER (CSBL INteractive Pathway BuildER), to assist a user to build a user-specified gene network for a prokaryotic organism in an intuitive manner. CINPER builds a network model based on different types of information provided by the user and stored in the system. CINPER’s prediction process has four steps: (i) collection of template networks based on (partially) known pathways of related organism(s) from the SEED or BioCyc database and the published literature; (ii) construction of an initial network model based on the template networks using the P-Map program; (iii) expansion of the initial model, based on the association information derived from operons, protein-protein interactions, co-expression modules and phylogenetic profiles; and (iv) computational validation of the predicted models based on gene expression data. To facilitate easy applications, CINPER provides an interactive visualization environment for a user to enter, search and edit relevant data and for the system to display (partial) results and prompt for additional data. Evaluation of CINPER on 17 well-studied pathways in the MetaCyc database shows that the program achieves an average recall rate of 76% and an average precision rate of 90% on the initial models; and a higher average recall rate at 87% and an average precision rate at 28% on the final models. The reduced precision rate in the final models versus the initial models reflects the reality that the final models have large numbers of novel genes that have no experimental evidences and hence are not yet collected in the MetaCyc database. To demonstrate the usefulness of this server, we have predicted an iron homeostasis gene network of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 using the server. The predicted models along with the server can be accessed at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/cinper/.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051252
PMCID: PMC3517448  PMID: 23236458
5.  cBar: a computer program to distinguish plasmid-derived from chromosome-derived sequence fragments in metagenomics data 
Bioinformatics  2010;26(16):2051-2052.
Summary: Huge amount of metagenomic sequence data have been produced as a result of the rapidly increasing efforts worldwide in studying microbial communities as a whole. Most, if not all, sequenced metagenomes are complex mixtures of chromosomal and plasmid sequence fragments from multiple organisms, possibly from different kingdoms. Computational methods for prediction of genomic elements such as genes are significantly different for chromosomes and plasmids, hence raising the need for separation of chromosomal from plasmid sequences in a metagenome. We present a program for classification of a metagenome set into chromosomal and plasmid sequences, based on their distinguishing pentamer frequencies. On a large training set consisting of all the sequenced prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids, the program achieves ∼92% in classification accuracy. On a large set of simulated metagenomes with sequence lengths ranging from 300 bp to 100 kbp, the program has classification accuracy from 64.45% to 88.75%. On a large independent test set, the program achieves 88.29% classification accuracy.
Availability: The program has been implemented as a standalone prediction program, cBar, which is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/∼ffzhou/cBar
Contact: xyn@bmb.uga.edu
Supplementary information:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btq299
PMCID: PMC2916713  PMID: 20538725
6.  De novo computational prediction of non-coding RNA genes in prokaryotic genomes 
Bioinformatics  2009;25(22):2897-2905.
Motivation: The computational identification of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes represents one of the most important and challenging problems in computational biology. Existing methods for ncRNA gene prediction rely mostly on homology information, thus limiting their applications to ncRNA genes with known homologues.
Results: We present a novel de novo prediction algorithm for ncRNA genes using features derived from the sequences and structures of known ncRNA genes in comparison to decoys. Using these features, we have trained a neural network-based classifier and have applied it to Escherichia coli and Sulfolobus solfataricus for genome-wide prediction of ncRNAs. Our method has an average prediction sensitivity and specificity of 68% and 70%, respectively, for identifying windows with potential for ncRNA genes in E.coli. By combining windows of different sizes and using positional filtering strategies, we predicted 601 candidate ncRNAs and recovered 41% of known ncRNAs in E.coli. We experimentally investigated six novel candidates using Northern blot analysis and found expression of three candidates: one represents a potential new ncRNA, one is associated with stable mRNA decay intermediates and one is a case of either a potential riboswitch or transcription attenuator involved in the regulation of cell division. In general, our approach enables the identification of both cis- and trans-acting ncRNAs in partially or completely sequenced microbial genomes without requiring homology or structural conservation.
Availability: The source code and results are available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/publications/materials/tran/.
Contact: xyn@bmb.uga.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btp537
PMCID: PMC2773258  PMID: 19744996
7.  In-silico prediction of blood-secretory human proteins using a ranking algorithm 
BMC Bioinformatics  2010;11:250.
Background
Computational identification of blood-secretory proteins, especially proteins with differentially expressed genes in diseased tissues, can provide highly useful information in linking transcriptomic data to proteomic studies for targeted disease biomarker discovery in serum.
Results
A new algorithm for prediction of blood-secretory proteins is presented using an information-retrieval technique, called manifold ranking. On a dataset containing 305 known blood-secretory human proteins and a large number of other proteins that are either not blood-secretory or unknown, the new method performs better than the previous published method, measured in terms of the area under the recall-precision curve (AUC). A key advantage of the presented method is that it does not explicitly require a negative training set, which could often be noisy or difficult to derive for most biological problems, hence making our method more applicable than classification-based data mining methods in general biological studies.
Conclusion
We believe that our program will prove to be very useful to biomedical researchers who are interested in finding serum markers, especially when they have candidate proteins derived through transcriptomic or proteomic analyses of diseased tissues. A computer program is developed for prediction of blood-secretory proteins based on manifold ranking, which is accessible at our website http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/publications/materials/qiliu/blood_secretory_protein.html.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-11-250
PMCID: PMC2877692  PMID: 20465853
8.  GreenPhylDB: a database for plant comparative genomics 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;36(Database issue):D991-D998.
GreenPhylDB (http://greenphyl.cirad.fr) is a comprehensive platform designed to facilitate comparative functional genomics in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes. The main functions of GreenPhylDB are to assign O. sativa and A. thaliana sequences to gene families using a semi-automatic clustering procedure and to create ‘orthologous’ groups using a phylogenomic approach. To date, GreenPhylDB comprises the most complete list of plant gene families, which have been manually curated (6421 families). GreenPhylDB also contains all of the phylogenomic relationships computed for 4375 families. A total of 492 TAIR, 1903 InterPro and 981 KEGG families and subfamilies were manually curated using the clusters created with the TribeMCL software. GreenPhylDB integrates information from several other databases including UniProt, KEGG, InterPro, TAIR and TIGR. Several entry points can be used to display phylogenomic relationships for A. thaliana or O. sativa sequences, using TAIR, TIGR gene ID, family name, InterPro, gene alias, UniProt or protein/nucleic sequence. Finally, a powerful phylogenomics tool, GreenPhyl Ortholog Search Tool (GOST), was incorporated into GreenPhylDB to predict orthologous relationships between O. sativa/A. thaliana protein(s) and sequences from other plant species.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkm934
PMCID: PMC2238940  PMID: 17986457
9.  A gene pattern mining algorithm using interchangeable gene sets for prokaryotes 
BMC Bioinformatics  2008;9:124.
Background
Mining gene patterns that are common to multiple genomes is an important biological problem, which can lead us to novel biological insights. When family classification of genes is available, this problem is similar to the pattern mining problem in the data mining community. However, when family classification information is not available, mining gene patterns is a challenging problem. There are several well developed algorithms for predicting gene patterns in a pair of genomes, such as FISH and DAGchainer. These algorithms use the optimization problem formulation which is solved using the dynamic programming technique. Unfortunately, extending these algorithms to multiple genome cases is not trivial due to the rapid increase in time and space complexity.
Results
In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for mining gene patterns in more than two prokaryote genomes using interchangeable sets. The basic idea is to extend the pattern mining technique from the data mining community to handle the situation where family classification information is not available using interchangeable sets. In an experiment with four newly sequenced genomes (where the gene annotation is unavailable), we show that the gene pattern can capture important biological information. To examine the effectiveness of gene patterns further, we propose an ortholog prediction method based on our gene pattern mining algorithm and compare our method to the bi-directional best hit (BBH) technique in terms of COG orthologous gene classification information. The experiment show that our algorithm achieves a 3% increase in recall compared to BBH without sacrificing the precision of ortholog detection.
Conclusion
The discovered gene patterns can be used for the detecting of ortholog and genes that collaborate for a common biological function.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-9-124
PMCID: PMC2279103  PMID: 18302784
10.  Reconsideration of In-Silico siRNA Design Based on Feature Selection: A Cross-Platform Data Integration Perspective 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37879.
RNA interference via exogenous short interference RNAs (siRNA) is increasingly more widely employed as a tool in gene function studies, drug target discovery and disease treatment. Currently there is a strong need for rational siRNA design to achieve more reliable and specific gene silencing; and to keep up with the increasing needs for a wider range of applications. While progress has been made in the ability to design siRNAs with specific targets, we are clearly at an infancy stage towards achieving rational design of siRNAs with high efficacy. Among the many obstacles to overcome, lack of general understanding of what sequence features of siRNAs may affect their silencing efficacy and of large-scale homogeneous data needed to carry out such association analyses represents two challenges. To address these issues, we investigated a feature-selection based in-silico siRNA design from a novel cross-platform data integration perspective. An integration analysis of 4,482 siRNAs from ten meta-datasets was conducted for ranking siRNA features, according to their possible importance to the silencing efficacy of siRNAs across heterogeneous data sources. Our ranking analysis revealed for the first time the most relevant features based on cross-platform experiments, which compares favorably with the traditional in-silico siRNA feature screening based on the small samples of individual platform data. We believe that our feature ranking analysis can offer more creditable suggestions to help improving the design of siRNA with specific silencing targets. Data and scripts are available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/publications/materials/qiliu/siRNA.html.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037879
PMCID: PMC3360065  PMID: 22655076
11.  Genome trees constructed using five different approaches suggest new major bacterial clades 
Background
The availability of multiple complete genome sequences from diverse taxa prompts the development of new phylogenetic approaches, which attempt to incorporate information derived from comparative analysis of complete gene sets or large subsets thereof. Such attempts are particularly relevant because of the major role of horizontal gene transfer and lineage-specific gene loss, at least in the evolution of prokaryotes.
Results
Five largely independent approaches were employed to construct trees for completely sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes: i) presence-absence of genomes in clusters of orthologous genes; ii) conservation of local gene order (gene pairs) among prokaryotic genomes; iii) parameters of identity distribution for probable orthologs; iv) analysis of concatenated alignments of ribosomal proteins; v) comparison of trees constructed for multiple protein families. All constructed trees support the separation of the two primary prokaryotic domains, bacteria and archaea, as well as some terminal bifurcations within the bacterial and archaeal domains. Beyond these obvious groupings, the trees made with different methods appeared to differ substantially in terms of the relative contributions of phylogenetic relationships and similarities in gene repertoires caused by similar life styles and horizontal gene transfer to the tree topology. The trees based on presence-absence of genomes in orthologous clusters and the trees based on conserved gene pairs appear to be strongly affected by gene loss and horizontal gene transfer. The trees based on identity distributions for orthologs and particularly the tree made of concatenated ribosomal protein sequences seemed to carry a stronger phylogenetic signal. The latter tree supported three potential high-level bacterial clades,: i) Chlamydia-Spirochetes, ii) Thermotogales-Aquificales (bacterial hyperthermophiles), and ii) Actinomycetes-Deinococcales-Cyanobacteria. The latter group also appeared to join the low-GC Gram-positive bacteria at a deeper tree node. These new groupings of bacteria were supported by the analysis of alternative topologies in the concatenated ribosomal protein tree using the Kishino-Hasegawa test and by a census of the topologies of 132 individual groups of orthologous proteins. Additionally, the results of this analysis put into question the sister-group relationship between the two major archaeal groups, Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, and suggest instead that Euryarchaeota might be a paraphyletic group with respect to Crenarchaeota.
Conclusions
We conclude that, the extensive horizontal gene flow and lineage-specific gene loss notwithstanding, extension of phylogenetic analysis to the genome scale has the potential of uncovering deep evolutionary relationships between prokaryotic lineages.
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-1-8
PMCID: PMC60490  PMID: 11734060
12.  PROSPECT-PSPP: an automatic computational pipeline for protein structure prediction 
Nucleic Acids Research  2004;32(Web Server issue):W522-W525.
Knowledge of the detailed structure of a protein is crucial to our understanding of the biological functions of that protein. The gap between the number of solved protein structures and the number of protein sequences continues to widen rapidly in the post-genomics era due to long and expensive processes for solving structures experimentally. Computational prediction of structures from amino acid sequence has come to play a key role in narrowing the gap and has been successful in providing useful information for the biological research community. We have developed a prediction pipeline, PROSPECT-PSPP, an integration of multiple computational tools, for fully automated protein structure prediction. The pipeline consists of tools for (i) preprocessing of protein sequences, which includes signal peptide prediction, protein type prediction (membrane or soluble) and protein domain partition, (ii) secondary structure prediction, (iii) fold recognition and (iv) atomic structural model generation. The centerpiece of the pipeline is our threading-based program PROSPECT. The pipeline is implemented using SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), which makes it easier to share our tools and resources. The pipeline has an easy-to-use user interface and is implemented on a 64-node dual processor Linux cluster. It can be used for genome-scale protein structure prediction. The pipeline is accessible at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/protein_pipeline.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkh414
PMCID: PMC441552  PMID: 15215441
13.  DOOR 2.0: presenting operons and their functions through dynamic and integrated views 
Nucleic Acids Research  2013;42(Database issue):D654-D659.
We have recently developed a new version of the DOOR operon database, DOOR 2.0, which is available online at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/DOOR/ and will be updated on a regular basis. DOOR 2.0 contains genome-scale operons for 2072 prokaryotes with complete genomes, three times the number of genomes covered in the previous version published in 2009. DOOR 2.0 has a number of new features, compared with its previous version, including (i) more than 250 000 transcription units, experimentally validated or computationally predicted based on RNA-seq data, providing a dynamic functional view of the underlying operons; (ii) an integrated operon-centric data resource that provides not only operons for each covered genome but also their functional and regulatory information such as their cis-regulatory binding sites for transcription initiation and termination, gene expression levels estimated based on RNA-seq data and conservation information across multiple genomes; (iii) a high-performance web service for online operon prediction on user-provided genomic sequences; (iv) an intuitive genome browser to support visualization of user-selected data; and (v) a keyword-based Google-like search engine for finding the needed information intuitively and rapidly in this database.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1048
PMCID: PMC3965076  PMID: 24214966
14.  The Ortholog Conjecture Is Untestable by the Current Gene Ontology but Is Supported by RNA Sequencing Data 
PLoS Computational Biology  2012;8(11):e1002784.
The ortholog conjecture posits that orthologous genes are functionally more similar than paralogous genes. This conjecture is a cornerstone of phylogenomics and is used daily by both computational and experimental biologists in predicting, interpreting, and understanding gene functions. A recent study, however, challenged the ortholog conjecture on the basis of experimentally derived Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and microarray gene expression data in human and mouse. It instead proposed that the functional similarity of homologous genes is primarily determined by the cellular context in which the genes act, explaining why a greater functional similarity of (within-species) paralogs than (between-species) orthologs was observed. Here we show that GO-based functional similarity between human and mouse orthologs, relative to that between paralogs, has been increasing in the last five years. Further, compared with paralogs, orthologs are less likely to be included in the same study, causing an underestimation in their functional similarity. A close examination of functional studies of homologs with identical protein sequences reveals experimental biases, annotation errors, and homology-based functional inferences that are labeled in GO as experimental. These problems and the temporary nature of the GO-based finding make the current GO inappropriate for testing the ortholog conjecture. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is known to be superior to microarray for comparing the expressions of different genes or in different species. Our analysis of a large RNA-Seq dataset of multiple tissues from eight mammals and the chicken shows that the expression similarity between orthologs is significantly higher than that between within-species paralogs, supporting the ortholog conjecture and refuting the cellular context hypothesis for gene expression. We conclude that the ortholog conjecture remains largely valid to the extent that it has been tested, but further scrutiny using more and better functional data is needed.
Author Summary
Today's exceedingly high speed of genome sequencing, compared with the generally slow pace of functional assay, means that the functions of most genes identified from genome sequences will be annotated only through computational prediction. The primary source of information for this prediction is the functions of orthologous genes in model organisms, because orthologs are widely believed to be functionally similar, especially when compared with paralogs. This belief, known as the ortholog conjecture, was recently challenged on the basis of experimentally derived Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and microarray gene expression data, because these data revealed greater functional and expressional similarities of paralogs than orthologs. Here we show that GO-based estimates of functional similarities are temporary and unreliable, due to experimental biases, annotation errors, and homology-based functional inferences that are incorrectly labeled as experimental in GO. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is superior to microarray for comparing the expressions of different genes or in different species, and our analysis of a large RNA-Seq dataset provides strong support to the ortholog conjecture for gene expression. We conclude that the ortholog conjecture remains largely valid to the extent that it has been tested, but further scrutiny using more and better functional data is needed.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002784
PMCID: PMC3510086  PMID: 23209392
15.  GIGA: a simple, efficient algorithm for gene tree inference in the genomic age 
BMC Bioinformatics  2010;11:312.
Background
Phylogenetic relationships between genes are not only of theoretical interest: they enable us to learn about human genes through the experimental work on their relatives in numerous model organisms from bacteria to fruit flies and mice. Yet the most commonly used computational algorithms for reconstructing gene trees can be inaccurate for numerous reasons, both algorithmic and biological. Additional information beyond gene sequence data has been shown to improve the accuracy of reconstructions, though at great computational cost.
Results
We describe a simple, fast algorithm for inferring gene phylogenies, which makes use of information that was not available prior to the genomic age: namely, a reliable species tree spanning much of the tree of life, and knowledge of the complete complement of genes in a species' genome. The algorithm, called GIGA, constructs trees agglomeratively from a distance matrix representation of sequences, using simple rules to incorporate this genomic age information. GIGA makes use of a novel conceptualization of gene trees as being composed of orthologous subtrees (containing only speciation events), which are joined by other evolutionary events such as gene duplication or horizontal gene transfer. An important innovation in GIGA is that, at every step in the agglomeration process, the tree is interpreted/reinterpreted in terms of the evolutionary events that created it. Remarkably, GIGA performs well even when using a very simple distance metric (pairwise sequence differences) and no distance averaging over clades during the tree construction process.
Conclusions
GIGA is efficient, allowing phylogenetic reconstruction of very large gene families and determination of orthologs on a large scale. It is exceptionally robust to adding more gene sequences, opening up the possibility of creating stable identifiers for referring to not only extant genes, but also their common ancestors. We compared trees produced by GIGA to those in the TreeFam database, and they were very similar in general, with most differences likely due to poor alignment quality. However, some remaining differences are algorithmic, and can be explained by the fact that GIGA tends to put a larger emphasis on minimizing gene duplication and deletion events.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-11-312
PMCID: PMC2905364  PMID: 20534164
16.  Orthology confers intron position conservation 
BMC Genomics  2010;11:412.
Background
With the wealth of genomic data available it has become increasingly important to assign putative protein function through functional transfer between orthologs. Therefore, correct elucidation of the evolutionary relationships among genes is a critical task, and attempts should be made to further improve the phylogenetic inference by adding relevant discriminating features. It has been shown that introns can maintain their position over long evolutionary timescales. For this reason, it could be possible to use conservation of intron positions as a discriminating factor when assigning orthology. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether orthologs have a higher degree of intron position conservation (IPC) compared to non-orthologous sequences that are equally similar in sequence.
Results
To this end, we developed a new score for IPC and applied it to ortholog groups between human and six other species. For comparison, we also gathered the closest non-orthologs, meaning sequences close in sequence space, yet falling just outside the ortholog cluster. We found that ortholog-ortholog gene pairs on average have a significantly higher degree of IPC compared to ortholog-closest non-ortholog pairs. Also pairs of inparalogs were found to have a higher IPC score than inparalog-closest non-inparalog pairs. We verified that these differences can not simply be attributed to the generally higher sequence identity of the ortholog-ortholog and the inparalog-inparalog pairs.
Furthermore, we analyzed the agreement between IPC score and the ortholog score assigned by the InParanoid algorithm, and found that it was consistently high for all species comparisons. In a minority of cases, the IPC and InParanoid score ranked inparalogs differently. These represent cases where sequence and intron position divergence are discordant. We further analyzed the discordant clusters to identify any possible preference for protein functions by looking for enriched GO terms and Pfam protein domains. They were enriched for functions important for multicellularity, which implies a connection between shifts in intronic structure and the origin of multicellularity.
Conclusions
We conclude that orthologous genes tend to have more conserved intron positions compared to non-orthologous genes. As a consequence, our IPC score is useful as an additional discriminating factor when assigning orthology.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-412
PMCID: PMC2996940  PMID: 20598118
17.  Accurate recognition of cis-regulatory motifs with the correct lengths in prokaryotic genomes 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;38(2):e12.
We present a new computational method for solving a classical problem, the identification problem of cis-regulatory motifs in a given set of promoter sequences, based on one key new idea. Instead of scoring candidate motifs individually like in all the existing motif-finding programs, our method scores groups of candidate motifs with similar sequences, called motif closures, using a P-value, which has substantially improved the prediction reliability over the existing methods. Our new P-value scoring scheme is sequence length independent, hence allowing direct comparisons among predicted motifs with different lengths on the same footing. We have implemented this method as a Motif Recognition Computer (MREC) program, and have extensively tested MREC on both simulated and biological data from prokaryotic genomes. Our test results indicate that MREC can accurately pick out the actual motif with the correct length as the best scoring candidate for the vast majority of the cases in our test set. We compared our prediction results with two motif-finding programs Cosmo and MEME, and found that MREC outperforms both programs across all the test cases by a large margin. The MREC program is available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/~bingqiang/MREC1/.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp907
PMCID: PMC2811016  PMID: 19906734
18.  An Integrative Method for Accurate Comparative Genome Mapping 
PLoS Computational Biology  2006;2(8):e75.
We present MAGIC, an integrative and accurate method for comparative genome mapping. Our method consists of two phases: preprocessing for identifying “maximal similar segments,” and mapping for clustering and classifying these segments. MAGIC's main novelty lies in its biologically intuitive clustering approach, which aims towards both calculating reorder-free segments and identifying orthologous segments. In the process, MAGIC efficiently handles ambiguities resulting from duplications that occurred before the speciation of the considered organisms from their most recent common ancestor. We demonstrate both MAGIC's robustness and scalability: the former is asserted with respect to its initial input and with respect to its parameters' values. The latter is asserted by applying MAGIC to distantly related organisms and to large genomes. We compare MAGIC to other comparative mapping methods and provide detailed analysis of the differences between them. Our improvements allow a comprehensive study of the diversity of genetic repertoires resulting from large-scale mutations, such as indels and duplications, including explicitly transposable and phagic elements. The strength of our method is demonstrated by detailed statistics computed for each type of these large-scale mutations. MAGIC enabled us to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the different forces shaping prokaryotic genomes from different clades, and to quantify the importance of novel gene content introduced by horizontal gene transfer relative to gene duplication in bacterial genome evolution. We use these results to investigate the breakpoint distribution in several prokaryotic genomes.
Synopsis
Comparative genomics is an important discipline with applications in evolutionary, genetic, and genome rearrangement studies. When comparing genomes, one is usually interested in investigating the relation between the genomic segments to establish their evolutionary origin: are the segments orthologous, and hence inherited from their most recent common ancestor? Are they paralogs, and hence duplicated from an ancestral segment? Did the segments undergo reordering? Were the segments deleted or inserted and—if so—how (insertion sequence, prophage, horizontal gene transfer)?
In this paper, Swidan et al. present MAGIC, a new approach for comparative genome mapping. The main novelty of this approach is the biologically intuitive clustering step, which aims towards both calculating reorder-free segments and identifying orthologous segments. The authors demonstrate MAGIC's robustness, relative to both its initial input and to its parameters' values. MAGIC's scalability is demonstrated by running it on distantly related organisms and on large genomes. In addition, Swidan et al. provide a detailed analysis of the differences between MAGIC and other comparative mapping methods.
Applying MAGIC to several prokaryotic pairs enabled the authors to address the aforementioned questions and to quantitatively study the different evolutionary forces shaping the prokaryotic genome as well as to investigate their breakpoint distribution.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0020075
PMCID: PMC1526463  PMID: 16933978
19.  GolgiP: prediction of Golgi-resident proteins in plants 
Bioinformatics  2010;26(19):2464-2465.
Summary: We present a novel Golgi-prediction server, GolgiP, for computational prediction of both membrane- and non-membrane-associated Golgi-resident proteins in plants. We have employed a support vector machine-based classification method for the prediction of such Golgi proteins, based on three types of information, dipeptide composition, transmembrane domain(s) (TMDs) and functional domain(s) of a protein, where the functional domain information is generated through searching against the Conserved Domains Database, and the TMD information includes the number of TMDs, the length of TMD and the number of TMDs at the N-terminus of a protein. Using GolgiP, we have made genome-scale predictions of Golgi-resident proteins in 18 plant genomes, and have made the preliminary analysis of the predicted data.
Availability: The GolgiP web service is publically available at http://csbl1.bmb.uga.edu/GolgiP/
Contact: xyn@csbl.bmb.uga.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btq446
PMCID: PMC2944200  PMID: 20733061
20.  Transcription Factor Map Alignment of Promoter Regions 
PLoS Computational Biology  2006;2(5):e49.
We address the problem of comparing and characterizing the promoter regions of genes with similar expression patterns. This remains a challenging problem in sequence analysis, because often the promoter regions of co-expressed genes do not show discernible sequence conservation. In our approach, thus, we have not directly compared the nucleotide sequence of promoters. Instead, we have obtained predictions of transcription factor binding sites, annotated the predicted sites with the labels of the corresponding binding factors, and aligned the resulting sequences of labels—to which we refer here as transcription factor maps (TF-maps). To obtain the global pairwise alignment of two TF-maps, we have adapted an algorithm initially developed to align restriction enzyme maps. We have optimized the parameters of the algorithm in a small, but well-curated, collection of human–mouse orthologous gene pairs. Results in this dataset, as well as in an independent much larger dataset from the CISRED database, indicate that TF-map alignments are able to uncover conserved regulatory elements, which cannot be detected by the typical sequence alignments.
Synopsis
Sequence comparisons and alignments are among the most powerful tools in research in biology. Since similar sequences play, in general, similar functions, identification of sequence conservation between two or more nucleotide or amino acid sequences is often used to infer common biological functionality. Sequence comparisons, however, have limitations; often similar functions are encoded by higher order elements which do not hold a univocal relationship to the underlying primary sequence. In consequence, similar functions are frequently encoded by diverse sequences. Promoter regions are a case in point. Often, promoter sequences of genes with similar expression patterns do not show conservation. This is because, even though their expression may be regulated by a similar arrangement of transcription factors, the binding sites for these factors may exhibit great sequence variability. To overcome this limitation, the authors obtain predictions of transcription factor binding sites on promoter sequences, and annotate the predicted sites with the labels of the corresponding transcription factors. They develop an algorithm—inspired in an early algorithm to align restriction enzyme maps—to align the resulting sequence of labels—the so-called TF-maps (transcription factor maps). They show that TF-map alignments are able to uncover conserved regulatory elements common to the promoter regions of co-regulated genes, but those regulatory elements cannot be detected by typical sequence alignments.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0020049
PMCID: PMC1464811  PMID: 16733547
21.  Benchmarking ortholog identification methods using functional genomics data 
Genome Biology  2006;7(4):R31.
A benchmarking of the most popular orthologous identification methods using functional genomics data identifies the two best methods.
Background
The transfer of functional annotations from model organism proteins to human proteins is one of the main applications of comparative genomics. Various methods are used to analyze cross-species orthologous relationships according to an operational definition of orthology. Often the definition of orthology is incorrectly interpreted as a prediction of proteins that are functionally equivalent across species, while in fact it only defines the existence of a common ancestor for a gene in different species. However, it has been demonstrated that orthologs often reveal significant functional similarity. Therefore, the quality of the orthology prediction is an important factor in the transfer of functional annotations (and other related information). To identify protein pairs with the highest possible functional similarity, it is important to qualify ortholog identification methods.
Results
To measure the similarity in function of proteins from different species we used functional genomics data, such as expression data and protein interaction data. We tested several of the most popular ortholog identification methods. In general, we observed a sensitivity/selectivity trade-off: the functional similarity scores per orthologous pair of sequences become higher when the number of proteins included in the ortholog groups decreases.
Conclusion
By combining the sensitivity and the selectivity into an overall score, we show that the InParanoid program is the best ortholog identification method in terms of identifying functionally equivalent proteins.
doi:10.1186/gb-2006-7-4-r31
PMCID: PMC1557999  PMID: 16613613
22.  Barcode Server: A Visualization-Based Genome Analysis System 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56726.
We have previously developed a computational method for representing a genome as a barcode image, which makes various genomic features visually apparent. We have demonstrated that this visual capability has made some challenging genome analysis problems relatively easy to solve. We have applied this capability to a number of challenging problems, including (a) identification of horizontally transferred genes, (b) identification of genomic islands with special properties and (c) binning of metagenomic sequences, and achieved highly encouraging results. These application results inspired us to develop this barcode-based genome analysis server for public service, which supports the following capabilities: (a) calculation of the k-mer based barcode image for a provided DNA sequence; (b) detection of sequence fragments in a given genome with distinct barcodes from those of the majority of the genome, (c) clustering of provided DNA sequences into groups having similar barcodes; and (d) homology-based search using Blast against a genome database for any selected genomic regions deemed to have interesting barcodes. The barcode server provides a job management capability, allowing processing of a large number of analysis jobs for barcode-based comparative genome analyses. The barcode server is accessible at http://csbl1.bmb.uga.edu/Barcode.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056726
PMCID: PMC3574017  PMID: 23457606
23.  Algorithms for computing parsimonious evolutionary scenarios for genome evolution, the last universal common ancestor and dominance of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of prokaryotes 
Background
Comparative analysis of sequenced genomes reveals numerous instances of apparent horizontal gene transfer (HGT), at least in prokaryotes, and indicates that lineage-specific gene loss might have been even more common in evolution. This complicates the notion of a species tree, which needs to be re-interpreted as a prevailing evolutionary trend, rather than the full depiction of evolution, and makes reconstruction of ancestral genomes a non-trivial task.
Results
We addressed the problem of constructing parsimonious scenarios for individual sets of orthologous genes given a species tree. The orthologous sets were taken from the database of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs). We show that the phyletic patterns (patterns of presence-absence in completely sequenced genomes) of almost 90% of the COGs are inconsistent with the hypothetical species tree. Algorithms were developed to reconcile the phyletic patterns with the species tree by postulating gene loss, COG emergence and HGT (the latter two classes of events were collectively treated as gene gains). We prove that each of these algorithms produces a parsimonious evolutionary scenario, which can be represented as mapping of loss and gain events on the species tree. The distribution of the evolutionary events among the tree nodes substantially depends on the underlying assumptions of the reconciliation algorithm, e.g. whether or not independent gene gains (gain after loss after gain) are permitted. Biological considerations suggest that, on average, gene loss might be a more likely event than gene gain. Therefore different gain penalties were used and the resulting series of reconstructed gene sets for the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of the extant life forms were analysed. The number of genes in the reconstructed LUCA gene sets grows as the gain penalty increases. However, qualitative examination of the LUCA versions reconstructed with different gain penalties indicates that, even with a gain penalty of 1 (equal weights assigned to a gain and a loss), the set of 572 genes assigned to LUCA might be nearly sufficient to sustain a functioning organism. Under this gain penalty value, the numbers of horizontal gene transfer and gene loss events are nearly identical. This result holds true for two alternative topologies of the species tree and even under random shuffling of the tree. Therefore, the results seem to be compatible with approximately equal likelihoods of HGT and gene loss in the evolution of prokaryotes.
Conclusions
The notion that gene loss and HGT are major aspects of prokaryotic evolution was supported by quantitative analysis of the mapping of the phyletic patterns of COGs onto a hypothetical species tree. Algorithms were developed for constructing parsimonious evolutionary scenarios, which include gene loss and gain events, for orthologous gene sets, given a species tree. This analysis shows, contrary to expectations, that the number of predicted HGT events that occurred during the evolution of prokaryotes might be approximately the same as the number of gene losses. The approach to the reconstruction of evolutionary scenarios employed here is conservative with regard to the detection of HGT because only patterns of gene presence-absence in sequenced genomes are taken into account. In reality, horizontal transfer might have contributed to the evolution of many other genes also, which makes it a dominant force in prokaryotic evolution.
doi:10.1186/1471-2148-3-2
PMCID: PMC149225  PMID: 12515582
24.  Improving the Measurement of Semantic Similarity between Gene Ontology Terms and Gene Products: Insights from an Edge- and IC-Based Hybrid Method 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e66745.
Background
Explicit comparisons based on the semantic similarity of Gene Ontology terms provide a quantitative way to measure the functional similarity between gene products and are widely applied in large-scale genomic research via integration with other models. Previously, we presented an edge-based method, Relative Specificity Similarity (RSS), which takes the global position of relevant terms into account. However, edge-based semantic similarity metrics are sensitive to the intrinsic structure of GO and simply consider terms at the same level in the ontology to be equally specific nodes, revealing the weaknesses that could be complemented using information content (IC).
Results and Conclusions
Here, we used the IC-based nodes to improve RSS and proposed a new method, Hybrid Relative Specificity Similarity (HRSS). HRSS outperformed other methods in distinguishing true protein-protein interactions from false. HRSS values were divided into four different levels of confidence for protein interactions. In addition, HRSS was statistically the best at obtaining the highest average functional similarity among human-mouse orthologs. Both HRSS and the groupwise measure, simGIC, are superior in correlation with sequence and Pfam similarities. Because different measures are best suited for different circumstances, we compared two pairwise strategies, the maximum and the best-match average, in the evaluation. The former was more effective at inferring physical protein-protein interactions, and the latter at estimating the functional conservation of orthologs and analyzing the CESSM datasets. In conclusion, HRSS can be applied to different biological problems by quantifying the functional similarity between gene products. The algorithm HRSS was implemented in the C programming language, which is freely available from http://cmb.bnu.edu.cn/hrss.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066745
PMCID: PMC3669204  PMID: 23741529
25.  Improving the specificity of high-throughput ortholog prediction 
BMC Bioinformatics  2006;7:270.
Background
Orthologs (genes that have diverged after a speciation event) tend to have similar function, and so their prediction has become an important component of comparative genomics and genome annotation. The gold standard phylogenetic analysis approach of comparing available organismal phylogeny to gene phylogeny is not easily automated for genome-wide analysis; therefore, ortholog prediction for large genome-scale datasets is typically performed using a reciprocal-best-BLAST-hits (RBH) approach. One problem with RBH is that it will incorrectly predict a paralog as an ortholog when incomplete genome sequences or gene loss is involved. In addition, there is an increasing interest in identifying orthologs most likely to have retained similar function.
Results
To address these issues, we present here a high-throughput computational method named Ortholuge that further evaluates previously predicted orthologs (including those predicted using an RBH-based approach) – identifying which orthologs most closely reflect species divergence and may more likely have similar function. Ortholuge analyzes phylogenetic distance ratios involving two comparison species and an outgroup species, noting cases where relative gene divergence is atypical. It also identifies some cases of gene duplication after species divergence. Through simulations of incomplete genome data/gene loss, we show that the vast majority of genes falsely predicted as orthologs by an RBH-based method can be identified. Ortholuge was then used to estimate the number of false-positives (predominantly paralogs) in selected RBH-predicted ortholog datasets, identifying approximately 10% paralogs in a eukaryotic data set (mouse-rat comparison) and 5% in a bacterial data set (Pseudomonas putida – Pseudomonas syringae species comparison). Higher quality (more precise) datasets of orthologs, which we term "ssd-orthologs" (supporting-species-divergence-orthologs), were also constructed. These datasets, as well as Ortholuge software that may be used to characterize other species' datasets, are available at (software under GNU General Public License).
Conclusion
The Ortholuge method reported here appears to significantly improve the specificity (precision) of high-throughput ortholog prediction for both bacterial and eukaryotic species. This method, and its associated software, will aid those performing various comparative genomics-based analyses, such as the prediction of conserved regulatory elements upstream of orthologous genes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-7-270
PMCID: PMC1524997  PMID: 16729895

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