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1.  Chronic migraine classification: current knowledge and future perspectives 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(6):585-592.
In the field of so-called chronic daily headache, it is not easy for migraine that worsens progressively until it becomes daily or almost daily to find a precise and universally recognized place within the current international headache classification systems. In line with the 2006 revision of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2R), the current prevailing opinion is that this headache type should be named chronic migraine (CM) and be characterized by the presence of at least 15 days of headache per month for at least 3 consecutive months, with headache having the same clinical features of migraine without aura for at least 8 of those 15 days. Based on much evidence, though, a CM with the above characteristics appears to be a heterogeneous entity and the obvious risk is that its definition may be extended to include a variety of different clinical entities. A proposal is advanced to consider CM a subtype of migraine without aura that is characterized by a high frequency of attacks (10–20 days of headache per month for at least 3 months) and is distinct from transformed migraine (TM), which in turn should be included in the classification as a complication of migraine. Therefore, CM should be removed from its current coding position in the ICHD-2 and be replaced by TM, which has more restrictive diagnostic criteria (at least 20 days of headache per month for at least 1 year, with no more than 5 consecutive days free of symptoms; same clinical features of migraine without aura for at least 10 of those 20 days).
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0393-6
PMCID: PMC3208036  PMID: 22028184
Chronic migraine; Transformed migraine; Chronic daily headache; Chronic headache; Headache; Migraine
2.  The classification of chronic daily headache in French children and adolescents: A comparison between the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and Silberstein-Lipton criteria 
Few data are available on the applicability of both the criteria proposed by Silberstein and Lipton (S-L) and the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II (ICHD-II) in the classification of children and adolescents with chronic daily headache (CDH). The International Headache Society recently added revised criteria (ICHD-IIR) for chronic migraine to its Appendix. We retrospectively reviewed all charts of 34 children and adolescents (<17 years) with primary CDH presenting to the outpatient clinic of the Universitary Department of Neuropediatrics of Lille between February 2004 and February 2006 and tried to classify their CDH according to both S-L criteria and the recently published ICHD-IIR. Thirty-two children (94%) and 33 children (97%) could respectively be successfully classified into one subtype of CDH according to the S-L classification and the ICHD-IIR. Transformed migraine was the most common diagnosis (61.8%), followed by new daily-persistent headache (20.6%) when the S-L criteria were used. Twenty-three children and adolescents (67.6%) could be classified under one of the migraine categories according to the ICHD-IIR classification. We think that both S-L and ICHD-II classifications, when used with detailed headache histories and diaries, are adequate to classify chronic daily headache in children and adolescents.
PMCID: PMC2515924  PMID: 18728770
chronic daily headache; classification; children; adolescents
3.  Decreasing the minimal duration of the attack to 1 hour: is this sufficient to increase the sensitivity of the ICHD-II diagnostic criteria for migraine in childhood? 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2004;5(2):131-136.
We applied the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) in 417 children (age range, 2–12 years) with chronic headaches attending a pediatric headache clinic. The initial diagnosis was made according to the ICHD-II while the final diagnosis was, based on the longitudinal intuitive clinical diagnosis (LICD), deemed to be the gold standard. The diagnosis of migraine without aura had a sensitivity of 52%, a specificity of 100% and a positive predictive value of 100%; for the diagnosis of migraine (at the one-digit level) these values were 87%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The ICHD-II criteria for migraine without aura have high specificity but low sensitivity in childhood, even considering the minimal duration of the attacks to be 1 hour. Other factors, such as the existence of subgroup 2.4 (probable tension-type headache), are responsible for the low sensitivity of ICHD-II criteria for the diagnosis of migraine without aura in patients of this age group.
doi:10.1007/s10194-004-0081-x
PMCID: PMC3451616
Headache classification; Migraine; Childhood; Diagnosis
4.  Clinical and prognostic subforms of new daily-persistent headache 
Neurology  2010;74(17):1358-1364.
Background: According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)–2, primary daily headaches unremitting from onset are classified as new daily-persistent headache (NDPH) only if migraine features are absent. When migraine features are present, classification is problematic.
Methods: We developed a revised NDPH definition not excluding migraine features (NDPH-R), and applied it to consecutive patients seen at the Montefiore Headache Center. We divided this group into patients meeting ICHD-2 criteria (NDPH-ICHD) and those with too many migraine features for ICHD-2 (NDPH-mf). We compared clinical and demographic features in these groups, identifying 3 prognostic subgroups: persisting, remitting, and relapsing-remitting. Remitting and relapsing-remitting patients were combined into a nonpersisting group.
Results: Of 71 NDPH-R patients, 31 (43.7%) also met NDPH-ICHD-2 criteria. The NDPH-mf and the NDPH-ICHD-2 groups were similar in most clinical features though the NDPH-mf group was younger, included more women, and had a higher frequency of depression. The groups were similar in the prevalence of allodynia, triptan responsiveness, and prognosis. NDPH-R prognostic subforms were also very similar, although the persisting subform was more likely to be of white race, to have anxiety or depression, and to have a younger onset age.
Conclusions: Current International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)–2 criteria exclude the majority of patients with primary headache unremitting from onset. The proposed criteria for revised new daily-persistent headache definition not excluding migraine features (NDPH-R) classify these patients into a relatively homogeneous group based on demographics, clinical features, and prognosis. Both new daily-persistent headache with too many migraine features for ICHD-2 and new daily-persistent headache meeting ICHD-2 criteria include patients in equal proportions that fall into the persisting, remitting, and relapsing-remitting subgroups. Our criteria for NDPH-R should be considered for inclusion in ICHD-3.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181dad5de
PMCID: PMC3462554  PMID: 20421580
5.  Comorbidity profiles of chronic migraine sufferers in a national database in Taiwan 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(4):311-319.
Chronic migraine (CM; ≥15 headache days per month, ≥3 months) is associated with a higher prevalence of comorbidities than episodic migraine (<15 headache days per month). However, it is unclear whether a similar pattern exists in Asian patients. To examine this, a retrospective matched cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. CM cases were defined as patients with at least one neurological outpatient visit with a primary or secondary ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification) code of 346.11, diagnosed by neurologists at medical centers during 2007–2008. The study group was compared with patients suffering from other migraine subtypes and non-migraineurs in the general population. Both comparison groups were matched with CM sufferers at a 4:1 ratio by age, gender, urbanization level of the residence, income, and hospital setting. Relative risk (RR) was calculated using conditional logistic regression. Compared with patients with other migraines (n = 2,226), CM sufferers (n = 681) had a higher risk of hyperlipidemia (RR = 1.32; P = 0.041), asthma (RR = 1.77; P = 0.007), depression (RR = 1.88; P < 0.0001), bipolar disorder (RR = 1.81; P = 0.022) and anxiety disorders (RR = 1.48; P = <0.0001). Compared with the non-migraineurs (n = 3,790), CM sufferers (n = 948) had significantly increased risks of cardiovascular disease, sinusitis, asthma, gastrointestinal ulcers, vertigo and psychiatric disorders by 1.6–3.9-fold. In conclusion, CM is associated with significant comorbidities in Asian patients. Differences in the comorbidity profiles of CM compared with other migraines have highlighted that patients with CM differ not just in terms of headache frequency but also in other important aspects.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0447-4
PMCID: PMC3356468  PMID: 22527034
Chronic migraine; Comorbidity; Taiwan
6.  Sporadic hemiplegic migraine and CREST syndrome 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2010;11(2):171-173.
Hemiplegic migraines are characterised by attacks of migraine with aura accompanied by transient motor weakness. There are both familial and sporadic subtypes, which are now recognised as separate entities by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, edition II (ICHD-II). The sporadic subtype has been associated with other medical conditions, particularly rheumatological diseases. We report the case of a woman with sporadic hemiplegic migraine associated with CREST syndrome (calcinosis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia). Since there is a close relationship between migraine and Raynaud’s phenomenon, it could be speculated that the sporadic hemiplegic migraines in our patient might be secondary to CREST syndrome.
doi:10.1007/s10194-010-0188-1
PMCID: PMC3452292  PMID: 20130953
Migraine disorders; Hemiplegic migraine; Migraine with auras; CREST syndrome
7.  Sporadic Hemiplegic Migraine with Seizures and Transient MRI Abnormalities 
Hemiplegic migraines are characterised by attacks of migraine with aura accompanied by transient motor weakness. There are both familial and sporadic subtypes, which are now recognised as separate entities by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, edition II (ICHD-II). Sporadic hemiplegic migraine is a rare variant of migraine, We report a case of sporadic hemiplegic migraine and seizures with MRI features suggestive of cortical hyper intensity and edema on T2 and FLAIR images with no restriction pattern on diffusion and these changes completely resolving over time, suggesting that these changes are due prolonged neuronal depolarization and not of ischemic origin.
doi:10.1155/2011/258372
PMCID: PMC3420796  PMID: 22937333
8.  Persistent negative visual aura in migraine without headache: a case report 
Introduction
Persistent migraine aura without headache is an extremely rare condition. The International Headache Society defines various subtypes of migraines, including “persistent migraine aura without infarction” and “typical aura without headache.”
Case presentation
We describe the case of a 21-year-old Asian woman with a history of migraine without aura who had (as her first aura episode) persistent negative visual symptoms without headache for 6 months. We detected no lesions that could cause her persistent visual symptoms. Based on the patient’s history of migraine without aura and responsiveness to furosemide and lamotrigine, we concluded that the visual symptoms in this case were related to migraine visual auras.
Conclusions
Persistent visual aura without headache overlapped the criteria for the two migraine subtypes mentioned above and thus did not fit an exact diagnosis. Therefore, we assert that new criteria are needed to encompass uncertain visual symptoms of migraine aura.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-8-61
PMCID: PMC3938319  PMID: 24552492
Aura; Cortical spreading depression; Criteria; Headache; Migraine
9.  Combination of acupuncture and spinal manipulative therapy: management of a 32-year-old patient with chronic tension-type headache and migraine 
Journal of Chiropractic Medicine  2012;11(3):192-201.
Objective
The purpose of this case study is to describe the treatment using acupuncture and spinal manipulation for a patient with a chronic tension-type headache and episodic migraines.
Clinical Features
A 32-year-old woman presented with headaches of 5 months' duration. She had a history of episodic migraine that began in her teens and had been controlled with medication. She had stopped taking the prescription medications because of gastrointestinal symptoms. A neurologist diagnosed her with mixed headaches, some migrainous and some tension type. Her headaches were chronic, were daily, and fit the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria of a chronic tension-type headache superimposed with migraine.
Intervention and Outcome
After 5 treatments over a 2-week period (the first using acupuncture only, the next 3 using acupuncture and chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy), her headaches resolved. The patient had no recurrences of headaches in her 1-year follow-up.
Conclusion
The combination of acupuncture with chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy was a reasonable alternative in treating this patient's chronic tension-type headaches superimposed with migraine.
doi:10.1016/j.jcm.2012.02.003
PMCID: PMC3437348  PMID: 23449932
Acupuncture; Acupuncture analgesia; Headache disorders; Migraine headaches; Tension-type headaches
10.  Agreement of Self-Reported Migraine with ICHD-II Criteria in the Women’s Health Study 
Migraine is a common headache disorder that is increasingly being evaluated in population-based studies. The American Migraine Study II and the Women’s Health Study (WHS) have successfully used “modified” International Classification of Headache Disorders - I (ICHD-I) criteria to classify patients. Investigating agreement of self-reported migraine in large epidemiological studies with the criteria of the revised version (ICHD-II) is sparse. We have investigated 1,675 women with self-reported migraine participating in the WHS, who provided additional information on a detailed migraine questionnaire, which allowed us to apply all ICHD-II criteria. In this sub-cohort we confirmed self-reported migraine in over 87% of women when applying the ICHD-II criteria for migraine (71.5%) and probable migraine without aura (16.2 %). In conclusion, there is excellent agreement between self-reported migraine and ICHD-II based migraine classification in the WHS. In addition, questionnaire-based migraine assessment according to full ICHD-II criteria in large population-based studies is feasible.
doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2008.01835.x
PMCID: PMC2742765  PMID: 19735535
migraine; epidemiology; questionnaire; ICHD-I; ICHD-II
11.  Chronic Daily Headache in a Patient with Cavum Septum Pellucidum and Cavum Verge 
Ghana Medical Journal  2013;47(1):46-49.
Summary
Cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) and cavum Vergae
(CV) are unusual variants and usually asymptomatic, but their expansion or inside lesions can produce symptoms by mass effect. A 46-year-old female Taiwanese worker presented with chronic daily headaches for eight years. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed coexistent CSP and CV. She declined surgical drainage recommended by a neurosurgeon and thus visited our clinic for a second opinion. Physical examination did not show any abnormality. With the help of the patient's one-month headache diary, she was diagnosed with chronic migraine according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition, with further modification in 2006. In addition, hypertension was also identified. Over the following week, taking a daily selective β1-antagonist relieved the headache and hypertension. The medication was continued and the following year was uneventful. Therefore, the chronic daily headache was ascribed to chronic migraine, rather than symptomatic CSP and CV.
PMCID: PMC3645187  PMID: 23661856
cavum septum pellucidum; cavum Vergae; chronic migraine; selective β1-antagonist; hypertension
12.  Brief migraine episodes in children and adolescents-a modification to International Headache Society pediatric migraine (without aura) diagnostic criteria 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:77.
The international Headache Society (I H S) diagnostic criteria (International classification of headache disorders edition 2- ICHD 2) for headache in children and adults improved the accuracy of migraine diagnoses. However many short duration headaches in children, receive an atypical migraine diagnosis. This study is to diagnose children and adolescents who presented with such atypical migraines of less than one hour duration. 1402 children and adolescents aged 5 to 15 years who presented with recurrent brief activity affected head pain, were studied. Known and common migraine triggers and family history of migraine were recorded in all. All the children studied had moderate to severe headache lasting 5 to 45 minutes which forced them motionless during the attacks (thus fulfilling 2 diagnostic pain features). At least one of the ICHD2 pediatric migraine diagnostic symptoms (nausea / vomiting / photophobia / phonophobia) were present in all. Two additional features were diagnostic of brief migraines in all of them- one of the parents or siblings was a migrainer and one of the common migraine triggers as a precipitating factor. This study concludes that if duration of head pain is less than one hour ,two additional features to be included to diagnose definitive migraine in children and adolescents - one migraine parent or sibling and one of the migraine triggers precipitating the head pain.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-77
PMCID: PMC3602609  PMID: 23526480
Brief migraines; ICHD2; Modification; Common migraine triggers family history
13.  Chronic daily headache: old problems, new vistas 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2000;1(Suppl 1):S5-S10.
In 1988 the problems concerning chronic daily headache (CDH) were neglected by the classification of the International Headache Society (IHS). More than ten years later, this issue is still debated, also in light of the foreseen revised classification. Several terms have been used to define the clinical picture of CDH, and different criteria have been proposed for the diagnosis of these forms. In most cases, CDH appears to evolve from an episodic migraine, but the temporal limits between an episodic and a no-longer episodic form of migraine are questionable. A decreased threshold for headache recurrence in CDH is currently hypothesized, and it may be due to either an impaired control system or a sensitization of the trigeminal neurons, occurring regardless of the original nature of headache. The identification of genetic alterations and neurobiological changes underlying the different forms of CDH may greatly facilitate any nosographic and therapeutical approach to this broad spectrum of disorders.
doi:10.1007/s101940070018
PMCID: PMC3611796
Key words Chronic daily headache; Tension-type headache; Migraine; Drug abuse; Nosography
14.  Headaches of otolaryngological interest: current status while awaiting revision of classification. Practical considerations and expectations 
SUMMARY
In 1988, diagnostic criteria for headaches were drawn up by the International Headache Society (IHS) and is divided into headaches, cranial neuralgias and facial pain. The 2nd edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) was produced in 2004, and still provides a dynamic and useful instrument for clinical practice. We have examined the current IHC, which comprises 14 groups. The first four cover primary headaches, with "benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood" being the forms of migraine of interest to otolaryngologists; groups 5 to 12 classify "secondary headaches"; group 11 is formed of "headache or facial pain attributed to disorder of cranium, neck, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, teeth, mouth or other facial or cranial structures"; group 13, consisting of "cranial neuralgias and central causes of facial pain" is also of relevance to otolaryngology. Neither the current classification system nor the original one has a satisfactory collocation for migraineassociated vertigo. Another critical point of the classification concerns cranio-facial pain syndromes such as Sluder's neuralgia, previously included in the 1988 classification among cluster headaches, and now included in the section on "cranial neuralgias and central causes of facial pain", even though Sluder's neuralgia has not been adequately validated. As we have highlighted in our studies, there are considerable similarities between Sluder's syndrome and cluster headaches. The main features distinguishing the two are the trend to cluster over time, found only in cluster headaches, and the distribution of pain, with greater nasal manifestations in the case of Sluder's syndrome. We believe that it is better and clearer, particularly on the basis of our clinical experience and published studies, to include this nosological entity, which is clearly distinct from an otolaryngological point of view, as a variant of cluster headache. We agree with experts in the field of headaches, such as Olesen and Nappi who contributed to previous classifications, on the need for a revised classification, particularly with regards to secondary headaches. According to the current Committee on headaches, the updated version of the classification, presently under study, is due to be published soon; it is our hope that this revised version will take into account some of the above considerations.
PMCID: PMC3383075  PMID: 22767967
Headache;  Migraine;  Facial pain;  Cranial neuralgias ;  International Headache Classification;  Sluder's neuralgia;  Charlin's neuralgia;  Vestibular migraine;  ENT
15.  The patients’ perceptions of migraine and chronic daily headache: a qualitative study 
This study aimed to gain insight into the management of migraine and chronic daily headache (CDH) from the patients’ perspective. This article outlines the patients’ perceptions of migraine and chronic daily headache. Thirteen semi–structured interviews were carried out with patients suffering from IHS migraine. Five patients, due to their headache frequency of more than 15 headache days per month, were classed as CDH patients. The data were transcribed verbatim and analysed in accordance with the grounded theory methodology. The main themes were: headaches, impact and headaches related to health issues. The theme ‘headaches’ was sub-divided into ‘their pain and symptoms’, ‘differentiating between their headaches’ and ‘perceptions of headaches as barriers and facilitators to management’. The patients’ perceptions of migraine and CDH were sometimes conflicting and influenced the patients’ management behaviours. The qualitative methodology may help to inform doctors, other healthcare professionals and headache researchers about the patients’ perspective and possibly develop future headache research, care and education.
doi:10.1007/s10194-005-0144-7
PMCID: PMC3451956  PMID: 16362190
Migraine; Chronic daily headache; Patient; Perceptions
16.  The differential diagnosis of chronic daily headaches: an algorithm-based approach 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2007;8(5):263-272.
Chronic daily headaches (CDHs) refers to primary headaches that happen on at least 15 days per month, for 4 or more hours per day, for at least three consecutive months. The differential diagnosis of CDHs is challenging and should proceed in an orderly fashion. The approach begins with a search for “red flags” that suggest the possibility of a secondary headache. If secondary headaches that mimic CDHs are excluded, either on clinical grounds or through investigation, the next step is to classify the headaches based on the duration of attacks. If the attacks last less than 4 hours per day, a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (TAC) is likely. TACs include episodic and chronic cluster headache, episodic and chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. If the duration is ≥4 h, a CDH is likely and the differential diagnosis encompasses chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and hemicrania continua. The clinical approach to diagnosing CDH is the scope of this review.
doi:10.1007/s10194-007-0418-3
PMCID: PMC2793374  PMID: 17955166
Chronic daily headache; Differential diagnosis; Strategy
17.  The differential diagnosis of chronic daily headaches: an algorithm-based approach 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2007;8(5):263-272.
Chronic daily headaches (CDHs) refers to primary headaches that happen on at least 15 days per month, for 4 or more hours per day, for at least three consecutive months. The differential diagnosis of CDHs is challenging and should proceed in an orderly fashion. The approach begins with a search for “red flags” that suggest the possibility of a secondary headache. If secondary headaches that mimic CDHs are excluded, either on clinical grounds or through investigation, the next step is to classify the headaches based on the duration of attacks. If the attacks last less than 4 hours per day, a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (TAC) is likely. TACs include episodic and chronic cluster headache, episodic and chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. If the duration is ≥4 h, a CDH is likely and the differential diagnosis encompasses chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and hemicrania continua. The clinical approach to diagnosing CDH is the scope of this review.
doi:10.1007/s10194-007-0418-3
PMCID: PMC2793374  PMID: 17955166
Chronic daily headache; Differential diagnosis; Strategy
18.  Comparison of oxidative stress among migraineurs, tension-type headache subjects, and a control group 
Background:
A primary headache, particularly migraine, is associated with oxidative stress during the attack. However, data regarding the interictal state in migraineurs and in those with tension-type headache (TTH) is limited.
Objectives:
(1) To assess the oxidative stress in migraineurs and TTH subjects in between the episodes and (2) to see if there is a difference in the degree of oxidative stress in the different subtypes of migraine and TTH.
Materials and Methods:
Fifty migraineurs, 50 patients with TTH, and 50 control subjects were included in this study after screening for the exclusion criteria. Diagnosis of headache was made according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-2 criteria. A venous blood sample was collected from the antecubital vein at least 3 days after the last attack of headache. The sample was centrifuged immediately and the plasma was stored at –70°C. The ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistical analysis was done with the help of SPSS for Windows, v 11.0. One way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey test, independent sample t test, univariate regression, and multivariate regression analysis were done as indicated.
Results:
Migraineurs had higher values of MDA and FRAP than the subjects in the other two groups (P<0.001). No difference was observed between the TTH group and the control group. FRAP levels were significantly higher in subjects who had mixed migraine (migraine with aura and without aura) as compared to those with only migraine without aura (mean difference 196.1; 95% CI = 27.3 to 364.9; P = 0.01). Similarly, oxidative stress was significantly higher in patients with episodic TTH as compared to those with chronic TTH (FRAP t = 3.16; P = 0.003 and MDA t = 2.75; P = 0.008).
Conclusions:
This study suggests that oxidative stress continues even between headache episodes in migraineurs but not in those with TTH. This could probably be consequent to the different pathophysiological mechanisms of TTH and migraine.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.56316
PMCID: PMC2824933  PMID: 20174497
Migraine; tension type headache; oxidative stress; ferric reducing activity of plasma; malondialdehyde
19.  A computerized expert system for diagnosing primary headache based on International Classification of Headache Disorder (ICHD-II) 
SpringerPlus  2013;2:199.
Background
The authors developed a computerized program designed to diagnose primary headache based on international classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II) criteria for use by physicians.
Methods
An appropriate questionnaire was designed according to the ICHD-II criteria for all types of primary headaches and the computerized system provided diagnosis based on the criteria. The software was tested by analyzing 80 patients, recruited from an outpatient headache clinic, affected by primary headache. Each patient with a unique card number was interviewed up to 15 minutes. At the end of each day, software and neurologist diagnoses were evaluated for each patient.
Results
Of 80 patients, the software was able to come up with correct results in 78 cases. The age of the patients ranged from 30 to 80 years old. Migraine headache accounted for 71 cases, five patients had tension type headache, and 2 had cluster headaches; all were correctly diagnosed by software. Two cases were not concordant with the neurologist’s diagnosis. The neurologist diagnosed these two cases as “Medical overuse syndrome headache” and “cluster headache”, which our software was not able to diagnosis them.
Conclusions
This software permitted the diagnosis of more than 97% of the patients similar to the physician's. We hope this questionnaire and applying the software to diagnose headache based on ICHD could be of help to better the diagnosis of headaches.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-199) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-199
PMCID: PMC3661080  PMID: 23710428
Headache diagnosis; Software; International classification of headache disorder (ICHD-II)
20.  Effect of preventive (β blocker) treatment, behavioural migraine management, or their combination on outcomes of optimised acute treatment in frequent migraine: randomised controlled trial 
Objective To determine if the addition of preventive drug treatment (β blocker), brief behavioural migraine management, or their combination improves the outcome of optimised acute treatment in the management of frequent migraine.
Design Randomised placebo controlled trial over 16 months from July 2001 to November 2005.
Setting Two outpatient sites in Ohio, USA.
Participants 232 adults (mean age 38 years; 79% female) with diagnosis of migraine with or without aura according to International Headache Society classification of headache disorders criteria, who recorded at least three migraines with disability per 30 days (mean 5.5 migraines/30 days), during an optimised run-in of acute treatment.
Interventions Addition of one of four preventive treatments to optimised acute treatment: β blocker (n=53), matched placebo (n=55), behavioural migraine management plus placebo (n=55), or behavioural migraine management plus β blocker (n=69).
Main outcome measure The primary outcome was change in migraines/30 days; secondary outcomes included change in migraine days/30 days and change in migraine specific quality of life scores.
Results Mixed model analysis showed statistically significant (P≤0.05) differences in outcomes among the four added treatments for both the primary outcome (migraines/30 days) and the two secondary outcomes (change in migraine days/30 days and change in migraine specific quality of life scores). The addition of combined β blocker and behavioural migraine management (−3.3 migraines/30 days, 95% confidence interval −3.2 to −3.5), but not the addition of β blocker alone (−2.1 migraines/30 days, −1.9 to −2.2) or behavioural migraine management alone (−2.2 migraines migraines/30 days, −2.0 to −2.4), improved outcomes compared with optimised acute treatment alone (−2.1 migraines/30 days, −1.9 to −2.2). For a clinically significant (≥50% reduction) in migraines/30 days, the number needed to treat for optimised acute treatment plus combined β blocker and behavioural migraine management was 3.1 compared with optimised acute treatment alone, 2.6 compared with optimised acute treatment plus β blocker, and 3.1 compared with optimised acute treatment plus behavioural migraine management. Results were consistent for the two secondary outcomes, and at both month 10 (the primary endpoint) and month 16.
Conclusion The addition of combined β blocker plus behavioural migraine management, but not the addition of β blocker alone or behavioural migraine management alone, improved outcomes of optimised acute treatment. Combined β blocker treatment and behavioural migraine management may improve outcomes in the treatment of frequent migraine.
Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00910689.
doi:10.1136/bmj.c4871
PMCID: PMC2947621  PMID: 20880898
21.  Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(5):561-567.
This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p < 0.001).TTH patients had more frequent episodes of headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p < 0.001); 22.8% of primary headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0360-2
PMCID: PMC3173628  PMID: 21744226
Outpatient; Headache; Cross-sectional study; Clinical feature; Migraine
22.  Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(5):561-567.
This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p < 0.001).TTH patients had more frequent episodes of headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p < 0.001); 22.8% of primary headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0360-2
PMCID: PMC3173628  PMID: 21744226
Outpatient; Headache; Cross-sectional study; Clinical feature; Migraine
23.  Triggers of migraine in children at a public hospital in India 
SpringerPlus  2012;1:45.
We conducted a descriptive study of children presenting with recurrent headaches to the general pediatric services of a tertiary-care, public hospital in northern India. This paper reports on the triggering factors of migraine in this population. 43 children, 3-18 year old (23 females, median age 10 years), presenting with recurrent headache from April, 2011 to January, 2012, were enrolled. History, clinical examination and follow-up were done using a structured proforma. Headache diagnosis was made on the basis of International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). 26 patients (60.5%) had headache with migraine features (11 had Tension type headache and 4 had non-specific headaches). Stress (both physical and emotional) was identified by the majority of children (46.1%) as the trigger for the headache. The triggers reported were different from those reported from other settings in India. We wish to highlight that the relative contribution of triggers in pediatric migraine may not be similar across regions/populations.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-1-45
PMCID: PMC3725916  PMID: 23961370
24.  Prevalence of headache in an elderly population: attack frequency, disability, and use of medication 
OBJECTIVES—To assess the 1 year prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH), migraine headache (MH), and chronic daily headache (CDH), as well as of headache in general in a rural elderly population.
METHODS—A door to door two phase survey was carried out on all elderly (⩾65 years) residents in three villages in central Italy. Participants completed a standardised headache questionnaire and underwent a clinical evaluation by a neurologist. Headache diagnosis was made according to the classification of the International Headache Society, with minor modifications for the classification of patients with MH with⩾15 attacks/month.
RESULTS—Eight hundred and thirty three (72.6%) of the 1147 eligible persons completed the study protocol. One year prevalence rates were respectively 44.5% for TTH, 11.0% for MH, 2.2% for symptomatic headaches, and 0.7% for the remaining types of headache. The prevalence of headache in general was 51.0% because 62 residents had both TTH and MH attacks. Prevalence rates of patients with headache were higher in women than men (62.1% and 36.6% respectively) and decreased steadily with age for the 65-74, 75-84, and 85-96 age groups (56.7%, 45.2% and 26.1% respectively). Prevalence rates were 20.4% for patients with moderate to severe attacks, 18.0% for those with ⩾1 attacks a month, and 4.4% for those with CDH. Of the 425 with headache 52 (12.2%) had not taken any drugs for their attacks in the previous year, 195 (45.9%) had taken them regularly, and 178 (41.9%) had taken them only when the headache pain interfered with activities that could not be postponed. Medication overuse was reported by 37.8% of patients with CDH with higher proportions for transformed migraine than for patients with chronic TTH (69.2% and 23.8% respectively, p=0.009)
CONCLUSIONS—A consistent proportion of elderly people have primary headaches and consultation with a specialist is particularly recommended for patients with moderate or severe attacks, or with CDH.


doi:10.1136/jnnp.70.3.377
PMCID: PMC1737286  PMID: 11181862
25.  Migraine may be a risk factor for the development of complex regional pain syndrome 
The aim was to assess the relative frequency of migraine and the headache characteristics of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) sufferers. CRPS and migraine are chronic, often disabling pain syndromes. Recent studies suggest that headache is associated with the development of CRPS. Consecutive adults fulfilling International Association for the Study of Pain criteria for CRPS at a pain clinic were included. Demographics, medical history, and pain characteristics were obtained. Headache diagnoses were made using International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edn criteria. Migraine and pain characteristics were compared in those with migraine with those without. ANOVA with Tukey post hoc tests was used to determine the significance of continuous variables and Fisher’s exact or χ2 tests for categorical variables. The expected prevalence of migraine and chronic daily headache (CDH) was calculated based on age- and gender-stratified general population estimates. Standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) were calculated by dividing the observed prevalence of migraine by the expected prevalence from the general population. The sample consisted of 124 CRPS participants. The mean age was 45.5 ± 12.0 years. Age-and gender-adjusted SMRs showed that those with CRPS were 3.6 times more likely to have migraine and nearly twice as likely to have CDH as the general population. Aura was reported in 59.7% (74/124) of participants. Of those CRPS sufferers with migraine, 61.2% (41/67) reported the onset of severe headaches before the onset of CRPS symptoms Mean age of onset of CRPS was earlier in those with migraine (34.9 ± 11.1 years) and CDH (32.5 ± 13.4 years) compared with those with no headaches (46.8 ± 14.9 years) and those with tension-type headache (TTH) (39.9 ± 9.9 years), P < 0.05. More extremities were affected by CRPS in participants with migraine (median of four extremities) compared with the combined group of those CRPS sufferers with no headaches or TTH (median 2.0 extremities), P < 0.05. The presence of static, dynamic and deep joint mechanoallodynia together was reported by more CRPS participants with migraine (72.2%) than those with no headaches or TTH (46.2%), P ≤ 0.05. Migraine may be a risk factor for CRPS and the presence of migraine may be associated with a more severe form of CRPS. Specifically: (i) migraine occurs in a greater percentage of CRPS sufferers than expected in the general population; (ii) the onset of CRPS is reported earlier in those with migraine than in those without; and (iii) CRPS symptoms are present in more extremities in those CRPS sufferers with migraine compared with those without. In addition, as we also found that the presence of aura is reported in a higher percentage of those CRPS sufferers with migraine than reported in migraineurs in the general population, further evaluation of the cardiovascular risk profile of CRPS sufferers is warranted.
doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2009.01916.x
PMCID: PMC3979276  PMID: 19614690
Migraine; chronic daily headache; complex regional pain syndrome; allodynia; aura

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