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1.  Phage Morphology Recapitulates Phylogeny: The Comparative Genomics of a New Group of Myoviruses 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e40102.
Among dsDNA tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales), members of the Myoviridae family have the most sophisticated virion design that includes a complex contractile tail structure. The Myoviridae generally have larger genomes than the other phage families. Relatively few “dwarf” myoviruses, those with a genome size of less than 50 kb such as those of the Mu group, have been analyzed in extenso. Here we report on the genome sequencing and morphological characterization of a new group of such phages that infect a diverse range of Proteobacteria, namely Aeromonas salmonicida phage 56, Vibrio cholerae phages 138 and CP-T1, Bdellovibrio phage φ1422, and Pectobacterium carotovorum phage ZF40. This group of dwarf myoviruses shares an identical virion morphology, characterized by usually short contractile tails, and have genome sizes of approximately 45 kb. Although their genome sequences are variable in their lysogeny, replication, and host adaption modules, presumably reflecting differing lifestyles and hosts, their structural and morphogenesis modules have been evolutionarily constrained by their virion morphology. Comparative genomic analysis reveals that these phages, along with related prophage genomes, form a new coherent group within the Myoviridae. The results presented in this communication support the hypothesis that the diversity of phages may be more structured than generally believed and that the innumerable phages in the biosphere all belong to discrete lineages or families.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040102
PMCID: PMC3391216  PMID: 22792219
2.  A Study of 33 Bacteriophages of Rhizobium meliloti 
A total of 33 Rhizobium meliloti bacteriophages were studied. Of those, 21 were isolated in northern France from field soil in which Medicago sativa L. was grown. The other 12 phages were obtained by UV light and mitomycin C induction from 46 R. meliloti strains. Rhizobiophages were characterized by their morphology, host range, serological properties, restriction endonuclease patterns, DNA-DNA homologies, and DNA molecular weights. Five morphotypes were observed showing tailed phages with icosahedral heads. The categories of morphotypes included the Myoviridae (11 phages), Siphoviridae (3 morphotypes and 20 phages), and Podoviridae (2 phages). Type NM1 phage (Siphoviridae) is highly unusual because of the presence of transverse bars on the phage tail. Soil phages had broad host ranges, whereas phages isolated from bacterial cultures showed more or less narrow host ranges. Restriction endonuclease patterns and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that the five phage type genomes were unrelated. Molecular weights of phage type DNAs were estimated, and they corresponded to values expected for capsid sizes, except for phage NM8. Type φM11S (Siphoviridae) did not correspond to any other described Rhizobium phages and represents a new species.
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PMCID: PMC202420  PMID: 16347525
3.  Novel Virulent and Broad-Host-Range Erwinia amylovora Bacteriophages Reveal a High Degree of Mosaicism and a Relationship to Enterobacteriaceae Phages ▿† 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2011;77(17):5945-5954.
A diverse set of 24 novel phages infecting the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated from fruit production environments in Switzerland. Based on initial screening, four phages (L1, M7, S6, and Y2) with broad host ranges were selected for detailed characterization and genome sequencing. Phage L1 is a member of the Podoviridae, with a 39.3-kbp genome featuring invariable genome ends with direct terminal repeats. Phage S6, another podovirus, was also found to possess direct terminal repeats but has a larger genome (74.7 kbp), and the virus particle exhibits a complex tail fiber structure. Phages M7 and Y2 both belong to the Myoviridae family and feature long, contractile tails and genomes of 84.7 kbp (M7) and 56.6 kbp (Y2), respectively, with direct terminal repeats. The architecture of all four phage genomes is typical for tailed phages, i.e., organized into function-specific gene clusters. All four phages completely lack genes or functions associated with lysogeny control, which correlates well with their broad host ranges and indicates strictly lytic (virulent) lifestyles without the possibility for host lysogenization. Comparative genomics revealed that M7 is similar to E. amylovora virus ΦEa21-4, whereas L1, S6, and Y2 are unrelated to any other E. amylovora phage. Instead, they feature similarities to enterobacterial viruses T7, N4, and ΦEcoM-GJ1. In a series of laboratory experiments, we provide proof of concept that specific two-phage cocktails offer the potential for biocontrol of the pathogen.
doi:10.1128/AEM.03022-10
PMCID: PMC3165370  PMID: 21764969
4.  Complete Genomic Sequence of Bacteriophage φEcoM-GJ1, a Novel Phage That Has Myovirus Morphology and a Podovirus-Like RNA Polymerase▿  
The complete genome of φEcoM-GJ1, a lytic phage that attacks porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli of serotype O149:H10:F4, was sequenced and analyzed. The morphology of the phage and the identity of the structural proteins were also determined. The genome consisted of 52,975 bp with a G+C content of 44% and was terminally redundant and circularly permuted. Seventy-five potential open reading frames (ORFs) were identified and annotated, but only 29 possessed homologs. The proteins of five ORFs showed homology with proteins of phages of the family Myoviridae, nine with proteins of phages of the family Podoviridae, and six with proteins of phages of the family Siphoviridae. ORF 1 encoded a T7-like single-subunit RNA polymerase and was preceded by a putative E. coli σ70-like promoter. Nine putative phage promoters were detected throughout the genome. The genome included a tRNA gene of 95 bp that had a putative 18-bp intron. The phage morphology was typical of phages of the family Myoviridae, with an icosahedral head, a neck, and a long contractile tail with tail fibers. The analysis shows that φEcoM-GJ1 is unique, having the morphology of the Myoviridae, a gene for RNA polymerase, which is characteristic of phages of the T7 group of the Podoviridae, and several genes that encode proteins with homology to proteins of phages of the family Siphoviridae.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00990-07
PMCID: PMC2223254  PMID: 18039824
5.  Direct Electron Microscopy Study on the Morphological Diversity of Bacteriophage Populations in Lake Plußsee 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  1993;59(10):3378-3384.
Direct electron microscopy of bacteriophages adsorbed to a carbon film without prior enrichment by specific host strains or concentration by physical or chemical methods was used to study the morphological diversity of natural bacteriophage assemblages in a North German lake. All samples contained a mixture of morphologically different tailed viruses, which were regarded as bacteriophages. Most of them had isometric heads and long noncontractile tails, belonging to morphotype B1 (Siphoviridae). In addition, members of morphotypes A1 (Myoviridae), B2 (Siphoviridae with elongated heads), and C1 (Podoviridae) were present in lower numbers. Only one cubic virus was detected, while no filamentous or pleomorphic phages were found. Up to 11 different phages per sample, and a total of 39 phages when all samples were considered together, could be distinguished by morphological criteria. The total number of phages was estimated to be on the order of 108/ml.
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PMCID: PMC182462  PMID: 16349070
6.  Morphology, Physiological Characteristics, and Complete Sequence of Marine Bacteriophage ϕRIO-1 Infecting Pseudoalteromonas marina 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(16):9189-9198.
Bacteria of the genus Pseudoalteromonas are ubiquitous in the world's oceans. Marine bacteria have been posited to be associated with a major ancient branch of podoviruses related to T7. Yet, although Pseudoalteromonas phages belonging to the Corticoviridae and the Siphoviridae and prophages belonging to the Myoviridae have been reported, no Pseudoalteromonas podovirus was previously known. Here, a new lytic Pseudoalteromonas marina phage, ϕRIO-1, belonging to the Podoviridae was isolated and characterized with respect to morphology, genomic sequence, and biological properties. Its major encoded proteins were distantly similar to those of T7. The most similar previously sequenced viruses were Pseudomonas phage PA11 and Salinivibrio phage CW02. Whereas many elements of the morphology and gene organization of ϕRIO-1 are similar to those of podoviruses broadly related to T7, ϕRIO-1 conspicuously lacked an RNA polymerase gene. Since definitions of a T7 supergroup have included similarity in the DNA polymerase gene, a detailed phylogenetic analysis was conducted, and two major DNA polymerase clades in Autographivirinae and several structural variants of the polA family represented in podoviruses were found. ϕRIO-1 carries an operon similar to that in a few other podoviruses predicted to specify activities related to γ-glutamyl amide linkages and/or unusual peptide bonds. Most growth properties of ϕRIO-1 were typical of T7-like phages, except for a long latent period.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01521-13
PMCID: PMC3754069  PMID: 23760254
7.  Characterization of Marine Temperate Phage-Host Systems Isolated from Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii 
To understand the ecological and genetic role of viruses in the marine environment, it is critical to know the infectivity of viruses and the types of interactions that occur between marine viruses and their hosts. We isolated four marine phages from turbid plaques by using four indigenous bacterial hosts obtained from concentrated water samples from Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Two of the rod-shaped bacterial hosts were identified as Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Flavobacterium sp. All of the phage isolates were tailed phages and contained double-stranded DNA. Two of the phage isolates had morphologies typical of the family Siphoviridae, while the other two belonged to the families Myoviridae and Podoviridae. The head diameters of these viruses ranged from 47 to 70.7 nm, and the tail lengths ranged from 12 to 146 nm. The burst sizes ranged from 7.8 to 240 phage/bacterial cell, and the genome sizes, as determined by restriction digestion, ranged from 36 to 112 kb. The members of the Siphoviridae, T-φHSIC, and T-φD0, and the member of the Myoviridae, T-φD1B, were found to form lysogenic associations with their bacterial hosts, which were isolated from the same water samples. Hybridization of phage T-φHSIC probe with lysogenic host genomic DNA was observed in dot blot hybridization experiments, indicating that prophage T-φHSIC was integrated within the host genome. These phage-host systems are available for use in studies of marine lysogeny and transduction.
PMCID: PMC106079  PMID: 9464390
8.  Structure of the Receptor-Binding Protein of Bacteriophage Det7: a Podoviral Tail Spike in a Myovirus▿  
Journal of Virology  2007;82(5):2265-2273.
A new Salmonella enterica phage, Det7, was isolated from sewage and shown by electron microscopy to belong to the Myoviridae morphogroup of bacteriophages. Det7 contains a 75-kDa protein with 50% overall sequence identity to the tail spike endorhamnosidase of podovirus P22. Adsorption of myoviruses to their bacterial hosts is normally mediated by long and short tail fibers attached to a contractile tail, whereas podoviruses do not contain fibers but attach to host cells through stubby tail spikes attached to a very short, noncontractile tail. The amino-terminal 150 residues of the Det7 protein lack homology to the P22 tail spike and are probably responsible for binding to the base plate of the myoviral tail. Det7 tail spike lacking this putative particle-binding domain was purified from Escherichia coli, and well-diffracting crystals of the protein were obtained. The structure, determined by molecular replacement and refined at a 1.6-Å resolution, is very similar to that of bacteriophage P22 tail spike. Fluorescence titrations with an octasaccharide suggest Det7 tail spike to bind its receptor lipopolysaccharide somewhat less tightly than the P22 tail spike. The Det7 tail spike is even more resistant to thermal unfolding than the already exceptionally stable homologue from P22. Folding and assembly of both trimeric proteins are equally temperature sensitive and equally slow. Despite the close structural, biochemical, and sequence similarities between both proteins, the Det7 tail spike lacks both carboxy-terminal cysteines previously proposed to form a transient disulfide during P22 tail spike assembly. Our data suggest receptor-binding module exchange between podoviruses and myoviruses in the course of bacteriophage evolution.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01641-07
PMCID: PMC2258939  PMID: 18077713
9.  Klebsiella Phage vB_KleM-RaK2 — A Giant Singleton Virus of the Family Myoviridae 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60717.
At 346 kbp in size, the genome of a jumbo bacteriophage vB_KleM-RaK2 (RaK2) is the largest Klebsiella infecting myovirus genome sequenced to date. In total, 272 out of 534 RaK2 ORFs lack detectable database homologues. Based on the similarity to biologically defined proteins and/or MS/MS analysis, 117 of RaK2 ORFs were given a functional annotation, including 28 RaK2 ORFs coding for structural proteins that have no reliable homologues to annotated structural proteins in other organisms. The electron micrographs revealed elaborate spike-like structures on the tail fibers of Rak2, suggesting that this phage is an atypical myovirus. While head and tail proteins of RaK2 are mostly myoviridae-related, the bioinformatics analysis indicate that tail fibers/spikes of this phage are formed from podovirus-like peptides predominantly. Overall, these results provide evidence that bacteriophage RaK2 differs profoundly from previously studied viruses of the Myoviridae family.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060717
PMCID: PMC3622015  PMID: 23593293
10.  A giant Pseudomonas phage from Poland 
Archives of Virology  2013;159:567-572.
A novel giant phage of the family Myoviridae is described. Pseudomonas phage PA5oct was isolated from a sewage sample from an irrigated field near Wroclaw, Poland. The virion morphology indicates that PA5oct differs from known giant phages. The phage has a head of about 131 nm in diameter and a tail of 136 × 19 nm. Phage PA5oct contains a genome of approximately 375 kbp and differs in size from any tailed phages known. PA5oct was further characterized by determination of its latent period and burst size and its sensitivity to heating, chloroform, and pH.
doi:10.1007/s00705-013-1844-y
PMCID: PMC3936114  PMID: 24072472
Bacteriophage; DNA size; Giant; Myoviridae; Pseudomonas
11.  Genomic and Proteomic Analyses of the Terminally Redundant Genome of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PaP1: Establishment of Genus PaP1-Like Phages 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e62933.
We isolated and characterized a new Pseudomonas aeruginosa myovirus named PaP1. The morphology of this phage was visualized by electron microscopy and its genome sequence and ends were determined. Finally, genomic and proteomic analyses were performed. PaP1 has an icosahedral head with an apex diameter of 68–70 nm and a contractile tail with a length of 138–140 nm. The PaP1 genome is a linear dsDNA molecule containing 91,715 base pairs (bp) with a G+C content of 49.36% and 12 tRNA genes. A strategy to identify the genome ends of PaP1 was designed. The genome has a 1190 bp terminal redundancy. PaP1 has 157 open reading frames (ORFs). Of these, 143 proteins are homologs of known proteins, but only 38 could be functionally identified. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed identification of 12 ORFs as structural protein coding genes within the PaP1 genome. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1, JG004, PAK_P1 and vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab1 share great similarity. Besides their similar biological characteristics, the phages contain 123 core genes and have very close phylogenetic relationships, which distinguish them from other known phage genera. We therefore propose that these four phages be classified as PaP1-like phages, a new phage genus of Myoviridae that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062933
PMCID: PMC3652863  PMID: 23675441
12.  Characterization of Six Leuconostoc fallax Bacteriophages Isolated from an Industrial Sauerkraut Fermentation†  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2002;68(11):5452-5458.
Six bacteriophages active against Leuconostoc fallax strains were isolated from industrial sauerkraut fermentation brines. These phages were characterized as to host range, morphology, structural proteins, and genome fingerprint. They were exclusively lytic against the species L. fallax and had different host ranges among the strains of this species tested. Morphologically, three of the phages were assigned to the family Siphoviridae, and the three others were assigned to the family Myoviridae. Major capsid proteins detected by electrophoresis were distinct for each of the two morphotypes. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting showed that all six phages were genetically distinct. These results revealed for the first time the existence of bacteriophages that are active against L. fallax and confirmed the presence and diversity of bacteriophages in a sauerkraut fermentation. Since a variety of L. fallax strains have been shown to be present in sauerkraut fermentation, bacteriophages active against L. fallax are likely to contribute to the microbial ecology of sauerkraut fermentation and could be responsible for some of the variability observed in this type of fermentation.
doi:10.1128/AEM.68.11.5452-5458.2002
PMCID: PMC129880  PMID: 12406737
13.  Morphology, Genome Sequence, and Structural Proteome of Type Phage P335 from Lactococcus lactis▿ † 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2008;74(15):4636-4644.
Lactococcus lactis phage P335 is a virulent type phage for the species that bears its name and belongs to the Siphoviridae family. Morphologically, P335 resembled the L. lactis phages TP901-1 and Tuc2009, except for a shorter tail and a different collar/whisker structure. Its 33,613-bp double-stranded DNA genome had 50 open reading frames. Putative functions were assigned to 29 of them. Unlike other sequenced genomes from lactococcal phages belonging to this species, P335 did not have a lysogeny module. However, it did carry a dUTPase gene, the most conserved gene among this phage species. Comparative genomic analyses revealed a high level of identity between the morphogenesis modules of the phages P335, ul36, TP901-1, and Tuc2009 and two putative prophages of L. lactis SK11. Differences were noted in genes coding for receptor-binding proteins, in agreement with their distinct host ranges. Sixteen structural proteins of phage P335 were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A 2.8-kb insertion was recognized between the putative genes coding for the activator of late transcription (Alt) and the small terminase subunit (TerS). Four genes within this region were autonomously late transcribed and possibly under the control of Alt. Three of the four deduced proteins had similarities with proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes prophages, suggesting that P335 acquired this module from another phage genome. The genetic diversity of the P335 species indicates that they are exceptional models for studying the modular theory of phage evolution.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00118-08
PMCID: PMC2519342  PMID: 18539805
14.  Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Temperate Phages in Clostridium difficile▿  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2007;73(22):7358-7366.
Eight temperate phages were characterized after mitomycin C induction of six Clostridium difficile isolates corresponding to six distinct PCR ribotypes. The hypervirulent C. difficile strain responsible for a multi-institutional outbreak (NAP1/027 or QCD-32g58) was among these prophage-containing strains. Observation of the crude lysates by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of three phages with isometric capsids and long contractile tails (Myoviridae family), as well as five phages with long noncontractile tails (Siphoviridae family). TEM analyses also revealed the presence of a significant number of phage tail-like particles in all the lysates. Southern hybridization experiments with restricted prophage DNA showed that C. difficile phages belonging to the family Myoviridae are highly similar and most likely related to previously described prophages φC2, φC5, and φCD119. On the other hand, members of the Siphoviridae phage family are more genetically divergent, suggesting that they originated from distantly related ancestors. Our data thus suggest that there are at least three genetically distinct groups of temperate phages in C. difficile; one group is composed of highly related myophages, and the other two groups are composed of more genetically heterogeneous siphophages. Finally, no gene homologous to genes encoding C. difficile toxins or toxin regulators could be identified in the genomes of these phages using DNA hybridization. Interestingly, each unique phage restriction profile correlated with a specific C. difficile PCR ribotype.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00582-07
PMCID: PMC2168219  PMID: 17890338
15.  Characterization of Lactococcus lactis phage antigens. 
Phage phi 197 is representative of a widespread lactococcal phage group characterized by a particular morphology (prolate head with a noncontractile tail). In order to develop an immunoenzymatic phage detection test, fusion proteins containing beta-galactosidase fused to epitopes of phage phi 197 structural proteins were constructed by cloning random DNA fragments from the phage genome upstream of a lacZ gene on a plasmid vector. Recombinant plasmids containing certain fragments encoded the synthesis of fusion proteins which react with polyclonal antibodies against the phage and confer a Lac+ phenotype on Escherichia coli. Three different epitopes were represented; phage-specific DNA fragments encoding these epitopes were mapped at three locations on the phage genome, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Two fused phage antigens were conformational epitopes, whereas the phage epitope of protein encoded by the recombinant plasmid designated pOA17 was a denaturation-resistant epitope. This epitope was very immunogenic. Protein encoded by plasmid pOA17 was synthesized in large amounts from a strong promoter. Antibodies raised against this hybrid protein were used to identify the 46-kDa minor phage protein which provides the epitope. Antibody cross-reactivity of phages related to phi 197 showed that this epitope is well conserved in this genetic group.
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PMCID: PMC195807  PMID: 1514794
16.  Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Myovirus Which Infects Atypical Strains of Edwardsiella tarda 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(1):e00248-12.
We present the genome sequence of a novel Edwardsiella tarda-lytic bacteriophage, MSW-3, which specifically infects atypical E. tarda strains. The morphological and genomic features of MSW-3 suggest that this phage is a new member of the dwarf myoviruses, which have been much less studied than other groups of myoviruses.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00248-12
PMCID: PMC3587953  PMID: 23469359
17.  Prophage Carriage and Diversity within Clinically Relevant Strains of Clostridium difficile 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2012;78(17):6027-6034.
Prophages are encoded in most genomes of sequenced Clostridium difficile strains. They are key components of the mobile genetic elements and, as such, are likely to influence the biology of their host strains. The majority of these phages are not amenable to propagation, and therefore the development of a molecular marker is a useful tool with which to establish the extent and diversity of C. difficile prophage carriage within clinical strains. To design markers, several candidate genes were analyzed including structural and holin genes. The holin gene is the only gene present in all sequenced phage genomes, conserved at both terminals, with a variable mid-section. This allowed us to design two sets of degenerate PCR primers specific to C. difficile myoviruses and siphoviruses. Subsequent PCR analysis of 16 clinical C. difficile ribotypes showed that 15 of them are myovirus positive, and 2 of them are also siphovirus positive. Antibiotic induction and transmission electron microscope analysis confirmed the molecular prediction of myoviruses and/or siphovirus presence. Phylogenetic analysis of the holin sequences identified three groups of C. difficile phages, two within the myoviruses and a divergent siphovirus group. The marker also produced tight groups within temperate phages that infect other taxa, including Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, and Bacillus spp., which suggests the potential application of the holin gene to study prophage carriage in other bacteria. This study reveals the high incidence of prophage carriage in clinically relevant strains of C. difficile and correlates the molecular data to the morphological observation.
doi:10.1128/AEM.01311-12
PMCID: PMC3416593  PMID: 22706062
18.  A Conserved Acetyl Esterase Domain Targets Diverse Bacteriophages to the Vi Capsular Receptor of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi▿ †  
Journal of Bacteriology  2010;192(21):5746-5754.
A number of bacteriophages have been identified that target the Vi capsular antigen of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Here we show that these Vi phages represent a remarkably diverse set of phages belonging to three phage families, including Podoviridae and Myoviridae. Genome analysis facilitated the further classification of these phages and highlighted aspects of their independent evolution. Significantly, a conserved protein domain carrying an acetyl esterase was found to be associated with at least one tail fiber gene for all Vi phages, and the presence of this domain was confirmed in representative phage particles by mass spectrometric analysis. Thus, we provide a simple explanation and paradigm of how a diverse group of phages target a single key virulence antigen associated with this important human-restricted pathogen.
doi:10.1128/JB.00659-10
PMCID: PMC2953684  PMID: 20817773
19.  A Yersinia pestis-specific, lytic phage preparation significantly reduces viable Y. pestis on various hard surfaces experimentally contaminated with the bacterium 
Bacteriophage  2012;2(3):168-177.
Five Y. pestis bacteriophages obtained from various sources were characterized to determine their biological properties, including their taxonomic classification, host range and genomic diversity. Four of the phages (YpP-G, Y, R and YpsP-G) belong to the Podoviridae family, and the fifth phage (YpsP-PST) belongs to the Myoviridae family, of the order Caudovirales comprising of double-stranded DNA phages. The genomes of the four Podoviridae phages were fully sequenced and found to be almost identical to each other and to those of two previously characterized Y. pestis phages Yepe2 and φA1122. However, despite their genomic homogeneity, they varied in their ability to lyse Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. The five phages were combined to yield a “phage cocktail” (tentatively designated “YPP-100”) capable of lysing the 59 Y. pestis strains in our collection. YPP-100 was examined for its ability to decontaminate three different hard surfaces (glass, gypsum board and stainless steel) experimentally contaminated with a mixture of three genetically diverse Y. pestis strains CO92, KIM and 1670G. Five minutes of exposure to YPP-100 preparations containing phage concentrations of ca. 109, 108 and 107 PFU/mL completely eliminated all viable Y. pestis cells from all three surfaces, but a few viable cells were recovered from the stainless steel coupons treated with YPP-100 diluted to contain ca. 106 PFU/mL. However, even that highly diluted preparation significantly (p = < 0.05) reduced Y. pestis levels by ≥ 99.97%. Our data support the idea that Y. pestis phages may be useful for decontaminating various hard surfaces naturally- or intentionally-contaminated with Y. pestis.
doi:10.4161/bact.22240
PMCID: PMC3530526  PMID: 23275868
bacteriophage; phage; Yersinia pestis; surface decontamination
20.  Genome Organization and Characterization of the Virulent Lactococcal Phage 1358 and Its Similarities to Listeria Phages▿  
Virulent phage 1358 is the reference member of a rare group of phages infecting Lactococcus lactis. Electron microscopy revealed a typical icosahedral capsid connected to one of the smallest noncontractile tails found in a lactococcal phage of the Siphoviridae family. Microbiological characterization identified a burst size of 72 virions released per infected host cell and a latent period of 90 min. The host range of phage 1358 was limited to 3 out of the 60 lactococcal strains tested. Moreover, this phage was insensitive to four Abi systems (AbiK, AbiQ, AbiT, and AbiV). The genome of phage 1358 consisted of a linear, double-stranded, 36,892-bp DNA molecule containing 43 open reading frames (ORFs). At least 14 ORFs coded for structural proteins, as identified by SDS-PAGE coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. The genomic organization was similar to those of other siphophages. All genes were on the same coding strand and in the same orientation. This lactococcal phage was unique, however, in its 51.4% GC content, much higher than those of other phages infecting this low-GC Gram-positive host. A bias for GC-rich codons was also observed. Comparative analyses showed that several phage 1358 structural proteins shared similarity with two Listeria monocytogenes phages, P35 and P40. The possible origin and evolution of lactococcal phage 1358 is discussed.
doi:10.1128/AEM.02173-09
PMCID: PMC2832367  PMID: 20061452
21.  Identification of the Lower Baseplate Protein as the Antireceptor of the Temperate Lactococcal Bacteriophages TP901-1 and Tuc2009 
Journal of Bacteriology  2006;188(1):55-63.
The first step in the infection process of tailed phages is recognition and binding to the host receptor. This interaction is mediated by the phage antireceptor located in the distal tail structure. The temperate Lactococcus lactis phage TP901-1 belongs to the P335 species of the Siphoviridae family, which also includes the related phage Tuc2009. The distal tail structure of TP901-1 is well characterized and contains a double-disk baseplate and a central tail fiber. The structural tail proteins of TP901-1 and Tuc2009 are highly similar, but the phages have different host ranges and must therefore encode different antireceptors. In order to identify the antireceptors of TP901-1 and Tuc2009, a chimeric phage was generated in which the gene encoding the TP901-1 lower baseplate protein (bppLTP901-1) was exchanged with the analogous gene (orf532009) of phage Tuc2009. The chimeric phage (TP901-1C) infected the Tuc2009 host strain efficiently and thus displayed an altered host range compared to TP901-1. Genomic analysis and sequencing verified that TP901-1C is a TP901-1 derivative containing the orf532009 gene in exchange for bppLTP901-1; however, a new sequence in the late promoter region was also discovered. Protein analysis confirmed that TP901-1C contains ORF532009 and not the lower baseplate protein BppLTP901-1, and it was concluded that BppLTP901-1 and ORF532009 constitute antireceptor proteins of TP901-1 and Tuc2009, respectively. Electron micrographs revealed altered baseplate morphology of TP901-1C compared to that of the parental phage.
doi:10.1128/JB.188.1.55-63.2006
PMCID: PMC1317572  PMID: 16352821
22.  Three Prochlorococcus Cyanophage Genomes: Signature Features and Ecological Interpretations 
PLoS Biology  2005;3(5):e144.
The oceanic cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus are globally important, ecologically diverse primary producers. It is thought that their viruses (phages) mediate population sizes and affect the evolutionary trajectories of their hosts. Here we present an analysis of genomes from three Prochlorococcus phages: a podovirus and two myoviruses. The morphology, overall genome features, and gene content of these phages suggest that they are quite similar to T7-like (P-SSP7) and T4-like (P-SSM2 and P-SSM4) phages. Using the existing phage taxonomic framework as a guideline, we examined genome sequences to establish “core” genes for each phage group. We found the podovirus contained 15 of 26 core T7-like genes and the two myoviruses contained 43 and 42 of 75 core T4-like genes. In addition to these core genes, each genome contains a significant number of “cyanobacterial” genes, i.e., genes with significant best BLAST hits to genes found in cyanobacteria. Some of these, we speculate, represent “signature” cyanophage genes. For example, all three phage genomes contain photosynthetic genes (psbA, hliP) that are thought to help maintain host photosynthetic activity during infection, as well as an aldolase family gene (talC) that could facilitate alternative routes of carbon metabolism during infection. The podovirus genome also contains an integrase gene (int) and other features that suggest it is capable of integrating into its host. If indeed it is, this would be unprecedented among cultured T7-like phages or marine cyanophages and would have significant evolutionary and ecological implications for phage and host. Further, both myoviruses contain phosphate-inducible genes (phoH and pstS) that are likely to be important for phage and host responses to phosphate stress, a commonly limiting nutrient in marine systems. Thus, these marine cyanophages appear to be variations of two well-known phages—T7 and T4—but contain genes that, if functional, reflect adaptations for infection of photosynthetic hosts in low-nutrient oceanic environments.
An analysis of the genome sequences of three phages capable of infecting marine unicellular cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus reveals they are genetically complex with intriguing adaptations related to their oceanic environment
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030144
PMCID: PMC1079782  PMID: 15828858
23.  Diverse Temperate Bacteriophage Carriage in Clostridium difficile 027 Strains 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e37263.
Background
The hypervirulent Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 can be classified into subtypes, but it unknown if these differ in terms of severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). Genomic studies of C. difficile 027 strains have established that they are rich in mobile genetic elements including prophages. This study combined physiological studies, electron microscopy analysis and molecular biology to determine the potential role of temperate bacteriophages in disease and diversity of C. difficile 027.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We induced prophages from 91 clinical C. difficile 027 isolates and used transmission electron microscopy and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to characterise the bacteriophages present. We established a correlation between phage morphology and subtype. Morphologically distinct tailed bacteriophages belonging to Myoviridae and Siphoviridae were identified in 63 and three isolates, respectively. Dual phage carriage was observed in four isolates. In addition, there were inducible phage tail-like particles (PT-LPs) in all isolates. The capacity of two antibiotics mitomycin C and norfloxacin to induce prophages was compared and it was shown that they induced specific prophages from C. difficile isolates. A PCR assay targeting the capsid gene of the myoviruses was designed to examine molecular diversity of C. difficile myoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid gene sequences from eight ribotypes showed that all sequences found in the ribotype 027 isolates were identical and distinct from other C. difficile ribotypes and other bacteria species.
Conclusion/Significance
A diverse set of temperate bacteriophages are associated with C. difficile 027. The observed correlation between phage carriage and the subtypes suggests that temperate bacteriophages contribute to the diversity of C. difficile 027 and may play a role in severity of disease associated with this ribotype. The capsid gene can be used as a tool to identify C. difficile myoviruses present within bacterial genomes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037263
PMCID: PMC3356267  PMID: 22624004
24.  phiSITE: database of gene regulation in bacteriophages 
Nucleic Acids Research  2009;38(Database issue):D366-D370.
We have developed phiSITE, database of gene regulation in bacteriophages. To date it contains detailed information about more than 700 experimentally confirmed or predicted regulatory elements (promoters, operators, terminators and attachment sites) from 32 bacteriophages belonging to Siphoviridae, Myoviridae and Podoviridae families. The database is manually curated, the data are collected mainly form scientific papers, cross-referenced with other database resources (EMBL, UniProt, NCBI taxonomy database, NCBI Genome, ICTVdb, PubMed Central) and stored in SQL based database system. The system provides full text search for regulatory elements, graphical visualization of phage genomes and several export options. In addition, visualizations of gene regulatory networks for five phages (Bacillus phage GA-1, Enterobacteria phage lambda, Enterobacteria phage Mu, Enterobacteria phage P2 and Mycoplasma phage P1) have been defined and made available. The phiSITE is accessible at http://www.phisite.org/.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp911
PMCID: PMC2808901  PMID: 19900969
25.  Structural Characterization and Assembly of the Distal Tail Structure of the Temperate Lactococcal Bacteriophage TP901-1 
Journal of Bacteriology  2005;187(12):4187-4197.
The tail structures of bacteriophages infecting gram-positive bacteria are largely unexplored, although the phage tail mediates the initial interaction with the host cell. The temperate Lactococcus lactis phage TP901-1 of the Siphoviridae family has a long noncontractile tail with a distal baseplate. In the present study, we investigated the distal tail structures and tail assembly of phage TP901-1 by introducing nonsense mutations into the late transcribed genes dit (orf46), talTP901-1 (orf47), bppU (orf48), bppL (orf49), and orf50. Transmission electron microscopy examination of mutant and wild-type TP901-1 phages showed that the baseplate consisted of two different disks and that a central tail fiber is protruding below the baseplate. Evaluation of the mutant tail morphologies with protein profiles and Western blots revealed that the upper and lower baseplate disks consist of the proteins BppU and BppL, respectively. Likewise, Dit and TalTP901-1 were shown to be structural tail proteins essential for tail formation, and TalTP901-1 was furthermore identified as the tail fiber protein by immunogold labeling experiments. Determination of infection efficiencies of the mutant phages showed that the baseplate is fundamental for host infection and the lower disk protein, BppL, is suggested to interact with the host receptor. In contrast, ORF50 was found to be nonessential for tail assembly and host infection. A model for TP901-1 tail assembly, in which the function of eight specific proteins is considered, is presented.
doi:10.1128/JB.187.12.4187-4197.2005
PMCID: PMC1151708  PMID: 15937180

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