Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) induced by transient limb ischemia confers multi-organ protection and improves exercise performance in the setting of tissue hypoxia. We aimed to evaluate the effect of RIPC on exercise capacity in heart failure patients.
We performed a randomized crossover trial of RIPC (4×5-minutes limb ischemia) compared to sham control in heart failure patients undergoing exercise testing. Patients were randomly allocated to either RIPC or sham prior to exercise, then crossed over and completed the alternate intervention with repeat testing. The primary outcome was peak VO2, RIPC versus sham. A mechanistic substudy was performed using dialysate from study patient blood samples obtained after sham and RIPC. This dialysate was used to test for a protective effect of RIPC in a mouse heart Langendorff model of infarction. Mouse heart infarct size with RIPC or sham dialysate exposure was also compared with historical control data.
Twenty patients completed the study. RIPC was not associated with improvements in peak VO2 (15.6+/−4.2 vs 15.3+/−4.6 mL/kg/min; p = 0.53, sham and RIPC, respectively). In our Langendorff sub-study, infarct size was similar between RIPC and sham dialysate groups from our study patients, but was smaller than expected compared to healthy controls (29.0%, 27.9% [sham, RIPC] vs 51.2% [controls]. We observed less preconditioning among the subgroup of patients with increased exercise performance following RIPC (p<0.04).
In this pilot study of RIPC in heart failure patients, RIPC was not associated with improvements in exercise capacity overall. However, the degree of effect of RIPC may be inversely related to the degree of baseline preconditioning. These data provide the basis for a larger randomized trial to test the potential benefits of RIPC in patients with heart failure.
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is the application of a transient and brief ischemic stimulus to a distant site from the organ or tissue that is afterward exposed to injury ischemia, and has been found to reduce ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI) in various animal models. RIPC appears to offer two distinct phases of endothelial IRI protection, which are presumably mediated through neuronal and humoral pathways.
We conducted a comprehensive literature review on the available published data about the potential effect of RIPC in patients undergoing IRI in one or more vital organs.
Our search highlighted 24 randomized clinical trials about the effect of RIPC on variable clinical settings (abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, open heart surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention, living donor renal transplantation, coronary angiography, elective decompression surgery, carotid endarterectomy, recent stroke, or transient ischemic attack combined with intracranial carotid artery stenosis). Most of the trials focused on postoperative cardiac or renal function after RIPC with conflicting results. Preconditioning protocols, age limits, comorbidities, and concomitant drug use varied significantly across trials, and therefore no firm conclusions can be drawn using the available data. However, no severe local adverse events were observed in any patient undergoing limb or arm preconditioning.
RIPC is a safe and well-tolerated procedure that may constitute a potentially promising innovative treatment in atherosclerotic diseases. Large, multicenter, randomized clinical trials are required to determine an optimal protocol for the RIPC procedure, and to evaluate further the potential benefits of RIPC in human ischemic injury.
Aortic aneurysm; atherosclerosis; coronary artery disease; ischemic stroke; peripheral arterial disease; remote ischemic preconditioning
Transient episodes of ischemia in a remote organ or tissue (remote ischemic preconditioning, RIPC) can attenuate myocardial injury. Myocardial damage is associated with tissue remodeling and the matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) are crucially involved in these events. Here we investigated the effects of RIPC on the activities of heart tissue MMP-2/9 and their correlation with serum concentrations of cardiac troponin T (cTnT), a marker for myocardial damage.
In cardiosurgical patients with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) RIPC was induced by four 5 minute cycles of upper limb ischemia/reperfusion. Cardiac tissue was obtained before as well as after CPB and serum cTnT concentrations were measured. Tissue derived from control patients (N = 17) with high cTnT concentrations (≥0.32 ng/ml) and RIPC patients (N = 18) with low cTnT (≤0.32 ng/ml) was subjected to gelatin zymography to quantify MMP-2/9 activities.
In cardiac biopsies obtained before CPB, activities of MMP-2/9 were attenuated in the RIPC group (MMP-2: Control, 1.13 ± 0.13 a.u.; RIPC, 0.71 ± 0.12 a.u.; P < 0.05. MMP-9: Control, 1.50 ± 0.16 a.u.; RIPC, 0.87 ± 0.14 a.u.; P < 0.01), while activities of the pro-MMPs were not altered (P > 0.05). In cardiac biopsies taken after CPB activities of pro- and active MMP-2/9 were not different between the groups (P > 0.05). Spearman’s rank tests showed that MMP-2/9 activities in cardiac tissue obtained before CPB were positively correlated with postoperative cTnT serum levels (MMP-2, P = 0.016; MMP-9, P = 0.015).
Activities of MMP-2/9 in cardiac tissue obtained before CPB are attenuated by RIPC and are positively correlated with serum concentrations of cTnT. MMPs may represent potential targets for RIPC mediated cardioprotection.
Cardioprotection; Ischemia/reperfusion injury; Matrix metalloproteinases; Myocardial damage; Remote ischemic preconditioning
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon in which a short period of sub-lethal ischemia in one organ protects against subsequent bouts of ischemia in another organ. We hypothesized that RIPC in patients with intermittent claudication would increase muscle tissue resistance to ischemia, thereby resulting in an increased ability to walk.
In a claudication clinic, 52 ambulatory patients who presented with complaints of intermittent claudication in the lower limbs associated with an absent or reduced arterial pulse in the symptomatic limb and/or an ankle-brachial index <0.90 were recruited for this study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C). All of the patients underwent two tests on a treadmill according to the Gardener protocol. Group A was tested first without RIPC. Group A was subjected to RIPC prior to the second treadmill test. Group B was subjected to RIPC prior to the first treadmill test and then was subjected to a treadmill test without RIPC. In Group C (control group), both treadmill tests were performed without RIPC. The first and second tests were conducted seven days apart. Brazilian Clinical Trials: RBR-7TF6TM.
Group A showed a significant increase in the initial claudication distance in the second test compared to the first test.
RIPC increased the initial claudication distance in patients with intermittent claudication; however, RIPC did not affect the total walking distance of the patients.
Intermittent Claudication; Ischemic Preconditioning; Peripheral Arterial Disease
Transient episodes of ischemia in a remote organ (remote ischemic preconditioning, RIPC) can attenuate myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury but the underlying mechanisms of RIPC in the target organ are still poorly understood. Recent animal studies suggested that the small redox protein thioredoxin may be a potential candidate for preconditioning-induced organprotection. Here we employed a human proteome profiler array to investigate the RIPC regulated expression of cell stress proteins and particularly of thioredoxin in heart tissue of cardiosurgical patients with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).
RIPC was induced by four 5 minute cycles of transient upper limb ischemia/reperfusion using a blood pressure cuff. Right atrial tissue was obtained from patients receiving RIPC (N = 19) and control patients (N = 19) before and after CPB. Cell stress proteome profiler arrays as well as Westernblotting and ELISA experiments for thioredoxin (Thio-1) were performed employing the respective tissue samples.
Protein arrays revealed an up-regulation of 26.9% (7/26; CA IX, Cyt C, HSP-60, HSP-70, pJNK, SOD2, Thio-1) of cell stress associated proteins in RIPC tissue obtained before CPB, while 3.8% (1/26; SIRT2) of the proteins were down-regulated. Array results for thioredoxin were verified by semi-quantitative Westernblotting studies which showed a significant up-regulation of thioredoxin protein levels in cardiac tissue samples of RIPC patients taken before CPB (RIPC: 5.36 ± 0.85 a.u.; control: 3.23 ± 0.39 a.u.; P < 0.05). Quantification of thioredoxin levels in tissue of RIPC and control patients by ELISA experiments further confirmed the Westernblotting results (RIPC: 0.30 ± 0.02 ng/mg protein; control: 0.24 ± 0.02 ng/mg protein; P < 0.05).
We provide evidence for thioredoxin as a RIPC-induced factor in heart tissue of cardiosurgical patients and identified several cell stress associated proteins that are regulated by RIPC and may play a role in RIPC-mediated cardioprotection.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12967-015-0403-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Remote ischemic preconditioning; Cardioprotection; Cardiac surgery; Protein expression; Thioredoxin
Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) is emerging as a new noninvasive intervention that has the potential to protect a number of organs against ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury. The standard protocols normally used to deliver RIPC involve a number of cycles of inflation of a blood pressure (BP) cuff on the arm and/or leg to an inflation pressure of 200 mmHg followed by cuff deflation for a short period of time. There is little evidence to support what limb (upper or lower) or cuff inflation pressures are most effective to deliver this intervention without causing undue discomfort/pain in nonanesthetized humans. In this preliminary study, a dose–response assessment was performed using a range of cuff inflation pressures (140, 160, and 180 mmHg) to induce limb ischemia in upper and lower limbs. Physiological changes in the occluded limb and any pain/discomfort associated with RIPC with each cuff inflation pressure were determined. Results showed that ischemia can be induced in the upper limb at much lower cuff inflation pressures compared with the standard 200 mmHg pressure generally used for RIPC, provided the cuff inflation pressure is ~30 mmHg higher than the resting systolic BP. In the lower limb, a higher inflation pressure, (~55 mmHg > resting systolic BP), is required to induce ischemia. Cyclical changes in capillary blood O2, CO2, and lactate levels during the RIPC stimulus were observed. RIPC at higher cuff inflation pressures of 160 and 180 mmHg was better tolerated in the upper limb. In summary, limb ischemia for RIPC can be more easily induced at lower pressures and is much better tolerated in the upper limb in young healthy individuals. However, whether benefits of RIPC can also be derived with protocols delivered to the upper limb using lower cuff inflation pressures and with lesser discomfort compared to the lower limb, remains to be investigated.
Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) is emerging as a new noninvasive intervention that has the potential to protect a number of organs against ischemia‐reperfusion (IR) injury. Currently, there is little evidence to support what limb (upper or lower) or cuff inflation pressures are most effective to deliver this intervention without causing undue discomfort/pain in nonanesthetized humans. In this study we have demonstrated that limb ischemia for RIPC can be more easily induced at lower pressures and is much better tolerated in the upper limb compared with the lower limb, in young healthy individuals.
Characterization; cuff inflation pressure; remote ischemic preconditioning; tolerability
Neurological complications after cardiac surgery have a profound impact on postoperative survival and quality of life. The increasing importance of strategies designed to improve neurological outcomes mirrors the growing risk burden of the contemporary cardiac surgical population. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) reduces adverse sequelae of ischemia in vulnerable organs by subjecting tissues with high ischemic tolerance to brief periods of hypoperfusion. This trial will evaluate the neuroprotective effect of RIPC in the cardiac surgical arena, by employing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurocognitive testing.
Patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass will be screened for the study. Eligible patients will be randomized to undergo either a validated RIPC protocol or a sham procedure. The RIPC will be induced by inflation of a blood pressure cuff to 200 mmHg for 5 minutes, followed by a 5-minute reperfusion period. Three sequences of interchanging cuff inflations and deflations will be employed. Neurocognitive testing and MRI imaging will be performed preoperatively and on postoperative day 7. Paired pre- and postoperative neurocognitive and neuroimaging data will then be compared. The primary composite outcome measure will consist of new ischemic lesions on brain MRI, postprocedural impairment in brain connectivity on resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and significant new declines in neurocognitive performance. The secondary endpoint measures will be the individual components of the primary endpoint measures, expressed as continuous variables, troponin T release on postoperative day 1 and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events at 3 months postoperatively. Major adverse cardiovascular events, including accumulating cardiovascular mortality, stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for ischemia, will form a composite endpoint measure.
This trial will aim to assess whether RIPC in patients subjected to surgical myocardial revascularization employing cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a neuroprotective response. Should the results of this trial indicate that RIPC is effective in reducing the incidence of adverse neurological events in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, it could impact on the current standard of care.
coronary artery bypass grafting; functional; magnetic resonance imaging; neurocognitive outcome; remote ischemic preconditioning
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has emerged as an attractive strategy in clinical settings. Despite convincing evidence of the critical role played by circulating humoral mediators, their actual identities remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify RIPC-induced humoral mediators using a proteomic approach.
and Results Rats were exposed to 10-min limb ischemia followed by 5- (RIPC 5′) or 10-min (RIPC 10′) reperfusion prior to blood sampling. The control group only underwent blood sampling. Plasma samples were analyzed using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization - time of flight - mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Three protein peaks were selected for their significant increase in RIPC 10′. They were identified and confirmed as apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I). Additional rats were exposed to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and assigned to one of the following groups RIPC+myocardial infarction (MI) (10-min limb ischemia followed by 10-min reperfusion initiated 20 minutes prior to myocardial I/R), ApoA-I+MI (10 mg/kg ApoA-I injection 10 minutes before myocardial I/R), and MI (no further intervention). In comparison with untreated MI rats, RIPC reduced infarct size (52.2±3.7% in RIPC+MI vs. 64.9±2.6% in MI; p<0.05). Similarly, ApoA-I injection decreased infarct size (50.9±3.8%; p<0.05 vs. MI).
RIPC was associated with a plasmatic increase in ApoA-I. Furthermore, ApoA-I injection before myocardial I/R recapitulated the cardioprotection offered by RIPC in rats. This data suggests that ApoA-I may be a protective blood-borne factor involved in the RIPC mechanism.
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) harnesses an innate defensive mechanism that protects against inflammatory activation and ischemia‐reperfusion injury, known sequelae of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. We sought to determine the impact of RIPC on clinical outcomes and physiological markers related to ischemia‐reperfusion injury and inflammatory activation after cardiac surgery in children.
Methods and Results
Overall, 299 children (aged neonate to 17 years) were randomized to receive an RIPC stimulus (inflation of a blood pressure cuff on the left thigh to 15 mm Hg above systolic for four 5‐minute intervals) versus a blinded sham stimulus during induction with a standardized anesthesia protocol. Primary outcome was duration of postoperative hospital stay, with serial clinical and laboratory measurements for the first 48 postoperative hours and clinical follow‐up to discharge. There were no significant baseline differences between RIPC (n=148) and sham (n=151). There were no in‐hospital deaths. No significant difference in length of postoperative hospital stay was noted (sham 5.4 versus RIPC 5.6 days; difference +0.2; adjusted P=0.91), with the 95% confidence interval (−0.7 to +0.9) excluding a prespecified minimal clinically significant differences of 1 or 1.5 days. There were few significant differences in other clinical outcomes or values at time points or trends in physiological markers. Benefit was not observed in specific subgroups when explored through interactions with categories of age, sex, surgery type, Aristotle score, or first versus second half of recruitment. Adverse events were similar (sham 5%, RIPC 6%; P=0.68).
RIPC is not associated with important improvements in clinical outcomes and physiological markers after cardiac surgery in children.
Clinical Trial Registration
URL: clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00650507.
congenital; heart defects; pediatrics; remote ischemic preconditioning; surgery
Novel treatment strategies are required to reduce the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In this respect, remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), a phenomenon in which transient nonlethal ischemia applied to an organ or tissue protects another organ or tissue from subsequent lethal ischemic injury, is a potential renoprotective strategy.
Secondary analysis of 2 randomized trials.
Setting & Participants
78 consenting selected nondiabetic patients in a university teaching hospital undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery recruited to 2 previously reported randomized studies.
RIPC consisted of three 5-minute cycles of right forearm ischemia, induced by inflating a blood pressure cuff on the upper arm to 200 mm Hg, with an intervening 5 minutes of reperfusion, during which time the cuff was deflated. The control consisted of placing an uninflated cuff on the arm for 30 minutes.
AKI measured using Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, duration of hospital stay, in-hospital and 30-day mortality.
Numbers of participants with AKI stages 1, 2, and 3 were 1 (3%), 3 (8%), and 0 in the intervention group compared with 10 (25%), 0, and 0 in the control group, respectively (P = 0.005). The decrease in AKI was independent of the effect of concomitant aortic valve replacement and cross-clamp times, which were distributed unevenly between the 2 groups.
Retrospective analysis of data. More patients in the RIPC group underwent concomitant aortic valve replacement with CABG; although we have corrected statistically for this imbalance, it remains an important confounding variable.
RIPC induced using transient forearm ischemia decreased the incidence of AKI in nondiabetic patients undergoing elective CABG surgery in this retrospective analysis. A large prospective clinical trial is required to study this effect and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Remote ischemic preconditioning; transient limb ischemia; coronary artery bypass graft surgery; acute kidney injury
Tendinopathy is of distinct interest as it describes a painful tendon disease with local tenderness, swelling and pain associated with sonographic features such as hypoechogenic texture and diameter enlargement. Recent research elucidated microcirculatory changes in tendinopathy using laser Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry such as at the Achilles tendon, the patellar tendon as well as at the elbow and the wrist level. Tendon capillary blood flow is increased at the point of pain. Tendon oxygen saturation as well as tendon postcapillary venous filling pressures, determined non-invasively using combined Laser Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry, can quantify, in real-time, how tendon microcirculation changes over with pathology or in response to a given therapy. Tendon oxygen saturation can be increased by repetitive, intermittent short-term ice applications in Achilles tendons; this corresponds to 'ischemic preconditioning', a method used to train tissue to sustain ischemic damage. On the other hand, decreasing tendon oxygenation may reflect local acidosis and deteriorating tendon metabolism. Painful eccentric training, a common therapy for Achilles, patellar, supraspinatus and wrist tendinopathy decreases abnormal capillary tendon flow without compromising local tendon oxygenation. Combining an Achilles pneumatic wrap with eccentric training changes tendon microcirculation in a different way than does eccentric training alone; both approaches reduce pain in Achilles tendinopathy. The microcirculatory effects of measures such as extracorporeal shock wave therapy as well as topical nitroglycerine application are to be studied in tendinopathy as well as the critical question of dosage and maintenance. Interestingly it seems that injection therapy using color Doppler for targeting the area of neovascularisation yields to good clinical results with polidocanol sclerosing therapy, but also with a combination of epinephrine and lidocaine.
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) and postconditioning (RpostC) have protective effects on ischemia and reperfusion injury. The effects have been reported to activate heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and attenuate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and subsequently reduce systemic inflammation. Ischemic preconditioning prevented inflammatory responses by modulating HO-1 expression in endotoxic shock model. Therefore, we investigated whether RpostC could have protective effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation.
The LPS-induced sepsis mice received LPS (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Remote ischemic conditioning was induced with three 10-min ischemia/10-min reperfusion cycles of the right hind limbs using tourniquet before LPS injection (RIPC) or after LPS injection (RpostC). The effects of RIPC and RpostC were examined for the survival rate, serum cytokines, NF-κB, HO-1 and liver pathology in the LPS injected mice.
Survival rate within 120 hours significantly increased in the LPS injected and remote ischemic conditioned mice than in LPS only injected mice (60-65% vs 5%, respectively, p < 0.01). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased markedly in the LPS only injected mice, however, remote ischemic conditioning suppressed the changes (p < 0.05). Interleukin-10 (IL-10) level was significantly higher in the LPS injected and RpostC treated mice than in the LPS only injected mice (p = 0.014). NF-κB activation was significantly attenuated (p < 0.05) and HO-1 levels were substantially higher in the LPS injected and remote ischemic conditioned mice than in the LPS only injected mice. Neutrophil infiltration was significantly attenuated in the LPS injected and remote ischemic conditioned mice than in the only LPS injected mice (p < 0.05).
RpostC attenuated inflammatory responses and improved survival outcomes of mice with LPS-induced systemic inflammation. The mechanism may be caused by modifying NF-κB mediated expression of cytokines.
Remote ischemic preconditioning; Remote ischemic postconditioning; Systemic inflammation
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) protects the heart from ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. The underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. It has been demonstrated that Connexin 43 (Cx43) is critically involved in cardioprotective interventions including classical ischemic preconditioning. In the present study we investigated the influence of RIPC on the expression patterns of Cx43 after I/R in the rat heart in vivo.
Male Wistar rats were subjected to 35 min regional myocardial ischemia followed by 2 h reperfusion with or without 4 cycles of 5 minutes bilateral hind limb ischemia and reperfusion (RIPC), to RIPC without ischemia or underwent no intervention (Sham). Infarct size was measured by TTC staining. The myocardium was divided into area at risk (AAR) and area not at risk (non AAR). Expression of Cx43-mRNA and protein was analyzed by qPCR and Western Blot analysis, respectively. Localization of Cx43 was visualized by confocal immunofluorescence staining.
RIPC reduced the infarct size (I/R: 73 ± 5% vs. RIPC I/R: 34 ± 14%, p < 0.05). Expression of Cx43 mRNA did not differ between groups. I/R caused a strong decrease of relative Cx43 protein expression in the AAR that was partly abolished by RIPC. Furthermore, RIPC decreased the level of ischemia-induced dephosphorylation of Cx43. Confocal immunofluorescence staining showed that I/R caused a loss of the Cx43 signal at the intercalated discs, while the Cx43 signal at the intercalated discs was partly sustained after RIPC.
Preservation of Cx43 protein expression and phosphorylation after RIPC might protect the rat heart in vivo.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12967-014-0228-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cardioprotection; Connexin 43 (Cx43); Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC)
Despite the increasing use of pre- and posthydration protocols and low-osmolar instead of high-osmolar iodine-containing contrast media, the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is still significant. There is evidence that contrast media cause ischemia-reperfusion injury of the medulla. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive, safe, and low-cost method to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury.
The RIPCIN study is a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial in which 76 patients at risk of CIN will receive standard hydration combined with RIPC or hydration with sham preconditioning. RIPC will be applied by four cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion of the forearm by inflating a blood pressure cuff at 50 mmHg above the actual systolic pressure. The primary outcome measure will be the change in serum creatinine from baseline to 48 to 72 h after contrast administration.
A recent pilot study reported that RIPC reduced the incidence of CIN after coronary angioplasty. The unusual high incidence of CIN in this study is of concern and limits its generalizability. Therefore, we propose a randomized controlled trial to study whether RIPC reduces contrast-induced kidney injury in patients at risk for CIN according to the Dutch guidelines.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76496973
Contrast-induced nephropathy; Remote ischemic preconditioning; Acute kidney injury; Pre- and posthydration; Randomized controlled trial
Ischemic or volatile anesthetic preconditioning is defined as tissue protection from impending ischemic cell damage by repetitive short periods of tissue exposure to ischemia or volatile anesthetics. Objective of this study was to elucidate, if ischemic preconditioning and pharmacological preconditioning with sevoflurane have effects on muscle tissue oxygen saturation in patients undergoing surgical revascularization of the lower limb.
In this prospective randomized pilot study ischemic and pharmacological (sevoflurane) preconditioning was performed in 40 patients with lower limb arterial occlusive disease undergoing surgical revascularization. Sevoflurane preconditioning was performed in one group (N = 20) by repetitive application of sevoflurane for six minutes interspersed by six minutes of washout. Thereafter, ischemic preconditioning was performed in all patients (N = 40) by repetitive clamping of the femoral artery for six minutes interspersed by six minutes of reperfusion. The effect of both procedures on leg muscle tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during both procedures and during surgery and reperfusion (INVOS® 5100C Oxymeter with Small Adult SomaSensor® SAFB-SM, Somanetics, Troy, Michigan, USA).
Repetitive clamping and reperfusion of the femoral artery resulted in significant cyclic decrease and increase of muscle rSO2 (p < 0.0001). Pharmacological preconditioning with sevoflurane resulted in a faster and higher increase of rSO2 during postoperative reperfusion (Maximal 111% baseline ± 20 versus 103% baseline ± 14, p = 0.008) consistent with an additional effect of pharmacological preconditioning on leg perfusion.
Ischemic preconditioning of lower limb muscle tissue and pharmacological preconditioning with sevoflurane have an effect on tissue oxygenation in patients with lower limb occlusive arterial disease.
The trial has been registrated at http://www.ClinicalTrial.gov, Trial Number: NCT02038062 at 14 January 2014.
Ischemic preconditioning; Sevoflurane; Surgical revascularization; Arterial occlusive disease
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) induces a prolonged late phase of
multi-organ protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In the present
study, we tested the hypothesis that RIPC confers late protection against
myocardial IR injury by upregulating expression of interleukin (IL)-10. Mice
were exposed to lower limb RIPC or sham ischemia. After 24 h, mice with RIPC
demonstrated decreased myocardial infarct size and improved cardiac
contractility following 30-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion (I-30/R-120).
These effects of RIPC were completely blocked by anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies.
In IL-10 knockout mice, RIPC cardioprotection was lost, but it was mimicked by
exogenous IL-10. Administration of IL-10 to isolated perfused hearts increased
phosphory-lation of the protein kinase Akt and limited infarct size after
I-30/R-120. In wild-type mice, RIPC increased plasma and cardiac IL-10 protein
levels and caused activation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the
heart at 24 h, which was also blocked by anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies. In the
gastrocnemius muscle, RIPC resulted in immediate inactivation of the phosphatase
PTEN and activation of Stat3, with increased IL-10 expression 24 h later.
Myocyte-specific PTEN inactivation led to increased Stat3 phosphorylation and
IL-10 protein expression in the gastrocnemius muscle. Taken together, these
results suggest that RIPC induces late protection against myocardial IR injury
by increasing expression of IL-10 in the remote muscle, followed by release of
IL-10 into the circulation, and activation of protective signaling pathways in
the heart. This study provides a scientific basis for the use of RIPC to confer
systemic protection against IR injury.
Remote ischemic preconditioning; Interleukin-10; Reperfusion injury; Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten; Stat3
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) is of benefit to patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Altogether, more than 264 papers were found using the reported search, 16 of which represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. We conclude that RIPC is a safe protocol which could potentially be used in cardiac surgery to provide additional cardiac protection against ischaemia reperfusion injury, although it may not be appropriate for patients on K+ ATPase channel blockers (sulphonylureas) as they seem to eliminate the effect of RIPC. In our study, we found two meta-analyses of cardiac surgery with or without RIPC. Both unequivocally showed 0.81 and 0.74 standardized mean reduction in myocardial necrosis markers in patients receiving RIPC and cardiac or vascular surgery. No difference in perioperative myocardial infarction incidence or 30-day mortality were found. In adult cardiac surgery, we found 11 randomized control trials (RCTs) ranging in size from 45 to 162 patients. Two representative studies reported no difference in postoperative cardiac troponin I concentration in RIPC vs. controls. In one of the studies (CABG ± RIPC) no additional benefit could have been observed for RIPC regarding intra-aortic balloon pump usage (controls 8.5 vs. RIPC 7.5%), inotropic support (39 vs. 50%) or vasoconstrictor usage (66 vs. 64%). On the other hand, in the other study [CABG ± AVR (aortic valve replacement) ± RIPC] significant reduction of troponin I at 8 h postoperatively (controls, 2.90 µg/l vs. RIPC, 2.54 µg/l, P = 0.043) was shown. Marked reduction in cardiac necrosis markers was also found in several smaller RCTs concerning coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients receiving RIPC preoperatively: with cold crystalloid cardioplegia (44.5% reduction), with cross-clamping and fibrillation (43% reduction) and with cold blood cardioplegia (42.4% reduction). The proof of concept trials summarized here give some early evidence that RIPC may potentially provide some reduction in myocardial injury. If confirmed, in future clinical studies this technique may one day lead to a method to reduce reperfusion injury in clinical practice.
Review; Myocardial protection; Remote ischaemic preconditioning
Several studies have shown in animal models that remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC) has a neuroprotective effect. However, a randomized controlled trial in human subjects to investigate the neuroprotective effect of rIPC after cardiac surgery has not yet been reported. Therefore, we performed this pilot study to determine whether rIPC reduced the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery.
Seventy patients who underwent OPCAB surgery were assigned to either the control or the rIPC group using a computer-generated randomization table. The application of rIPC consisted of four cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion on an upper limb using a blood pressure cuff inflating 200 mmHg before coronary artery anastomosis. The cognitive function tests were performed one day before surgery and again on postoperative day 7. We defined postoperative cognitive dysfunction as decreased postoperative test values more than 20% of the baseline values in more than two of the six cognitive function tests that were performed.
In the cognitive function tests, there were no significant differences in the results obtained during the preoperative and postoperative periods for all tests and there were no mean differences observed in the preoperative and postoperative scores. The incidences of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in the control and rIPC groups were 28.6% (10 patients) and 31.4% (11 patients), respectively.
rIPC did not reduce the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction after OPCAB surgery during the immediate postoperative period.
Cognitive disorders; Neuroprotective effect; Off-pump coronary artery bypass
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) by repeated brief limb ischemia/reperfusion reduces myocardial injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) in left ventricular (LV) myocardium at early reperfusion is associated with such protection. Autophagy, i.e., removal of dysfunctional cellular components through lysosomes, has been proposed as one mechanism of cardioprotection. Therefore, we analyzed whether or not the protection by RIPC is associated with activated autophagy.
CABG patients were randomized to undergo RIPC (3×5 min blood pressure cuff inflation/5 min deflation) or placebo (cuff deflated) before skin incision (n = 10/10). Transmural myocardial biopsies were taken from the LV before cardioplegia (baseline) and at early (5–10 min) reperfusion. RIPC-induced protection was reflected by decreased serum troponin I concentration area under the curve (194±17 versus 709±129 ng/ml × 72 h, p = 0.002). Western blotting for beclin-1-phosphorylation and protein expression of autophagy-related gene 5–12 (ATG5-12) complex, light chain 3 (LC3), parkin, and p62 was performed. STAT3-, STAT5- and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)-phosphorylation was used as positive control to confirm signal activation by ischemia/reperfusion.
Signals of all analyzed autophagy proteins did not differ between baseline and early reperfusion and not between RIPC and placebo. STAT5-phosphorylation was greater at early reperfusion only with RIPC (2.2-fold, p = 0.02). STAT3- and ERK1/2-phosphorylation were greater at early reperfusion with placebo and RIPC (≥2.7-fold versus baseline, p≤0.05).
Protection through RIPC in patients undergoing CABG surgery does not appear to be associated with enhanced autophagy in LV myocardium at early reperfusion.
Ischemia reperfusion injury is partly responsible for the high mortality associated with induced myocardial injury and the reduction in the full benefit of myocardial reperfusion. Remote ischemic preconditioning, perconditioning, and postconditioning have all been shown to be cardioprotective. However, it is still unknown which one is the most beneficial. To examine this issue, we used adult male Wistar rat ischemia reperfusion models to compare the cardioprotective effect of these three approaches applied on double-sided hind limbs.
The rats were randomly distributed to the following five groups: sham, ischemia reperfusion, remote preconditioning, remote perconditioning, and remote post-conditioning. The ischemia/reperfusion model was established by sternotomy followed by a 30-min ligation of the left coronary artery and a subsequent 3-h reperfusion. Remote conditioning was induced with three 5-min ischemia/5-min reperfusion cycles of the double-sided hind limbs using a tourniquet.
A lower early reperfusion arrhythmia score (1.50±0.97) was found in the rats treated with remote perconditioning compared to those in the ischemia reperfusion group (2.33±0.71). Meanwhile, reduced infarct size was also observed (15.27±5.19% in remote perconditioning, 14.53±3.45% in remote preconditioning, and 19.84±5.85% in remote post-conditioning vs. 34.47±7.13% in ischemia reperfusion, p<0.05), as well as higher expression levels of the apoptosis-relevant protein Bcl-2/Bax following global (ischemia/reperfusion) injury in in vivo rat heart models (1.255±0.053 in remote perconditioning, 1.463±0.290 in remote preconditioning, and 1.461±0.541 in remote post-conditioning vs. 1.003±0.159 in ischemia reperfusion, p<0.05).
Three remote conditioning strategies implemented with episodes of double-sided hind limb ischemia/reperfusion have similar therapeutic potential for cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, and remote perconditioning has a greater ability to prevent reperfusion arrhythmia.
Cardioprotective Property; Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury; Models
Background: Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in liver surgery, and hepatic steatosis is a primary factor aggravating cellular injury during IRI. Both pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key mediators of hepatic IRI. Ischemic preconditioning (IpreC), remote ischemia preconditioning (RIPC) and ischemic postconditioning (IpostC) have offered protections on hepatic IRI, but all these methods have their own shortcomings. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) has a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties against oxidative stress. Thus, GSP has potential protective effects against hepatic IRI.
Methods: C57BL/6 mice suffering 30mins hepatic ischemia process were sacrificed after 1h reperfusion to build murine warm hepatic IRI model. The mice were injected GSP intraperitoneally 10, 20, 40mg/kg/day for 3 weeks as pharmacological preconditioning. Obese mice fed with high-fat diet for 24 weeks before used. Three pathways related to IRI, including ROS elimination, pro-inflammatory cytokines release and hypoxia responses were examined.
Results: Our data show that GSP could significantly reduce hepatic IRI by protecting hepatocyte function and increasing the activity of ROS scavengers, as well as decreasing cytokines levels. At the same time, GSP also enhance the hypoxia tolerance response. Combined GSP and postconditioning can provided synergistic protection. In the obese mice suffering hepatic IRI group, GSP was more effective than postconditioning on protecting liver against IRI, and the combined strategy was obviously superior to the solo treatment.
Conclusion: GSP could protect liver against IRI: particularly in high-fat diet induced obese mice. GSP used as pharmacological preconditioning and combined with other protocols have huge potential to be used in clinical.
Grape seed proanthocyanidins; postconditioning; preconditioning; ischemia; reperfusion injury.
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) induced by brief ischemia/reperfusion cycles of remote organ (e.g., limb) is cardioprotective. The myocardial cellular changes during RIPC responsible for this phenomenon are not currently known. The aim of this work was to identify the activation by phosphorylation of cardiac proteins following RIPC. To achieve our aim we used isobaric tandem mass tagging (TMT) and reverse phase nanoliquid chromatography tandem spectrometry using a Linear Trap Quadropole (LTQ) Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer.
Male C57/Bl6 mice were anesthetized by an intraperitoneal injection of Tribromoethanol. A cuff was placed around the hind limb and inflated at 200 mmHg to prevent blood flow as confirmed by Laser Doppler Flowmetry. RIPC was induced by 4 cycles of 5 min of limb ischemia followed by 5 min of reperfusion. Hearts were extracted for phosphoproteomics. We identified approximately 30 phosphoproteins that were differentially expressed in response to RIPC protocol. The levels of several phosphoproteins in the Z-disk of the sarcomere including phospho-myozenin-2 were significantly higher than control. This study describes and validates a novel approach to monitor the changes in the cardiac phosphoproteome following the cardioprotective intervention of RIPC and prior to index ischemia. The increased level of phosphorylated sarcomeric proteins suggests they may have a role in cardiac signaling during RIPC.
Despite major advances in early revascularization techniques, cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide, and myocardial infarctions contribute heavily to this. Over the past decades, it has become apparent that reperfusion of blood to a previously ischemic area of the heart causes damage in and of itself, and that this ischemia reperfusion induced injury can be reduced by up to 50% by mechanical manipulation of the blood flow to the heart. The recent discovery of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) provides a non-invasive approach of inducing this cardioprotection at a distance. Finding its endogenous mediators and their operative mode is an important step toward increasing the ischemic tolerance. The release of humoral factor(s) upon RIPC was recently demonstrated and several candidate proteins were published as possible mediators of the cardioprotection. Before clinical applicability, these potential biomarkers and their efficiency must be validated, a task made challenging by the large heterogeneity in reported data and results. Here, in an attempt to reproduce and provide more experimental data on these mediators, we conducted an unbiased in-depth analysis of the human plasma proteome before and after RIPC. From the 68 protein markers reported in the literature, only 28 could be mapped to manually reviewed (Swiss-Prot) protein sequences. 23 of them were monitored in our untargeted experiment. However, their significant regulation could not be reproducibly estimated. In fact, among the 394 plasma proteins we accurately quantified, no significant regulation could be confidently and reproducibly assessed. This indicates that it is difficult to both monitor and reproduce published data from experiments exploring for RIPC induced plasma proteomic regulations, and suggests that further work should be directed towards small humoral factors. To simplify this task, we made our proteomic dataset available via ProteomeXchange, where scientists can mine for novel potential targets.
Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) induced by brief episodes of ischemia of the limb protects against multi-organ damage by ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Although it has been demonstrated that RIPC affects gene expression, the proteomic response to RIPC has not been determined. This study aimed to examine RIPC induced changes in the plasma proteome. Five healthy adult volunteers had 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia alternating with 5 min reperfusion of the forearm. Blood samples were taken from the ipsilateral arm prior to first ischaemia, immediately after each episode of ischemia as well as, at 15 min and 24 h after the last episode of ischemia. Plasma samples from five individuals were analysed using two complementary techniques. Individual samples were analysed using 2Dimensional Difference in gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Pooled samples for each of the time-points underwent trypsin digestion and peptides generated were analysed in triplicate using Liquid Chromatography and MS (LC-MS). Six proteins changed in response to RIPC using 2D DIGE analysis, while 48 proteins were found to be differentially regulated using LC-MS. The proteins of interest were involved in acute phase response signalling, and physiological molecular and cellular functions. The RIPC stimulus modifies the plasma protein content in blood taken from the ischemic arm in a cumulative fashion and evokes a proteomic response in peripheral blood.
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) can be induced by transient occlusion of blood flow to a limb with a blood pressure cuff and exerts multiorgan protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ischemia/reperfusion injury in the intestinal tract leads to intestinal barrier dysfunction and can result in multiple organ failure. Here we used an intestinal cell line (CaCo-2) to evaluate the effects of RIPC-conditioned patient sera on hypoxia-induced cell damage in vitro and to identify serum factors that mediate RIPC effects. Patient sera (n = 10) derived before RIPC (T0), directly after RIPC (T1) and 1 h after RIPC (T2) were added to the culture medium at the onset of hypoxia until 48 h after hypoxia. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, caspase-3/7 assays, silver staining, gelatin zymography and Western blotting were performed. Hypoxia led to morphological signs of cell damage and increased the release of LDH in cultures containing sera T0 (P < 0.01) and T1 (P < 0.05), but not sera T2, which reduced the hypoxia-mediated LDH release compared with sera T0 (P < 0.05). Gelatin zymography revealed a significant reduction of activities of the matrixmetalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the protective sera T2 compared with the nonprotective sera T0 (MMP-2: P < 0.01; MMP-9: P < 0.05). Addition of human recombinant MMP-2 and MMP-9 to MMP-deficient culture media increased the sensitivity of CaCo-2 cells to hypoxia-induced cell damage (P < 0.05), but did not result in a reduced phosphorylation of prosurvival kinases p42/44 and protein kinase B (Akt) or increased activity of caspase-3/7. Our results suggest MMP-2 and MMP-9 as currently unknown humoral factors that may be involved in RIPC-mediated cytoprotection in the intestine.