Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) inhibits apoptosis by regulating cellular prooxidant iron. We now show that there is an additional mechanism by which HO-1 inhibits apoptosis, namely by generating the gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO). Overexpression of HO-1, or induction of HO-1 expression by heme, protects endothelial cells (ECs) from apoptosis. When HO-1 enzymatic activity is blocked by tin protoporphyrin (SnPPIX) or the action of CO is inhibited by hemoglobin (Hb), HO-1 no longer prevents EC apoptosis while these reagents do not affect the antiapoptotic action of bcl-2. Exposure of ECs to exogenous CO, under inhibition of HO-1 activity by SnPPIX, substitutes HO-1 in preventing EC apoptosis. The mechanism of action of HO-1/CO is dependent on the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling transduction pathway. Expression of HO-1 or exposure of ECs to exogenous CO enhanced p38 MAPK activation by TNF-α. Specific inhibition of p38 MAPK activation by the pyridinyl imidazol SB203580 or through overexpression of a p38 MAPK dominant negative mutant abrogated the antiapoptotic effect of HO-1. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the antiapoptotic effect of HO-1 in ECs is mediated by CO and more specifically via the activation of p38 MAPK by CO.
apoptosis; endothelial cells; heme oxygenase 1; carbon monoxide; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1, an inducible, low–molecular-weight stress protein, confers cellular and tissue protection in multiple models of injury and disease, including oxidative or inflammatory lung injury, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries, and vascular injury/disease. The tissue protection provided by HO-1 potentially relates to the endogenous production of the end products of its enzymatic activity: namely, biliverdin (BV)/bilirubin (BR), carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Of these, CO and BV/BR show promise as possible therapeutic agents when applied exogenously in models of lung or vascular injury. CO activates intracellular signaling pathways that involve soluble guanylate cyclase and/or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Although toxic at elevated concentrations, low concentrations of CO can confer antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, antiproliferative, and vasodilatory effects. BV and BR are natural antioxidants that can provide protection against oxidative stress in cell culture and in plasma. Application of BV or BR protects against I/R injury in several organ models. Recent evidence has also demonstrated antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties of these pigments. To date, evidence has accumulated for salutary effects of CO, BV, and/or BR in lung/vascular injury models, as well as in models of transplant-associated I/R injury. Thus, the exogenous application of HO end products may provide an alternative to pharmacologic or gene therapy approaches to harness the therapeutic potential of HO-1.
bilirubin; carbon monoxide; heme oxygenase-1; inflammation; ischemia/reperfusion
Heme oxygenases (HOs) are the rate-limiting enzymes in the catabolism of heme into biliverdin, free iron, and carbon monoxide. Two genetically distinct isoforms of HO have been characterized: an inducible form, HO-1, and a constitutively expressed form, HO-2. HO-1 is a kind of stress protein, and thus regarded as a sensitive and reliable indicator of cellular oxidative stress. The HO system acts as potent antioxidants, protects endothelial cells from apoptosis, is involved in regulating vascular tone, attenuates inflammatory response in the vessel wall, and participates in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Endothelial integrity and activity are thought to occupy the central position in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease risk conditions converge in the contribution to oxidative stress. The oxidative stress leads to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction with increases in vessel tone, cell growth, and gene expression that create a pro-thrombotic/pro-inflammatory environment. Subsequent formation, progression, and obstruction of atherosclerotic plaque may result in myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. This background provides the rationale for exploring the potential therapeutic role for HO system in the amelioration of vascular inflammation and prevention of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 137–167.
Mitogen-activated protein kinases
Nrf2 and Bach1
Ferrous iron and ferritin
BV and BR
Effect of HO-1 on Vascular Inflammation
Cytokines, chemokines, and mediators
Control of Vascular Diseases by HO-1=CO
Therapeutic potential of HO-1=CO in vascular diseases
Effect of HO-1 on Angiogenesis
Cross-talk between the HO-1=CO and NOS=NO pathways
Effect of HO-1=CO pathway on vascular homeostasis
Regulation of VEGF expression by HO-1=CO
Restenosis and vasculopathy
Hypoxia/reoxygenation causes cell death, yet the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain partially understood. Recent studies demonstrate that hypoxia/reoxygenation can activate death receptor and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, involving Bid and Bax mitochondrial translocation and cytochrome c release. Using mouse lung endothelial cells (MLEC), we examined the role of FLIP, an inhibitor of caspase 8, in hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cell death. FLIP protected MLEC against hypoxia/reoxygenation by blocking both caspase 8/Bid and Bax/mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. FLIP inhibited Bax activation in wild-type and Bid−/− MLEC, indicating independence from the caspase 8/Bid pathway. FLIP also inhibited the expression and activation of protein kinase C (PKC) (α, ζ) during hypoxia/reoxygenation and promoted an association of inactive forms of PKC with Bax. Surprisingly, FLIP expression also inhibited death-inducing signal complex (DISC) formation in the plasma membrane and promoted the accumulation of the DISC in the Golgi apparatus. FLIP expression also upregulated Bcl-XL, an antiapoptotic protein. In conclusion, FLIP decreased DISC formation in the plasma membrane by blocking its translocation from the Golgi apparatus and inhibited Bax activation through a novel PKC-dependent mechanism. The inhibitory effects of FLIP on Bax activation and plasma membrane DISC formation may play significant roles in protecting endothelial cells from the lethal effects of hypoxia/reoxygenation.
Increases in cell death by programmed (ie., apoptosis, autophagy) or non-programmed mechanisms (ie., necrosis) occur during tissue injury, and may contribute to the etiology of several pulmonary or vascular disease states. The low molecular weight stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) confers cytoprotection against cell death in various models of lung and vascular injury by inhibiting apoptosis, inflammation, and cell proliferation. HO-1 serves a vital metabolic function as the rate-limiting step in the heme degradation pathway and in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. The transcriptional induction of HO-1 occurs in response to multiple forms of chemical and physical cellular stress. The cytoprotective functions of HO-1 may be attributed to heme turnover, as well as to beneficial properties of its enzymatic reaction products: biliverdin-IXα, iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). Recent studies have demonstrated that HO-1 or CO inhibits stress-induced extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in vitro. A variety of signaling molecules have been implicated in the cytoprotection conferred by HO-1/CO, including autophagic proteins, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins, nuclear factor-κB, phosphatydylinositol-3-kinase/Akt, and others. Enhanced HO-1 expression or the pharmacological application of HO end-products affords protection in preclinical models of tissue injury, including experimental and transplant-associated ischemia/reperfusion injury, promising potential future therapeutic applications.
A hyperthermophilic sulfate reducer, strain 7324, was isolated from hot (75°C) oil field waters from an oil production platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. It was enriched on a complex medium and isolated on lactate with sulfate. The cells were nonmotile, irregular coccoid to disc shaped, and 0.3 to 1.0 μm wide. The temperature for growth was between 60 and 85°C with an optimum of 76°C. Lactate, pyruvate, and valerate plus H2 were utilized as carbon and energy sources with sulfate as electron acceptor. Lactate was completely oxidized to CO2. The cells contained an active carbon monoxide dehydrogenase but no 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity, indicating that lactate was oxidized to CO2 via the acetyl coenzyme A/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway. The cells produced small amounts of methane simultaneously with sulfate reduction. F420 was detected in the cells which showed a blue-green fluorescence at 420 nm. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and serological features, the isolate was classified as an Archaeoglobus sp. Strain 7324 showed 100% DNA-DNA homology with A. fulgidus Z, indicating that it belongs to the species A. fulgidus. Archaeoglobus sp. has been selectively enriched and immunomagnetically captured from oil field waters from three different platforms in the North Sea. Our results show that strain 7324 may grow in oil reservoirs at 70 to 85°C and contribute to hydrogen sulfide formation in this environment.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gas resulting from the degradation of heme by heme oxygense or from fatty acid oxidation. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes are constitutively expressed in the kidney (HO-2) and HO-1 is induced in the kidney in response to several physiological and pathological stimuli. While the beneficial actions of HO in the kidney have been recognized for some time, the important role of CO in mediating these effects has not been fully examined. Recent studies using CO inhalation therapy and carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) are demonstrating that increases in CO alone can be beneficial to the kidney in several forms of acute renal injury by limiting oxidative injury, decreasing cell apoptosis, and promoting cell survival pathways. Renal CO is also emerging as a major regulator of renal vascular and tubular function acting to protect the renal vasculature against excessive vasoconstriction and to promote natriuresis by limiting sodium reabsorption in tubule cells. Within this review, recent studies on the physiological actions of CO in the kidney will be explored as well as the potential therapeutic avenues that are being developed targeting CO in the kidney which may be beneficial in diseases such as acute renal failure and hypertension.
Heme oxygenase; renal failure; blood pressure; bilirubin; acute renal injury
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress response enzyme, which catalyses the breakdown of heme into biliverdin-IX alpha, carbon monoxide and ferrous iron. Under situations of oxidative stress, heat stress, ischemia/reperfusion injury or endotoxemia, HO-1 has been shown to be induced and to elicit a protective effect. The mechanism of how this protective effect is executed is unknown.
HO-1 induction with cobalt protoporphorin (Co-PP) dose-dependently protected against apoptotic cell death as well as neutrophil-mediated oncosis in the galactosamine/endotoxin (Gal/ET) shock model. Induction of HO-1 with Co-PP dose-dependently protected against neutrophil-mediated oncosis as indicated by attenuated ALT release and TNF-mediated apoptotic cell death as indicated by reduced caspase-3 activation. HO-1 induction did not attenuate Gal/ET-induced TNF-alpha formation. Furthermore, a similar protective effect with the high dose of Co-PP was observed when animals were treated with Gal/TNF-alpha.
HO-1 induction attenuates apoptosis and neutrophil-mediated oncosis in the Gal/ET shock model. However, the protective effect is not due to the reduction of TNF-alpha release or the attenuation of neutrophil accumulation in the liver sinusoids.
Endothelial cell survival and antiapoptotic pathways, including those stimulated by extracellular matrix, are critical regulators of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, endothelial repair, and shear-stress-induced endothelial activation. One of these pathways is mediated by αvβ3 integrin ligation, downstream activation of nuclear factor-κB, and subsequent up-regulation of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In this study, the mechanism by which OPG protects endothelial cells from death was examined. Serum-starved human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) plated on the αvβ3 ligand osteopontin were protected from cell death. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that OPG formed a complex with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HMECs under these conditions. Furthermore, inhibitors of TRAIL, including recombinant soluble TRAIL receptors and a neutralizing antibody against TRAIL, blocked apoptosis of serum-starved HMECs plated on the nonintegrin attachment factor poly-d-lysine. Whereas TRAIL was unable to induce apoptosis in HMECs plated on osteopontin, the addition of recombinant TRAIL did increase the percentage of apoptotic HMECs plated on poly-d-lysine. This evidence indicates that OPG blocks endothelial cell apoptosis through binding TRAIL and preventing its interaction with death-inducing TRAIL-receptors
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a biologically active molecule produced in the body by the stress-inducible enzyme, heme oxygenase. We have previously shown that CO suppresses fibrosis in a murine bleomycin model. To investigate the mechanisms by which CO opposes fibrogenesis, we performed gene expression profiling of fibroblasts treated with transforming growth factor-β1 and CO. The most highly differentially expressed categories of genes included those related to muscular system development and the small proline-rich family of proteins. We confirmed in vitro, and in an in vivo bleomycin model of lung fibrosis, that CO suppresses α–smooth muscle actin expression and enhances small proline-rich protein-1a expression. We further show that these effects of CO depend upon signaling via the extracellular signal–regulated kinase pathway. Our results demonstrate novel transcriptional targets for CO and further elucidate the mechanism by which CO suppresses fibrosis.
carbon monoxide; heme oxygenase-1; lung fibrosis; small proline-rich protein; α-smooth muscle actin
Stress-induced downregulation of spermatogenesis remains poorly understood. This study examined the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a carbon monoxide–generating inducible enzyme, in modulation of spermatogenesis. Rats were exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl2), a stressor causing oligozoospermia, and HO-1–induction was monitored by following HO isozyme expression. CdCl2-treated testes increased HO-1 activity and suppressed microsomal cytochromes P450, which are required for steroidogenesis. CdCl2-elicited HO-1 occurred mostly in Leydig cells and coincided with CO generation, as judged by bilirubin-IXα immunoreactivity. Under these circumstances, germ cells in peripheral regions of seminiferous tubules exhibited apoptosis; laser flow cytometry revealed that these apoptotic cells involve diploid and tetraploid germ cells, suggesting involvement of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes in CdCl2-elicited apoptosis. Pretreatment with zinc protoporphyrin-IX, an HO inhibitor, but not copper protoporphyrin-IX, which does not block the enzyme, attenuated the CdCl2-induced apoptosis. Such antiapoptotic effects of zinc protoporphyrin-IX were repressed by supplementation of dichloromethane, a CO donor. Upon CdCl2-treatment, both Sertoli cells and the germ cells upregulated Fas ligand; this event was also suppressed by zinc protoporphyrin-IX and restored by dichloromethane. Thus, Leydig cells appear to use HO-1–derived CO to trigger apoptosis of premeiotic germ cells and thereby modulate spermatogenesis under conditions of stress.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a ubiquitous inducible stress-response protein, serves a major metabolic function in heme turnover. HO activity cleaves heme to form biliverdin-IXα, carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Genetic experiments have revealed a central role for HO-1 in tissue homeostasis, protection against oxidative stress, and in the pathogenesis of disease. Four decades of research have witnessed not only progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation and function of this illustrious enzyme, but also have opened remarkable translational applications for HO-1 and its reaction products. CO, once regarded as a metabolic waste, can act as an endogenous mediator of cellular signaling and vascular function. Exogenous application of CO by inhalation or pharmacologic delivery can confer cytoprotection in preclinical models of lung/vascular injury and disease, based on anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, end products of heme degradation, have also shown potential as therapeutics in vascular disease based on anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Further translational and clinical trials research will unveil whether the HO-1 system or any of its reaction products can be successfully applied as molecular medicine in human disease.
carbon monoxide; bilirubin; heme oxygenase-1; lung injury
Stimulation of death receptors activates the extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway that leads to cell death. Although many steps of this apoptotic signaling cascade are known, few mechanisms that counterbalance the death signal have been described. We identified an antiapoptotic protein complex associated with death receptors that contains glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), DDX3 and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1 (cIAP-1). GSK3, DDX3 and cIAP-1 are associated in cells with each other and with death receptors. Blocking the actions of GSK3 or DDX3 potentiated caspase-3 activation induced by stimulation of four different death receptors in several types of cells. GSK3 restrained apoptotic signaling by inhibiting formation of the death-inducing signaling complex and caspase-8 activation. Stimulated death receptors surmount the antiapoptotic complex by causing GSK3 inactivation and cleavage of DDX3 and cIAP-1 to enable progression of the apoptotic signaling cascade, but the antiapoptotic complex remains functional in cancer cells resistant to death receptor stimulation, a resistance that is overcome by GSK3 inhibitors. Thus, an antiapoptotic complex of GSK3, DDX3 and cIAP-1 caps death receptors, providing a checkpoint to counterbalance apoptotic signaling.
GSK3; DDX3; cIAP-1; death receptor
Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to enhanced oxidative stress which leads to endothelial dysfunction. These events trigger platelet activation and their interaction with leukocytes and endothelial cells, thus contributing to the induction of chronic inflammatory processes at the vascular wall and to the development of atherosclerotic lesions and atherothrombosis. In this scenario, endogenous antioxidant pathways are induced to restrain the development of vascular disease. In the present paper, we will discuss the role of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 which is an enzyme of the heme catabolism and cleaves heme to form biliverdin and carbon monoxide (CO). Biliverdin is reduced enzymatically to the potent antioxidant bilirubin. Recent evidence supports the involvement of HO-1 in the antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect of cyclooxygenase(COX)-2-dependent prostacyclin in the vasculature. Moreover, the role of HO-1 in estrogen vasoprotection is emerging. Finally, possible strategies to develop novel therapeutics against cardiovascular disease by targeting the induction of HO-1 will be discussed.
Activation of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway by tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cancer that is currently under clinical evaluation. Identification of molecular biomarkers of resistance is likely to play an important role in predicting clinical anti tumour activity. The involvement of the mitochondrial type 1 voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC1) in regulating apoptosis has been highly debated. To date, a functional role in regulating the extrinsic apoptosis pathway has not been formally excluded.
We carried out stable and transient RNAi knockdowns of VDAC1 in non-small cell lung cancer cells, and stimulated the extrinsic apoptotic pathway principally by incubating cells with the death ligand TRAIL. We used in-vitro apoptotic and cell viability assays, as well as western blot for markers of apoptosis, to demonstrate that TRAIL-induced toxicity is VDAC1 dependant. Confocal microscopy and mitochondrial fractionation were used to determine the importance of mitochondria for caspase-8 activation.
Here we show that either stable or transient knockdown of VDAC1 is sufficient to antagonize TRAIL mediated apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Specifically, VDAC1 is required for processing of procaspase-8 to its fully active p18 form at the mitochondria. Loss of VDAC1 does not alter mitochondrial sensitivity to exogenous caspase-8-cleaved BID induced mitochondrial depolarization, even though VDAC1 expression is essential for TRAIL dependent activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, expression of exogenous VDAC1 restores the apoptotic response to TRAIL in cells in which endogenous VDAC1 has been selectively silenced.
Expression of VDAC1 is required for full processing and activation of caspase-8 and supports a role for mitochondria in regulating apoptosis signaling via the death receptor pathway.
Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) each have mechanistically unique roles in various inflammatory disorders. Although it is known that CO can induce production of NO and that NO can induce expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), there is no information whether the protective effect of CO ever requires NO production or whether either gas must induce expression of HO-1 to exert its functional effects. Using in vitro and in vivo models of tumor necrosis factor α–induced hepatocyte cell death in mice, we find that activation of nuclear factor κB and increased expression of inducible NO are required for the protective effects of CO, whereas the protective effects of NO require up-regulation of HO-1 expression. When protection from cell death is initiated by CO, NO production and HO-1 activity are each required for the protective effect showing for the first time an essential synergy between these two molecules in tandem providing potent cytoprotection.
carbon monoxide; nitric oxide; heme oxygenase; iNOS; hepatitis
A growing body of evidence indicates that carbon monoxide (CO), once perceived merely as a poisonous gas, exerts antiapoptotic and cytoprotective effects. Using a water-soluble CO-releasing molecule (CORM) tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3), we previously reported that CO induces a delayed protection against myocardial infarction similar to that observed in the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC). In the current study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this cardioprotective effect. The impact on apoptotic signaling pathways was first examined in the setting of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Mice were pretreated with CORM-3 or iCORM-3 (which does not release CO) and subjected to coronary occlusion/reperfusion 24 h later. In mice that received CORM-3, there was a significant reduction in markers of apoptosis (cleaved lamin A, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP-1) after ischemia/reperfusion injury. To elucidate the mechanism of CORM-3-induced cardioprotection we further examined the activation of transcription factors and induction of cardioprotective and apoptosis modulating proteins. Infusion of CORM-3 rapidly activated the stress-responsive transcription factors nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1, STAT3, and NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). This was followed 24 h later by upregulation of cardioprotective proteins (heme oxygenase-1 [HO-1], cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2], and extracellular superoxide dismutase [Ec-SOD]) and antiapoptotic proteins involving both the mitochondria-mediated (Mcl-1) and the death receptor-mediated (c-FLIPS, and c-FLIPL) apoptosis pathways. We conclude that CO released by CORM-3 triggers a cardioprotective signaling cascade that recruits the transcription factors NF-κB, STAT1/3, and Nrf2 with a subsequent increase in cardioprotective and antiapoptotic molecules in the myocardium leading to the late PC-mimetic infarct-sparing effects.
carbon monoxide-releasing molecules; late preconditioning; myocardial infarction; apoptosis; NF-κB; STAT1/3; Nrf2
Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are generated by nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase, respectively. Like NO, CO has been accepted as an important cellular signaling molecule in biological systems. An up-regulation in both gene and protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) under oxidative/nitrosative stress has been well documented, and the protective role of HO-1 and HO-2 against oxidative damage is proposed. However, data on the direct effect of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) on HO function is incomplete. Using gas chromatography to quantify carbon monoxide (CO) formation from heme oxidation, we investigated the effects of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) on the in vitro catalytic activity of rat spleen (HO-1) and brain (HO-2) microsomal heme oxygenases.
Exposure to ONOO- led to concentration-dependent but reversible decreases in the activity of microsomal rat spleen and brain HO activity. Spleen HO activity was 100-fold more sensitive to ONOO--dependent inactivation compared to that of the brain, with IC50 values of 0.015 ± 0.005 mM and 1.25 ± 0.25 mM respectively. Inhibition of both rat spleen and brain microsomal HO activity was also observed with tetra-nitromethane, a tyrosine nitrating agent, as well as two NO donors, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and diethylamine NONOate (DEA-NONOate). However, no additive effect was found following the application of NO donors and ONOO- together.
These results indicate that ONOO- may regulate HO-1 and HO-2 activities by mechanisms that involve different interactions with these proteins. It is suggested that while nitration of tyrosine residues and oxidation of sulfhydryl groups may be involved, consideration should be given to other facets of ONOO- chemistry. This inhibition of HO activity offers a mechanism for cross talk between the nitric oxide synthase and HO systems.
Although carbon monoxide derived from heme oxygenase has been reported to exert diverse biological actions in mammals, macromolecules responsible for its direct reception and functional outcomes of the gas binding remain largely unknown. Based on our previous results in vivo suggesting carbon monoxide serves as an inhibitor of cystathionine β-synthase that rate-limits transsulfuration pathway for generation of hydrogen sulfide, we have herein hypothesized that the gas might serve as a regulator of protein methylation through accelerating turnover of remethylation cycle residing at the upstream of the enzyme. Metabolomic analysis in human monoblastic leukemia U937 cells in culture revealed that application of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules caused increases in methionine and S-adenosylmethionine and a decrease in cystathionine in the cells, suggesting the cystathionine β-synthase inhibition by carbon monoxide. Under these circumstances, the cells exhibited global protein arginine methylation: this event was also reproduced by the cell treatment with hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 inducer. The protein arginine methylation elicited by carbon monoxide was attenuated by knocking down cystathionine β-synthase with its small interfering RNA or by blocking S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase with adenosine dialdehyde, suggesting remethylation cycling is necessary to trigger the methylation processing. Furthermore, proteins undergoing the carbon monoxide-induced arginine methylation involved histone H3 proteins, suggesting chromatin modification by the gas. Collectively with our studies in vivo showing its inhibitory action on endogenous hydrogen sulfide production, the current results suggest that not only inhibition of transsulfuration pathway for H2S generation but also activation of protein methylation accounts for notable biological actions of carbon monoxide via the cystathionine β-synthase inhibition.
carbon monoxide; cystathionine β-synthase; hydrogen sulfide; methylation; epigenetic regulation
Oxidative stress in the central nervous system is strongly associated with neuronal cell death in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In order to overcome the oxidative damage, there are some protective signaling pathways related to transcriptional upregulation of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1/-2. Their expression is regulated by several transcription factors and/or cofactors like nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α). These antioxidant enzymes are associated with, and in some cases, prevent neuronal death in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. They are activated by endogenous mediators and phytochemicals, and also by several gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), and hydrogen (H2). These might thereby protect the brain from severe oxidative damage and resultant neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we discuss how the expression levels of these antioxidant enzymes are regulated. We also introduce recent advances in the therapeutic uses of medical gases against neurodegenerative diseases.
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the inducible isoform of heme oxygenase, is a cytoprotective enzyme that plays a central role in the defense against oxidative and inflammatory insults in the lung. HO-1 catalyzes the degradation of heme, a potent oxidant, into biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). These downstream products of heme catabolism have recently been found to mediate the antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiproliferative, vasodilatory, and anti-inflammatory properties of HO-1. Although absence of HO-1 is rare in humans, a number of HO-1 promoter polymorphisms have been identified that may influence HO-1 expression in vivo and lead to disease states. This review will summarize studies that implicate HO-1 and heme metabolites in the pathophysiology of pulmonary disease and discuss recent advances in the therapeutic applications of HO-1.
HO-1; polymorphism; ARDS; pulmonary hypertension; COPD
The benzylindazole derivative 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1) is an allosteric stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) that sensitizes the enzyme to the gaseous ligands carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we examined whether YC-1 also promotes the production of these gaseous monoxides by stimulating the expression of the inducible isoforms of heme oxygenase (HO-1) and NO synthase (iNOS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). YC-1 increased HO-1 mRNA, protein, and promoter activity and potentiated cytokine-mediated expression of iNOS protein and NO synthesis by SMCs. The induction of HO-1 by YC-1 was unchanged by the sGC inhibitor, 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-α]quinozalin-1-one (ODQ), or by the protein kinase G inhibitors, KT 5823 and DT-2, and was not duplicated by 8-bromo-cGMP or the NO-independent sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272. However, theYC-1-mediated induction of HO-1 was inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002. In contrast, the enhancement of cytokine-stimulated iNOS expression and NO production by YC-1 was prevented by ODQ and the protein kinase A inhibitor, KT 5720, and mimicked by 8-bromo-cGMP and BAY 41-2272. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that YC-1 stimulates the expression of HO-1 and iNOS in vascular SMCs via the PI3K and sGC-cGMP-protein kinase A pathway, respectively. The ability of YC-1 to sensitize sGC to gaseous monoxides while simultaneously stimulating their production through the induction of HO-1 and iNOS provides a potent mechanism by which the cGMP-dependent and -independent biological actions of this agent are amplified.
Heme-oxygenase-2 generates carbon monoxide in the enteric nervous system and in interstitial cells of Cajal in the canine, mouse and human jejunum. Carbon monoxide is considered a non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic inhibitory neurotransmitter and it establishes and maintains the resting membrane potential in the stomach and small intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of heme-oxygenase-2 in the enteric nervous system of the pig jejunum. Heme-oxygenase-2 immunoreactivity was found in neurons of myenteric ganglia and in nerve fibers in the circular and longitudinal muscle layers. These results suggest that carbon monoxide is produced in the enteric nervous system of the pig jejunum and might mediate inhibitory neural activity in myenteric ganglia and inhibitory neural input to smooth muscle cells in the circular and longitudinal muscle layers.
enteric nervous system; heme-oxygenase-2; smooth muscle; non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic; pig jejunum
The cell renews, adapts, or expands its mitochondrial population during episodes of cell damage or periods of intensified energy demand by the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. This bi-genomic program is modulated by redox-sensitive signals that respond to physiological nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.
Scope of Review
This review summarizes our current ideas about the pathways involved in the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis by the physiological gases leading to changes in the redox milieu of the cell with an emphasis on the responses to oxidative stress and inflammation.
The cell’s energy supply is protected from conditions that damage mitochondria by an inducible transcriptional program of mitochondrial biogenesis that operates in large part through redox signals involving the nitric oxide synthase and the heme oxygenase-1/CO systems. These redox events stimulate the coordinated activities of several multifunctional transcription factors and co-activators also involved in the elimination of defective mitochondria and the expression of counter-inflammatory and anti-oxidant genes, such as IL10 and Sod2, as part of a unified damage-control network.
The redox-regulated mechanisms of mitochondrial biogenesis schematically outlined in the graphical abstract link mitochondrial quality control to an enhanced capacity to support the cell’s metabolic needs while improving its resistance to metabolic failure and avoidance of cell death during periods of oxidative stress.
Carbon monoxide; cell metabolism; heme oxygenase; inflammation; mitochondria; nitric oxide; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species
Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme degradation to produce carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by its reductase, and iron is recycled for heme synthesis. The inducible HO isoform, HO-1, is involved in the protection of multiple tissues and organs. The mechanism of protective actions of HO-1 has not been completely elucidated, but recent evidence suggests that one or more of heme metabolites can mediate the protective effects of HO-1. Particularly, CO mimics the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and antiproliferative actions of HO-1. Many of these effects of CO depend on the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and the modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. The transcription factors, including nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), and their upstream kinases, including MAPK pathway, play an important regulatory role in HO-1 expression by dietary antioxidants and drugs. This review attempts to concisely summarize the molecular and biochemical characteristics of HO-1, with a discussion on the mechanisms of signal transduction and gene regulation that mediate the induction of HO-1 by dietary antioxidants and drugs. In addition, the cytoprotective roles of HO-1 shall be discussed from the perspective of each of the metabolic by-products.
heme oxygenase; antioxidant; anti-inflammation; anti-apoptosis; antiproliferation