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1.  What is the risk of stress risers for interprosthetic fractures of the femur? A biomechanical analysis 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(12):2441-2446.
Due to increasing life expectancy we see a rising number of joint replacements. Along with the proximal prosthesis in the femur, more and more people have a second implant on the distal ipsilateral side. This might be a retrograde nail or a locking plate to treat distal femur fractures or a constrained knee prosthesis in the case of severe arthrosis. All these constructs can lead to fractures between the implants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the risk of stress risers for interprosthetic fractures of the femur.
Thirty human cadaveric femurs were divided into five groups: (1) femurs with a prosthesis on the proximal side only, (2) hip prosthesis on the proximal end and a distal femur nail, (3) femurs with both a hip prosthesis and a constrained knee prosthesis, (4) femurs with a hip prosthesis on the proximal side and a 4.5-mm distal femur locking plate; the locking plate was 230 mm in length, with ten holes in the shaft, and (5) femurs with a proximal hip prosthesis and a 4.5-mm distal femur locking plate; the locking plate was 342 mm in length, with 16 holes in the shaft.
Femurs with a hip prosthesis and knee prosthesis showed significantly higher required fracture force compared to femurs with a hip prosthesis and a distal retrograde nail. Femurs with a distal locking plate of either length showed a higher required fracture force than those with the retrograde nail.
The highest risk for a fracture in the femur with an existing hip prosthesis comes with a retrograde nail. A distal locking plate for the treatment of supracondylar fractures leads to a higher required fracture force. The implantation of a constrained knee prosthesis that is not loosened on the ipsilateral side does not increase the risk for a fracture.
PMCID: PMC3508046  PMID: 23132503
2.  The BHU bicentric bipolar prosthesis in fracture neck femur in active elderly 
55 BHU bicentric bipolar hemiarthroplasties were reviewed after a mean follow up of 4 years (range 1–5 years). Patients with displaced subcapital fractures were selected for operation on the basis of good mobility before the fracture. Object of the study was to see the efficacy of BHU bipolar prostheses and functional outcome.
There were no incidences of dislocation. Modified Harris hip scoring system scoring system was used which included sitting crosslegged and squatting in view of the sociocultural needs of the patients of Indian subcontinent. Modified Harris hip scoring system 89% had a good or excellent result and 94% had no or only occasional pain. Majority of the patients returned to their prefracture activity.
Thus at follow up of 4 year the BHU bicentric bipolar prosthesis has been shown to be a good option for intracapsular fractures of neck femur with encouraging results.
PMCID: PMC2586620  PMID: 18817566
3.  Interprosthetic humeral fracture revision using a tibial allograft total elbow prosthetic composite in a patient with hemophilia A : a case report 
Interprosthetic fractures of the humerus are rare. Revisions of total elbow arthroplasty components in these cases are difficult. We report the first case of a patient with hemophilia who underwent a revision with a tibial allograft prosthetic composite without the need for hardware augmentation.
Case presentation
A 43-year-old Caucasian man with a history of hemophilia and transfusion-related human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B and C presented with an interprosthetic fracture of his humerus after months of pain between his total elbow and total shoulder arthroplasties. Because of the poor remaining bone stock available in his distal humerus, a revision using a barrel-staved tibial allograft prosthetic composite was performed. Our patients’ factor VIII level was optimized before the operation and he suffered no major long-term complications at 28 months. His only complication was an incomplete radial nerve palsy that ultimately recovered and left him with some numbness on the dorsum of his hand.
Careful use of an allograft prosthetic composite is a very reasonable option when a patient experiences an interprosthetic fracture. We have successfully performed revision total elbow arthroplasty for a patient with hemophilia with an interprosthetic fracture using a tibial allograft and no additional fixation, which resulted in his return to full activities of daily living, minimal pain and full incorporation of the allograft to host bone.
PMCID: PMC3492012  PMID: 23009283
4.  The Conversion Rate of Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty after a Hip Fracture to a Total Hip Arthroplasty 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2012;4(2):117-120.
Bipolar hip hemiarthroplasty is used in the management of fractures of the proximal femur. The dual articulation is cited as advantageous in comparison to unipolar prostheses as it decreases acetabular erosion, has a lower dislocation rates and is easier to convert to a total hip arthroplasty (THA) should the need arise. However, these claims are debatable. Our study examines the rate of conversion of the bipolar hemiarthroplasty to THA and the justification for using it on the basis of future conversion to THA.
All cases of bipolar hemiarthroplasty performed in our unit for hip fractures over a 9-year period (1999-2007) were reviewed. Medical notes and radiographs of all patients were reviewed, and all surviving patients that were contactable received a telephone follow-up.
Of all 164 patients reviewed with a minimum of 1 year from date of surgery, 4 patients had undergone a conversion of their bipolar prosthesis to THA. Three conversions were performed for infection, dislocation, and fracture. Only one (0.6%) conversion was performed for groin pain.
Our study show that bipolar hemiarthroplasties for hip fractures have a low conversion rate to THAs and this is comparable to the published conversion rate of unipolar hemiarthroplasties.
PMCID: PMC3360183  PMID: 22662296
Hip fracture; Bipolar arthroplasty; Total hip arthroplasty
5.  Ochronosis of hip joint; a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:9337.
Ochronosis is connective tissue manifestation of Alkaptonuria. Joint involvement specially hip and knee destruction is seen. The cartilage is pigmented and destroyed. It is interested for both pathologists and orthopedic surgeons.
Case Presentation
A 54 years old woman with hip fracture after simple falling is candidate for surgery, but, after skin and subcutaneous incision over deep fascia there was dark blue pigmentation which continues toward hip joint. After biopsy of soft tissues and bone, in another operation, we replace hip joint.
In this case, besides of cartilage destruction of hip joint, there was a lythic lesion of neck of femur which causes pathologic fracture of hip joint. We planned Total hip replacement instead of bipolar for her because of cartilage damage of acetabulum.
PMCID: PMC2803996  PMID: 20062596
6.  Advances in the surgical treatment of fragility fractures of the upper femur 
Fragility fractures typically occur in elderly patients. They are related to osteoporosis, because of the weakening of the bone structure, and are the result of low-energy injuries and often involve the metaphyseal segments of bone. The fracture of the upper extremity of the femur are one of the most typical of the elderly patients. They may be intracapsular (femoral neck fractures) or extracapsular (intertrochanteric fractures). Each kind of fracture can be treated in several ways: the intracapsular fracture can be treated with screws, unipolar or bipolar hemiarthroplasty or even with total arthroplasty. The extracapsular fractures instead can be treated with sliding hip screw, intramedullary nail, femoral neck screws, helical blade or primary arthroplasty. What must be remembered is that osteoporotic bone has distinct morphologic characteristics that influence its biomechanical properties and therefore the choices and techniques for internal fixation. Therefore only a complete understanding of the biology of the osteoporotic bone will lead to a good quality of the treatment of the fragility fractures.
PMCID: PMC2811350  PMID: 22461246
fragility fractures, upper extremity of the femur fractures, osteoporosis.
7.  Anterior dislocation of the hip associated with intertrochanteric fracture of the femur-Case presentation- 
Journal of Medicine and Life  2013;6(3):336-339.
Dislocations of the hip usually occur following high energy trauma, the coxo-femoral joint being inherently stable, and can be associated with acetabular fractures or fractures of the head, neck or shaft of femur. However, the combination between the anterior hip dislocation and the ipsilateral intertrochanteric fracture is extremely rare, the literature offering only scarce information.
We present the case of a patient, aged 44, victim of a trauma by precipitation from height (12m), diagnosed with left hip anterior dislocation and intertrochanteric fracture of the ipsilateral femur. An emergency surgical treatment was applied in less than 3 hours after trauma. The hip dislocation was reduced under general anesthesia and the intertrochanteric fracture was also reduced and internally fixed with a dynamic hip screw. Radiological and functional evaluation at 6 months after surgery, using the modified Merle D’Aubigne hip score was good.
The clinical outcome of such a case depends on the quick evaluation and treatment. Providing a stable reduction of the dislocation and a stable internal fixation of the fracture as soon as possible (within the first 6 hours) will allow an early physical rehabilitation and decrease the risk of complications.
PMCID: PMC3786497  PMID: 24146697
hip dislocation; intertrochanteric fracture; high energy trauma
8.  Retrospective evaluation of bipolar hip arthroplasty in fractures of the proximal femur 
There is still controversy about the choice of treatment of displaced fractures of the neck of femur which leads the best clinical and functional outcomes. Treatment options include internal fixation, unipolar or bipolar hemiarthroplasty, or total hip replacement.
The aim of this study is to find out which treatment option can lead to the best clinical and functional outcomes.
Patients and Methods:
Fifty one consecutive patients admitted to Makassed General Hospital with a diagnosis of a displaced fracture of the femoral neck during the year 2006 were selected. Preoperative and operative data was retrieved from inpatient hospital files. The patients then were interviewed to fill a questionnaire form. Radiological data was retrieved from inpatient hospital files and outpatient files upon latest follow up visit in clinic. Functional outcomes were assessed with use of Harris hip score. The main clinical measures were mortality and a reoperation.
Postoperatively, Thirty three patients (89.2%) either returned to the functional level that they had had before the fracture or used only a cane, which they had not needed before.
In our study, the bipolar hemiarthroplasty has served us well. Two-year results of total hip replacement appeared to be better than those of bipolar hemiarthroplasty, but this finding was based on relatively small numbers of patients.
PMCID: PMC3339098  PMID: 22558588
Hemiarthroplasty for treatment of neck of femur fracture; internal fixation for neck of femur fracture; total hip replacement for neck of femur fracture
9.  The influence of the centre of rotation on implant survival using a modular stem hip prosthesis 
International Orthopaedics  2008;33(6):1513-1518.
The restoration of the hip centre of rotation in an anatomical position is considered to be relevant for total hip prosthesis survival. When the cup is implanted with a high centre of rotation, the lever arm of the abductor muscles is decreased, causing higher joint-reaction forces. Modular stems with varying lengths and geometries can be used to balance soft tissues, and ceramic bearing surfaces can be used to reduce the wear rate. Forty-four hip replacements performed with a high hip centre of rotation were matched with 44 performed with an anatomical centre of rotation. In all cases the preoperative diagnosis was dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and cementless modular neck prostheses with ceramic bearing surfaces were used. At nine years follow-up the mean Harris hip and WOMAC scores were not statistically different. All stems and cups were stable; the femoral offset was no different between the two groups (p = 0.4) as leg-length discrepancy (p = 0.25).
PMCID: PMC2899177  PMID: 19099304
10.  Transfracture abduction osteotomy: A solution for nonunion of femoral neck fractures 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2014;48(1):25-29.
Nonunion and avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head remains one of the major complications following femoral neck fractures. Despite various surgical techniques and internal fixation devices, the incidence of nonunion and AVN has remained unsolved. Neglected nonunion of femoral neck fracture is common in the developing world. Treatment options include rigid internal fixation with or without bone grafting, muscle pedicle bone graft, valgus osteotomy of the proximal femur with or without bone graft, valgus osteotomy or hip arthroplasty. We conducted a retrospective analysis of cases of nonunion of femoral neck fracture treated by transfracture abduction osteotomy (TFAO).
Materials and Methods:
Over a period of 35 years (1974-2008), 30 patients with nonunion of femoral neck fractures were treated with TFAO over a period of 35 years (1974-2008), All patients were less than 50 years of age. Absence of clinical and radiological signs of union after four months was considered as nonunion. Patients more than 50 years of age were excluded from the study. Union was assessed at 6 months radiologically. Limb length was measured at six months. The mean duration of femoral neck fracture was 19 months (range 4 months 10 years). Results were analyzed in terms of radiological union at six months. Average followup was five years and six months.
Consistent union was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. One case was lost to followup after five and one-half months postoperatively. However, the fracture had united in this case at the last followup. Average shortening of the limb at six months was 1.9 cm. Average neck shaft angle was 127° (range 120-145°). Five cases went into AVN but were asymptomatic. Two cases required reoperation due to back out of Moore's pins. These were reopened and cancellous screws were inserted in the same tracks.
Consistent union of nonunion femoral neck fracture was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. The major drawback of the procedure is immobilization of the patient in the hip spica for eight weeks.
PMCID: PMC3931149  PMID: 24600059
Femoral neck fracture; nonunion; transfracture abduction osteotomy
11.  Different competing risks models applied to data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry 
Acta Orthopaedica  2011;82(5):513-520.
Here we describe some available statistical models and illustrate their use for analysis of arthroplasty registry data in the presence of the competing risk of death, when the influence of covariates on the revision rate may be different to the influence on the probability (that is, risk) of the occurrence of revision.
Patients and methods
Records of 12,525 patients aged 75–84 years who had received hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur were obtained from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. The covariates whose effects we investigated were: age, sex, type of prosthesis, and type of fixation (cementless or cemented). Extensions of competing risk regression models were implemented, allowing the effects of some covariates to vary with time.
The revision rate was significantly higher for patients with unipolar than bipolar prostheses (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.01–1.89) or with monoblock than bipolar prostheses (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.08–1.94). It was significantly higher for the younger age group (75–79 years) than for the older one (80–84 years) (HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05–1.56) and higher for males than for females (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.09–1.71). The probability of revision, after correction for the competing risk of death, was only significantly higher for unipolar prostheses than for bipolar prostheses, and higher for the younger age group. The effect of fixation type varied with time; initially, there was a higher probability of revision for cementless prostheses than for cemented prostheses, which disappeared after approximately 1.5 years.
When accounting for the competing risk of death, the covariates type of prosthesis and sex influenced the rate of revision differently to the probability of revision. We advocate the use of appropriate analysis tools in the presence of competing risks and when covariates have time-dependent effects.
PMCID: PMC3242946  PMID: 21895508
12.  Bipolar versus fixed-head hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients 
Between 2002 and 2007, fifty elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures were treated with hip replacement at Emergency Hospital, Mansoura University. Patients were randomly selected, 25 patients had either cemented or cementless bipolar prosthesis, and another 25 patients had either cemented or cementless fixed-head prosthesis. There were 34 women and 16 men with an average age of 63.5 years (range between 55 and 72 years). All patients were followed up both clinically and radiologically for an average 4.4 years (range between 2 and 6 years). At the final follow-up, the average Harris hip score among the bipolar group was 92 points (range between 72 and 97 points), while the fixed-head group was 84 points (range between 65 and 95 points). Radiologically, joint space narrowing more than 2 mm was found in only 8% (2 patients) among the bipolar group, and in 28% (7 patients) of the fixed-head group. Through the follow-up period, total hip replacement was needed in two cases of the bipolar group and seven cases of the fixed-head group. Bipolar hemiarthroplasty offered a better range of movement with less pain and more stability than the fixed-head hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures.
PMCID: PMC3058187  PMID: 21589675
Femoral neck fractures; Hip prosthesis; Arthroplasty
13.  Bipolar versus fixed-head hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients 
Between 2002 and 2007, fifty elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures were treated with hip replacement at Emergency Hospital, Mansoura University. Patients were randomly selected, 25 patients had either cemented or cementless bipolar prosthesis, and another 25 patients had either cemented or cementless fixed-head prosthesis. There were 34 women and 16 men with an average age of 63.5 years (range between 55 and 72 years). All patients were followed up both clinically and radiologically for an average 4.4 years (range between 2 and 6 years). At the final follow-up, the average Harris hip score among the bipolar group was 92 points (range between 72 and 97 points), while the fixed-head group was 84 points (range between 65 and 95 points). Radiologically, joint space narrowing more than 2 mm was found in only 8% (2 patients) among the bipolar group, and in 28% (7 patients) of the fixed-head group. Through the follow-up period, total hip replacement was needed in two cases of the bipolar group and seven cases of the fixed-head group. Bipolar hemiarthroplasty offered a better range of movement with less pain and more stability than the fixed-head hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures.
PMCID: PMC3058187  PMID: 21589675
Femoral neck fractures; Hip prosthesis; Arthroplasty
14.  Cementless Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty for Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures in Elderly Patients 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2010;2(4):221-226.
Bipolar hemiarthroplasty for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients is a viable option that can prevent the complications of an open reduction, such as nonunion and metal failure. This study evaluated the clinicoradiological results of cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients.
Forty hips were followed for more than 2 years after cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty using a Porocoat® AML Hip System. The mean age was 78.8 years and the mean follow-up period was 40.5 months. The Harris hip score and postoperative hip pain were analyzed clinically. The radiological results were assessed using a range of indices.
At the last follow-up, the mean Harris hip score was 80.6 points. There were one case of hip pain and one case of thigh pain. Twenty-four cases (60%) showed no decrease in ambulation capacity postoperatively. Radiologically, there were 23 cases (57.5%) of fixation by bone ingrowth and 17 cases (42.5%) of stable fibrous fixation. There were no cases of osteolysis. Eleven cases (27.5%) of new bone formation were found around the stem. All stems were stable without significant changes in alignment or progressive subsidence.
The short-term results of cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures were satisfactory.
PMCID: PMC2981778  PMID: 21119938
Old age; Intertrochanteric fracture; Cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty
15.  Intracapsular hip fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 
International Orthopaedics  2003;27(5):294-297.
We reviewed the treatment of 43 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and femoral neck fracture. Patients' average age was 66.4 (36–80) years and average duration of RA was 20.3 (4–42) years. Thirteen patients were treated with primary total hip arthroplasty (THA), and the clinical results were comparable to patients treated conservatively or by osteosynthesis. Eighteen patients were treated with primary bipolar hip prosthesis and after an average of 6.1 (1–13) years there was no acetabular destruction. However, long-term results were inferior to patients treated with THA. Nine patients were treated with osteosynthesis, of which two later had a hip prosthesis. Three cases with impacted fractures were treated conservatively with successful union in all.
PMCID: PMC3461859  PMID: 12904904
16.  Stability of hip hemiarthroplasties 
International Orthopaedics  2004;28(5):274-277.
It has been stated in the literature that a bipolar hemiarthroplasty has a lower risk of dislocation compared to a unipolar hemiarthroplasty. As this statement has not been substantiated we undertook a systematic review of the literature of published articles from the last 40 years. In addition we used our own database of hip fractures. One hundred and thirty-three published articles were included in the review to give a total of 23,107 cases. The overall dislocation rate for all types of hemiarthroplasty was 791/23,107 (3.4%). An increased risk of dislocation was associated with a posterior surgical approach and the use of a cemented prosthesis. After adjustment for surgical approach and the use of cement there was no difference in risk of dislocation between unipolar and bipolar hemiarthroplasties. There was an increased risk of open reduction for a bipolar hemiarthroplasty.
PMCID: PMC3456984  PMID: 15316673
17.  1-stage primary arthroplasty of mechanically failed internally fixated of hip fractures with deep wound infection 
Acta Orthopaedica  2013;84(4):377-379.
Background and purpose
Mechanically failed internal fixation following hip fracture is often treated by salvage arthroplasty. If deep wound infection is present, a 2-stage procedure is often used. We have used a 1-stage procedure in infected cases, and we now report the outcome.
Patients and methods
We reviewed 16 cases of deep wound infection after mechanically failed hip fracture fixation, treated between 1994 and 2010. In all patients, a joint prosthesis was implanted in a 1-stage procedure.
After an average follow-up period of 12 (2–18) years, no reinfection was detected. In 4 cases, a hip dislocation occurred and 3 of these needed further surgery.
A 1-stage procedure for arthroplasty of an infected, mechanically failed hip fracture fixation is feasible and carries a low risk of infection.
PMCID: PMC3768037  PMID: 23799345
18.  Ceramic-on-Ceramic Total Hip Arthroplasty: Minimum of Six-Year Follow-up Study 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2013;5(3):174-179.
This study examines the clinical and radiologic results of ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties with regard to wear, osteolysis, and fracture of the ceramic after a minimum follow-up of six years.
We evaluated the results of a consecutive series of 148 primary ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties that had been performed between May 2001 and October 2005 in 142 patients. The mean age was 57.2 years (range, 23 to 81 years). The mean follow-up period was 7.8 years (range, 6.1 to 10.1 years). Preoperative diagnosis was avascular necrosis in 77 hips (52%), degenerative arthritis in 36 hips (24.3%), femur neck fracture in 18 hips (12.2%), rheumatoid arthritis in 15 hips (10.1%), and septic hip sequelae in 2 hips (1.4%). Clinical results were evaluated with the Harris hip score, and the presence of postoperative groin or thigh pain. Radiologic analysis was done with special attention in terms of wear, periprosthetic osteolysis, and ceramic failures.
The mean Harris hip score improved from 58.3 (range, 10 to 73) to 92.5 (range, 79 to 100) on the latest follow-up evaluation. At final follow-up, groin pain was found in 4 hips (2.7%), and thigh pain was found in 6 hips (4.1%). Radiologically, all femoral stems demonstrated stable fixations without loosening. Radiolucent lines were observed around the stem in 25 hips (16.9%), and around the cup in 4 hips (2.7%). Endosteal new bone formation was observed around the stem in 95 hips (64.2%) and around the cup in 88 hips (59.5%). No osteolysis was observed around the stem and cup. There were 2 hips (1.4%) of inclination changes of acetabular cup, 2 hips (1.4%) of hip dislocation, 1 hip (0.7%) of ceramic head fracture, and 1 hip (0.7%) of squeaking. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate of the prostheses was 98.1% at postoperative 7.8 years.
The ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty produced excellent clinical results and implant survival rates with no detectable osteolysis on a minimum six-year follow-up study. The ceramic-on-ceramic couplings could be a reasonable option of primary total hip arthroplasty for variable indications.
PMCID: PMC3758986  PMID: 24009902
Hip; Total hip arthroplasty; Ceramic-on-ceramic
19.  Cemented Müller straight stem total hip replacement: 18 year survival, clinical and radiological outcomes 
World Journal of Orthopedics  2013;4(4):303-308.
AIM: To present the 18 year survival and the clinical and radiological outcomes of the Müller straight stem, cemented, total hip arthroplasty (THA).
METHODS: Between 1989 and 2007, 176 primary total hip arthroplasties in 164 consecutive patients were performed in our institution by the senior author. All patients received a Müller cemented straight stem and a cemented polyethylene liner. The mean age of the patients was 62 years (45-78). The diagnosis was primary osteoarthritis in 151 hips, dysplasia of the hip in 12 and subcapital fracture of the femur in 13. Following discharge, serial follow-up consisted of clinical evaluation based on the Harris Hip Score and radiological assessment. The survival of the prosthesis using revision for any reason as an end-point was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
RESULTS: Twenty-four (15%) patients died during the follow-up study, 6 (4%) patients were lost, while the remaining 134 patients (141 hips) were followed-up for a mean of 10 years (3-18 years). HSS score at the latest follow-up revealed that 84 hips (59.5%) had excellent results, 30 (22.2%) good, 11 (7.8%) fair and 9 (6.3%) poor. There were 3 acetabular revisions due to aseptic loosening. Six (4.2%) stems were diagnosed as having radiographic definitive loosening; however, only 1 was revised. 30% of the surviving stems showed no radiological changes of radiolucency, while 70% showed some changes. Survival of the prosthesis for any reason was 96% at 10 years and 81% at 18 years.
CONCLUSION: The 18 year survival of the Müller straight stem, cemented THA is comparable to those of other successful cemented systems.
PMCID: PMC3801251  PMID: 24147267
Total hip; Replacement; Muller; Straight stem; Cemented; Survivorship
20.  Long-term results of the Wagner cone prosthesis 
International Orthopaedics  2007;33(1):53-58.
The Wagner cone prosthesis is indicated in uncemented total hip replacement of cases with cylinder-shaped femurs, deformed femurs, femurs with increased antetorsion, and in conditions of intramedullary bony scar tissue after previous osteotomies. The objective of this study is to present long-term results. From January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1995, 132 implantations were made with the Wagner cone prosthesis. We report the clinical and radiographic results of 94 cone prostheses with a mean observation period of 11.5 years. The Merle d’Aubigné score improved from a preoperative mean value of 8.8 to a postoperative mean of 16.3. The radiographic evaluation revealed 32 cases with cortical hypertrophy, 73 cases with atrophy of the proximal femur, and 18 cases with complete pedestal formation. Radiolucencies over Gruen zones 1 and 7 occurred in 42 cases; only zone 1 was affected in 24 cases. Complications included three deep infections, three acetabular revisions, five total joint revisions, one recurrent luxation, and three heterotopic ossifications. In spite of the fact that the examined cohort often included patients who had undergone multiple previous operations (a maximum of six) of the proximal femur or the acetabulum, the long-term results of the Wagner cone prostheses were very promising.
PMCID: PMC2899218  PMID: 17932669
21.  Bilateral femoral component breakage in total hip replacement: a case report 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  1998;41(3):236-238.
Breakage of the femoral component of a total hip replacement prosthesis is an uncommon occurrence with modern prostheses. The authors report what appears to be the only case of bilateral prosthetic fracture. A 65-year-old man, who was physically active, suffered bilateral femoral stem fractures 3 and 5 years after total hip replacement. The bilateral cemented hip replacements remained asymptomatic until catastrophic failure of the femoral component occurred. Both the prostheses were titanium (Biomet; Warsaw, Ind.) with chrome cobalt modular femoral heads. The authors stress the importance of maintaining an adequate cement mantle in Gruen zones 1 and 7 because failure to do so may result in micromotion and subsequent stem fracture.
PMCID: PMC3950167  PMID: 9627550
22.  Role of valgus osteotomy and fixation with dynamic hip screw and 120° double angle barrel plate in the management of neglected and ununited femoral neck fracture in young patients 
Head preservation is the mainstay of management in younger patients with neglected or ununited intracapsular fracture neck of femur. Very few reports have dealt with the results of valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy and fixation with dynamic hip screw in such cases. In this prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the role of valgus osteotomy and fixation with dynamic hip screw and 120° double angle barrel plate in neglected or ununited intracapsular fracture neck of femur in patients below 60 years of age and whose time since injury is equal to or more than 3 weeks.
Materials and methods
We treated 16 such cases with valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy and fixation achieved with dynamic hip screw and 120° double angle barrel plate, with mean age of 36.4 years. The cases were evaluated radiologically and clinically at a mean of 19 months.
In 14 of the 16 patients, the fracture went on to satisfactory union after an average of 14.7 weeks (10–26.7 weeks). The average Harris hip score increased from 66.6 points (range 55–75 points) before surgery to 88 points (range 75–95 points). All the patients with united fractures were able to sit cross-legged, squat and do one-leg stance. Pain and limitation of motion improved remarkably. Two patients had unfavourable outcome; both had cut-through of the implant, out of the head.
Valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy is a very cheap and effective procedure to achieve union in neglected and ununited fracture neck femur in young patients. We propose fixation with dynamic hip screw and 120° double angle barrel plate as it provides additional compression and, with valgus osteotomy, improved stability of internal fixation, with few complications.
PMCID: PMC2688593  PMID: 19484358
Neglected/ununited fracture neck femur; Valgus osteotomy; Dynamic hip screw and 120° double angle barrel plate
23.  Prosthetic replacement in femoral neck fracture in the elderly: Results and review of the literature 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2008;42(1):61-67.
Intracapsular fractures of the proximal femur account for a major share of fractures in the elderly. The primary goal of treatment is to return the patient to his or her pre-fracture functional status. There are multiple internal fixation options (screws, dynamic hip screw plate or blade plates) and hemi and total hip arthroplasty. Open reduction and internal fixation has been shown to have a high rate of revision surgery due to nonunion and avascular necrosis. Hip replacement arthroplasty (hemi or total) is a viable treatment option.
Materials and Methods:
Eighty-four elderly patients (age >70 years) with a femoral neck fracture were treated over a five-year period (January 2001 to December 2006). Eighty of the 84 patients underwent some form of hip replacement after appropriate medical and anesthetic fitness.
We had good results in all the patients in terms of return to pre-fracture level of activity, independent ambulation and satisfaction with the procedure. Patients over the age of 80 years who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty all progressed well without any complication. Patients in their seventies underwent some form of total hip replacement and barring one case of deep infection, two cases of deep vein thrombosis and three cases of dislocation (which were managed conservatively), there were no real complications.
Hip replacement (hemi or total) is a successful procedure for the elderly population over 70 years with femoral neck fractures. Return to pre-morbid level of activity and independent functions occur very swiftly, avoiding the hazards of prolonged incumbency. We have proposed a treatment algorithm following the results of treatment of this fracture in our series. We have also reviewed the different contemporary treatment options used (conservative treatment, cancellous screw fixation, Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) fixation, hemi and total hip replacement) used for treatment of an elderly patient with of femoral neck fracture.
PMCID: PMC2759595  PMID: 19823657
Elderly patient; femoral neck fracture; hip arthroplasty
24.  Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty Combined with Subtrochanteric Shortening Osteotomy: Case Report 
Revision surgery is one of the most difficult reconstructive challenges facing orthopaedic surgeons; therefore, many new techniques and implants are needed to ensure that such patient can be successfully treated. We report a 66-year old female with a chronic dislocated bipolar hip prosthesis. She underwent a revision total hip arthroplasty combined with V-shaped subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy. This report demonstrates that V-shaped subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy can be used for revision surgery. Nevertheless, this technique is not suitable for all hip revisions, and the indications and various possible procedures and devices should be carefully considered to select the best treatment for each patient. We believe that the current report provides evidence supporting a new technical option for complex cases during revision THA.
PMCID: PMC3968549
Allogenic bone graft; complication; dislocated hip; revision surgery; subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy; total hip arthroplasty.
25.  Four quadrant parallel peripheral screw fixation for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2013;47(2):174-181.
The treatment options for displaced femoral neck fracture in elderly are screw fixation, hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty based primarily on age of the patient. The issues in screw fixation are ideal patient selection, optimal number of screws, optimal screw configuration and positioning inside the head and neck of femur. The problems of screw fixation may be loss of fixation, joint penetration, avascular necrosis of femoral head, nonunion, prolonged rehabilitation period and the need for second surgery in failed cases. We hereby present results of a modified screw fixation technique in femoral neck fractures in patients ≥50 years of age.
Materials and Methods:
Patients ≥50 years of age (range 50-73 years) who sustained displaced femoral neck fracture and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this prospective study. They were treated with closed reduction under image intensifier control and cannulated cancellous screw fixation. Accurate anatomical reduction was not aimed and a cross sectional contact area of >75% without varus was accepted as good reduction. Four screws were positioned in four quadrants of femoral head and neck, as parallel and as peripheral as possible. Radiological and functional results were evaluated periodically. Sixty four patients who could complete a minimum followup of two years were analyzed.
Radiologically, all fractures healed after mean duration of 10 weeks (range 8-12 weeks). There was no avascular necrosis. Nonanatomical healing was observed in 45 cases (70%). All patients except one had excellent functional outcome and could do cross-legged sitting and squatting. Chondrolysis with progressive head resorption was seen in one case, which was converted to total hip arthroplasty.
Closed reduction and cannulated cancellous screw fixation gives satisfactory functional results in large group of elderly patients. The four quadrant parallel peripheral (FQPP) screw fixation technique gives good stability, allows controlled collapse, avoids fixation failure and achieves predictable bone healing in displaced femoral neck fracture in patients ≥50 years of age.
PMCID: PMC3654468  PMID: 23682180
Femoral neck fracture; osteosynthesis; four quadrant parallel screw fixation

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