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1.  Characteristics and screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer aged 20–29 years 
British Journal of Cancer  2013;109(1):35-41.
There was concern that failure to screen women aged 20–24 years would increase the number of cancers or advanced cancers in women aged 20–29 years. We describe the characteristics of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in England aged 20–29 years and examine the association between the period of diagnosis, screening history and FIGO stage.
We used data on 1800 women diagnosed with cervical cancer between April 2007 and March 2012 at age 20–29 from the National Audit of Invasive Cervical Cancers.
The majority of cancers (995, or 62% of those with known stage) were stage 1A. Cancer at age 20–24 years was rare (12% of those aged 20–29 years), when compared with age 25 (24%) and age 26–29 years (63%); however, cancers in women aged 20–24 years tended to be more advanced and were more often of a rare histological type. For 59% of women under age 30, the cervical cancer was screen detected, most of them (61%) as a result of their first screening test. A three-fold increase in the number of cancers diagnosed at age 25 years was seen since the start of the study period.
Cervical cancer at age 20–24 years is rare. Most cancers in women under age 30 years are screen detected as microinvasive cancer.
PMCID: PMC3708588  PMID: 23820257
cervical cancer; screening; young women; screening history
2.  Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan 
To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.
A cross-sectional prospective pilot study of 100 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum State in Sudan was carried out from December 2008 to January 2009. The study was performed at the screening center in Khartoum. Six nurses and two physicians were trained by a gynecologic oncologist. The patients underwent a complete gynecological examination and filled in a questionnaire on risk factors and feasibility and acceptability. They were screened for cervical cancer by application of 3%–5% VIA. Women with a positive test were referred for colposcopy and treatment.
Sixteen percent of screened women were tested positive. Statistically significant associations were observed between being positive with VIA test and the following variables: uterine cervix laceration (odds ratio [OR] 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.64–74.8), assisted vaginal delivery (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 2.95–54.9), parity (OR 5.78; 95% CI: 1.41–23.7), female genital mutilation (OR 4.78; 95% CI: 1.13–20.1), and episiotomy (OR 5.25; 95% CI: 1.15–23.8). All these associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, educational level, employment, and potential confounding factors such as smoking, number of sexual partners, and use of contraceptive method. Furthermore, the VIA screening method was found to be feasible and acceptable to participants.
This pilot study showed that women who have uterine cervix laceration, assisted vaginal delivery, female genital mutilation, or episiotomy are at an increased risk of cervical cancer. It also showed that VIA is a feasible and acceptable cervical cancer screening method in a primary health care setting.
PMCID: PMC3089429  PMID: 21573147
cervical cancer; screening; visual inspection; acetic acid; feasibility
3.  Stage of breast cancer at diagnosis among low-income women with access to mammography 
Cancer  2010;116(23):5487-5496.
This study assessed the relationship between area-level poverty and stage of breast cancer at diagnosis among low-income women when screening mammography was available at no cost.
The authors identified women diagnosed with breast cancer, 1999-2005, through the Massachusetts Cancer Registry, and compared the odds of advanced stage disease for women with low-incomes (n = 546) for whom screening mammography and diagnostic services were available at no cost through the Massachusetts Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (MBCCEDP), relative to a non-participating comparison group (n = 1,287) residing in the same neighborhoods with similar distribution of age, race, and ethnicity as MBCCEDP participants. Among MBCCEDP participants, we estimated the odds of advanced stage disease by mammography use.
Although screening mammography was available at no cost, only 36% of program participants diagnosed with breast cancer used screening mammography. Stage of breast cancer at diagnosis was not associated with area-level poverty among MBCCEDP participants. For the comparison group, advanced stage disease was more likely for residents in high-poverty areas, relative to low-poverty areas (49% vs. 37%, p < 0.01). The adjusted odds of advanced stage disease at diagnosis was greater for women age 41-49 years, compared to 50-64 years (p=0.01).
Programs that ensure breast cancer screening and diagnostic services are available at no cost to low-income women can mitigate the adverse effect of area-level poverty on stage of breast cancer. However, such programs require effective strategies to encourage use of screening mammography to promote diagnosis at an earlier stage.
PMCID: PMC3074597  PMID: 21171232
Healthcare Disparities; Socioeconomic Factors; Health Policy; Early Detection of Cancer; Breast Cancer
4.  Sociodemographic factors and delay in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in Morocco 
In Morocco, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. The cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed at a late stage: 43.7% presented at stage II of diagnosis (FIGO) and 38.1% in advanced stage (stage III and IV). The main objective of this study is to investigate factors associated to late the diagnosis of cervical cancer in Morocco as measured by the stage at diagnosis and delays between first symptoms and diagnosis of cancer.
Cross-sectional studies, conducted from June-2008 to June-2010 at two main oncological centers. Two-hundred cases were recruited. Stages I & II were identified as “early-stage”. The dates of first-symptoms, first-consultation and first-diagnosis were used to define “Patient”, “Medical” and “Total” delays.
Elevated risks for late stage was observed for women unmarried (OR=5.0; 95%CI: 1.43-16.66); living > 100 km from center of diagnosis (OR=4.51; 95%CI: 1.35-15.11); without a familial history of cancer (OR=14.28; 95%CI: 2.22-100) and whose was the first symptom not bleeding (OR=25; 95%CI: 1.62-300). Frequency of housewives was significantly higher for women with a “patient-delay” ≥1 month. Frequency of patients who had symptoms of “bleeding” was significantly higher for women with a “patient-delay” <1 month. Frequency of patients from urban area was significantly higher for women with a “Medical-delay” < 1 month. Elevated risks for a long “Total-delay” was observed for women aged < 50 years (OR=2.44; 95%CI: 1.24-4.76); illiterate (OR = 3.85; 95%CI: 1.45-10.00) and from rural-area (OR=2.56; 95%CI: 1.25-5.26).
Our results may represent an important tool in guiding the actions for an early diagnosis of cervical cancer.
PMCID: PMC3396860  PMID: 22826738
Cervical cancer; delay; late diagnosis; Morocco
5.  Earlier Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer—An Analysis of Reports to the California Tumor Registry from 1942 to 1963 
California Medicine  1966;105(5):331-336.
The mortality rate for cervical cancer in California declined during the period 1950-64. Indirect evidence shows that the incidence is also declining, but it is difficult to assess this decline because of the effect of the increasing use of cytologic examination on incidence rates for cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer, in the 57 hospitals reporting to the California Tumor Registry, is being diagnosed at an earlier stage than in previous years. The proportion of cases diagnosed with the lesion still in the in situ stage rose from zero in 1942 to 56 per cent in 1963, and invasive cervical cancer, as a proportion of all invasive cancer in women, decreased from 15 per cent to 9 per cent. There is wide variation among hospitals in the proportion of cervical cancer cases that are in situ at time of diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC1516555  PMID: 5957428
6.  Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan: a comparative study of visual inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear 
To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests.
A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009–2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant. Methods of screening used were VIA and conventional Pap smear, followed by colposcopy and biopsy for confirmation of the positive results of both screening tests.
The tests identified altogether 119 (12.7%) positive women. VIA detected significantly more positive women than Pap smear (7.6% versus 5.1%; P = 0.004), with an overlap between the two screening tests in 19% of positive results. There was no significant difference between VIA and Pap smear findings and sociodemographic and reproductive factors among screened women. Use of colposcopy and biopsy for positive women confirmed that 88/119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap smear respectively (P = 0.001). VIA had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Pap smear (60.2% versus 47.7%) and (41.9% versus 83.8%) respectively. The combination of VIA/Pap has better sensitivity and specificity than each independent test (82.6% and 92.2%).
The findings of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan, but positive results need to be confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.
PMCID: PMC3302762  PMID: 22423181
cervical; cancer; screening; VIA; Pap smear; colposcopy; sensitivity; specificity; predictive value; primary health care setting
7.  Role of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the detection of recurrence in patients with cervical cancer 
Treatment of cervical cancer is usually surgery in the early stages and radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy in more advanced stages of the disease. Recurrence may occur in multiple sites following primary treatment. Although recurrent metastatic disease is not curable, surgical treatment may be of great help if locoregional recurrence is detected early. Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) forms an important part of investigations in the diagnosis of clinically suspicious recurrent cervical cancer.
To assess the role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in diagnosing recurrence in patients with clinical suspicion of recurrent cervical cancer.
Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively evaluated 53 histopathologically proved patients of cervical cancer. All the patients had been treated with either surgery/radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. The standard PET/CT acquisition protocol, with delayed post void static pelvic images, wherever required, was followed in all patients. Significant uptake of FDG in the lymph nodes was considered to be a recurrence suggestive of metastasis. Para-aortic lymph nodal involvement was considered to be distant metastasis. Any significant uptake in the lung nodule on FDG PET was evaluated either by histological confirmation, by taking fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), or by a follow-up chest CT done after three months.
Of the 53 patients with clinically equivocal recurrence, FDG PET/CT suggested recurrence in 41 patients (local recurrence in 14 patients and distant recurrence/metastasis with or without local recurrence in 27 patients). It had a sensitivity of 97.5%, a specificity of 63.6%, positive predictive value of 90.9%, and negative predictive value of 87.5%.
PET/CT appears to have an important role in detecting recurrence following primary treatment of cervical cancer. The high positive and negative predictive values of PET/CT may be helpful in planning management of recurrent cervical cancer.
PMCID: PMC3866666  PMID: 24379531
Cancer of the cervix; chemoradiotherapy; fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose; positron emission tomography - computed tomography; recurrence
8.  Prevalence and predictors of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia among HIV infected women at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza-Tanzania 
Cancer of the cervix rank the second most common cause of cancer related deaths among women in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that 529, 409 new cases are diagnosed annually with a mortality rate approaching 274,883 per year. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) precedes almost all cervical cancers. The incidence rate of CIN among HIV infected women is five times higher as compared to the rate in HIV negative women. The screening for cervical dysplasia and an appropriate management in women with CIN are effective methods for preventing cervical cancer. This study was done to determine the prevalence and predictors of CIN among a HIV infected women attending Care and Treatment centre (CTC) at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC).
A cross sectional survey was undertaken among HIV infected women aged 18 years and above attending at BMC CTC clinic between February and March 2013. Visual Inspection with Acetic acid (VIA) was used as the screening method for detection of CIN. Socio-demographic, reproductive and clinical information was obtained from participants and the blood was collected for CD4 lymphocyte count. Cervical punch biopsy for histological examination was performed for those who had VIA positive test. Data were entered and analyzed using STATA Version 12.0 soft ware.
A total number of 95 (26.8%) participants had positive VIA test among three hundred and fifty-five (355) HIV infected women. Histology results showed; 4(4.2%) were normal, 26 (27.4%) had an inflammatory lesion, 58(61.1%) had CIN and 7(7.3%) had invasive cervical cancer. CIN was found to be associated with a history of multiple sexual partners (P<0.001), a history of genital warts (P<0.001), and a history of STI (P = 0.010).
The Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia is a problem among HIV infected women. A history of multiple sexual partners, a history of genital warts, a history STI and a low baseline CD4 T lymphocyte were significant predictors for CIN. Screening for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia is recommended for all women with HIV.
PMCID: PMC3833176  PMID: 24228805
Cervical intraepithelial Neoplasia; HIV; Mwanza
9.  Effectiveness of cervical screening with age: population based case-control study of prospectively recorded data 
Objective To study the effect of cervical screening on incidence of cervical cancer as a function of age with particular focus on women screened under the age of 25.
Design Population based case-control study with prospectively recorded data on cervical screening.
Setting Selected centres in the United Kingdom.
Participants 4012 women aged 20-69 with invasive cancer diagnosed in participating centres and two controls per case individually matched on age and area of residence.
Main outcome measures Odds ratios for strength of association between cervical cancer and screening at particular ages.
Results There is no evidence that screening women aged 22-24 reduced the incidence of cervical cancer at ages 25-29 (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.50). Similar results were seen for cancers restricted to squamous carcinoma or FIGO (International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics) stage IB or worse, but the numbers are insufficient to provide narrow confidence intervals. Screening was associated with a 60% reduction of cancers in women aged 40, increasing to 80% at age 64. Screening was particularly effective in preventing advanced stage cancers.
Conclusions Cervical screening in women aged 20-24 has little or no impact on rates of invasive cervical cancer up to age 30. Some uncertainly still exists regarding its impact on advanced stage tumours in women under age 30. By contrast, screening older women leads to a substantial reduction in incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer. These data should help policy makers balance the impact of screening on cancer rates against its harms, such as overtreatment of lesions with little invasive potential.
PMCID: PMC2718082  PMID: 19638651
10.  Breast cancer burden in central Sudan 
Breast cancer is a worldwide disease resulting in many deaths. Although breast cancer incidence is lower in Sub-Saharan African countries than in developed countries, African women are more likely than women in the developed world to be diagnosed at later stages of the disease and, thus, are more likely to die from it. This is due to the lack of awareness by women, accessibility to screening methods, and availability of African-based research findings that would influence decision making at the governmental level. This descriptive study was undertaken to shed light on the type, stage and age distribution of breast cancer at diagnosis in women living in central Sudan encompassing al-Gezira, Blue Nile, White Nile, and Sennar States. Cases comprised 1255 women from central Sudan diagnosed with breast cancer and referred to and treated at Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Biology, and Oncology, from January 1999 to December 2006. Data revealed that 74% of the women were <50 years old or premenopausal. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common pathology (82%) and women presenting with stage III or higher tumors that had already metastasized, while ductal carcinoma in situ was the least prevalent (0.5%) finding. Estrogen and progesterone receptors expression were performed on a limited number of samples and the overwhelming majority of cases were observed to be negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors expression.
PMCID: PMC2971742  PMID: 21072300
female breast cancer; estrogen receptor; progesterone receptor; epidemiology; Africa
11.  Review of the screening history of Alberta women with invasive cervical cancer 
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a failure analysis of cervical cancer screening among women with invasive cervical cancer in Alberta. DESIGN: Descriptive study. Review of demographic, staging and treatment information from cancer registry records; generation of documented screening history from Alberta Health billing records and self-reported history from subjects who agreed to be interviewed; and comparison of findings in initial cytology reports with those from subsequent review by at least 2 pathologists of all cytology slides for each patient for the 5 years before diagnosis. Cases were assigned to 1 of 6 categories of identified screening failure. SETTING: Alberta. SUBJECTS: All women with diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer reported to a population-based provincial cancer registry from January 1990 to December 1991. OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic, staging and treatment information; documented and self-reported screening histories; correlation of test results in initial cytology report with those generated from slide review; category of identified screening failure. RESULTS: Of the 246 women identified with invasive cancer of the cervix, 37 (15.0%) had stage IA disease; 195 (79.3%) had squamous-cell carcinoma, and 35 (14.2%) had adenocarcinoma. According to the categories of screening failure, 74 women (30.1%) had never been screened, 38 (15.4% had not been screened within 3 years before diagnosis, 42 (17.1%) had had a false-negative cytology result, and 20 (8.1%) had been managed outside of conventional protocols. Of the 23 women (9.3%) who had been screened appropriately and had true-negative results, 19 had smears that were considered technically limited. It was not possible to classify 49 (19.9%) of the cases. Agreement between the documented and the self-reported screening histories was exact for only 39 (36.1%) of the 108 women interviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread use of opportunistic cervical screening, many women in Alberta are still not being screened adequately. In most cases women are being screened too infrequently or not at all. Self-reported screening histories are unreliable because many women may overestimate the number of smears. An organized approach to screening, as recommended by the National Workshop in Cervical Cancer Screening, may assist in reducing the incidence of invasive cervical cancer.
PMCID: PMC1227964  PMID: 9294389
12.  American Samoan Women's Health: Experiences and Attitudes toward Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening 
Hawaii Medical Journal  2010;69(6 Suppl 3):17-20.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death among Samoan women and, compared to women of other ethnicities in the United States, Samoan women present at earlier ages with advanced stages of both breast and cervical cancers. Our goal was to gain a better understanding of issues that may prevent women in American Samoa from using available cancer screening resources.
Following approval from the Office of Samoan Affairs, we conducted four focus group sessions, in which a total of 55 women from urban and rural sites participated. Women were asked about their perceptions regarding barriers, knowledge, and past utilization of available cancer screening services.
Among the participants, professional women were more aware and had higher utilization rates of age-specific screening services. Barriers to health care services included lack of awareness and fears regarding poor confidentiality.
Our findings, which have been reviewed by participants, highlight the further need for outreach and education about female cancers. Screening rates could be increased and all services may benefit from increased collaboration between the American Samoa Department of Public Health and Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) Tropical Medical Center. Our findings underline a need for additional staff training in professionalism, particularly in the areas of confidentiality and respect for patients.
PMCID: PMC3123153  PMID: 20539996
13.  Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:22.
Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania.
A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research.
Less than one quarter (22.6%) of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03) and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10) were significantly associated with screening uptake.
Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of the disease must include specific information on how to prevent it as well as screening services available. Third, it is important to provide cervical cancer screening services within 5 km of where women reside.
PMCID: PMC3299640  PMID: 22233530
Public health; Policy; Cervical cancer screening; Women's health
14.  Contextual Analysis of Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis Among Women in the United States, 2004 
To explore contextual effects and to test for interactions, this study examined how breast cancer stage at diagnosis among U.S. women related to individual- and county-level (contextual) variables associated with access to health care and socioeconomic status.
Individual-level incidence data were obtained from the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) program. The county of residence of women with diagnosed breast cancer (n = 217,299) was used to link NPCR and SEER data with county-level measures of health care access from the 2004 Area Resource File (ARF). In addition to individual-level covariates such as age, race, and Hispanic ethnicity, we examined county-level covariates (residence in a Health Professional Shortage Area, urban/rural residence; race/ethnicity; and number of health centers/clinics, mammography screening centers, primary care physicians, and obstetrician-gynecologists per 100,000 female population or per 1000 square miles) as predictors of stage of breast cancer at diagnosis.
Both individual-level and contextual variables are associated with later stage of breast cancer at diagnosis. Black women and women of “other race” had higher odds of receiving a diagnosis of regional or distant stage breast cancer (P <0.0001 and P = 0.02). With adjustment for age, Hispanics were more likely to receive a diagnosis of later stage breast cancer than non-Hispanics (P <0.0.001). Women living in areas with a higher proportion of black women had greater odds of receiving a diagnosis of regional or late stage breast cancer compared with women living in areas with the lowest proportion of black women. The same was noted for women living in areas with intermediate proportions of Hispanic women (age-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92–0.97]. Other important contextual variables associated with stage at diagnosis included the percentage of persons living below the poverty level and the number of office-based physicians per 100,000 women. Women living in counties with a higher proportion of persons living below the poverty level or fewer office-based physicians were more likely to receive a diagnosis of later stage breast cancer than those living in other counties (P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, residence in areas with a higher proportion of non-Hispanic black women modified the associations of age and Hispanic ethnicity with later stage breast cancer (P = 0.0159 and P = 0.0002, respectively).
This study found that county-level contextual variables related to the availability and accessibility of health care providers and health services can affect the timeliness of breast cancer diagnosis. This information could help public health officials develop interventions to reduce the burden of breast cancer among U.S. women.
PMCID: PMC3039173  PMID: 21331349
Breast cancer; cancer prevention and control; screening; stage
15.  Quality of Care in Women With Stage I Cervical Cancer 
Western Journal of Medicine  1982;137(1):13-17.
A study was done to assess the quality of care received by women with stage I cervical cancer. Through a population-based registry serving 13 counties of western Washington, including Seattle, we identified all women residents in whom local-stage cervical cancer developed between January 1974 and December 1978 (N=369). The cases were subdivided into stage IA (microinvasive) and stage IB (frankly invasive). Quality of care was defined as optimal or suboptimal at the outset of the study; this definition applied to all cases. In patients with stage IB cervical cancer, striking relationships were found between the quality of care and initial and referral hospital characteristics and physician's specialty. No differences were found, however, in three-year survival between the optimally and suboptimally treated groups.
PMCID: PMC1273977  PMID: 7135940
16.  Ethnic Disparities in Cervical Cancer Survival Among Texas Women 
Journal of Women's Health  2009;18(10):1577-1583.
The aim of this work was to determine whether minority women are more likely to die of cervical cancer. A population-based cohort study was performed using Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) data from 1998 to 2002.
A total of 5,166 women with cervical cancer were identified during 1998–2002 through the TCR. Measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and urbanization were created using census block group-level data. Multilevel logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of dying from cervical cancer by race, and Cox proportional hazards modeling was used for cervical cancer-specific survival analysis.
After adjusting for age, SES, urbanization, stage, cell type, and treatment, Hispanic women were significantly less likely than non-Hispanic White women to die from cervical cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.69; 95% CI [confidence interval] = 0.59–0.80), whereas Black women were more likely to die (aHR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.06–1.50). Black and Hispanic women were more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage than White women. Black women were significantly less likely to receive surgery among those diagnosed with localized disease (p = 0.001) relative to both White and Hispanic women.
Relative to non-Hispanic White women, Black women were more likely to die of cervical cancer while Hispanic women were less likely to die; these survival differences were not explained by SES, urbanization, age, cell type, stage at diagnosis, or treatment.
PMCID: PMC2825716  PMID: 19788363
17.  Neighborhood Composition and Cancer among Hispanics: Tumor Stage and Size at Time of Diagnosis 
We have previously reported that cancer incidence for lung, female breast, and colon and rectum for Hispanics decreases with increasing percentage of Hispanics at the census tract. In contrast, cervical cancer incidence increases with increasing percentage of Hispanics at the census tract.
In this study, we investigate the hypothesis that Hispanics living in census tracts with high percentages of Hispanics are diagnosed with more advanced cancer, with respect to tumor size and stage of diagnosis. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry and the U.S. Census Bureau were used to estimate the odds of diagnosis at a “late” stage (II, III, IV) versus “early” stage (I) and breast cancer tumor size among Hispanics as a function of census tract percent Hispanic. Hispanic ethnicity in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry was identified by medical record review and Hispanic surname lists. The study also used income of Hispanics living in the census tract and controlled for age at diagnosis and gender.
We found that Hispanics living in neighborhoods with higher density of Hispanic populations were more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer, and to have a larger tumor size of breast cancer.
Our findings suggest that the benefits of lower cancer incidence in high tract percent Hispanics are partially offset by poorer access and reduced use of screening in conjunction with lower income, poorer health insurance coverage, and language barriers typical of these communities.
PMCID: PMC3763513  PMID: 18990733
18.  Relationship Between Plasma Glucose Levels and Malignant Uterine Cervical Neoplasias 
There is a direct correlation between glycemic load and the risk of developing many malignant neoplasms.
The aim of this study was to determine the plasma glucose levels in women with cervical cancer.
The study included 177 women with anatomopathologically diagnosed uterine cervical cancer (stages 0–IV) treated between 1980 and 2008 at the Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient service of the UFTM, Brazil. The plasma glucose levels of all patients were assayed at the time of diagnosis and correlated with tumor staging.
We statistically compared the plasma glucose levels of group 1 (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2–3), group 2 (stage I–II), group 3 (stage III–IV), and group 4 (control group: leiomyomas). Patient groups with poor prognosis (groups 2 and 3) showed significantly higher plasma glucose levels (P < 0.05) than those with less aggressive lesions (group 1). Plasma glucose levels were significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 than in group 4 (P < 0.05). The comparison of number of patients with plasma glucose level >90 mg/dl showed CIN versus I/II: P = 0.0753; OR = 2.018; (95% CI: 0.9236 to 4.410) and CIN versus III/IV: P = 0.0975; OR = 2.400; (95% CI: 0.8335 to 6.911).
We observed an association between high plasma glucose levels and cervical cancer cases with poor prognoses. Plasma glucose tests should be routinely used as additional prognostic parameters in patients with cervical neoplasias.
PMCID: PMC3095023  PMID: 21603242
plasma glucose levels; uterine cervical cancer; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
19.  Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania 
BMC Public Health  2008;8:56.
The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the cancer mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Lithuania.
Cancer mortality has been studied using the materials of the Lithuanian cancer registry. For the period 1993–2004 age-standardized urban and rural population mortality rates (World standard) were calculated for all malignant neoplasm's and for stomach, colorectal, lung, prostate, breast and cervical cancers. The annual percentage change (APC) was calculated using log-linear regression model, two-sided Mantel-Haenzel test was used to evaluate differences in cancer mortality among rural and urban populations.
For males in rural population cancer mortality was higher than in urban (212.2 and 197.0 cases per 100000) and for females cancer mortality was higher in urban population (103.5 and 94.2 cases per 100000, p < 0.05). During the study period the age-standardized mortality rates decreased in both sexes in urban residents. The decreasing mortality trend in urban population was contributed by decline of the rates of lung and stomach cancer in male and breast, stomach and colorectal cancer in female. Mortality rates in both urban and rural population were increasing for prostate and cervical cancers.
This study shows that large rural and urban inequalities in cancer mortality exist in Lithuania. The contrast between the health of residents in urban and rural areas invites researchers for research projects to develop, implement, and enhance cancer prevention and early detection intervention strategies for rural populations.
PMCID: PMC2259339  PMID: 18267035
20.  Quality of Care for Breast Cancer for Uninsured Women in California Under the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention Treatment Act  
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2010;28(21):3479-3484.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of care provided to uninsured women with breast cancer who received treatment through the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention Treatment Program (BCCTP).
Participants included women with stage I to III breast cancer (n = 658) from a consecutive sample of women 18 years or older who received coverage through the California BCCTP between February 2003 and September 2005 who consented to a survey and medical record review (61% response rate). Quality of breast cancer care was evaluated using 29 evidence-based quality measures developed for the National Initiative for Cancer Care Quality (NICCQ). NICCQ, a largely insured cohort of women diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer in 1998, was used to benchmark the results.
Twenty-three percent of women presented with stage III disease compared with fewer than 10% nationally. Patients received 93% of recommended care (95% CI, 92% to 93%). Adherence to recommended care within domains ranged from 87% for post-treatment surveillance (95% CI, 84% to 90%) to 97% for diagnostic evaluation (95% CI, 96% to 97%). Compared to the NICCQ cohort, adherence to quality measures was as good or better for the BCCPT cohort in all domains except post-treatment surveillance.
The BCCTP has made important inroads in providing poor, uninsured women with access to high quality care when faced with the diagnosis of breast cancer; however, many present at an advanced stage, which is associated with worse outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2917212  PMID: 20530279
21.  Association of traffic-related hazardous air pollutants and cervical dysplasia in an urban multiethnic population: a cross-sectional study 
Environmental Health  2014;13:52.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary cause in the development of cervical cancer; however, not all women infected with HPV develop cervical cancer indicating that other risk factors are involved. Our objective was to determine the association between exposure to ambient levels of common traffic-related air toxics and cervical dysplasia, a precursor lesion for cervical cancer.
The study sample consisted of women enrolled in a Phase II clinical trial to evaluate diagnostic techniques for cervical disease in Houston, Texas. The current assessment is a secondary data analysis in which cases were defined as women diagnosed with cervical dysplasia, while those without cervical dysplasia served as controls. Residential census tract-level estimates of ambient benzene, diesel particulate matter (DPM), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used to assess exposure. Census tract-level pollutant estimates were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, and HPV status.
Women in the highest residential exposure categories for benzene and DPM had an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia compared to the lowest exposure category (Benzene: aOR [95% CI] for high exposure = 1.97[1.07-3.62], very high exposure = 2.30[1.19-4.46]. DPM: aOR [95% CI] for high exposure = 2.83[1.55-5.16], very high exposure = 2.10[1.07-4.11]). Similarly, women with high residential exposure to PAHs had an increased prevalence of cervical dysplasia (aOR [95% CI] = 2.46[1.35-4.48]). The highest PAH exposure category was also positively associated with cervical dysplasia prevalence but was not statistically significant. Assessment of the combined effect of HAP exposure indicates that exposure to high levels of more than one HAP is positively associated with cervical dysplasia prevalence (p for trend = 0.004).
Traffic-related HAPs, such as benzene, DPM, and PAHs, are not as well-regulated and monitored as criteria air pollutants (e.g., ozone), underscoring the need for studies evaluating the role of these toxicants on disease risk. Our results suggest that exposure to traffic-related air toxics may increase cervical dysplasia prevalence.
PMCID: PMC4063240  PMID: 24924773
Benzene; Cervical dysplasia; Diesel particulate matter; Hazardous air pollutants; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
22.  Cervical Screening within HIV Care: Findings from an HIV-Positive Cohort in Ukraine 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(4):e34706.
HIV-positive women have an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer but cytologic screening is effective in reducing incidence. Little is known about cervical screening coverage or the prevalence of abnormal cytology among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, which has the most severe HIV epidemic in Europe.
Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 1120 women enrolled at three sites of the Ukraine Cohort Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women to investigate factors associated with receiving cervical screening as part of HIV care. All women had been diagnosed as HIV-positive before or during their most recent pregnancy. Prevalence of cervical abnormalities (high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) among women who had been screened was estimated, and associated factors explored.
Overall, 30% (337/1120) of women had received a cervical screening test as part of HIV care at study enrolment (median 10 months postpartum), a third (115/334) of whom had been tested >12 months previously. In adjusted analyses, women diagnosed as HIV-positive during (vs before) their most recent pregnancy were significantly less likely to have a screening test reported, on adjusting for other potential risk factors (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 0.62, 95% CI 0.51–0.75 p<0.01 for 1st/2nd trimester diagnosis and APR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28–0.63 p<0.01 for 3rd trimester/intrapartum diagnosis). Among those with a cervical screening result reported at any time (including follow-up), 21% (68/325) had a finding of cervical abnormality. In adjusted analyses, Herpes simplex virus 2 seropositivity and a recent diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis were associated with an increased risk of abnormal cervical cytology (APR 1.83 95% CI 1.07–3.11 and APR 3.49 95% CI 2.11–5.76 respectively).
In this high risk population, cervical screening coverage as part of HIV care was low and could be improved by an organised cervical screening programme for HIV-positive women. Bacterial vaginosis testing and treatment may reduce vulnerability to cervical abnormalities.
PMCID: PMC3335834  PMID: 22545087
23.  Papanicolaou test utilization and frequency of screening opportunities among women diagnosed with cervical cancer 
Open Medicine  2009;3(3):e140-e147.
Although the importance of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear test screening in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer is well established, in 1994–95 one in 4 women in Manitoba aged 18 to 69 years reported never having had a Pap test or not having had a Pap test in the last 3 years. The objectives of this study were to examine the screening history of women in Manitoba diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer and to explore whether opportunities for screening were missed.
In this case-control study women aged 18 years and older who resided in Manitoba and were diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer between 1989 and 2001 were each matched by age and area of residence to 5 controls, (N = 4009). Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between Pap test utilization and the likelihood of diagnosis with invasive cervical cancer. Generalized linear models using the negative binomial distribution were used to assess the association between cancer status and rates of prior Pap testing and of opportunities to be screened. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used for the analysis of physician characteristics.
Forty-six percent of women in Manitoba diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer and 67% of the control group had received a Pap test in the 5 years before the case’s diagnosis. After adjustment for age, income and residence, the rate of Pap testing was significantly higher in the control group (rate ratio [RR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–1.73). Conversely, when cervical cancer was the outcome, women who had not had Pap tests were more likely to be diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.77, 95% CI 2.30–3.30) than women who did have a Pap test. Although women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer had fewer Pap tests, they had had as many opportunities to be screened as controls (RR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.12). Compared with urban family physicians, rural family physicians were less likely to provide Pap tests (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.58–0.80) and specialists were more likely to provide Pap tests (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.30–2.22).
Women who were diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer in the province of Manitoba, Canada, had fewer Pap tests but the same frequency of opportunities to be screened as matched controls. These results reinforce the need to educate women about cervical cancer screening and the importance of receiving Pap tests.
PMCID: PMC3090124  PMID: 21603052
24.  Accuracy of registration of invasive cervical cancer. 
Canadian Medical Association Journal  1983;129(12):1275-1277.
The quality of the data recorded by the British Columbia Cancer Registry for 521 new cases of invasive cervical cancer was evaluated. The registry's pathological diagnosis in all new registrations of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in British Columbia between 1977 and 1979 was compared with a best estimate of the true diagnosis, which was determined from the results of the provincial cervical cytology screening program and the clinical charts at the Cancer Control Agency of British Columbia. The registry's data overestimated the true incidence of invasive cervical cancer by approximately 55%, since 184 (35%) of the cases were incorrectly registered. Of the 184, 141 (77%) were cases of preinvasive cervical cancer, 26 (14%) did not meet the criteria for a true case (i.e., they were not newly diagnosed in British Columbia between 1977 and 1979) and 17 (9%) were cases of invasive cancer of another primary site. In addition, 28 cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in the province during the study period had not been reported to the registry. Thus, both over-reporting and under-reporting occurred. There is a need for constant evaluation of registry data if cancer registries are to fulfil their potential contribution to cancer control programs and research.
PMCID: PMC1875693  PMID: 6652593
25.  Cervical cancer: incidence and survival in migrants within Spain. 
STUDY OBJECTIVE--This study examined the incidence of cervical cancer and survival rates according to migrant experience of women from different regions of Spain to Girona, Catalonia (Spain). DESIGN--Using data from the population based cancer registry of Girona for the period 1980-89, crude and age adjusted incidence rates were calculated for local-born and first generation migrants from other Spanish regions. The age standardised rate ratio (SRR) was calculated and Cox's regression model was used to adjust survival according to migrant status for age and stage at diagnosis. MAIN RESULTS--The incidence of cervical cancer was significantly higher in first generation Spanish migrants compared with locally born women (SRR: 2.02; 95% CI 1.40:2.92). The stage at diagnosis was more advanced among migrants. Survival probability was significantly associated with stage at diagnosis, but age and region of birth were not. CONCLUSIONS--Migrants from the southern Spanish regions show a twofold excess in the incidence of cervical cancer compared with the Girona-born female population. Cases of cervical cancer in migrants are diagnosed at a more advanced stage and as a consequence have a poorer prognosis.
PMCID: PMC1060100  PMID: 7798043

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