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1.  Clinical and economic burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults: a multicenter hospital-based study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:202.
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a broad spectrum of illnesses ranging from mild upper respiratory tract infections to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Quantitative data on the burden of pneumococcal disease, important for the establishment of appropriate vaccination strategies, is currently lacking in adults.
This multicenter, retrospective cohort study was designed to estimate the clinical and economic burden of IPD in adults over the last decade. Data were collected from patients with IPD at 10 university hospitals in South Korea. We estimated the proportion of IPD among all hospitalized patients, the case fatality rate, and the direct medical costs of IPD. Data were further analyzed according to age and risk groups.
During the study period, 970 patients with IPD were identified. The mean age for all patients was 60.9 years; patients aged 50–64 years (33.0%) were most numerous, followed by those aged 65–74 years (27.4%). Overall, the proportion of IPD was 0.36 cases/1000 hospitalized patients and the case fatality rate was 30.9%, which increased significantly with age (p < 0.01). The mean direct medical costs were estimated to be US $7,452 without a difference between age and risk groups. On multivariate analysis, old age, advanced ECOG performance status, bacteremic pneumonia, and nosocomial infection were independent risk factors of 30-day case fatality.
The clinical disease burden of IPD increased significantly with age and direct medical costs from IPD were substantial, regardless of age and co-morbid conditions. The current age-based vaccination strategy appears to be appropriate.
PMCID: PMC3660270  PMID: 23641904
Cost of illness; Pneumococcal infection; Pneumococcal vaccines; Streptococcus pneumoniae
2.  The persisting burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV patients: an observational cohort study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:314.
The increasing use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and pneumococcal immunization along with shifting community exposures may have altered the burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae disease in HIV-infected persons. We describe the burden and risk factors for pneumococcal disease in the modern era of HIV care and evaluate the use of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23).
The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) between January 1st, 2000 and January 1st, 2010 in a regional HIV population in Southern Alberta, Canada was determined by linking comprehensive laboratory and hospital surveillance data. Clinical and epidemiologic data including risk factors for S. pneumoniae, history of pneumococcal immunization, serotypes of infections, and length of any hospitalizations for pneumococcal disease were evaluated with multivariate analysis. CD4 count and viral load at immunization were evaluated with a nested case-control analysis.
In 1946 HIV-patients with 11,099 person-years of follow up, there were 68 distinct episodes of pneumococcal disease occurring in 50 patients. Increased risk was seen if female, age >60, Aboriginal ethnicity, lower education, injection drug use, smoking, nadir CD4 <200/μL, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hepatitis C. Overall, the incidence of IPD was 342/100,000 person-years and was reduced to 187/100,000 within three years of PPV-23 immunization (P < 0.01). Although 78% of patients received PPV-23, 74% of IPD episodes were caused by PPV-23 serotypes. In a case-control analysis, HIV viral load at immunization was significantly predictive of PPV-23 failure, while CD4 count was not. 80% of IPD cases required hospitalization: median length of stay was 7 days (range: 1-71); four patients died.
Despite universal access to intensive measures to prevent pneumococcal disease including the widespread use of HAART and PPV-23 immunization, the incidence of IPD remains high in HIV patients with its associated morbidity and mortality.
PMCID: PMC3226630  PMID: 22078162
3.  Rate of candidiasis among HIV-infected children in Spain in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1997–2008) 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:115.
Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The aim of our study was to estimate the candidiasis rate and evaluate its trend in HIV-infected children in Spain during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared to HIV-uninfected children.
We carried out a retrospective study. Data were obtained from the records of the Minimum Basic Data Set from hospitals in Spain. All HIV-infected children were under 17 years of age, and a group of HIV-uninfected children with hospital admissions matching the study group by gender and age were randomly selected. The follow-up period (1997–2008) was divided into three calendar periods: a) From 1997 to 1999 for early-period HAART; b) from 2000 to 2002 for mid-period HAART; and c) from 2003 to 2008 for late-period HAART.
Among children with hospital admissions, HIV-infected children had much higher values than HIV-uninfected children during each of the three calendar periods for overall candidiasis rates (150.0 versus 6.1 events per 1,000 child hospital admissions/year (p < 0.001), 90.3 versus 3.1 (p < 0.001), and 79.3 versus 10.7 (p < 0.001), respectively) and for non-invasive Candida mycosis (ICM) rates (118.5 versus 3.8 (p < 0.001), 85.3 versus 2.3 (p < 0.001), and 80.6 versus 6.0 (p < 0.001), respectively). In addition, HIV-infected children also had higher values of ICM rates than HIV-uninfected children, except during the last calendar period when no significant difference was found (32.4 versus 1.2 (p < 0.001), 11.6 versus 0.4 (p < 0.001), and 4.6 versus 2.3 (p = 0.387), respectively). For all children living with HIV/AIDS, the overall candidiasis rate (events per 1,000 HIV-infected children/year) decreased from 1997–1999 to 2000–2002 (18.8 to 10.6; p < 0.001) and from 2000–2002 to 2003–2008 (10.6 to 5.7; p = 0.060). Within each category of candidiasis, both non-ICM and ICM rates experienced significant decreases from 1997–1999 to 2003–2008 (15.9 to 5.7 (p < 0.001) and 4.1 to 0.3 (p < 0.001), respectively).
Although the candidiasis rate still remains higher than in the general population (from 1997 to 2008), candidiasis diagnoses have decreased among HIV-infected children throughout the HAART era, and it has ceased to be a major health problem among children with HIV infection.
PMCID: PMC3599397  PMID: 23510319
AIDS; Candidiasis; HAART; Infection; Pediatric; Epidemiology
4.  Predictors of HAART Utilization for Behaviorally HIV-1 Infected Youth: Impact of Adult vs. Pediatric Clinical Care Site 
The Journal of Adolescent Health  2011;50(5):471-477.
We evaluated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) utilization in youth infected with HIV through risk behaviors (BIY) who met treatment criteria for HAART. We assessed the impact of receiving care at an adult or pediatric HIV clinical site on initiation and discontinuation of the first HAART regimen in BIY.
This was a retrospective analysis of treatment-naive BIY, aged 12–24, who enrolled in the HIV Research Network (HIVRN) between 2002 and 2008 and who met criteria for HAART. The outcomes were time from meeting criteria to initiation of HAART and time to discontinuation of the first HAART regimen. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Of 287 treatment-eligible youth, 198 (69%) received HAART and 58/198 (29.3%) subsequently discontinued HAART. In multivariable analyses, there was no significant difference in the time between meeting treatment criteria and initiating HAART for BIY followed at adult or pediatric HIV clinical sites. However, BIY followed at adult sites discontinued HAART sooner than BIY followed at pediatric HIV clinical sites (AHR 3.19 [1.26–8.06]).
Two thirds of treatment-eligible BIY in the HIVRN cohort initiated HAART; however, one third who initiated HAART discontinued HAART during the study period. Identifying factors associated with earlier HAART initiation and HAART sustainability can inform interventions to enhance HAART utilization among treatment-eligible youth. The finding of earlier HAART discontinuation for youth at adult care sites deserves further study.
PMCID: PMC3338204  PMID: 22525110
adolescents; youth; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); disparities; utilization; HIV Research Network; clinical site
5.  Risk Factors for Multidrug-Resistant Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in South Africa, a Setting with High HIV Prevalence, in the Prevaccine Era from 2003 to 2008 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2012;56(10):5088-5095.
The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Streptococcus pneumoniae complicates disease management. We aimed to determine risk factors associated with MDR invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in South Africa and evaluate the potential for vaccination to reduce disease burden. IPD data collected by laboratory-based surveillance from 2003 through 2008 were analyzed. Multidrug resistance was defined as nonsusceptibility to any three or more different antibiotic classes. Risk factors for multidrug resistance were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Of 20,100 cases of IPD identified, 3,708 (18%) had MDR isolates, with the proportion increasing from 16% (461/2,891) to 20% (648/3,326) (P < 0.001) over the study period. Serotypes included in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) accounted for 94% of MDR strains. Significant risk factors for MDR IPD included PCV13 (1,486/6,407; odds ratio [OR] of 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] of 5.0 to 7.9) and pediatric (3,382/9,980; OR of 12.8; 95% CI of 10.6 to 15.4) serotypes, age of <5 (802/3,110; OR of 2.0; 95% CI of 1.8 to 2.3) or ≥65 (39/239; OR of 1.5; 95% CI of 1.0 to 2.2) years versus age of 15 to 64 years, HIV infection (975/4,636; OR of 1.5; 95% CI of 1.2 to 1.8), previous antibiotic use (242/803; OR of 1.7; 95% CI of 1.4 to 2.1), previous hospital admissions (579/2,450; OR of 1.2; 95% CI of 1.03 to 1.4), urban location (883/4,375; OR of 2.0; 95% CI of 1.1 to 3.5), and tuberculosis treatment (246/1,021; OR of 1.2; 95% CI of 1.03 to 1.5). MDR IPD prevalence increased over the study period. The effect of many of the MDR risk factors could be reduced by more judicious use of antibiotics. Because PCV13 serotypes account for most MDR infections, pneumococcal vaccination may reduce the prevalence of multidrug resistance.
PMCID: PMC3457358  PMID: 22802256
6.  Influenza-Related Mortality Among Adults Aged 25–54 Years With AIDS in South Africa and the United States of America 
In the absence of highly active therapy antiretroviral (HAART), adults with AIDS experience substantially elevated influenza-associated mortality in South Africa and the United States. This elevated mortality risk declined with widespread HAART introduction in the United States but did not disappear entirely. These data support increased access to HAART and influenza vaccination for human immunodeficiency virus–infected adults globally.
Background. Data are limited on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated influenza burden in sub-Saharan Africa and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We compared influenza-related mortality in adults with AIDS in South Africa and the United States in the pre-HAART era and evaluated mortality trends after HAART introduction in the United States.
Methods. Monthly all-cause and pneumonia and influenza (P&I) mortality rates were compiled for adults with AIDS aged 25–54 years in South Africa (1998–2005) and the United States (pre-HAART era, 1987–1994; HAART era, 1997–2005). We estimated influenza-related deaths as excess mortality above a model baseline during influenza epidemic periods. Influenza-related mortality rates in adults with AIDS were compared with rates for age peers in the general population and adults ≥65 years old.
Results. In the United States before HAART, influenza-related mortality rates in adults with AIDS were 150 (95% confidence interval [CI], 49–460) and 208 (95% CI, 74–583) times greater than in the general population for all-cause and P&I deaths, respectively, and 2.5 (95% CI, 0.9–7.2) and 4.1 (95% CI, 1.4–13) times higher than in elderly adults. After HAART introduction , influenza-related mortality in adults with AIDS dropped 3–6-fold but remained elevated compared with the general population (all-cause relative risk [RR], 44 [95% CI, 16–121]); P&I RR, 73 [95% CI, 47–113]). Influenza-related mortality in South African adults with AIDS in recent years was similar to that in the United States in the pre-HAART era.
Conclusions. Adults with AIDS experience substantially elevated influenza-associated mortality, which declines with widespread HAART introduction but does not disappear. These data support increased access to HAART and influenza vaccination for HIV-infected adults.
PMCID: PMC3657519  PMID: 22715173
7.  The Impact of Kidney Function at HAART Initiation on Mortality in HIV-infected Women 
In the early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, kidney dysfunction was strongly associated with death among HIV-infected individuals. We re-examined this association in the later HAART period to determine whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a predictor of death after HAART-initiation.
To evaluate the effect of kidney function at the time of HAART initiation on time to all-cause mortality, we evaluated 1415 HIV-infected women initiating HAART in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Multivariable proportional hazards models with survival times calculated from HAART initiation to death were constructed; participants were censored at the time of the last available visit or December 31, 2006.
CKD (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) at HAART initiation was associated with higher mortality risk adjusting for age, race, hepatitis C serostatus, AIDS history and CD4+ cell count (hazard ratio [HR]=2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.43). Adjustment for hypertension and diabetes history attenuated this association (HR=1.89, CI: 0.94–3.80). Lower kidney function at HAART initiation was weakly associated with increased mortality risk in women with prior AIDS (HR=1.09, CI: 1.00–1.19, per 20% decrease in eGFR).
Kidney function at HAART initiation remains an independent predictor of death in HIV-infected individuals, especially in those with a history of AIDS. Our study emphasizes the necessity of monitoring kidney function in this population. Additional studies are needed to determine mechanisms underlying the increased mortality risk associated with CKD in HIV-infected persons.
PMCID: PMC3243740  PMID: 20581688
kidney disease; mortality; HIV; WIHS; antiretroviral therapy
8.  Impaired CD4 T Cell Memory Response to Streptococcus pneumoniae Precedes CD4 T Cell Depletion in HIV-Infected Malawian Adults 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e25610.
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected African adults. CD4 T cell depletion may partially explain this high disease burden but those with relatively preserved T cell numbers are still at increased risk of IPD. This study evaluated the extent of pneumococcal-specific T cell memory dysfunction in asymptomatic HIV infection early on in the evolution of the disease.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from asymptomatic HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Malawian adults and stained to characterize the underlying degree of CD4 T cell immune activation, senescence and regulation. Pneumococcal-specific T cell proliferation, IFN-γ, IL-17 production and CD154 expression was assessed using flow cytometry and ELISpot.
We find that in asymptomatic HIV-infected Malawian adults, there is considerable immune disruption with an increase in activated and senescent CD4+CD38+PD-1+ and CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Treg cells. In the context of high pneumococcal exposure and therefore immune stimulation, show a failure in pneumococcal-specific memory T cell proliferation, skewing of T cell cytokine production with preservation of interleukin-17 but decreased interferon-gamma responses, and failure of activated T cells to express the co-stimulatory molecule CD154.
Asymptomatic HIV-infected Malawian adults show early signs of pneumococcal- specific immune dysregulation with a shift in the balance of CD4 memory, T helper 17 cells and Treg. Together these data offer a mechanistic understanding of how antigen-specific T cell dysfunction occurs prior to T cell depletion and may explain the early susceptibility to IPD in those with relatively preserved CD4 T cell numbers.
PMCID: PMC3181344  PMID: 21980502
9.  Determinants of Treatment Access in a Population-based Cohort of HIV-positive Men and Women Living in Argentina 
To report emerging data on the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Argentina by assessing patterns of HAART access and late vs early treatment initiation in a population-based cohort of adults infected with HIV type-1.
The Prospective Study on the Use and Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy (PUMA) is a study of 883 HIV-positive individuals enrolled in the Argentinean drug treatment program. Individuals were 16 years of age and older and were recruited from 10 clinics across Argentina.
Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were examined using contingency tables (Pearson chi-square test and Fisher exact test) for categoric variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables. To analyze time to initiation of HAART we used Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression.
Patients who initiated HAART were more likely to be older, have an AIDS-defining illness, be an injection drug user (IDU), have a lower median CD4 cell count, have a higher median viral load, and be less likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM). In multivariate analysis, AIDS-defining illness and plasma viral load were significantly associated with time to starting therapy. Patients who received late access were more likely to be diagnosed with AIDS and have higher median plasma viral loads than those receiving early access.
Our results indicate that despite free availability of treatment, monitoring, and care in Argentina, a significant proportion of men and women are accessing HAART late in the course of HIV disease. Further characterization of the HIV-positive population will allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of the impact of HAART within the Argentinean drug treatment program.
PMCID: PMC2757395  PMID: 19825142
10.  The Impact of HAART on the Respiratory Complications of HIV Infection: Longitudinal Trends in the MACS and WIHS Cohorts 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58812.
To review the incidence of respiratory conditions and their effect on mortality in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals prior to and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Two large observational cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study [MACS]) and women (Women’s Interagency HIV Study [WIHS]), followed since 1984 and 1994, respectively.
Adjusted odds or hazards ratios for incident respiratory infections or non-infectious respiratory diagnoses, respectively, in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals in both the pre-HAART (MACS only) and HAART eras; and adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratios for mortality in HIV-infected persons with lung disease during the HAART era.
Compared to HIV-uninfected participants, HIV-infected individuals had more incident respiratory infections both pre-HAART (MACS, odds ratio [adjusted-OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2–2.7; p<0.001) and after HAART availability (MACS, adjusted-OR, 1.5; 95%CI 1.3–1.7; p<0.001; WIHS adjusted-OR, 2.2; 95%CI 1.8–2.7; p<0.001). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was more common in MACS HIV-infected vs. HIV-uninfected participants pre-HAART (hazard ratio [adjusted-HR] 2.9; 95%CI, 1.02–8.4; p = 0.046). After HAART availability, non-infectious lung diseases were not significantly more common in HIV-infected participants in either MACS or WIHS participants. HIV-infected participants in the HAART era with respiratory infections had an increased risk of death compared to those without infections (MACS adjusted-HR, 1.5; 95%CI, 1.3–1.7; p<0.001; WIHS adjusted-HR, 1.9; 95%CI, 1.5–2.4; p<0.001).
HIV infection remained a significant risk for infectious respiratory diseases after the introduction of HAART, and infectious respiratory diseases were associated with an increased risk of mortality.
PMCID: PMC3595204  PMID: 23554932
11.  Live birth patterns among HIV-infected women before and after the availability of HAART 
To investigate the relationship between HIV infection and childbearing before and after the availability of HAART.
Study Design
Enrollment in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study took place in 1994–1995 (pre-HAART era), and again in 2001–2002 (HAART era). Live birth rates prior to enrollment were compared between treatment era cohorts for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women aged 15–44 years using Poisson regression. For HIV-infected women we included live births between HIV diagnosis date and study entry; the HAART era cohort included only women diagnosed with HIV in 1996 and after.
Among HIV-infected women, the HAART era live birth rate was 150% higher than in the pre-HAART era (p=.001), vs. a 5% increase among HIV-uninfected women. The rate of increase in live birth rate was higher for women ≥35 years (vs. <25, p=.02), and with >high school education (vs.
The availability of effective therapeutic interventions has profoundly impacted childbearing among HIV-infected women.
PMCID: PMC1949426  PMID: 17547887
HIV; women; reproductive decision-making; birth rate; highly active antiretroviral therapy
High rates of mortality and morbidity have been described in sub-Saharan African patients within the first few months of starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There is limited data on the causes of early morbidity on HAART and the associated resource utilization.
A cross-sectional study was conducted of medical admissions at a secondary-level hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Patients on HAART were identified from a register and HIV-infected patients not on HAART were matched by gender, month of admission, and age group to correspond with the first admission of each case. Primary reasons for admission were determined by chart review. Direct health care costs were determined from the provider's perspective.
There were 53 in the HAART group with 70 admissions and 53 in the no-HAART group with 60 admissions. The median duration of HAART was 1 month (interquartile range 1-3 months). Median baseline CD4 count in the HAART group was 57 × 106 cells/L (IQR 15-115). The primary reasons for admission in the HAART group were more likely to be due to adverse drug reactions and less likely to be due to AIDS events than the no-HAART group (34% versus 7%; p < 0.001 and 39% versus 63%; p = 0.005 respectively). Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was the primary reason for admission in 10% of the HAART group. Lengths of hospital stay per admission and inpatient survival were not significantly different between the two groups. Five of the 15 deaths in the HAART group were due to IRIS or adverse drug reactions. Median costs per admission of diagnostic and therapeutic services (laboratory investigations, radiology, intravenous fluids and blood, and non-ART medications) were higher in the HAART group compared with the no-HAART group (US$190 versus US$111; p = 0.001), but the more expensive non-curative costs (overhead, capital, and clinical staff) were not significantly different (US$1199 versus US$1128; p = 0.525).
Causes of early morbidity are different and more complex in HIV-infected patients on HAART. This results in greater resource utilization of diagnostic and therapeutic services.
PMCID: PMC2803481  PMID: 20003472
Advances in Hematology  2011;2011:578163.
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) occurs with increasing frequency in human-immunodeficiency-virus-(HIV-) infected individuals. The natural history and behaviour of HIV-HL is different, being more atypical and aggressive. The association between HIV and HL appears to be primarily EBV driven. HAART use does not significantly impact on the incidence of HL. Indeed, the risk of HL has increased in the post-HAART era. However, the advent of HAART has brought renewed hope, allowing standard therapeutic options to be used more optimally, with better treatment outcomes. Despite the renewed optimism, the overall survival of HIV-HL patients remains less favourable than that in HIV-seronegative patients. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, where there is a significant burden of HIV/AIDS and where more than half the patients are HAART naive at diagnosis of HL. The similarities and differences of a South African cohort of HIV-HL are presented in this paper.
PMCID: PMC3038417  PMID: 21331149
The Journal of infection  2009;59(3):188-193.
Following the introduction of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) for children in early 2000 in the United States, a decrease in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) was seen in adults, likely due to a herd effect. However, there have been recent increases in IPD in adults caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes not included in PCV-7, so called “replacement disease”. We performed a population-based study to further investigate this emerging concern.
Population-based incidence study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, in adults aged ≥ 50 years.
From 1/1/1995 to 12/31/2007, 104 cases of IPD were identified in Olmsted County in adults aged ≥ 50 years. We found a 45% increase in the incidence rate of IPD from 2001–2003 (17.7 cases per 100,000 person-years) to 2004–2007 (32.1 cases per 100,000 person-years) (p = 0.029). From 2002–2004 to 2005–2007, the incidence rate of IPD caused by S. pneumoniae serotypes not included in PCV-7 increased from 9.2 to 32.8 cases per 100,000 person-years (p<0.001).
A recent increase in the incidence of IPD in adults aged ≥ 50 years was demonstrated in Olmsted County, Minnesota due to serotypes not found in PCV-7. These findings are unique and merit further investigation.
PMCID: PMC2743782  PMID: 19635635
Streptococcus pneumoniae; pneumococcal infections; incidence; aged; cohort studies
Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum infection is rare outside disease-endemic areas. Clinical presentation and outcome of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome–related histoplasmosis are unknown in non-endemic areas with wide access to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Retrospective analysis of cases recorded at the French National Reference Center for Mycoses and Antifungals during two decades: pre-HAART (1985–1994) and HAART (1997–2006). Clinical features and outcome of all adults with proven acquired immunodeficiency syndrome–related histoplasmosis were compared between the two periods. One hundred four patients were included (40 during the pre-HAART era and 64 during the HAART era). Diagnosis was established a mean of 62 days after onset of symptoms. One-year overall mortality rates decreased from 53% (pre-HAART era) to 22% (HAART era). Diagnosis during the pre-HAART era and an older age were the only independent factors associated with death. Histoplasmosis is a rare invasive fungal infection outside disease-endemic areas. Its prognosis improved significantly during the HAART era.
PMCID: PMC3205645  PMID: 22049053
Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces mortality in the developed world, it remains undocumented in resource-poor settings. We assessed the effect of HAART on patient mortality and tuberculosis incidence rate under routine clinical care conditions in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of HAART on patient mortality and tuberculosis incidence rate under routine clinical care conditions in a resource-limited setting in south Ethiopia. Starting in January 2003, we followed all consecutive adult HIV infected patients who visited the HIV clinic. Since August 2003, we treated patients with HAART. Only basic laboratory services were available.
We followed 185 patients in the pre-HAART cohort and 180 patients in the HAART cohort. The mortality rate was 15.4 per 100 person-years of observation (PYO) in the HAART group and tuberculosis incidence rate was 3.7 per 100 PYO. In the pre-HAART group, the mortality rate was 58.1 per 100 PYO and the tuberculosis incidence rate was 11.1 per 100 PYO. HAART resulted in a 65% decline in mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [95%CI] = 0.35 [0.19–0.63]; P < 0.001). Tuberculosis incidence rate was lower in the HAART group (adjusted hazard ratio [95%CI] = 0.11 [0.03–0.48]; P < 0.01). Most of the deaths occurred during the first three months of treatment.
HAART improved survival and decreased tuberculosis incidence to a level similar to that achieved in the developed countries during the early years of HAART. However, both the mortality and the tuberculosis incidence rate were much higher in terms of absolute figures in this resource-limited setting. Attention should be paid to the early weeks of treatment when mortality is high. The high tuberculosis incidence rate, when coupled with the improved survival, may lead to increased tuberculosis transmission. This highlights the need for strengthening tuberculosis prevention efforts with the scale-up of treatment programmes
PMCID: PMC1475602  PMID: 16600050
BMC Pediatrics  2008;8:1.
The tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics are poorly controlled in sub-Saharan Africa, where highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has become more freely available. Little is known about the clinical presentation and outcome of TB in HIV-infected children on HAART.
We performed a comprehensive file review of all children who commenced HAART at Tygerberg Children's Hospital from January 2003 through December 2005.
Data from 290 children were analyzed; 137 TB episodes were recorded in 136 children; 116 episodes occurred before and 21 after HAART initiation; 10 episodes were probably related to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). The number of TB cases per 100 patient years were 53.3 during the 9 months prior to HAART initiation, and 6.4 during post HAART follow-up [odds ratio (OR) 16.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 12.5–22.4]. A positive outcome was achieved in 97/137 (71%) episodes, 6 (4%) cases experienced no improvement, 16 (12%) died and the outcome could not be established in 18 (13%). Mortality was less in children on HAART (1/21; 4.8%) compared to those not on HAART (15/116; 12.9%).
We recorded an extremely high incidence of TB among HIV-infected children, especially prior to HAART initiation. Starting HAART at an earlier stage is likely to reduce morbidity and mortality related to TB, particularly in TB-endemic areas. Management frequently deviated from standard guidelines, but outcomes in general were good.
PMCID: PMC2246130  PMID: 18186944
Although a decrease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality has been documented in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, there are no published data comparing specific causes of death between pre-HAART and HAART era in Korea. Mortality and cause of death were analyzed in three treatment periods; pre-HAART (1990-1997), early-HAART (1998-2001), and late-HAART period (2002-2011). The patients were retrospectively classified according to the treatment period in which they were recruited. Although mortality rate per 100 person-year declined from 8.7 in pre-HAART to 4.9 in late-HAART period, the proportion of deaths within 3 months of initial visit to study hospital significantly increased from 15.9% in pre-HAART to 55.1% in late-HAART period (P < 0.001). Overall, 59% of deaths were attributable to AIDS-related conditions, and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) was the most common cause of death (20.3%). The proportion of PCP as cause of death significantly increased from 8.7% in pre-HAART to 31.8% in late-HAART period (P < 0.001). Despite of significant improvement of survival, there was still a high risk of early death in patients presenting in HAART era, mainly due to late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and late presentation to care.
PMCID: PMC3546107  PMID: 23341714
HIV; Antiretroviral Therapy; Mortality; Cause of Death
Cancer  2010;116(23):5507-5516.
The incidence of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals declined following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid 1990s, but the cancer risk associated with HIV infection during the HAART era remains to be clarified.
We compared cancer incidence among HIV-infected and -uninfected participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) between 1984 and 2007 to the expected incidence using US population-based data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, and we compared age and race adjusted cancer incidence rates by HIV status and over time within the MACS. Exact statistical methods were used for all analyses.
933 incident cancers were observed during 77,320 person-years of follow-up. Compared to SEER, MACS HIV-infected men had significantly (p<0.05) elevated rates of KS (standardized incidence ratio (SIR)=139.10), NHL (SIR=36.80), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) (SIR=7.30), and anal cancer (SIR=25.71). Within MACS, HIV infection was independently associated with each of these cancers across the entire follow-up period, and KS (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=54.93), NHL (IRR=11.18), and anal cancer (IRR=18.50) were each significantly elevated among HIV-infected men during the HAART era. Among these men, the incidence of KS and NHL declined (IRR=0.13 and 0.23, respectively), anal cancer incidence increased (IRR=5.84), and HL incidence remained statistically unchanged (IRR=0.75) from the pre-HAART to the HAART era.
Cancer risk remains elevated among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, highlighting the continuing need for appropriate cancer screening in this population.
PMCID: PMC2991510  PMID: 20672354
HIV infection; cancer incidence; malignancy; AIDS-defining malignancy; HAART
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91464.
The seasonal variability in hospitalization for tuberculosis may in part relate to super-imposed bacterial or predisposing respiratory viral infections. We aimed to study the temporal association between hospitalization for culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and influenza virus epidemics in South African children.
We undertook a retrospective analysis which examined seasonal trends, from 2005 to 2008, for hospitalization for culture-confirmed PTB and IPD among children in relation to the influenza epidemics in Soweto, South Africa. Original time-series of the influenza virus epidemics and hospitalization rates for PTB and IPD were decomposed into three components: a trend cycle component, a seasonal component and an irregular component using the X-11 seasonal adjustment method. To compare the seasonality amongst the three series, the trend and irregular components were removed and only seasonal components examined.
Across the study period, the influenza virus epidemics peaked during May to July (winter) months, which was closely followed by an increase in the incidence of hospitalization for IPD (August to October) and PTB (August to November).
Within- and between-year temporal changes associated with childhood TB hospitalization may in part be driven by factors which influence temporal changes in pneumococcal disease, including potential variability in the severity of influenza virus epidemics in temperate climates. The dynamics of the interplay between the host and these infectious agents appears to be complex and multifactorial.
PMCID: PMC3950213  PMID: 24618667
The New England journal of medicine  2010;362(9):812-822.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading and serious co-infection of HIV-infected adults, particularly in Africa. Prevention of disease by vaccination with the current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine is sub-optimal. Protein conjugate vaccines offer a further option for protection but no data exist on their clinical efficacy in any adult population.
We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical efficacy trial of the seven-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in predominantly HIV-infected Malawian adults who had recovered from documented invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Vaccine was given as a two dose schedule four weeks apart. The primary end-point was a further episode of IPD caused by a vaccine-serotype or serotype-6A (VST/6A) pneumococcus.
Between February 2003 and October 2007, 496 individuals (44% male, 88% HIV seropositive) were followed for 798 person years of observation. There were 67 IPD events in 52 individuals, all in the HIV infected sub-group. There were 24 VST/6A events (19 VST, five 6A) in 24 participants, 5 in vaccine and 19 in the placebo recipients, a vaccine efficacy of 74% (95% CI 30% - 90%). There were 73 deaths in the vaccine arm and 63 in the placebo arm, Hazard Ratio 1.18 (95% confidence intervals 0.84 -1.66). Compared to placebo, serious adverse events were significantly lower (3 vs 17, p = 0.002) and minor adverse events significantly higher (41 vs 13, p = 0.003 ) in vaccine recipients.
The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine protects HIV infected adults from recurrent IPD of vaccine serotype or serotype 6A.
PMCID: PMC2873559  PMID: 20200385
AIDS Research and Treatment  2012;2012:961510.
Background. Sensory neuropathy (SN) is one of the most common AIDS-associated neurologic disorders especially in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SN among highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy- (HAART-) experienced and HAART-naïve HIV-positive individuals and to investigate the relationship to demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors. Methods. 323 patients with HIV infection (142 on HAART and 181 HAART naïve) were enrolled in a cross-sectional neuropathy screening program. Data was collected using structured questionnaires which contained the brief peripheral neuropathy screening tool of AIDS Clinical Trial Group protocol. Neuropathy was defined by the presence of at least 1 clinical sign in a distal, symmetrical pattern. Patients were classified as symptomatic if they described aching, stabbing, or burning pain, paresthesia, or numbness in a similar distribution. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory details were documented as risk factors. Result. The prevalence of sensory neuropathy was 39.0% (126/323), (of which 29/126 (23%)) were symptomatic. Amongst those on HAART, 60/142 (42.3%) had SN compared to 66/181 (36.5%) HAART-naïve individuals (P = 0.29). On multivariate analyses, the independent associations with SN were increasing age (P = 0.03) and current exposure to stavudine (P = 0.00). Gender (P = 0.99) height (P = 0.07) use of HAART (P = 0.50), duration of HAART treatment (P = 0.10), and lower CD4 count (P = 0.12) were not associated with an increased SN risk. Conclusion. HIV SN remains common despite improved immunologic function associated with HAART and decreased neurotoxic HAART use. In this cross-sectional analysis, age and stavudine-based therapies were the independent risk factors.
PMCID: PMC3337556  PMID: 22570772
Nature medicine  2008;14(4):413-420.
The basis for the extensive variability seen in the reconstitution of CD4+ T cell counts in HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is not fully known. Here, we show that variations in CCL3L1 gene dose and CCR5 genotype, but not major histocompatibility complex HLA alleles, influence immune reconstitution, especially when HAART is initiated at <350 CD4+ T cells/mm3. The CCL3L1-CCR5 genotypes favoring CD4+ T cell recovery are similar to those that blunted CD4+ T cell depletion during the time before HAART became available (pre-HAART era), suggesting that a common CCL3L1-CCR5 genetic pathway regulates the balance between pathogenic and reparative processes from early in the disease course. Hence, CCL3L1-CCR5 variations influence HIV pathogenesis even in the presence of HAART and, therefore, may prospectively identify subjects in whom earlier initiation of therapy is more likely to mitigate immunologic failure despite viral suppression by HAART. Furthermore, as reconstitution of CD4+ cells during HAART is more sensitive to CCL3L1 dose than to CCR5 genotypes, CCL3L1 analogs might be efficacious in supporting immunological reconstitution.
PMCID: PMC2630879  PMID: 18376407
Herpes zoster (HZ) is common among HIV-infected individuals, but the impacts of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HAART adherence on HZ risk have not been well studied.
The effects of HAART and HAART adherence on HZ incidence were evaluated by comparing HIV-infected women on HAART (HAART use group) with the HIV-infected women remaining HAART naïve (HAART naïve group) in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). A 1:1 matching with propensity score for predicting HAART initiation was conducted to balance background covariates at index visit, including HIV disease stage. Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the risk of HZ development between the matched pairs. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the effects of HAART and HAART adherence on HZ incidence.
Through propensity score matching, 389 pairs of participants were identified and they contributed 3,909 person years after matching. The background covariates were similar between the matched pairs at the index visit. The participants had a mean age around 39 years old, and about 61% of them were Black and 22% were Latina. No significant difference in HZ risk was observed between the HAART use group and the HAART naïve group during the first year of follow-up in any analyses. In the univariate analysis, the HAART use group had marginally lower HZ risk (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.72; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.48-1.1) over the entire follow-up period. However, women with a HAART adherence level of ≥95% had significantly lower HZ risk (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.94) compared to the HAART naïve women. The association remained significant after adjusting for quality of life score and acyclovir use, but it attenuated and was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for an intermediate variable, either CD4+ T cell counts or HIV viral load.
Among adult women, we observed a significant preventive effect of long-term HAART use on HZ incidence when a HAART adherence level of ≥95% was attained, and this effect was mediated through reduction of HIV viral load and improvement of CD4+ T cell counts.
PMCID: PMC3904465  PMID: 24373482
HAART; Adherence; Herpes zoster; Incidence; Propensity score
PLoS ONE  2011;6(10):e26190.
The UK introduced the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into the national vaccination program in September 2006. Previous modelling assumed that the likely impact of PCV7 on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) would be similar to the US experience with PCV7. However, recent surveillance data show a more rapid replacement of PCV7 IPD cases by non-PCV7 IPD cases than was seen in the US.
Methods and Findings
A previous model of pneumococcal vaccination was re-parameterised using data on vaccine coverage and IPD from England and Wales between 2006 and 2009. Disease incidence was adjusted for the increasing trend in reported IPD cases prior to vaccination. Using this data we estimated that individuals carrying PCV7 serotypes have much higher protection (96%;95% CI 72%-100%) against acquisition of NVT carriage than the 15% previously estimated from US data, which leads to greater replacement. However, even with this level of replacement, the annual number of IPD cases may be 560 (95% CI, -100 to 1230) lower ten years after vaccine introduction compared to what it may have been without vaccination. A particularly marked fall of 39% in children under 15 years by 2015/6 is predicted.
Our model suggests that PCV7 vaccination could result in a decrease in overall invasive pneumococcal disease, particularly in children, even in an environment of rapid replacement with non-PCV7 serotypes within 5 years of vaccine introduction at high coverage.
PMCID: PMC3193519  PMID: 22022559

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