Roots and leaves of the Cermela Hutan (Phyllanthus gomphocarpus Hook. F) plant were studied to determine antioxidant activity, phytochemical compounds, proportion of carbohydrate, crude protein, moisture, ash, fat, total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC).
Ten percent (10%) aqueous extract from both Phyllanthus gomphocarpus roots (PGR) and leaves (PGL) were used in this study. Antioxidant activity characterization by TPC, TFC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, and phytochemical screening, as well as proximate analysis from both extracts were analyzed in this study.
Phyllanthus gomphocarpus roots (PGR) and leaves (PGL) tested positive for flavonoid, saponin, tannins, and terpenoids, but PGR showed negative result for anthraquinones. In average weight of 100.0 g dry sample, the carbohydrates, protein, moisture, ash, fat, and energy content in PGR and PGL were 80.9%, 5.5%, 7.8%, 3.4%, 2.4%, and 367 Kcal/100 g, and 66.5%, 14.8%, 10.7%, 6.5%, 1.5%, and 399 Kcal/100g, respectively. Antioxidant assessments using FRAP and DPPH assay showed that PGL extracts possessed higher antioxidant capacity by reducing the ferric ion-TPTZ complex by 0.14 mg/ml ±0.0018 and higher scavenging activity, 83.83% ±0.54 as compared to PGR, 0.07 mg/ml ±0.0035 for FRAP and 62.87% ±1.33 for DPPH, respectively. The total phenolics content was significantly higher in PGL (208.77 mg GAE/g ±3.79) as compared to PGR (27.53 mg GAE/g ±0.42). However, there was no significant different in the total flavonoid contents for PGR (34.8 mg QE/g ±3.12) and PGL (32.43 mg QE/g ±3.92).
Further investigations are suggested to isolate and characterize the other active constituents from this plant in combatting diseases.