It has been demonstrated in invertebrate species that the evolutionarily conserved insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) pathway plays a major role in the control of longevity. In the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, single mutations that diminish insulin/IGF-1 signaling can increase lifespan more than twofold and cause the animal to remain active and youthful much longer than normal. Likewise, substantial increases in lifespan are associated with mutations that reduce insulin/IGF-1 signaling in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In invertebrates, multiple insulin-like ligands exist that bind to a common single insulin/IGF-1 like receptor. In contrast, in mammals, different receptors exist that bind insulin, IGF-1 and IGF-2 with different affinities. In several mouse models, mutations that are associated with decreased GH/IGF-1 signaling or decreased insulin signaling have been associated with enhanced lifespan. However, the increased complexity of the mammalian insulin/IGF-1 system has made it difficult to separate the roles of insulin, GH and IGF-1 in mammalian longevity. Likewise, the relevance of reduced insulin and IGF-1 signaling in human longevity remains controversial. However, studies on the genetic and metabolic characteristics that are associated with healthy longevity and old age survival suggest that the conserved ancient IIS pathway may also play a role in human longevity.
Insulin; IGF-1; longevity; signaling
Dampening of insulin/insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1) signaling results in extension of lifespan in invertebrate as well as murine models. The impact of this evolutionarily conserved pathway on modulation of human lifespan remains unclear. We previously identified two IGF1R mutations (Ala-37-Thr and Arg-407-His) that are enriched in Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians as compared to younger controls and are associated with reduced activity of the IGF1 receptor as measured in immortalized lymphocytes. To determine whether these human longevity-associated IGF1R mutations affect IGF1 signaling, we engineered mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) expressing the different human IGF1R variants in a mouse Igf1r null background. The results indicate that MEFs expressing the human longevity-associated IGF1R mutations attenuated IGF1 signaling, as demonstrated by significant reduction in phosphorylation of both IGF1R and AKT after IGF1 treatment, in comparisons to MEFs expressing the wild type IGF1R. The impaired IGF1 signaling caused by the IGF1R mutations resulted in reduced induction of the major IGF1-activated genes in MEFs, including EGR1, mCSF, IL3Rα, and TDAG51. Furthermore, the IGF1R mutations caused a delay in cell cycle progression after IGF1 treatment, indicating a dysfunctional physiological response to a cell proliferation signal. These results demonstrate that the human longevity-associated IGF1R variants are reduced-function mutations, implying that dampening of IGF1 signaling may be a longevity mechanism in humans.
human longevity; IGF1 signaling; genetic variation; gene expression
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling is essential for achieving optimal body size during fetal development, whereas, in the adult, IGFs are associated with aging and age-related diseases. However, it is unclear as to what extent lifespan is influenced by events that occur during development. Here we provide direct evidence that the exceptional longevity of mice with altered IGF signaling is not linked to prenatal programming of body size. Mice null for pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), an IGF binding protein proteinase that increases local IGF bioavailability, are 60–70% the size of their wild-type littermates at birth and have extended median and maximum lifespan of 30–40%. In this study, PAPP-A−/− mice whose body size was normalized during fetal development through disruption of IgfII imprinting, did not lose their longevity advantage. Adult-specific moderation of IGF signaling through PAPP-A inhibition may present a unique opportunity to improve lifespan without affecting important aspects of early life physiology.
pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A; insulin-like growth factor longevity; mouse model; body size; fetal development
Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) frequently overlap with Alzheimer's disease, which is linked to brain impairments in insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and neurotrophin signaling. We explored whether similar abnormalities occur in PD or DLB, and examined the role of manganese toxicity in PD/DLB pathogenesis. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated reduced expression of insulin, IGF-II, and insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II receptors (R) in PD and/or DLB frontal white matter and amygdala, and reduced IGF-IR and IGF-IIR mRNA in DLB frontal cortex. IGF-I and IGF-II resistance was present in DLB but not PD frontal cortex, and associated with reduced expression of Hu, nerve growth factor, and Trk neurotrophin receptors, and increased levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, α-synuclein, dopamine-β-hydroxylase, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), and ubiquitin immunoreactivity. MnCl2 treatment reduced survival, ATP, and insulin, IGF-I and IGF-II receptor expression, and increased α-synuclein, HNE, and ubiquitin immunoreactivity in cultured neurons. The results suggest that: 1) IGF-I, IGF-II, and neurotrophin signaling are more impaired in DLB than PD, corresponding with DLB's more pronounced neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and α-synuclein accumulation; 2) MnCl2 exposure causes PD/DLB associated abnormalities in central nervous system neurons, and therefore may contribute to their molecular pathogenesis; and 3) molecular abnormalities in PD/DLB overlap with but are distinguishable from Alzheimer's disease.
Central nervous system; dementia with Lewy bodies; human; insulin-like growth factor resistance; neurotrophin; Parkinson's disease; receptor-ligand binding
Although the literature suggests a protective (anabolic) effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the musculoskeletal system during growth and aging, there is evidence that reductions in IGF-1 signaling are advantageous for promoting an increase in lifespan through reduction in oxidative stress-induced tissue damage. To better understand this paradox, we utilized the hepatocyte-specific IGF-1 transgenic (HIT) mice, which exhibit 3-fold increases in serum IGF-1, with normal IGF-1 expression in other tissues; and mice with an IGF-1 null background that exclusively express IGF-1 in the liver, which thereby delivers IGF-1 by the endocrine route only (KO-HIT mice). We found that in the total absence of tissue igf1 gene expression (KO-HIT), increases in serum IGF-1 levels were associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation products in serum, increased mortality rate at 18 months, of age in both genders. Surprisingly, however, we found that in female mice, tissue IGF-1 plays an important role in preserving trabecular bone architecture as KO-HIT mice show bone loss in the femoral distal metaphysis. Additionally, in male KO-HIT mice increases in serum IGF-1 levels were insufficient to protect against age-related muscle loss. Overall, we conclude that elevations in serum IGF-1 have beneficial role in the aging musculoskeletal system but may have deleterious effects that lead to earlier mortality.
IGF-1; Bone; aging; oxidative stress
Centenarians’ offspring represent a suitable model to study age-dependent variables (e.g. IGF-I) potentially involved in the modulation of the lifespan. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the IGF-I in human longevity. We evaluated circulating IGF-I bioactivity measured by an innovative IGF-I Kinase Receptor Activation (KIRA) Assay, total IGF-I, IGFBP-3, total IGF-II, insulin, glucose, HOMA2-B% and HOMA2-S% in 192 centenarians’ offspring and 80 offspring-controls of which both parents died relatively young. Both groups were well-matched for age, gender and BMI with the centenarians’ offspring. IGF-I bioactivity (p<0.01), total IGF-I (p<0.01) and the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio (p<0.001) were significantly lower in centenarians’ offspring compared to offspring matched-controls. Serum insulin, glucose, HOMA2-B% and HOMA2-S% values were similar between both groups. In centenarians’ offspring IGF-I bioactivity was inversely associated to insulin sensitivity. In conclusion: 1) centenarians’ offspring had relatively lower circulating IGF-I bioactivity compared to offspring matched-controls; 2) IGF-I bioactivity in centenarians’ offspring was inversely related to insulin sensitivity. These data support a role of the IGF-I/insulin system in the modulation of human aging process.
IGF-I bioactivity; insulin receptors; IGF-I receptors; centenarians’ offspring; centenarians; longevity
Studies of the effects of single-gene mutations on longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Mus musculus identified homologous, highly conserved signalling pathways that influence ageing. In each of these very distantly related species, single mutations which lead—directly or indirectly—to reduced insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) or insulin/IGF-like signalling (IIS) can produce significant increases in both average and maximal lifespan. In mice, most of the life-extending mutations described to date reduce somatotropic (growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1) signalling. The reported extensions of longevity are most robust in GH-deficient and GH-resistant mice, while suppression of somatotropic signalling ‘downstream’ of the GH receptor produces effects that are generally smaller and often limited to female animals. This could be due to GH influencing ageing by both IGF-1-mediated and IGF-1-independent mechanisms. In mutants that have been examined in some detail, increased longevity is associated with various indices of delayed ageing and extended ‘healthspan’. The mechanisms that probably underlie the extension of both lifespan and healthspan of these animals include increased stress resistance, improved antioxidant defences, alterations in insulin signalling (e.g. hypoinsulinaemia combined with improved insulin sensitivity in some mutants and insulin resistance in others), a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory profile of circulating adipokines, reduced mammalian target of rapamycin-mediated translation and altered mitochondrial function including greater utilization of lipids when compared with carbohydrates.
IGF-1; growth hormone; lifespan; longevity; mutation
In mice, haploinsufficiency of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R+/−), at a whole-body level, increases resistance to inflammation and oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that by forming insulin-resistant heterodimers composed of one IGF-1Rαβ and one insulin receptor (IR), IRαβ complex in endothelial cells (ECs), IGF-1R reduces free IR, which reduces EC insulin sensitivity and generation of the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory signaling radical nitric oxide (NO).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Using a number of complementary gene-modified mice with reduced IGF-1R at a whole-body level and specifically in EC, and complementary studies in EC in vitro, we examined the effect of changing IGF-1R/IR stoichiometry on EC insulin sensitivity and NO bioavailability.
IGF-1R+/− mice had enhanced insulin-mediated glucose lowering. Aortas from these mice were hypocontractile to phenylephrine (PE) and had increased basal NO generation and augmented insulin-mediated NO release from EC. To dissect EC from whole-body effects we generated mice with EC-specific knockdown of IGF-1R. Aortas from these mice were also hypocontractile to PE and had increased basal NO generation. Whole-body and EC deletion of IGF-1R reduced hybrid receptor formation. By reducing IGF-1R in IR-haploinsufficient mice we reduced hybrid formation, restored insulin-mediated vasorelaxation in aorta, and insulin stimulated NO release in EC. Complementary studies in human umbilical vein EC in which IGF-1R was reduced using siRNA confirmed that reducing IGF-1R has favorable effects on NO bioavailability and EC insulin sensitivity.
These data demonstrate that IGF-1R is a critical negative regulator of insulin sensitivity and NO bioavailability in the endothelium.
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling is essential for achieving optimal body size during fetal development, peak bone mass during puberty, and maximal fecundity in the reproductive period. IGF-II is considered the main fetal IGF, whereas IGF-I is more important postnatally. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) enhances local IGF signaling through cleavage of inhibitory IGF binding proteins. Conversely, inhibition of PAPP-A results in reduced local IGF action. Thus, PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice are born as proportional dwarfs due to the dysregulation of IGF-II signaling during early embryogenesis that impacts body size. Relaxation of IgfII imprinting through mutation of a reciprocally imprinted downstream gene, H19, which allowed transcription of IGF-II from the normally silent maternal allele, rescued the dwarf phenotype of PAPP-A KO mice.
To determine the effect of increased IGF-II expression on postnatal phenotypes of PAPP-A KO mice.
Young adult wild-type (WT), PAPP-A KO, H19 mutant (ΔH19/WT) and ΔH19/PAPP-A KO mice were characterized for skeletal phenotype (peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the midshaft and distal metaphysis of the femur) and reproductive phenotype (time to first litter, time between litters, pups per litter).
Serum IGF-II levels were significantly increased in ΔH19/WT and ΔH19/PAPP-A KO mice compared to WT and PAPP-A KO mice; serum IGF-I levels were not affected by H19 mutation. PAPP-A KO mice had reductions in cortical thickness and in cortical and trabecular area, bone mineral content and bone mineral density compared to WT mice. There were no significant differences between PAPP-A KO and ΔH19/PAPP-A KO mice in any of the bone parameters. PAPP-A KO crossed with (x) PAPP-A KO had a longer time until first litter, normal time between subsequent litters, and significantly reduced number of pups per litter compared to WT × WT. ΔH19/PAPP-A KO × ΔH19/PAPP-A KO had an even longer time to first litter, but also longer time between litters. This phenotype was associated with female ΔH19/PAPP-A KO mice. Furthermore, these ΔH19/PAPP-A KO mouse mothers failed to care for their pups.
An increase in IGF-II expression did not rescue the skeletal and reproductive deficiencies associated with reduced local IGF-I signaling in PAPP-A KO mice. In addition, the data suggest a potential new role for genomic imprinting at the IgfII/H19 locus affecting maternal behavior.
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A; insulin-like growth factor-II; imprinting; bone mass; reproduction
Interactions between genes and environment play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes. Low birth weight, due to genetic and environmental variables affecting fetal growth, is associated with increased susceptibility to the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders in adulthood. Clinical studies have shown that polymorphisms in the Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene or heterozygous mutations in IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) genes, resulting in reduced IGF-1 action, are associated with low birth weight and post-natal growth. Mice lacking one of the IGF-1R alleles (Igf1r+/−) exhibit a 10% reduction in post-natal growth, and develop glucose intolerance and insulin resistance as they age. To investigate whether adverse environmental factors could accelerate the onset of the metabolic syndrome, we conducted a short duration intervention of high fat diet (HFD) feeding in male and female Igf1r+/− and wild-type (WT) control mice. The HFD resulted in insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and impaired glucose tolerance in males of both genotypes whereas in females exacerbated diabetes was observed only in the Igf1r+/− genotype, thus suggesting a sexual dimorphism in the influence of obesity on the genetic predisposition to diabetes caused by reduced IGF-1 action.
IGF-1; IGF-1R; Igf1r+/−; SGA; HFD; Type 2 diabetes
Transgenic mice with low levels of global insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) throughout their life span, including pre- and postnatal development, have increased longevity. This study investigated whether specific deficiency of liver-derived, endocrine IGF-I is of importance for life span.
Methods and Findings
Serum IGF-I was reduced by approximately 80% in mice with adult, liver-specific IGF-I inactivation (LI-IGF-I-/- mice), and body weight decreased due to reduced body fat. The mean life span of LI-IGF-I-/- mice (n = 84) increased 10% vs. control mice (n = 137) (Cox's test, p<0.01), mainly due to increased life span (16%) of female mice [LI-IGF-I-/- mice (n = 31): 26.7±1.1 vs. control (n = 67): 23.0±0.7 months, p<0.001]. Male LI-IGF-I-/- mice showed only a tendency for increased longevity (p = 0.10). Energy expenditure, measured as oxygen consumption during and after submaximal exercise, was increased in the LI-IGF-I-/- mice. Moreover, microarray and RT-PCR analyses showed consistent regulation of three genes (heat shock protein 1A and 1B and connective tissue growth factor) in several body organs in the LI-IGF-I-/- mice.
Adult inactivation of liver-derived, endocrine IGF-I resulted in moderately increased mean life span. Body weight and body fat decreased in LI-IGF-I-/- mice, possibly due to increased energy expenditure during exercise. Genes earlier reported to modulate stress response and collagen aging showed consistent regulation, providing mechanisms that could underlie the increased mean life span in the LI-IGF-I-/- mice.
OBJECTIVE—IGF-1 and the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation in vitro.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—To investigate the role of IGF-1 receptor in vivo, we have inactivated the Igf-1r gene in adipose tissue (IGF-1RaP2Cre mice) using conditional gene targeting strategies.
RESULTS—Conditional IGF-1R inactivation resulted in increased adipose tissue mass with a predominantly increased lipid accumulation in epigonadal fat pads. However, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into adipocytes was unaffected by the deletion of the IGF-1R. Surprisingly, IGF-1RaP2Cre mice exhibited markedly increased somatic growth in the presence of elevated IGF-1 serum concentrations, and IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in liver and adipose tissue. IGF-1 stimulation of wild-type adipocytes significantly decreased IGF-1 mRNA expression, whereas the opposite effect was observed in IGF-1R–deficient adipocytes.
CONCLUSIONS—IGF-1R signaling in adipocytes does not appear to be crucial for the development and differentiation of adipose tissue in vivo, but we identified a negative IGF-1R–mediated feedback mechanism of IGF-1 on its own gene expression in adipocytes, indicating an unexpected role for adipose tissue IGF-1 signaling in the regulation of IGF-1 serum concentrations in control of somatic growth.
IGF-I stimulation of cell proliferation and c-Fos expression in skeletal muscle cells is markedly enhanced by dexamethasone. The effect of dexamethasone is not mediated by changes in IGF-binding proteins, as evidenced by similar effects of dexamethasone on the actions of insulin, PDGF-BB, and the IGF-I analogue long R3IGF-I. Dexamethasone also does not alter autocrine IGF-II secretion by muscle cells. To investigate the mechanism of the augmentation of IGF-I action, the effects of dexamethasone on intracellular IGF-I signaling pathways were determined. In dexamethasone-treated cells, the levels of IGF-I receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and receptor-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity were increased. Dexamethasone-treated cells also showed increased and prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation of the Shc proteins. In contrast, dexamethasone decreased both tyrosine phosphorylation and expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. Thus, distinct signaling pathways activated by the IGF-I receptor in skeletal muscle cells are differentially regulated by dexamethasone. Potentiation of IGF-I action correlates with increased IGF-I receptor-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc, but appears to be independent of activation of the IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway.
The actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on protein turnover and of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) were examined in skeletal muscle of rats with chronic renal failure (CRF) and sham operated (SO), pair-fed controls. Acidemia was prevented in CRF rats with NaHCO3. Serum IGF-1 and skeletal muscle IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA were reduced in CRF rats. Dose-response studies revealed impaired stimulation of protein synthesis and suppressed inhibition of protein degradation by IGF-1 in epitrochlearis muscle of CRF rats. Neither IGF-1 analogues with low affinity to IGF binding proteins nor proteinase inhibitors obliterated the IGF-1 resistance. In CRF rats, skeletal muscle IGF-1R mRNA was increased; displacement ligand binding studies and affinity labeling of the IGF-1R alpha subunit indicated increased total skeletal muscle IGF-1R number with normal affinity. However, both autophosphorylation of the IGF-1R beta subunit (i.e., IGF-1R tyrosine kinase) and the IGF-1R tyrosine kinase activity towards exogenous insulin receptor substrate-1, a natural substrate for IGF-1R tyrosine kinase, were reduced in CRF fats. These data indicate that in skeletal muscle of CRF rats there is resistance to the IGF-1 effects on protein synthesis and degradation and decreased IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA levels; IGF-1R mRNA and number are increased; but activity of IGF-1R tyrosine kinase is impaired. This postreceptor defect may be a cause of the skeletal muscle resistance to IGF-1 in CRF.
We have investigated the metabolic actions of recombinant human IGF-1 in mice genetically deficient of insulin receptors (IR-/-). After intraperitoneal administration, IGF-1 caused a prompt and sustained decrease of plasma glucose levels in IR-/- mice. Plasma free fatty acid concentrations were unaffected. Interestingly, the effects of IGF-1 were identical in normal mice (IR+/+) and in IR-/- mice. Despite decreased glucose levels, IR-/- mice treated with IGF-1 died within 2-3 d of birth, like sham-treated IR-/- controls. In skeletal muscle, IGF-1 treatment caused phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptors and increased the levels of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase p85 subunit detected in antiphosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates, consistent with the possibility that IGF-1 stimulates glucose uptake in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent manner. IGF-1 receptor phosphorylation and coimmunoprecipitation of phosphatidylinositol3-kinase by antiphosphotyrosine antibodies was also observed in liver, and was associated with a decrease in mRNA levels of the key gluconeogenetic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Thus, the effect of IGF-1 on plasma glucose levels may be accounted for by increased peripheral glucose use and by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. These data indicate that IGF-1 can mimic insulin's effects on glucose metabolism by acting through its own receptor. The failure of IGF-1 to rescue the lethal phenotype due to lack of insulin receptors suggests that IGF-1 receptors cannot effectively mediate all the metabolic actions of insulin receptors.
Although neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neurotrophin 4/5 are elevated after traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known about the endogenous response of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We evaluated IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and total and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), a known downstream mediator of IGF-1 signaling, using ELISA, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry at 1, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h following 0.5-mm controlled cortical impact brain injury in adult mice. IGF-1 was transiently upregulated in homogenates of injured cortex at 1 h, and cells with increased IGF-1 immunoreactivity were observed in and around the cortical contusion site up to 48 h. IGF-1R and total Akt levels in cortical homogenates were unchanged, although immunohistochemistry revealed regional changes. In contrast, serine p-Akt levels increased significantly in homogenates at 6 h post-injury. Interestingly, delayed increases in vascular IGF-1R, total Akt, and p-Akt immunostaining were observed in and around the cortical contusion. IGF-1 and its downstream mediators were also upregulated in the subcortical white matter. Our findings indicate that moderate TBI results in a brief induction of IGF-1 and its signaling components in the acute post-traumatic period. This may reflect an attempt at endogenous neuroprotection or repair.
Akt; axonal injury; blood vessels; controlled cortical impact; neurotrophic factor
To circumvent the embryonic lethality of a complete deficiency in insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), we generated mice homozygous for a site-specific insertional event that created a mutant IGF-1 allele (igf1m). These mice have IGF-1 levels 30% of wild type yet survive to adulthood, thereby allowing physiological analysis of the phenotype. Miniaturized catheterization technology revealed elevated conscious blood pressure in IGF-1(m/m) mice, and measurements of left ventricular contractility were increased. Adenylyl cyclase activity was enhanced in IGF-1(m/m) hearts, without an increase in beta-adrenergic receptor density, suggesting that crosstalk between IGF-1 and beta-adrenergic signaling pathways may mediate the increased contractility. The hypertrophic response of the left ventricular myocardium in response to aortic constriction, however, was preserved in IGF-1(m/m) mice. We conclude that chronic alterations in IGF-1 levels can selectively modulate blood pressure and left ventricular function, while not affecting adaptive myocardial hypertrophy in vivo.
Inhibitors of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-IR) have been widely studied for their ability to enhance the killing of a variety of malignant cells, but the role of IGF-I and its receptor in the differential protection of host and cancer cells against chemotherapy is unknown. We previously showed that starvation protects mice but not cancer cells against high dose chemotherapy (Differential Stress Resistance, DSR). Here we provide evidence for the role of IGF-I reduction in mediating the effect of starvation in DSR. A 72-hour fast reduced circulating IGF-I by 70% and increased the level of the IGF-I inhibitor IGFBP-1 by 11-fold in mice. LID mice, with a 70–80% reduction in circulating IGF-I levels, were protected against 3 out of 4 chemotherapy drugs tested. Restoration of IGF-I during fasting was sufficient to reverse its protective effect. 60% of melanoma-bearing LID mice treated with doxorubicin reached long-term survival whereas all control mice died of either metastases or chemo toxicity. Reduction of IGF-I/IGF-I signaling protected primary glia, but not glioma cells against cyclophosphamide and protected mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) against doxorubicin-induced DNA damage. Similarly, S. cerevisiae lacking homologues of IGF-I signaling proteins displayed protection against chemotherapy-dependent DNA damage, which was reversed by expression of an oncogene homolog. We conclude that reducing circulating IGF-I protects normal cells and mice against chemotherapy-dependent DNA damage by a mechanism that involves down-regulation of proto-oncoproteins.
The high-growth (HG) phenotype in mice is characterized by a 30–50% postweaning overgrowth with a substantial increase in plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1) levels, which is directly related to a deletion (hg) on chromosome 10 that includes the suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (Socs2) gene. Reduced plasma IGF1 levels have been associated with extended lifespan in mice, although the aging-related effects of abnormally high IGF1 levels without elevated growth hormone levels have never been assessed in mammals. Within this context, the hg deletion was introgressed into C57BL/6J (B6) and FVB backgrounds, and a survival analysis was performed on the longevity records of 200 B6 (91 wild-type and 109 homozygous hg mutants) and 69 FVB (32 wild-type and 37 hg mutants) mice. Longevity was examined using a piecewise Weibull proportional hazards model solved through a Bayesian perspective and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Lifespan was significantly reduced in both strains in homozygous hg mice, with a death risk between 3.689 (B6) and 4.347 (FVB) times higher than in wild-type mice (non-overlapped highest posterior density regions at 95%). These results highlight the effects of the Socs2 gene on aging regulation, likely related with variations described in plasma IGF1 levels. This result is consistent with previous research in dwarf mutant mice and other species, and characterizes the HG mutant mice as a unique and interesting animal model for accelerated aging research.
Cytokine signaling 2; Growth hormone; Insulin-like growth factor I; Lifespan; Mice; Survival analysis
The insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) receptor (IGF-IR), activated by its ligands IGF-I and IGF-II, can initiate several signal transduction pathways that mediate suppression of apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Here we investigated the regulation of IGF-IR activation and function by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B). Coexpression of PTP-1B with a β-chain construct of the IGF-IR (βWT) inhibited IGF-IR kinase activity in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, in COS cells, and in IGF-IR-deficient fibroblasts. In both spontaneously immortalized and simian virus 40 T antigen-transformed embryonic fibroblast cell lines derived from PTP-1B knockout mice, IGF-I induced higher levels of IGF-IR autophosphorylation and kinase activity than were induced in PTP-1B-expressing control cells. PTP-1B-deficient cells exhibited enhanced IGF-I-mediated protection from apoptosis in response to serum withdrawal or etoposide killing, as well as enhanced plating efficiency and IGF-I-mediated motility. Reexpression of PTP-1B in spontaneously immortalized fibroblasts resulted in decreased IGF-IR and AKT activation, as well as decreased protection from apoptosis and decreased motility. These findings demonstrate that PTP-1B can regulate IGF-IR kinase activity and function and that loss of PTP-1B can enhance IGF-I-mediated cell survival, growth, and motility in transformed cells.
We show here that β1 integrins selectively modulate insulin-like growth factor type I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling in response to IGF stimulation. The β1A integrin forms a complex with the IGF-IR and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1); this complex does not promote IGF-I mediated cell adhesion to laminin (LN), although it does support IGF-mediated cell proliferation. In contrast, β1C, an integrin cytoplasmic variant, increases cell adhesion to LN in response to IGF-I and its down-regulation by a ribozyme prevents IGF-mediated adhesion to LN. Moreover, β1C completely prevents IGF-mediated cell proliferation and tumor growth by inhibiting IGF-IR auto-phosphorylation in response to IGF-I stimulation. Evidence is provided that the β1 cytodomain plays an important role in mediating β1 integrin association with either IRS-1 or Grb2-associated binder1 (Gab1)/SH2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphate 2 (Shp2), downstream effectors of IGF-IR: specifically, β1A associates with IRS-1 and β1C with Gab1/Shp2. This study unravels a novel mechanism mediated by the integrin cytoplasmic domain that differentially regulates cell adhesion to LN and cell proliferation in response to IGF.
laminin; prostate; Gab1; IRS-1; PI 3-kinase
proteins (HSPs) have proven to be effective tools for extending
invertebrate lifespan, and inC. elegans daf-2 mutants,
longevity resulting from loss of insulin / insulin-like signals is at least
partly dependent upon elevated HSP expression. In mice, inhibition of the
orthologous growth hormone / insulin-like growth factor I (GH / IGF-I)
pathway has similar pro-longevity effects. A recent study, however,
suggests that loss of GH / IGF-I signals in long-lived mice does not
broadly elevate HSP expression, but in fact decreases HSP expression in
many tissue types, such as liver and kidney. The contribution of chaperones
to the longevity of long-lived mice with altered GH / IGF-I signals may therefore
differ from that described in C. elegans daf-2 mutants. This result,
in combination with other recent findings, underscores the possibility that
systemic overexpression of chaperones will have dissimilar effects on
longevity in vertebrate and invertebrate systems.
Aging; chaperone; growth hormone; longevity; Snell; stress
A reduction in IGF-I signaling has been found to increase lifespan in multiple organisms despite the fact that IGF-I is a trophic factor for many cell types and has been found to have protective effects against multiple forms of damage in acute settings. The increase in longevity seen in response to reduced IGF-I signaling suggests that there may be differences between the acute and chronic impact of IGF-I signaling. We have examined the possibility that long-term stimulation with IGF-I may have a negative impact at the cellular level using quiescent human fibroblasts. We find that fibroblast cells exposed to IGF-I for 14 days have reduced long-term viability as judged by colony forming assays, which is accompanied by an accumulation of senescent cells. In addition we observe an accumulation of cells with depolarized mitochondria and a reduction in autophagy in the long-term IGF-I treated cultures. An examination of mice with reduced IGF-I levels reveals evidence of enhanced autophagy and fibroblast cells derived from these mice have a larger mitochondrial mass relative to controls indicating that changes in mitochondrial turnover occurs in animals with reduced IGF-I. The results indicate that chronic IGF-I stimulation leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced cell viability.
Obesity is an independent risk factor for breast cancer, and obese breast cancer patients exhibit a higher risk for larger tumor burden and increased metastasis. Obesity, as associated with metabolic syndrome, results in an increase in circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF), which acts as a mitogen. In addition, higher plasma level of adipocytokine leptin is associated with obesity. In the present study, we show that cotreatment with leptin and IGF-I significantly increases proliferation as well as invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. We found a novel bidirectional crosstalk between leptin and IGF-I signaling; IGF-I induced phosphorylation of leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and leptin induced phosphorylation of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), whereas cotreatment induced synergistic phosphorylation and association of Ob-Rb and IGF-IR along with activation of downstream effectors, Akt and extracellular signal–regulated kinase. Leptin increased phosphorylation of IGF signaling molecules insulin-receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2. Interestingly, we found that leptin and IGF-I cotreatment synergistically transactivated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), depending on the proteolytic release of EGFR ligands, as the broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 could inhibit this effect. Using clinically relevant EGFR inhibitors, erlotinib and lapatinib, we found that inhibition of EGFR activation effectively inhibited leptin- and IGF-I–induced invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest a novel bidirectional crosstalk between leptin and IGF-I signaling that transactivates EGFR and promotes the metastatic properties as well as invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Our findings indicate the possibility of using EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and lapatinib to counter the procancerous effects of leptin and IGF-I in breast cancers.
Insulin resistance of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) has been linked to accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes; however, the effects of insulin on VSMCs remain controversial. Most VSMC insulin receptors are sequestered into insulin-insensitive hybrids with insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors (IGF1R). Thus we hypothesized that regulation of IGF1R expression may impact cellular insulin sensitivity.
Methods and Results
IGF1R expression was increased in aortas from diabetic mice. IGF1R overexpression in VSMCs impaired insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Conversely, IGF1R downregulation by siRNA allowed assembly of insulin holoreceptors, enhanced insulin-induced phosphorylation of its receptor, Akt, Erk1/2 and further augmented insulin-induced glucose uptake. IGF1R downregulation uncovered an insulin-induced reduction in activation of NF-κB and inhibition of MCP-1 upregulation in response to TNF-α.
Downregulation of IGF1R increases the fraction of insulin receptors organized in holoreceptors, which leads to enhanced insulin signaling and unmasks potential anti-inflammatory properties of insulin in VSMCs. Therefore, IGF1R, which is susceptible to feedback regulation by its own ligand, may represent a novel target for interventions designed to treat insulin resistance in the vasculature.
IGF1R; insulin resistance; diabetes; inflammation; vascular smooth muscle