This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced–swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity.
Ayurveda; adaptogenic activity; 'Guduchi ghrita'; 'rasaayana'; Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers) is a well-known medicinal plant, which is abundantly used in different ayurvedic formulations utilizing varieties of media. The drug has properties like Rasayana (rejuvenating property), Krimighna (anthelmintics), and Kushtghna (used in skin disorders), as described in ayurvedic literature. Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) are used as media in Ayurvedic Sneha (oleaginous) formulations. Both the test drugs, Guduchi Taila and Ghrita, are prescribed in Vatrakta (gout) and also indicated for Kushtha (skin disorder). With all these details, the Guduchi Taila and Guduchi Ghrita samples, prepared by using Taila and Ghrita as media, have been subjected to comparative pharmacological investigations, to assess the impact of the media on the expression of pharmacological activity. The formulations have been evaluated for immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-stress activities. Both the formulations have been found to be active in most of the experiments, however, with the change of media, their results vary at different levels. Taila prepared from Guduchi was found to have an immunostimulating activity. The formulation prepared with Ghrita exhibited an anti-stress effect with an immunosuppressing activity.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers); Guduchi Taila; Guduchi Ghrita; Immunomodulation; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-stress
In recent years, many Ayurvedic formulations are being researched to provide an effective antidepressant and anxiolytic drug in the field of psycho-pharmacology. The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet comprising three herbs Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten) (RGT) and Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn). Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups of six animals each, comprising of both male and female in each group. Group I received water served as normal control (WC), group II received vehicle and served as vehicle control (VC), group III received Rasayana Ghana tablet and group IV received standard drug diazepam (2 mg/kg) for anxiolytic study in elevated plus maze and standard antidepressant imipramine (5 mg/kg) for anti-depressant activity in behavior despair test. Rasayana Ghana tablet along with ghee and honey as vehicle is found to be having antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in experimental animals. Thus, this formulation can be used in prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety.
Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten); Anti-depressant; anxiolytic; Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn); Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers); Rasayana Ghana
The main objective of this work was to study the antipyretic and antibacterial activity of C. erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verdcourt leaf extract in an experimental albino rat model.
Materials and Methods:
The methanol extract of C. erectus leaf (MECEL) was evaluated for its antipyretic potential on normal body temperature and Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rat’s model. While the antibacterial activity of MECEL against five Gram (−) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains and antimycotic activity was investigated against four fungi using agar disk diffusion and microdilution methods.
Yeast suspension (10 mL/kg b.w.) elevated rectal temperature after 19 h of subcutaneous injection. Oral administration of MECEL at 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. showed significant reduction of normal rectal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature (38.8 ± 0.2 and 37.6 ± 0.4, respectively, at 2–3 h) in a dose-dependent manner, and the effect was comparable to that of the standard antipyretic drug–paracetamol (150 mg/kg b.w.). MECEL at 2 mg/disk showed broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity against both groups of bacteria. However, MECEL was not effective against the yeast strains tested in this study.
This study revealed that the methanol extract of C. erectus exhibited significant antipyretic activity in the tested models and antibacterial activity as well, and may provide the scientific rationale for its popular use as antipyretic agent in Khamptis’s folk medicines.
Antipyretic activity; Chloranthus erectus; Khampti tribe
Incidence of epilepsy is 0.3 to 0.5% in different populations throughout the world, and the prevalence of epilepsy has been estimated at 5 to 10 persons per 1000. Scanning of the Ayurvedic classics reveals that 90% of the formulations mentioned to have action on sajnavaha srotas are ghrita-based formulations. Ghrita because of its yogavahi guna, incorporates the qualities of the drugs added to it without losing its own qualities. In the present study Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita and saptavartita Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita have been selected, to prove their anticonvulsant activity experimentally on albino mice, by the chemoshock method. The observations recorded have been analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Scheffe's test, statistically. Saptavartita Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita has shown better anticonvulsant activity in comparison to Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita.
Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita; Clonus; Seizures; Convulsion; Pentylenetetrazol; Sneha Kalpana
Ethanolic extracts of Ailanthus exceisa (AE). Toddalia asiatica (TA) and Araucaria bidwilli (AB) were screened by the anti-pyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermic test model in the laboratory. Dose of AE (100), TA (60) and AB (30) mg., equivalent of the plant material per kg. Body weight of the extracts were administered orally to the female albino rats. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted for all the extracts. LD 50 values on oral administration of the extracts were found to be AE (1000), AB (350) and TA (250) mg. per kg. body weight respectively. Both the root and aerial part fractions of TA displayed a pronounced anti-pyretic activity comparable to the standard drug paracetamol. AB oleoresin fraction was also found to show anti-pyretic effect. These observations however, confirm the folk-medical practices still prevailing among the tribes.
Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Family: Compositae) is a herb that grows throughout the tropics. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, fever, sore throat, and hemorrhoids. A tincture of the flowers is used to relieve toothache. The leaves and flowers produce numbness of the tongue when eaten as salad. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of S. acmella in experimental animal models.
Materials and Methods:
Aqueous extract of S. acmella Murr. (SAM) was tested for local anesthetic action by (i) intracutaneous wheal in guinea pigs and (ii) plexus anesthesia in frogs. In both the models, 2% xylocaine was used as the standard drug. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Aspirin 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug.
The test drug in concentrations of 10% and 20% produced 70.36% and 87.02% anesthesia respectively by the intracutaneous wheal compared to 97.22% anesthetic effect produced by 2% xylocaine (P<0.001). The mean onset of anesthesia with the test drug was 5.33±0.57 min compared to 2.75±0.31 min (P<0.001) for the standard drug in the plexus anesthesia model. In the anti-pyretic model, ASA in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg produced dose-dependent reduction in mean temperature at various hours of observation.
The present study shows that SAM has significant local anesthetic and antipyretic activities.
Anti-pyretic; aspirin; local anesthetic; Spilanthes acmella; xylocaine
The present study was designed to investigate the gastroprotective, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of curcumin (Cur), the major constituent of turmeric. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used in this study as a standard drug for comparison. The analgesic activity was measured using the Hot-Plate Test. The antipyretic and antiulcer effects were assessed using yeast-induced pyrexia and gastric ulceration, respectively. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) injected intra-peritoneally 1 hr prior to the Hot-Plate Test showed significant analgesic activity expressed by both parameters: an increase in latency time and a reduction in paw licking as compared to the controls. In the animal model of pyrexia, curcumin (100 mg/kg injected intra-peritoneally) exhibited a significant reduction in the rectal temperature after 1 hr, 2 hrs, 4 hrs, and 5 hrs of treatment, indicating the antipyretic effect of curcumin. Rats with orally administered curcumin (200 mg/kg) did not show any lesions on the inner lining of the stomach after a 16 hr fast, indicating the gastroprotective effects of curcumin as compared to saline- and acetylsalicylic acid-administered rats. The significantly low ulcer index in curcumin-treated rats following starvation highlights the gastroprotective characteristics of curcumin.
Curcumin; Antipyretic; Gastroprotective; Antinociceptive; Acetylsalicylic acid
Population in an industrialized world is afflicted by urinary stone disease. Kidney stones are common in all kinds of urolithiasis. One distinguished formulation mentioned by Sushruta for management of Ashmari (urolithiasis) is Pashanabhedadi Ghrita (PBG), which is in clinical practice since centuries. Validation of drug is the requirement of time through the experimental study. In this study, trial of PBG has been made against ammonium oxalate rich diet and gentamicin injection induced renal calculi in albino rats. The calculi were induced by gentamicin injection and ammonium oxalate rich diet. Test drug was administered concomitantly in the dose of 900 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed on the 16th day. Parameters like kidney weight, serum biochemical, kidney tissue and histopathology of kidney were studied. Concomitant treatment of PBG attenuates blood biochemical parameters non-significantly, where as it significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation and enhanced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities. It also decreased crystal deposition markedly into the renal tubules in number as well as size and prevented damage to the renal tubules. The findings showed that PBG is having significant anti-urolithiatic activities against ammonium oxalate rich diet plus gentamicine injection induced urolithiasis in rats.
Ammonium oxalate; Ashmari; gentamicin; Pashanabhedadi Ghrita; urolithiasis
Brahmi Ghrita, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation is recommended in the management of various psychological disorders like Unmada, Apasmara and Graharogas. The present study deals with the pharmacognostical identification of ingredients of Brahmi Ghrita and its physico-chemical analysis. Pharmacognostical study containing both macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drug revealed the quality and genuineness of all the constituents of Brahmi Ghrita. Organoleptic features of coarse powder made out of the crude drugs were within the standards prescribed. Acid value was 0.16075, saponification value 184.17, Refractive Index value 1.467 at room temperature, Iodine value 26.715, Specific gravity at room temperature was 0.9133. HPTLC was carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum 9 spots were distinguished and most of the Rf values were identical in alcoholic extract which shows the presence of certain definite constituents in Brahmi Ghrita.
Brahmi Ghrita; HPTLC; pharmacognosy; physico-chemical analysis
Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita is an Ayurvedic formulation, which is beneficial in the management of the side effects of Head and Neck Malignancies induced by Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy. A pharmacognostical study involving both the macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drugs of Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita and a physicochemical analysis of the finished product were carried out, to evaluate the quality of the formulation. The specific gravity of the formulation was 0.9130 and pH was 3.5. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were carried out after organizing the appropriate solvent system, in which five spots were distinguished in TLC and nine spots in HPTLC. Most of the Rf values for the spots observed were identical. The observations could be considered to be the reference standards in future studies.
Chemotherapy; high performance thin layer chromatography; radiotherapy; Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita
Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya.
Ahridya; albino rats; Avika Ghrita; cholesterol; ghee; Go Ghrita
The antipyretic activity of a herbal formulation, TBR-002 was compared with that of andrographis paniculata, andrographis elongate and paracetamol in yeast-induced pyrexia in male albino rats, TBR-oo2 was found to be effective at an oral dose of 100 mg/kg in the inhibition if pyrexia. Its efficacy was almost comparable to that of paracetamol as well as andrographis elongate, the antipyretic activity of andrographis paniculata, the well known antipyretic herb, was found to be less than that of the above drugs.
To conduct a systemic evaluation of the medicinal value of seeds which include macroscopic and microscopic characterization, physiochemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical screening and experimental antipyretic activity.
Saraca asoca seed was studied for pharmacognostical, phytochemical and other recommended methods for standardizations. Also, the acetone extract of the seeds was evaluated for acute toxicity study and antipyretic activity using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in Wistar rats at oral doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg.
After phytochemical screening, the acetone extract showed the presence of saponin, tannins and flavonoids which inhibit pyrexia. The therapeutic efficacy achieved at both the dose levels of the research drug and standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg) showed significant (P<0.01) antipyretic activity when compared to the control group. The highly significant antipyretic effect exhibited at the dose of 500 mg/kg was also found to be sustainable in nature.
The antipyretic effect of the acetone extract showed significant results in rats at the dose of 500 mg/kg after following the standard pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods.
Antipyretic; Saraca asoca; Seed; Pharmacognosy; Acetone extract
Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) is widely used in folk medicine/ ayurvedic system of medicine, also in ayurvedic ‘Rasayanas’ to improve the immune system and used as general tonic, anti-periodic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and anti-diabetic agent. Numerous studies have been reported on the health benefits of individual parts or whole Guduchi plant. However, most of the work has focused on the extracts of T. cordifolia. In this study, T. cordifolia leaf and stem extract powders were prepared using spray drying at 90 °C outlet temperature of the spray dryer. The powder morphology has also been studied by scanning electron microscopy. The antioxidant activity was followed by DPPH method. The leaf extract powder showed higher retention of antioxidant activity than stem extract powder.
Spray drying; Antioxidant activity; Polyphenol; Outlet temperatures; DPPH
The acetone extracts of Radix paeoniae (Paeonaceae) root (100 and 200 mg/kg orally) were tested in brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats to assess their antipyretic activity. The pyrexia in rats was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of control. These results indicate that the extracts possess antipyretic properties. The root extract showed significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature comparable to that of standard antipyretic drug paracetamol. The antipyretic effect was started at 1h and extended for at least 4h after the drug administration.
Radix paeoniae; Antipyretic activity and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia
In present study, the antipyretic activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts from Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (Cuscutaceae) was evaluated using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Both the extracts at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight dose significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the increased rectal temperature. The extracts started reducing the elevated rectal temperature after 3 h of treatment in a dose related manner. At the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight the aqueous and ethanol extract reduced 79 % and 83.8 % respectively of the elevated rectal temperature as compared to reference drug paracetamol (96.5 %) after 6 h of treatment. It was therefore concluded that both the extracts of C. reflexa demonstrated antipyretic activity, the ethanol extract was found to be slightly potent than the aqueous extract.
Antipyretic; Brewer's yeast; Cuscuta reflexa; phytochemical analysis; prostaglandin
In Thailand, the leaves of Aquilaria crassna have been used traditionally for the treatments of various disorders, but without any scientific analysis. In this study, the antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of A. crassna leaves extract were investigated at a wide dose range in rodents. Experimental animals were treated orally with an aqueous extract of Aquilaria crassna leaves (ACE). They were tested for antipyretic (Baker's yeast-induced fever in rats), analgesic (hot plate test in mice) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats) activities. An anti-oxidative effect of ACE was evaluated by using the DPPH anti-oxidant assay. The results showed that, after 5 hours of yeast injection, 400 and 800 mg/kg ACE significantly reduced the rectal temperature of rats. Mice were found significantly less sensitive to heat at an oral dose of 800 mg/kg ACE, after 60 and 90 min. No anti-inflammatory activity of ACE at an 800 mg/kg dose could be observed in the rat paw assay. An anti-oxidative activity of ACE was observed with an IC 50value of 47.18 μg/ ml. No behavioral or movement change could be observed in mice after oral administration of ACE (800 or 8,000 mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. Interestingly, from the second day of treatment, animals had a significant lower body weight at the 8,000 mg/kg dose of ACE compared to the control. No toxicity was identified and the results of this study state clearly that Aquilaria crassna leaves extracts possess antipyretic, analgesic and anti-oxidative properties without anti-inflammatory activity.
Analgesic; antipyretic; anti-oxidative activity; Aquilaria crassna; rodents
The antipyretic effectiveness of Ketoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was investigated in pyretic cats with a variety of bacterial and viral infections. Cats were randomly assigned to receive either a broad-spectrum antibiotic or a broad-spectrum antibiotic plus ketoprofen. Body temperature was monitored 3 times daily, and attitude and appetite were evaluated once daily. The treatment groups were compared with respect to mean body temperatures, using a one-way analysis of variance. Mean temperatures were significantly different (P < 0.05) during the 4 and 8 h post-treatment observations, with a reduction to normal temperatures in the ketoprofen group compared with no change in the group treated with antibiotics alone. The antipyretic effect of ketoprofen was rapid and persisted for at least 8 h, but for less than 24 h. The overall recovery period from pyrexia, depression, and inappetance was also shorter in cats treated with antibiotics and ketoprofen (3 d) than in cats treated only with antibiotics (5 d). Ketoprofen was a useful adjunct in the treatment of pyretic cats.
This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex leucoxylon Linn. in various animal experimental models.
Materials and Methods:
Ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan, mediator-induced rat paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. The antipyretic activity was evaluated by yeast-induced pyrexia model.
Single administration of the ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of rat paw edema. The ethyl acetate extract showed significant antipyretic activity in brewer yeast-induced pyrexia in rats throughout the observation period of 4 h.
This study shows that ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. has significant anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.
Inflammation; pyrexia; Vitex leucoxylon
Fever is one of the most common clinical symptoms of many diseases. Qingkailing (QKL) injection is widely used in China as a clinical emergency medicine due to its good antipyretic effects. It is a herbal formula which is composed by eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). As a kind of typical multiple constituents and multiple actions of TCM, it is very difficult to elaborate the antipyretic mechanism by conventional pharmacological method. Metabonomics technique provides beneficial tool for this challenge. In this study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS) metabonomics method was developed to explore the changing process of biochemical substances in rats of yeast-induced pyrexia. Partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to distinguish the normal control group, the pyrexia model group, and the pyrexia model group treated by QKL injection. The potential biomarkers related to pyrexia were confirmed and identified. MetPA was used to find the possible metabolic pathways. The results indicated that the antipyretic effect of QKL injection on yeast-induced pyrexia rats was performed by repairing the perturbed metabolism of amino acids.
Myopia is a major public health problem pertaining to eye that entails substantial societal, personal, educational, and economical impact. Various surveys in India have found the prevalence of myopia ranging from 6.9% to 19.7%. Myopia progression is irreversible and methods for the correction of myopia are not without complications. Myopia closely resembles Timira involving first and second Patala in terms of symptoms, anatomical structures involved, and the pathogenesis of the disease. The study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of the Akshi-Tarpana procedure with Jeevantyadi Ghrita in fresh and old myopes. A total of 54 patients (108 eyes) having myopia ≥-6 D were registered for the study and divided into two groups (Group A, Akshi-Tarpana with Jeevantyadi Ghrita, and Group B, Akshi-Tarpana with plain Go Ghrita), by stratified sampling. The procedure was done in 5 sittings of 5 days each with an equal interval of 5 days between each sitting. A total of 22 patients in Group A and 18 in Group B completed the treatment. Obtained data were statistically analyzed using a t-test and the study reveals that objectively, 09.30% and 05.55% eyes were cured, 16.28% and 02.78% markedly improved, and 34.88% and 11.11% moderately improved in Group A and B, respectively.
Akshi-Tarpana; Jeevantyadi Ghrita; Patala; Timira
The study was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Livwin (polyherbal formulation) in acute viral hepatitis.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, there were 29 patients in each group, receiving either Livwin (containing Ashwagandha, Arjuna, Bhumyamalaki, Daruharidra, Guduchi, Kutki and Punarnava) or placebo capsules containing lactose powder (500 mg). Both drugs were given orally two capsules two times a day for eight weeks followed by treatment free period of four weeks. Recovery of patients was assessed by noting symptomatic recovery and by measuring levels of serum bilirubin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase at baseline, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks.
Significant earlier recovery of weakness was observed with Livwin as compared to placebo at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Serum bilirubin and ALT was observed in normal range in significantly more number of patients with Livwin treatment as compared to placebo at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. AST was observed in normal range in significantly more number of patients with Livwin treatment as compared to placebo at 2 and 4 weeks.
Livwin is found effective in uncomplicated patients of acute viral hepatitis. Epigastric pain and diarrhea were reported with Livwin treatment.
Acute hepatitis; Phyllanthus niruri linn; Tinospora cordifolia (willd.) miers
To investigate the antipyretic and anticonvulsant activities of n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (V. betonicifolia).
The antipyretic effect was scrutinized using brewer's yeast induced pyrexia and anticonvlsion effect was tested using pentylenetetrazol and strychnine induced convulsion in mice.
N-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia demonstrated highly significant antipyretic activity during various assessment times (1-5 h) when challenged in yeast induced pyrexia test. The effect was in a dose dependent manner with maximum attenuation (82.50%) observed at 300 mg/kg i.p. When tested in pentylenetetrazol induced convulsion test, the 1st stage (Ear and facial twitching) and 2nd stage (Convulsive wave through the body) was 100% protected during 24 h at all the test doses (300, 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p.), while the latency time of remaining stages was significantly increased. The maximum effect was observed by n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia at 400 and 500 mg/kg i.p., as the latency time for generalized clonic-tonic seizure (5th stage) was increased up to 25.34 min. However, n-hexane fraction of V. betonicifolia had no protection in strychnine induced convulsion test.
In conclusion, phytopharmacological studies provide scientific foundation to the folk uses of the plant in the treatment of pyrexia and neurological disorders.
Viola betonicifolia; N-hexane fraction; Antipyretic; Anticonvulsant
The three stages of Snehapaka formulations namely Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka have been characteristically advocated for different routes of administration—Nasya, Pana/Basti and Abhyanga, respectively. Guidelines or established method for post-formulation characterization for the same is hardly available.
The present communication is the comparative study of Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka of Panchagavya ghrita (PGG).
Materials and Methods:
Laboratory prepared samples of PGG following classical method were analyzed for different physicochemical, spectroscopic, chromatographic parameters, and antioxidant activity.
No significant difference was found among Mridu, Madhyama and Khara Paka in physicochemical parameters as well as chromatographic profiles. The ratio of absorbance at 240 and 294 nm showed steady increase from Mridu to Madhyama to Khara Paka in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectra of unsaponifiable matter. The high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-2,2 Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil (DPPH) bioautography assay revealed presence of two antioxidant compounds in low concentration in all the samples. This was further supported by estimation of total reducing power and DPPH assay. No significant difference was found among the three samples.
Comparison of various physicochemical parameters, chromatographic profiles, and in vitro antioxidant activity determination is of little help in establishing any significant difference among the samples. However, spectrophotometric analysis of unsaponifiable matter reveals some encouraging characteristic findings which will be useful in establishing difference among the three stages of processing of PGG as well as Snehapaka in general.
Antioxidant; High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC); HPTLC-2 Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil (DPPH) bioautography; Panchagavya ghrita; Mridu/Madhyama/Khara Paka