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1.  A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats 
This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced–swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity.
PMCID: PMC2924986  PMID: 20814518
Ayurveda; adaptogenic activity; 'Guduchi ghrita'; 'rasaayana'; Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers
2.  A comparative pharmacological evaluation of Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) prepared with Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) 
Ayu  2010;31(4):504-508.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers) is a well-known medicinal plant, which is abundantly used in different ayurvedic formulations utilizing varieties of media. The drug has properties like Rasayana (rejuvenating property), Krimighna (anthelmintics), and Kushtghna (used in skin disorders), as described in ayurvedic literature. Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) are used as media in Ayurvedic Sneha (oleaginous) formulations. Both the test drugs, Guduchi Taila and Ghrita, are prescribed in Vatrakta (gout) and also indicated for Kushtha (skin disorder). With all these details, the Guduchi Taila and Guduchi Ghrita samples, prepared by using Taila and Ghrita as media, have been subjected to comparative pharmacological investigations, to assess the impact of the media on the expression of pharmacological activity. The formulations have been evaluated for immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-stress activities. Both the formulations have been found to be active in most of the experiments, however, with the change of media, their results vary at different levels. Taila prepared from Guduchi was found to have an immunostimulating activity. The formulation prepared with Ghrita exhibited an anti-stress effect with an immunosuppressing activity.
PMCID: PMC3202249  PMID: 22048548
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers); Guduchi Taila; Guduchi Ghrita; Immunomodulation; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-stress
3.  Synthesis, spectral characterization, and pharmacological screening of some 4-[{1-(aryl)methylidene}-amino]-3-(4-pyridyl)-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives 
Pain is an unpleasant and subjective sensation that results from a harmful sensorial stimulation, which alerts the body about current or potential damage to its tissues and organs. Fever is a complex physiological response triggered by infections or aseptic stimuli. Elevation in body temperature occurs when the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases within parts of the brain. Triazole derivatives have been found to possess various pharmacological and biological activities, such as, anti-inflammatory, analgesics, antipyretic, and antifungal.
Materials and Methods:
Various 4-[{1-(aryl)methylidene}-amino]-3-(4-pyridyl)-5-mercapto-4H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives were synthesized by a sequence of reactions starting from isonicotinic acid hydrazide. The synthesized compounds were screened for in-vivo analgesic by the tail-flick method and anti-pyretic activities at a dose of 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight respectively. The antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Fever was induced by subcutaneously injecting 20 ml/kg of 20% aqueous suspension of Brewer's yeast in normal saline.
Results and Discussion:
The analgesic screening results revealed that the compounds 3b, 3c, and 3d exhibited excellent analgesic activity at 60 and 90 minutes compared to the standard drug (Analgin). Results revealed that the compounds 3a, 3e, and 3f significantly decreased the temperature of pyretic (P<0.001) rats at one, three and six hours after compound administration as compared to Aspirin (standard drug).
Compounds 3b, 3c, and 3d exhibited significant analgesic activity comparable with the standard drug analgin, using the tail flick model. Compounds 3a, 3e, and 3f showed significant anti-pyretic activities comparable with the standard drug aspirin using the yeast-induced pyrexia model.
PMCID: PMC3147092  PMID: 21814442
Isonicotinic acid hydrazide; 1,2,4-triazole; analgesic; antipyretic activity
4.  In-vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Manilkara zapota leaves in albino Wistar rats 
To screen ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota leaves (Family: Sapotaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic activities in experimental albino Wistar rats.
Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method; anti-pyretic potential was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia method in albino Wistar rats.
In evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity the crude ethanolic (300 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of paw edema by 91.98% and 92.41% (P<0.001) respectively at 4th h compared to standard diclofenac (86.08% inhibition). In anti-pyretic study by yeast-induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats, the ethanol extract (300 mg/kg) reduced temperature from 37.90 °C to 37.41 °C (P<0.01) and 37.07 °C (P<0.001) in 3rd and 4th h respectively. Similarly, both petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited significant anti-pyretic property (P<0.001). The maximum body temperature lowering effect (36.86 °C) was noticed by petroleum ether fraction.
The findings of the studies demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the leaves of Manilkara zapota which could be the therapeutic option against inflammatory disease and pyrexia.
PMCID: PMC4027313
Manilkara zapota; Carrageenan; Paw edema; Yeast-induced pyresis
5.  Anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana (aqueous extract of Tinospora Cordifolia Miers.) 
Ayu  2014;35(1):108-110.
Guduchi Ghana is one of the unique Ayuvedic classical preparation which is prepared from aqueous of extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.) stem. It is one of the frequently used drugs to treat the Madhumeha, Pandu, Kamala, Amlapitta, Grahani, Kustha, Jirna Jwara and Viswamjwara, Trishna, Shool, Yakritavikara, etc. Looking to these indications, in market most of the Pharma industries prepared Guduchi Ghana by applying the various extraction process.
To evaluate comparative anti-inflammatory activity of classically prepared and market sample of Guduchi Ghana.
Materials and Methods:
Both samples were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Animals were divided in three groups, having six animals in each. Group A received test drug, Group B received market sample at a dose of 50 mg/kg orally, while Group C (control group) received tap water.
Reduction in edema was observed in Group A and B at 3 h interval by 33.06% and 11.71% respectively. Group A showed significant effects (P < 0.05) in comparison to control group.
These experimental results have shown anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana.
PMCID: PMC4213960  PMID: 25364210
Anti-inflammatory activity; aqueous extract; carrageenan; Ghana Kalpana; Guduchi; Tinospora cordifolia
6.  Preliminary studies on local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr. in experimental animal models 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2010;42(5):277-279.
Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Family: Compositae) is a herb that grows throughout the tropics. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, fever, sore throat, and hemorrhoids. A tincture of the flowers is used to relieve toothache. The leaves and flowers produce numbness of the tongue when eaten as salad. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of S. acmella in experimental animal models.
Materials and Methods:
Aqueous extract of S. acmella Murr. (SAM) was tested for local anesthetic action by (i) intracutaneous wheal in guinea pigs and (ii) plexus anesthesia in frogs. In both the models, 2% xylocaine was used as the standard drug. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Aspirin 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug.
The test drug in concentrations of 10% and 20% produced 70.36% and 87.02% anesthesia respectively by the intracutaneous wheal compared to 97.22% anesthetic effect produced by 2% xylocaine (P<0.001). The mean onset of anesthesia with the test drug was 5.33±0.57 min compared to 2.75±0.31 min (P<0.001) for the standard drug in the plexus anesthesia model. In the anti-pyretic model, ASA in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg produced dose-dependent reduction in mean temperature at various hours of observation.
The present study shows that SAM has significant local anesthetic and antipyretic activities.
PMCID: PMC2959208  PMID: 21206617
Anti-pyretic; aspirin; local anesthetic; Spilanthes acmella; xylocaine
7.  Clinical Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Guduchi (Tinospora Cordifolia) Using Animal Model 
Introduction: Pain is a very well-known signal of ill health and analgesics are the drugs that are used to relieve pain. The main problem with these drugs remains that of side effects. Safer alternatives are natural herbs. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) is one such plant with analgesic potential but few studies are there.
Objective: To evaluate the analgesic activity of commercially available extract of Guduchi (T. cordifolia).
Materials and Methods: For this purpose commercially available extract of Guduchi (T. cordifolia) by Himalaya Drug Company, Bangalore was used. Albino rats were divided randomly in three groups of six rats each. Group 1 (control) received distilled water orally, group 2 (test) received T. cordifolia extract in dose of 300 mg/kg orally and group 3(standard) received Pentazocine in dose 10mg/kg intraperitoneally. Analgesic activity was evaluated using hot plate and abdominal writhing method. All the observations were analysed statistically using student’s t-test.
Observation and Results: T. cordifolia extract significantly (p<0.05) increased the response time and decreased the number of writhes in hot plate method and abdominal writhing method respectively, on comparison with the control group.
Conclusions: The above findings suggest that this commercially available extract of Guduchi (T. cordifolia) possess analgesic activity. This analgesic activity probably involves peripheral as well as central mechanisms as the extract showed analgesic activity in both hot plate and abdominal writhing method.
PMCID: PMC4190733  PMID: 25302211
Anti-nociceptive; Analgesic; Guduchi; Hot plate method; Pain; Tinospora cordifolia; Writhing
8.  Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method 
Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita.
To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method).
Materials and Methods:
Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance.
Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation.
The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases.
PMCID: PMC4061595  PMID: 24948858
Ayurveda; Docosahexaenoic acid; ghrita; Omega-3 fatty acids; traditional method
9.  Antipyretic and antibacterial activity of Chloranthus erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verdcourt leaf extract: A popular folk medicine of Arunachal Pradesh 
Indian Journal of Pharmacology  2010;42(5):273-276.
The main objective of this work was to study the antipyretic and antibacterial activity of C. erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verdcourt leaf extract in an experimental albino rat model.
Materials and Methods:
The methanol extract of C. erectus leaf (MECEL) was evaluated for its antipyretic potential on normal body temperature and Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rat’s model. While the antibacterial activity of MECEL against five Gram (−) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains and antimycotic activity was investigated against four fungi using agar disk diffusion and microdilution methods.
Yeast suspension (10 mL/kg b.w.) elevated rectal temperature after 19 h of subcutaneous injection. Oral administration of MECEL at 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. showed significant reduction of normal rectal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature (38.8 ± 0.2 and 37.6 ± 0.4, respectively, at 2–3 h) in a dose-dependent manner, and the effect was comparable to that of the standard antipyretic drug–paracetamol (150 mg/kg b.w.). MECEL at 2 mg/disk showed broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity against both groups of bacteria. However, MECEL was not effective against the yeast strains tested in this study.
This study revealed that the methanol extract of C. erectus exhibited significant antipyretic activity in the tested models and antibacterial activity as well, and may provide the scientific rationale for its popular use as antipyretic agent in Khamptis’s folk medicines.
PMCID: PMC2959207  PMID: 21206616
Antipyretic activity; Chloranthus erectus; Khampti tribe
10.  A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats 
Ayu  2012;33(3):435-440.
Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya.
PMCID: PMC3665096  PMID: 23723655
Ahridya; albino rats; Avika Ghrita; cholesterol; ghee; Go Ghrita
11.  Preliminary physico-chemical profile of Brahmi Ghrita 
Ayu  2013;34(3):294-296.
Brahmi Ghrita was processed as per the process of Snehapaka procedure described in classics. It contained Brahmi (Bacopa monneri), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Kushtha (Sassurea lappa), Shankhapushpi (Convolvulos pluricalis), and Purana Ghrita. In the preparation of Brahmi Ghrita, Brahmi Swarasa, Kalka Dravya of Brahmi, Vacha, Kushtha, and Shankhapushpi were mixed in Purana Ghrita and heated for three hours at 110°C every day for three days. On the third day Ghrita was filtered to obtain the finished product. In this manner, three samples of Brahmi Ghrita were prepared. To understand the changes that occurred during the preparation, Brahmi Ghrita and Purana Ghrita were analyzed by using modern parameters such as Acid value, Saponification value, and so on. After the analysis, it was found that the Acid values of Sample A, B, and C of Brahmi Ghrita were 4.26, 4.03, and 4.03; the Saponification values of Samples A, B, and C of Brahmi Ghrita were 227.2, 230.01, and 230.01, and the Iodine values of Samples A, B, and C were 34.75, 35.88, and 35.88, respectively, and the Acid value, Saponification value, and Iodine value of Purana Ghrita were 1.57, 199.15, and 31.04, respectively. The present study revealed that, there was no significant variation in the analytical values among all three samples of Brahmi Ghrita.
PMCID: PMC3902597  PMID: 24501526
Brahmi Ghrita; acid value; saponification value; iodine value
12.  Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic activity of Pashanabhedadi Ghrita against experimentally induced renal calculi in rats 
Ayu  2012;33(3):429-434.
Population in an industrialized world is afflicted by urinary stone disease. Kidney stones are common in all kinds of urolithiasis. One distinguished formulation mentioned by Sushruta for management of Ashmari (urolithiasis) is Pashanabhedadi Ghrita (PBG), which is in clinical practice since centuries. Validation of drug is the requirement of time through the experimental study. In this study, trial of PBG has been made against ammonium oxalate rich diet and gentamicin injection induced renal calculi in albino rats. The calculi were induced by gentamicin injection and ammonium oxalate rich diet. Test drug was administered concomitantly in the dose of 900 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed on the 16th day. Parameters like kidney weight, serum biochemical, kidney tissue and histopathology of kidney were studied. Concomitant treatment of PBG attenuates blood biochemical parameters non-significantly, where as it significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation and enhanced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities. It also decreased crystal deposition markedly into the renal tubules in number as well as size and prevented damage to the renal tubules. The findings showed that PBG is having significant anti-urolithiatic activities against ammonium oxalate rich diet plus gentamicine injection induced urolithiasis in rats.
PMCID: PMC3665093  PMID: 23723654
Ammonium oxalate; Ashmari; gentamicin; Pashanabhedadi Ghrita; urolithiasis
13.  Evaluation of anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet (A compound Ayurvedic formulation) in albino mice 
Ayu  2011;32(3):375-379.
In recent years, many Ayurvedic formulations are being researched to provide an effective antidepressant and anxiolytic drug in the field of psycho-pharmacology. The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet comprising three herbs Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten) (RGT) and Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn). Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups of six animals each, comprising of both male and female in each group. Group I received water served as normal control (WC), group II received vehicle and served as vehicle control (VC), group III received Rasayana Ghana tablet and group IV received standard drug diazepam (2 mg/kg) for anxiolytic study in elevated plus maze and standard antidepressant imipramine (5 mg/kg) for anti-depressant activity in behavior despair test. Rasayana Ghana tablet along with ghee and honey as vehicle is found to be having antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in experimental animals. Thus, this formulation can be used in prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety.
PMCID: PMC3326886  PMID: 22529654
Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten); Anti-depressant; anxiolytic; Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn); Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers); Rasayana Ghana
14.  PA01.45. An ayurvedic management of vandhyatva w.s.r. to cervical factor 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S95.
Vandhyatva (infertility) has been long standing problem since ancient period. Many herbal and herbo mineral formulations are mentioned as a treatment of infertility in the ancient texts, but they are not categorized according to the responsible factor like Ritu Kshetra, Ambu, Beeja. It is the need of time to evaluate the efficacy of formulations in respect to various factors of infertility. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of Aswagandha Ghrita and Phalaghrita in the management of Vandhyatva w.s.r. to cervical factor.
In this study, total 14 patients were treated in two groups viz. Group A; Ashwagandha ghrita (Intra cervical Uttarbasti 6days for 2 cycles and Ghritapana 15ml bid for 2 months) and Group B; Phalaghrita (Intra cervical Uttarbasti 6days for 2 cycles and Ghritapana 15 ml bid for 2 months) to assess the role of Ghrita in the management of Vandhytva. Sim's hunter and Moghissi cervical mucus Test and Post coital test were selected for the diagnosis and for evaluation of efficacy of therapy on cervical factor.
The overall effects of both the therapies on properties of cervical mucus showed that the administration of Ashwagandha ghrita (group A) was more effective to increase the amount and tradability as compared to Phalaghrita whereas Phalaghrita was more effective in comparison to Ashwagandha ghrita to decrease the cellularity and viscosity of cervical mucus.
Significant results were found in both the groups, but Ashwagandha ghrita provided better results in comparison to Phalaghrita.
PMCID: PMC3800978
15.  A comparative anti-inflammatory activity of raw and processed Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) seeds on albino rats 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;31(2):73-75.
Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema.
PMCID: PMC3530271  PMID: 23284209
Kupeelu; Kanji; anti-inflammatory; purification; Shodhana; purificatory procedure
16.  Analytical profile of Brahmi Ghrita: A polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation 
Ayu  2012;33(2):289-293.
Brahmi Ghrita, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation is recommended in the management of various psychological disorders like Unmada, Apasmara and Graharogas. The present study deals with the pharmacognostical identification of ingredients of Brahmi Ghrita and its physico-chemical analysis. Pharmacognostical study containing both macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drug revealed the quality and genuineness of all the constituents of Brahmi Ghrita. Organoleptic features of coarse powder made out of the crude drugs were within the standards prescribed. Acid value was 0.16075, saponification value 184.17, Refractive Index value 1.467 at room temperature, Iodine value 26.715, Specific gravity at room temperature was 0.9133. HPTLC was carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum 9 spots were distinguished and most of the Rf values were identical in alcoholic extract which shows the presence of certain definite constituents in Brahmi Ghrita.
PMCID: PMC3611637  PMID: 23559806
Brahmi Ghrita; HPTLC; pharmacognosy; physico-chemical analysis
Ancient Science of Life  1995;14(4):253-257.
Ethanolic extracts of Ailanthus exceisa (AE). Toddalia asiatica (TA) and Araucaria bidwilli (AB) were screened by the anti-pyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermic test model in the laboratory. Dose of AE (100), TA (60) and AB (30) mg., equivalent of the plant material per kg. Body weight of the extracts were administered orally to the female albino rats. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted for all the extracts. LD 50 values on oral administration of the extracts were found to be AE (1000), AB (350) and TA (250) mg. per kg. body weight respectively. Both the root and aerial part fractions of TA displayed a pronounced anti-pyretic activity comparable to the standard drug paracetamol. AB oleoresin fraction was also found to show anti-pyretic effect. These observations however, confirm the folk-medical practices still prevailing among the tribes.
PMCID: PMC3331248  PMID: 22556707
18.  Experimental evaluation of Hingusauvarchaladi Ghrita and Saptavartita Hingusauvarchaladi Ghrita with special reference to their anticonvulsant activity 
Ayu  2010;31(4):500-503.
Incidence of epilepsy is 0.3 to 0.5% in different populations throughout the world, and the prevalence of epilepsy has been estimated at 5 to 10 persons per 1000. Scanning of the Ayurvedic classics reveals that 90% of the formulations mentioned to have action on sajnavaha srotas are ghrita-based formulations. Ghrita because of its yogavahi guna, incorporates the qualities of the drugs added to it without losing its own qualities. In the present study Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita and saptavartita Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita have been selected, to prove their anticonvulsant activity experimentally on albino mice, by the chemoshock method. The observations recorded have been analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Scheffe's test, statistically. Saptavartita Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita has shown better anticonvulsant activity in comparison to Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita.
PMCID: PMC3202270  PMID: 22048547
Hingusauvarchaladi ghrita; Clonus; Seizures; Convulsion; Pentylenetetrazol; Sneha Kalpana
19.  Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Caesalpinia decapetala  
BioImpacts : BI  2014;4(1):43-48.
Introduction: In many pathological conditions, pain, inflammation and fever are interdependent to each other. Due to the use of synthetic drugs, many unwanted effects usually appear. Various studies have been conducted on Caesalpinia decapetala (C. decapetala) to evaluate its effects in the treatment of various diseases but no sufficient scientific literature is available online to prove its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities.
Methods: The analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of 70% aqueous methanolic and n-hexane extracts of C. decapetala was evaluated using Swiss albino mice (20-30 g).
Results: The results showed that aqueous methanolic extract of C. decapetala at the dose of 100 mg/kg exhibited significant (p< 0.05) activities in various pain models including acetic acid-induced writhing (18.4 ± 0.53), formalin-induced licking (275 ± 4.18) and hot plate method (2.3 ± 0.0328); whereas,  n-hexane extract showed its effects in acetic acid-induced writhing (20 ± 0.31), formalin-induced licking (293 ± 1.20) and hot plate method (2.224 ± 0.029) compared to the effects observed in control group animals. Similarly, the aqueous methanolic extract of C. decapetala after 2 h of treatment exhibited more significant anti-inflammatory (0.66 ± 0.06) and anti-pyretic (38.81 ± 0.05) activities compared to the control group animals.
Conclusion: From the findings of our present study, we concluded that the aqueous methanolic extract of C. decapetala has stronger analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic effects than its n-hexane extract. Further studies are required to investigate the active constituents of C. decapetala that exhibit analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities.
PMCID: PMC4005283  PMID: 24790898
Extracts of Ceasalpinia decapetala; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Carrageenan-induced edema; Yeast-induced pyrexia; Formalin-induced analgesia
20.  Preventive Effects of Curcumin Against Drug- and Starvation-Induced Gastric Erosions in Rats 
Scientia Pharmaceutica  2013;81(2):549-558.
The present study was designed to investigate the gastroprotective, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of curcumin (Cur), the major constituent of turmeric. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used in this study as a standard drug for comparison. The analgesic activity was measured using the Hot-Plate Test. The antipyretic and antiulcer effects were assessed using yeast-induced pyrexia and gastric ulceration, respectively. Curcumin (100 mg/kg) injected intra-peritoneally 1 hr prior to the Hot-Plate Test showed significant analgesic activity expressed by both parameters: an increase in latency time and a reduction in paw licking as compared to the controls. In the animal model of pyrexia, curcumin (100 mg/kg injected intra-peritoneally) exhibited a significant reduction in the rectal temperature after 1 hr, 2 hrs, 4 hrs, and 5 hrs of treatment, indicating the antipyretic effect of curcumin. Rats with orally administered curcumin (200 mg/kg) did not show any lesions on the inner lining of the stomach after a 16 hr fast, indicating the gastroprotective effects of curcumin as compared to saline- and acetylsalicylic acid-administered rats. The significantly low ulcer index in curcumin-treated rats following starvation highlights the gastroprotective characteristics of curcumin.
PMCID: PMC3700082  PMID: 23833720
Curcumin; Antipyretic; Gastroprotective; Antinociceptive; Acetylsalicylic acid
21.  Effect of Lianshu preparation on lipopolysaccharide-induced diarrhea in rats 
AIM: To investigate the effect of Lianshu preparation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced diarrhea in rats.
METHODS: A diarrhea model was established in Sprague Dawley rats via injection of 1 mL of 30 mg/kg LPS. A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into normal group, LPS group, LPS + Lianshu group, LPS + berberine group (n = 10 in each group). Their intestinal mucosal barrier and frequency of diarrhea were observed. Levels of glucose, serum Na+, K+, Cl- and hematocrit, plasma nitrogen monoxide (NO), diamine oxidase (DAO), and D (-)-lactate were measured. The number of IgA+ plasma cells in small intestine was detected and SIgA levels in the intestinal fluid were measured. The antipyretic activity of Lianshu preparation in rats was evaluated using Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia (10 mL/kg of 20% aqueous suspension). Acetaminophen (250 mg/kg, intragastric administration, bid) was used as a standard drug for comparison. Temperature was recorded 1 h before and 6 h after Brewer’s yeast injection. Finally, small intestinal transmission in mice treated with Lianshu was detected after intraperitoneal injection of methyl prostigmin (2 mg/kg). Atropine (10 g/kg) was used as a control. The ink content in intestine was determined and the total length of intestine was measured.
RESULTS: The frequency of diarrhea was higher in LPS group than in LPS + Lianshu group and LPS + berberine group (36.70 ± 5.23 vs 28.50 ± 4.06 and 32.70 ± 9.30 respectively, P < 0.01), and lower in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS + berberine group (P = 0.03). The levels of Na+, glucose, Cl-, K+ were significantly lower in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS + berberine group (140.35 ± 3.19 mmol/L vs 131.99 ± 4.86 mmol/L, 8.49 ± 1.84 mmol/L vs 6.54 ± 2.30 mmol/L, 106.29 ± 4.41 mmol/L vs 102.5 ± 1.39 mmol/L, 5.08 ± 0.66 mmol/L vs 4.32 ± 0.62 mmol/L respectively, P < 0.05). The level of hematocrit was lower in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS + berberine group (0.50% ± 0.07% vs 0.59% ± 0.10% respectively, P < 0.05). The plasma levels of NO, DAO and D (-)-lactate were higher in LPS group than in normal group (79.74 ± 7.39 μmol/L vs 24.94 ± 3.38 μmol/L, 2.48 ± 0.42 μ/mL vs 0.82 ± 0.33 μ/mL, 5.63 ± 0.85 μg/mL vs 2.01 ± 0.32 μg/mL respectively, P < 0.01), and lower in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS + berberine group (48.59 ± 4.70 μmol/L vs 51.56 ± 8.38 μmol/L, 1.43 ± 0.53 μmol/mL vs 1.81 ± 0.42 μmol/mL, 4.00 ± 0.54 μg/mL vs 4.88 ± 0.77 μg/mL respectively, P < 0.05). The morphology of the intestinal mucosa showed destroyed villi in LPS group and atrophied intestinal mucosa in other groups. The pathological intestinal mucosal changes were less in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS group. The number of IgA+ plasma cells and amount of SIgA were higher in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS group (1.16 ± 0.19/μm2 vs 1.09 ± 0.28/μm2, P = 0.026; 0.59 ± 0.12 mg/L vs 0.15 ± 0.19 mg/L respectively, P = 0.000). Lianshu had counteractive effects on yeast-induced pyrexia and enterokinesia in rats.
CONCLUSION: Lianshu preparation has therapeutic effects on LPS-induced diarrhea and enterokinesia in rats.
PMCID: PMC2675093  PMID: 19399935
Lianshu preparation; Lipopolysaccharide; Diarrhea; Nitrogen monoxide; D-lactate
22.  OA01.40. A clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of leech therapy and panchatikta ghrita in the management of psoriasis) 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S40.
Modern medical science treats psoriasis with PUVA, corticosteroid, anti-mitotic drugs which gives serious side effects like liver and kindney failure etc. There is a need to discover safe and effective medicine without any side effects for Psoriasis and the role of Leech Therapy (Shodhan) and Panchatikta Ghrita (Shaman Karma) is evaluated in this study.
30 patients were included who matched the clinical signs and symptoms of psoriasis. These patients were randomised into three groups. Group A Only on leech therapy, Group B-Only on panchatikta ghrita and Group C On both leech therapy and panchatikta ghrita
Group A showed 45% improvement and group B showed 47% improvement, while group C reported 65% improvement.
It can be concluded that shodan(leech application) along with shaman (panchatikta ghrita) is effective in the management of psoriasis as it is safe, cost effective and free from any side effects.
PMCID: PMC3800919
23.  OA01.36. Management of diabetic retinopathy with doorvadya ghrita tarpana and internal administration of mahavasadi kwatha- a comparative study 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S36.
A comparative clinical study was conducted on the management of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) with Doorvadya Ghrita Tarpana and Mahavasadi kwatha internally. The main aim and objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Doorvadya ghrita Tarpana and Mahavasadi kwatha internally, when used individually and as an adjuvant.
The patients were randomly divided in 3 groups with 15 patients in each group. Group A: Tarpana with Doorvadya Ghrita for 3 sittings, 5 days in each sitting, with a gap of 11 days after each sitting, total 48 days duration. Group B: Mahavasakadi Kwatha Pana with 50ml dose every day in the morning, empty stomach, for 48 days. Group C: Both Doorvadya Ghrita Tarpana and Mahavasakadi kwatha pana, for 48 days.
All the three groups have shown statistically significant results. Group B and C have shown better response as compared to Group A. Moreover Group B has shown slightly better response as compared to Group C.
The study showed that microaneurysms, intra retinal haemorrhages, exudates are best managed by treatment with Group-B; where as blurred vision responded better to combine treatment of Group-C. Other parameters like neovascularization did not produce any significant result in any of the groups. Hence Ayurvedic management definitely prevents further progression of the Diabetic Retinopathy and its complications.
PMCID: PMC3800914
24.  Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Guduchi Satva in experimental animals 
Ayu  2013;34(4):417-420.
Over the centuries, herbs have served as a major source of medicines for prevention and treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. These herbs are getting more importance around the globe and many studies have provided safety and efficacy of such herbal drugs in different condition. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers) is reported as highly potent Pramehahara (anti-diabetic) herb in Ayurveda and Guduchi Satva (GS) is popularly used to treat Paittika type of Prameha. In the present study, GS prepared from the stem of T. cordifolia was evaluated for hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in 18 h fasted mice. GS was suspended in distilled water and administered to animals at the dose of 130 mg/kg that showed the marginal reduction in blood sugar level (BSL) at all the time intervals in normoglycemic mice. In anti-hyperglycemic activity, administration of GS prior to glucose over load failed to attenuate BSL at all-time interval in comparison to glucose control group. The study concludes that mild hypoglycemic insignificant anti-hyperglycemic activities of GS.
PMCID: PMC3968707  PMID: 24695802
Guduchi Satva; anti-hyperglycemic; hypoglycemic
25.  Pharmacognostical and analytical study of Tulsi-Amla-Yasti Ghrita 
Ayu  2012;33(2):274-278.
Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita is an Ayurvedic formulation, which is beneficial in the management of the side effects of Head and Neck Malignancies induced by Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy. A pharmacognostical study involving both the macroscopic and powder microscopy of raw drugs of Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita and a physicochemical analysis of the finished product were carried out, to evaluate the quality of the formulation. The specific gravity of the formulation was 0.9130 and pH was 3.5. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) were carried out after organizing the appropriate solvent system, in which five spots were distinguished in TLC and nine spots in HPTLC. Most of the Rf values for the spots observed were identical. The observations could be considered to be the reference standards in future studies.
PMCID: PMC3611632  PMID: 23559803
Chemotherapy; high performance thin layer chromatography; radiotherapy; Tulasi Amla Yashti Ghrita

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