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1.  Role of diet and lifestyle in the management of Madhumeha (Diabetes Mellitus) 
Ayu  2013;34(2):167-173.
From ancient to modern times, the perspective to visualize the management of Madhumeha (DM) has shifted from holistic to drug oriented. Therefore, until a few years ago, the revival of the holistic approach, the Ayurvedic diet, and lifestyle were not being much focused. This research work was planned to evaluate the extra effects of Ayurvedic Ahara and Vihara in the management of Madhumeha and to project them socially. A total of 30 patients were selected and divided into two groups. Group A was treated with Ayurvedic Ahara and Vihara with Varadi Kwatha and group B was treated with only Varadi Kwatha for 8 weeks. The study showed highly significant results in most of the parameters in both the groups. However, further trials with increased number of patients are needed to support the current observations.
PMCID: PMC3821245  PMID: 24250125
Ahara; Diabetes Mellitus; diet; lifestyle; Madhumeha; Varadi Kwatha; Vihara
2.  Observations on Vamana procedure in healthy volunteers 
Ayu  2011;32(1):40-45.
Vamana Karma is one of the five Pradhana Karmas of Panchakarma which is successfully used in treating Kaphaj disorders. Panchakarma is also indicated in healthy states. (C.Su. 16/13-16) for Shodhana. Textual references are available in Ayurvedic classics, but the procedure needs to be validated in the modern times when Ahara Shakti, Bala and Agni of the individuals have decreased considerably. So the effect of procedure was observed in 30 healthy volunteers of age group 18 to 60 years. Lakshanik, Vaigiki, Maniki and Antiki Shuddhi were observed and vomitus was analyzed macroscopically, microscopically and chemically.
PMCID: PMC3215415  PMID: 22131756
Agni; Ahara Shakti; Bala; Kaphaj disorders; Panchakarma; Shodhana; Vamana Karma
3.  Pharmaceutical preparation of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna: A herbal remedy for puerperal women 
In the last few decades, there has been exponential growth in the field of herbal remedies. Pharmacopoeial preparations like avleha or paka (semi-solid), swarasa (expressed juice), kalka (mass), him (cold infusion) and phanta (hot infusion), kwatha (decoction) and churna (powder) form the backbone of Ayurvedic formulations. Newer guidelines for standardization, manufacture, and quality control, and scientifically rigorous research will be necessary for traditional treatments. This traditional knowledge can serve as powerful search engine that will greatly facilitate drug discovery.
The aim of the present study is to standardize Saubhagya Shunthi Paka in churna (powder) form. The powder form makes this traditional drug more stable for long-term storage and hence, easier to preserve.
Materials and Methods:
Saubhagya Shunthi Paka is an ayurvedic formulation containing Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis) as one of its chief ingredients. The basic preparation of this drug is a semisolid. We checked the microbial load and nutrient values (using International Standard IS and Association of Official Analytical chemists AOAC methods)
The powdered form of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna yielded a weight loss of approximately 17.64% of the total weight of ingredients. The total energy of Churna (calculated based on nutrient content) was found higher over Paka.
Saubhagya Shunthi Churna may be a good therapeutic and dietary medicine for Indian women, which may be easily prepared at home.
PMCID: PMC2876929  PMID: 20532094
Ayurveda; Churna (powder); saubhagya shunthi paka; paka (semi-solid); puerperium
4.  Concept of Ahara in relation to Matra, Desha, Kala and their effect on Health 
Ayu  2010;31(1):101-105.
For evaluation of the effect of Ahara on Health in relation to Matra, Desha and Kala, an interview based survey study was carried out by simple randomized selection of healthy and unhealthy individuals. It was found that consideraton of Matra, Desha and Kala in aspect of Ahara taking were found beneficial for health.
PMCID: PMC3215310  PMID: 22131693
Ahara; Matra; Desha; Kala; Health
5.  Zingiber Officinale Alters 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rat Brain 
Cell Journal (Yakhteh)  2012;14(3):177-184.
The spice Zingiber officinale or ginger possesses antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this traditional herbal medicine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induced neurotoxicity have not yet been studied. The present study considers the effects of Zingiber officinale on MDMA-induced spatial memory impairment and apoptosis in the hippocampus of male rats.
Materials and Methods:
In this experimental study, 21 adult male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g) were classified into three groups (control, MDMA, and MDMA plus ginger). The groups were intraperitoneally administered 10 mg/kg MDMA, 10 mg/kg MDMA plus 100 mg/kg ginger extract, or 1 cc/kg normal saline as the control solution for one week (n=7 per group). Learning memory was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) after the last administration. Finally, the brains were removed to study the cell number in the cornu ammonis (CA1) hippocampus by light microscope, Bcl-2 by immunoblotting, and Bax expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data was analyzed using SPSS 16 software and a one-way ANOVA test.
Escape latency and traveled distances decreased significantly in the MDMA plus ginger group relative to the MDMA group (p<0.001). Cell number increased in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax were observed in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group (p<0.05).
Our findings suggest that ginger consumption may lead to an improvement of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC3584433  PMID: 23508562
Apoptosis; Ginger; Spatial Memory; MDMA; Hippocampus; Bcl-2 Family
6.  Maternal Health, Supraja (Eugenics) and Ayurveda 
Ancient Science of Life  2008;28(1):44-48.
Mother and child care has been described in great detail in Ayurveda. All basic principles of Ayurveda need to be applied to deal with the problems of maternal and foetal mortality. Rules of Ahara (diet), Vihara (lifestyle), Sadavrutta (moral conduct), along with varied therapies are used in tackling the various problems. There is need to take an in depth view at causes. Major changes in lifestyle may be required. Uses of various Ayurvedic formulations like various ghrtas and tailas (ghees and oils) have given wonderful results. Ayurveda aims at producing “Supraja” or healthy progeny. Ayurveda provides answers to some of the most worrying problems facing doctors today.
PMCID: PMC3336340  PMID: 22557298
7.  Prakriti-based medicine: A step towards personalized medicine 
Ayu  2011;32(2):141-146.
The concept of personalized medicine has been around for as long as people have been practicing medicine. From Charaka to Hippocrates, all have practiced the personalized approach for treating a disease. In the 21st century, personalized medicine is all about DNA. Whereas the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and epigenetic factors influence drug response and form the basis of personalized medicine, the tridosha theory forms the basis of Prakriti-based medicine. It is well established by now that western allopathic medicine is excellent in handling acute medical crises, whereas Ayurveda has successfully demonstrated an ability to manage chronic disorders that Western medicine has been unable to cure. With effective integration of ‘omics’ Prakriti-based medicine can play a vital role in this changing scenario of global health wisdom as Ayurveda offers its modalities by way of ahara (diet), vihara (lifestyle), and aushadhi (medication), which are the three pillars of prakriti-based medicine making it a holistic science. Prakriti-based medicine and other traditional medicine systems have the potential to offer remedies to the challenging health issues like adverse drug reactions, drug withdrawals, and economic disparities among few. An integrative global approach could do wonders to health sciences benefiting a broad spectrum of patients.
PMCID: PMC3296331  PMID: 22408293
Ayurgenomics; epigenetics; pharmacogenomics; personalized medicine; pharmacogenetics; single nucleotide polymorphism
8.  Comparative study on the hepatoprotection to heavy metals of Zingiber officinale 
Pharmacognosy Research  2012;4(4):208-213.
Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is a herb used for culinary and therapeutic purposes due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials.
We examined its protective ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver.
Materials & Methods:
Ground Zingiber officinale (7%, w/w of feed) was administered to rats either at the same time with the exposure ofheavy metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. Animals were exposed to either of Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) in drinking water. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS.
Weight losses induced by these metals were not reversed by Zingiber officinale administration. There was a significant (P<0.01) increase in protection to Pb (97%) and Cd (63%) accumulation when compared to Hg (32%) at week 2. The protective ability was significantly (P<0.01) decreased at week 4 when compared to week 2 for Cd and Pb but not to Hg in groups 3 (50%) and 4 (52%). At week 6, hepatoprotection to Hg (44%) and Cd (85%) was significantly (P<0.01) different but not to Pb which was only significant (P<0.05) in week 2 of treatment for all groups.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Zingiber officinale affected the bioavailability, elimination and uptake of these metals in a time-dependent way with highest beneficial reducing effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the liver.
PMCID: PMC3510873  PMID: 23225964
Accumulation; cadmium; lead; liver; mercury; protection; Zingiber officinale
9.  Role of Nasya and Matra Basti with Narayana Taila on anovulatory factor 
Ayu  2013;34(1):81-85.
Description of Vandhyatva is available in most of the Ayurvedic classics, including Nidana (diagnosis), Samprapti (etiopathogenesis), Lakshana (symptomatology), Bheda (types) and Chikitsa (treatment). In current study, efforts have been made to study the effect of Nasya and Matra Basti on anovulation (Beeja Dushti). Ovulation is under the control of Vata. Narayana Taila is attributed for its effect in Vandhyatva. 24 patients of female infertility having anovulatory factor, being diagnosed by Trans-Vaginal Sonography (TVS) for 2 consecutive cycles were divided in two groups. Patients in Group A (n = 12) administered the drug through Nasya and in Group B (n = 12) through Matra Basti. Ovulation occurred 36.36% of patients in group A and 66.16% of patients group B. Matra Basti showed better results than Nasya group on anovulation.
PMCID: PMC3764886  PMID: 24049410
Anovulation; infertility; Matra Basti; Narayana Taila; Nasya; Vandhyatva
10.  Gokshuradi Vati and Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti in the management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 
Ayu  2012;33(4):547-551.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a burning senile problem of elderly men and no definitive conservative cure is available. The present available surgical and minimal invasive methods have their own limitations. Hence, to find out a suitable Ayurvedic approach, an effort has been made towards the management of BPH, In this study, 32 selected patients of Mootraghata at par to BPH were divided into three groups randomly and treated accordingly. In group A, Gokshuradi compound (GC) Vati (GV) 500 mg was given three times a day with luke-warm water after food; while in group B, Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita (DGG) as Matra Basti (MB) of 60 ml, once in a day, just after lunch and combined therapy of both formulations in group C was administered. Out of 32 patients, total 30 patients (10 in each group) were completed the treatment course of 21 days. In results, 54.09% improvement was seen in group C, 45.67% in group A and 47.99% in group B. The size of prostate gland was found reduced highly significant in group C. Hence, it is concluded that combined therapy of GV and DGG MB is beneficial without developing any adverse drug reactions and can be prescribed safely for Mootraghata (BPH).
PMCID: PMC3665207  PMID: 23723674
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita; Gokshuradi Vati; Matra Basti; Mootraghata
11.  A Randomized Controlled Exploratory Evaluation of Standardized Ayurvedic Formulations in Symptomatic Osteoarthritis Knees: A Government of India NMITLI Project 
The multidisciplinary “New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative” Arthritis Project was undertaken to validate Ayurvedic medicines. Herbal formulations in popular use were selected by expert consensus and standardized using modern tools. Our clinical strategy evolved from simple exploratory evaluations to better powered statistically designed drug trials. The results of the first drug trial are presented here. Five oral formulations (coded A, B, C, D and E), with a common base of Zingiber officinale and Tinospora cordifolia with a maximum of four plant extracts, were evaluated; with placebo and glucosamine as controls. 245 patients suffering from symptomatic OA knees were randomized into seven arms (35 patients per arm) of a double blind, parallel efficacy, multicentric trial of sixteen weeks duration. The groups matched well at baseline. There were no differences for patient withdrawals (17.5%) or adverse events (AE) of mild nature. Intention-to-treat efficacy analysis, demonstrated no significant differences (P < .05) for pain (weight bearing) and WOMAC questionnaire (knee function); placebo response was high. Based on better pain relief, significant (P < .05) least analgesic consumption and improved knee status, “C” formulation was selected for further development. Controlled exploratory drug trials with multiple treatment arms may be used to economically evaluate several candidate standardized formulations.
PMCID: PMC2964493  PMID: 20981160
12.  A clinical study of Haritaki and Saindhava Lavana in Kaphaja Kasa with special reference to Samyoga Guna 
Ayu  2011;32(3):357-360.
In clinical practice, Guna which are to be with Bhisak are mainly the Paradi Gunas which can also be called as Miscellaneous Gunas. As rightly quoted by Acarya Caraka, for getting success in the treatment Paradi Gunas are the best. The Sutra quotes “Sidhyupaya Cikitsayam” which means that Cikitsa i. e. Dhatusamya will be done mainly with the help of Paradi Gunas. Thus in this study an attempt was made to know the comparative effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana alone and Samyukta effect in Kaphaja Kasa. Three groups were made for proper evaluation of the therapy. In Group-A Haritaki Tablet 2 gm/ twice a day (500 mg tablet × 4), In Group-B Saindava Lavana Curna 2 gm/ twice a day and in Group-C Haritaki + Saindhava lavana Tablet 4 gm/twice a day (500 mg tablet × 8) was given. Results were assessed after 7 days with the help of a specially prepared proforma. The hematological, Urine and Stool investigations were carried out. In subjective and objective criterias, significant results were found in Group-C as compared to Group-A and Group-B. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the combined (Samyoga) effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana is much efficient than the single drug therapy.
PMCID: PMC3326882  PMID: 22736910
Guna; Haritaki; Paradi Guna; Saindhava lavana; Samyoga
13.  Preventive and Curative Effects of Ginger Extract Against Histopathologic Changes of Gentamicin-Induced Tubular Toxicity in Rats 
Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside, however, renal toxicity has limited its usage. This study was designed to evaluate the curative and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against gentamicin tubular toxicity in rats. The phenolic and flavonoid components and antioxidant activity of ginger were also evaluated.
In a preclinical study, 50 male Wistar rats were designated into 5 groups of 10 and treated as follows: Group I: vehicle. Group II: 200 mg/kg/d of ginger for 3 days then, GM (80 mg/kg) for 7 days. Group III: 200 mg/kg ginger orally for 3 days, then ginger plus GM for 7 days. Group IV: GM for 7 days. Group V: GM for 10 days. Group VI: GM for 7 days, then 200 mg/kg ginger orally for 10 days. At the end of the study, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were histologically evaluated.
Ginger could prevent degeneration of the renal cells and reduce the severity of tubular damage caused by gentamicin. However, it could not regenerate the GM degeneration.
The results indicate that ginger is effective as a prophylaxis agent, but has not curative effect.
PMCID: PMC3634170  PMID: 23626888
Gentamicin; ginger; nephrotoxicity; tubular damage; zingiber officinale
14.  Role of Sattvavajaya Chikitsa (Trance therapy) in the management of Manasa-Dosha Ajeerna  
Ayu  2012;33(1):78-84.
In Ayurveda, three modes of healing are narrated, viz. Daiva-Vyapashraya, Yukti-Vyapashraya, and Sattvavajaya Chikitsa. In the present study, an effort has been made to assess the effect of Sattvavajaya Chikitsa on both Shareera and Manasa Doshas. Similarly, the impact of Yukti-Vyapashraya Chikitsa on both kinds of Doshas has been observed. The psychosomatic disease selected for the study was Manasa-Dosha Ajeerna. The standard drug taken for Ajeerna was Shunthi, while for Sattvavajaya “Trance/Clinical Hypnosis” was applied on the patients. The study was carried out on 27 patients suffering from Ajeerna and having a significant stress score. Patients were divided into two groups with simple random sampling method: Group S was treated with Shunthi tablet, while in group PS, placebo (rice powder tablet) along with Sattvavajaya Chikitsa was provided to the patients. Duration of the treatment was 10 days. Classical signs and symptoms of Ajeerna were studied before and after treatment. Amongst the registered patients, 25 patients completed the course of treatment while 2 dropped out. Group S had shown significant improvement in Vataja and Kaphaja symptoms, while group PS showed significant effect on Pittaja symptoms. In Tamasika Manobhavas causing Ajeerna, group PS had shown significant improvement, while group S showed significant and highly significant effect on Rajasika and Tamasika Bhavas, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3456870  PMID: 23049189
Dosha; Manasa-Dosha Ajeeerna; Sattvavajaya
15.  A Clinical study of Matra Vasti and an ayurvedic indigenous compound drug in the management of Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis) 
Ayu  2010;31(2):210-217.
Sandhigatavata is described under vatavyadhi in all ayurvedic classical texts. Osteoarthritis is the most common articular disorder which begins asymptomatically in the second and third decades and is extremely common by age 70. Here Matra Vasti (therapeutic enema) was given with Bala taila as Vasti is the best treatment for vatavyadhies. It has vatashamaka and rasayana properties. Indigenous compound drug containing Guggulu, Shallaki, Yastimadhu, Pippali, Guduchi, Nirgundi, Kupilu and Godanti was given in one group along with Matra Vasti. In this study, 33 patients of Sandhigatavata completed the treatment. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixteen patients in Group-A (sarvanga Abhyanga-swedana + matravasti) and 17 patients in Group-B (sarvanga Abhyanga–swedana+ matravasti + indigenous compound drug). The results of the study indicate that the patients of both the groups obtained highly significant relief in almost all the signs and symptoms of Sandhigatavata.
PMCID: PMC3215366  PMID: 22131712
Abhyanga; indigenous compound drug; Matra Vasti; osteoarthritis; Sandhigatavata; swedana; vatavyadhi; therapeutic enema.
16.  Stereological study of the effect of ginger's alcoholic extract on the testis in busulfan-induced infertility in rats 
Background: In traditional medicine zingiber officinale used to regulate female menstural cycle and treat male infertility. Recent studies have suggested the possible role of ginger extract in improving the testicular damage of busulfan.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zingiber officinale on the sperm parameters, testosterone level and the volume of the testes and seminiferous tubules by stereological methods.
Materials and Methods: Fifty rats were divided into four groups. All the rats were given a single intraperitoneally injection of 5mg/kg busulfan solution. The first group was kept as busulfan control, while the other groups were orally administrated ginger extract in graded doses of 50, 100 and 150mg/kg b.wt, for 48 consecutive days. At the end, all animals were anesthetized and their testes and vas deference were removed, fixed, embedded, and stained. The volume of testes and seminiferous tubules were estimated by cavalieri methods.
Results: The result showed, that zingiber officinale increased the volumes of seminiferous tubule in 100mg/kg treated group compared to control group. Sperm count (706×105 and 682×105) and the level of testosterone (50.90 ng/mL and 54.10 ng/mL) enhanced in 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg treated groups compared to control group (p=0.00).
Conclusion: It seems that zingiber officinale stimulate male reproductive system in induce busulfan infertility.
PMCID: PMC3941314  PMID: 24639780
Busulfan; Cavalieri method; Ginger extract
17.  Protective Effect of Free and Bound Polyphenol Extracts from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on the Hepatic Antioxidant and Some Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats 
This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of polyphenols from Zingiber officinale on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by assessing liver antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes and liver function indices. Initial oral glucose tolerance test was conducted using 125 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight of both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale. 28 day daily oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight of free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale to streptozotocin-induced (50 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose compared to control groups. There was significant increase (P < 0.05) in the antioxidant enzymes activities in the animals treated with both polyphenols. Similarly, the polyphenols normalised the activities of some carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (hexokinase and phosphofructokinase) in the liver of the rats treated with it and significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the activities of liver function enzymes. The results from the present study have shown that both free and bound polyphenols from Z. officinale especially the free polyphenol could ameliorate liver disorders caused by diabetes mellitus in rats. This further validates the use of this species as medicinal herb and spice by the larger population of Nigerians.
PMCID: PMC3866790  PMID: 24367390
18.  Barriers to uptake of services for coronary heart disease: qualitative study 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2001;323(7306):214.
To identify factors within the South Yorkshire coalfields that influence use of health services by people with angina.
Qualitative study using semistructured individual and group interviews.
General practice and community settings in Barnsley and Rotherham health authorities.
14 patients with stable angina and nine primary care staff had individual interviews plus five community groups and one group of general practitioners.
Main outcome measures
Barriers to accessing health services.
A complex web of factors was identified that prevented, delayed, or facilitated referral to secondary care. Delay, denial, and self management by patients meant that the full extent of symptoms often remained hidden from general practitioners, resulting in a delayed or missed referral. Barriers identified fell into six categories: structural, personal, social and cultural, past experience and expectations, diagnostic confusion, and knowledge and awareness.
Many of the factors influencing referral operate before general practitioners become involved. Community development could be one way of tackling inequalities and promoting sustainable change. Structural changes are needed to improve access and increase the acceptability of general practice services. Primary care staff should be educated to detect underreporting of symptoms and promote appropriate referral.
What is already known on this topicAn inverse correlation has been shown between deprivation and cardiac revascularisationFear of hospitals, denial of ill health, and low expectations may prevent people with angina accessing health servicesWhat this study addsFear, denial, and low expectations were important barriers to accessing health services, reinforcing earlier findingsOther factors may be specific to the study population—for example, coping, independence, and attributing symptoms to industrially related lung diseaseMany of the barriers operate before general practitioners are involved, making it difficult to identify solutions
PMCID: PMC35276  PMID: 11473916
19.  In Vivo Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes for Its Protective Effect against Liver Cirrhosis 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:918460.
Zingiber officinale is a traditional medicine against various disorders including liver diseases.The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Z. officinale (ERZO) against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Five groups of male Sprague Dawley have been used. In group 1 rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline while groups 2–5 received thioacetamide (TAA, 200 mg/kg; i.p.) for induction of liver cirrhosis, thrice weekly for eight weeks. Group 3 received 50 mg/kg of silymarin. The rats in groups 4 and 5 received 250 and 500 mg/kg of ERZO (dissolved in 10% Tween), respectively. Hepatic damage was assessed grossly and microscopically for all of the groups. Results confirmed the induction of liver cirrhosis in group 2 whilst administration of silymarin or ERZO significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity. These groups decreased fibrosis of the liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry assessment against proliferating cell nuclear antigen did not show remarkable proliferation in the ERZO-treated rats when compared with group 2. Moreover, factions of the ERZO extract were tested on Hep-G2 cells and showed antiproliferative activity (IC50 38–60 μg/mL). This study showed hepatoprotective effect of ERZO.
PMCID: PMC3874366  PMID: 24396831
20.  A 35-day gavage safety assessment of ginger in rats 
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is one of the most commonly used spices around the world and a traditional medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Unani-Tibb medicines for several thousand years. However, there was still lack of systemic safety evaluation. We conducted a 35-day toxicity study on ginger in rats. Both male and female rats were daily treated with ginger powder at the dosages of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight by a gavage method for 35 days. The results demonstrated that this chronic administration of ginger was not associated with any mortalities and abnormalities in general conditions, behavior, growth, and food and water consumption. Except for dose-related decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in males, ginger treatment induced similar hematological and blood biochemical parameters to those of controlled animals. In general, ginger treatment caused no overt organ abnormality. Only at a very high dose (2000 mg/kg), ginger led to slightly reduced absolute and relative weights of testes (by 14.4% and 11.5%, respectively). This study provides a new understanding of the toxicological properties of ginger.
PMCID: PMC2785542  PMID: 19303040
Ginger; Safety; Toxicity; Rat
21.  Comparative Effects of Two Gingerol-Containing Zingiber officinale Extracts on Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis1 
Journal of natural products  2009;72(3):403-407.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplements are being promoted for arthritis treatment in western societies based on ginger’s traditional use as an anti-inflammatory in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. However, scientific evidence of ginger’s antiarthritic effects is sparse, and its bioactive joint-protective components have not been identified. Therefore, the ability of a well-characterized crude ginger extract to inhibit joint swelling in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis, was compared to that of a fraction containing only gingerols and their derivatives. Both extracts were efficacious in preventing joint inflammation. However, the crude dichloromethane extract, which also contained essential oils and more polar compounds, was more efficacious (when normalized to gingerol content) in preventing both joint inflammation and destruction. In conclusion, these data document a very significant joint-protective effect of these ginger samples, and suggest that non-gingerol components are bioactive and can enhance the antiarthritic effects of the more widely studied gingerols.
PMCID: PMC2837120  PMID: 19216559
22.  Dichlorvos and lindane induced oxidative stress in rat brain: Protective effects of ginger 
Pharmacognosy Research  2012;4(1):27-32.
Dichlorvos and lindane pesticide causes toxicity in animals including humans. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a culinary medicine in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, possessing a number of pharmacological properties.
This study was designed to assess ameliorating effects of ginger juice in dichlorvos and lindane induced neurotoxicity in wistar rats.
Materials and Methods:
Dichlorvos (8.8 mg/kg bw) and lindane (8.8 mg/kg bw) were orally administered alone as well as in combination to adult male and female wistar rats for 14 days followed by the post-treatment of ginger juice (100 mg/kg bw) for 14 days. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), quinine reductase (QR), and protein level were measured to evaluate the toxicity of these pesticides in brain.
Dichlorvos and lindane administration alone and in combination increased LPO and decreased the GSH level, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity, and protein. Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is believed to be involved in the toxicities induced by these pesticides. Post-treatment of ginger juice decreased LPO and increased the level of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity and protein in the brain of rats.
The results indicated that dichlorovos and lindane induced tissue damage was ameliorated by ginger juice.
PMCID: PMC3250036  PMID: 22224058
Dichlorvos; lindane; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; Zingiber officinale
23.  Sedative Hypnotic Activity of Manahshila (Realgar) -An Experimental Evaluation 
Ancient Science of Life  2011;30(3):78-83.
Manahshila (Realgar) is one of the three major Arsenicals used in Ayurvedic therapeutics since ages. It is indicated in skin, respiratory, ophthalmic and psychological disorders. It is mentioned to be the best among Rasayanas and a good aphrodisiac. As Manahshila is indicated in Unmada (Psychological disorder); wide use of Manahshila in the formulations mentioned for psychological disorders; some of those formulations are used in treatment of sleeplessness and Ardraka (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) which is a commonly used Shodhana reagent of Manahshila is reported to be sedative, the potential sedative hypnotic activity is inferred and an experimental study was carried out to evaluate the sedative hypnotic activity of Manahshila. Effect of Ardraka Shodhita Manahshila (ASM) on the spontaneous motor activity of albino rats in actophotometer and on diazepam induced sleeping time was evaluated. There was a statistically significant reduction in the spontaneous motor activity (P<0.001) in the ASM treated Manahshila and there was early onset and hypnotic potentiation in the diazepam induced sleep in rats (P<0.01).
PMCID: PMC3336258  PMID: 22557432
Sedative hypnotic; Spontaneous Motor Activity; Actophotometer; Sleeping Time Test; Psychological Disorders
24.  PA01.25. Clinical evaluation of chitrakadi churna and kshar basti in the management of amavata with special reference to rheumatoid arthritis 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S75.
The disease Amavata can be presented as very similar to Rheumatoid Arthritis. Rheumatoid Arthritis is chronic in nature and affects mostly middle aged people. For this disease there is no satisfactory medicine is available till date. But in Ayurveda there are many drugs described for Amavata which are cost effective and easily available with no side effects. The present clinical study evaluated the effect of Chitrakadi Churna and Kshar Basti in the management of Amavata.
30 clinically diagnosed patient of Amavata were registered and completed the trial. In this 15 patients (Group A) administered Chitrakadi Churna 4gm twice daily with lukewarm water after meal. Another 15 patients (Group B) administered Chitrakadi Churna 4gm twice daily with lukewarm water after meal and Kshar Basti as per Kalbasti krama i.e 16days followed by local Snehan Swedan.
Results of this trial were encouraging as there is improvement in each symptom of patient like pain, stiffness, swelling, and tenderness. Group A in which only Chitrakadi Churna was administered there was no significant improvement seen statistically. But Group B in which Chitrakadi Churna as well as Kshar Basti was administered highly significant improvement seen statistically. Details of the Statistical test and other important will be discussed at the time of paper presentation.
From present clinical trial it is concluded that this therapy is very useful for pain, swelling, tenderness and stiffness, which were chief complaint of the patient. Chronicity more than 3 years did not show marked improvement. And also this drug is supposed to be very good combination of Vedanashamaka, Shothaghna, Amapachaka Dravyas. No untoward effects were seen except mild loss of weight.
PMCID: PMC3800956
25.  Chemopreventive Efficacy of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) in Ethionine Induced Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis 
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosco) is widely used in foods as a spice all around the world. It has been reported to have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We investigated the effect of ginger in ethionine induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: group 1 and 2 served as controls and they received normal rat chow and olive oil respectively. Group 3 was fed with ginger oleoresin dissolved in olive oil at 100 mg/kg body wt. Group 4 was fed with choline deficient diet and 0.1% ethionine in drinking water (CDE diet), and group 5 received ginger with CDE diet. Blood samples were taken from the orbital sinus at 0 and 8 weeks of experiment for the determination of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde (MDA). Rats were also killed at 8 weeks for the observation of liver tumor formation. CDE diet induced the formation of liver nodules in rats and increased SOD activity. However, it had no effect on catalase, GPx and MDA levels when compared to both controls at 8 weeks of experiment. When CDE rats were treated with ginger, the formation of liver tumour, SOD activity and MDA level reduced, catalase activity was increased but no change was observed for GPx activity when compared to CDE group. In conclusion, ginger supplementation suppressed liver carcinogenesis by scavenging the free radical formation, and by reducing lipid peroxidation.
PMCID: PMC2816532  PMID: 20162046
Choline deficient diet; Ethionine; Liver cancer; Ginger; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation

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