Vamana Karma is one of the five Pradhana Karmas of Panchakarma which is successfully used in treating Kaphaj disorders. Panchakarma is also indicated in healthy states. (C.Su. 16/13-16) for Shodhana. Textual references are available in Ayurvedic classics, but the procedure needs to be validated in the modern times when Ahara Shakti, Bala and Agni of the individuals have decreased considerably. So the effect of procedure was observed in 30 healthy volunteers of age group 18 to 60 years. Lakshanik, Vaigiki, Maniki and Antiki Shuddhi were observed and vomitus was analyzed macroscopically, microscopically and chemically.
Agni; Ahara Shakti; Bala; Kaphaj disorders; Panchakarma; Shodhana; Vamana Karma
In the last few decades, there has been exponential growth in the field of herbal remedies. Pharmacopoeial preparations like avleha or paka (semi-solid), swarasa (expressed juice), kalka (mass), him (cold infusion) and phanta (hot infusion), kwatha (decoction) and churna (powder) form the backbone of Ayurvedic formulations. Newer guidelines for standardization, manufacture, and quality control, and scientifically rigorous research will be necessary for traditional treatments. This traditional knowledge can serve as powerful search engine that will greatly facilitate drug discovery.
The aim of the present study is to standardize Saubhagya Shunthi Paka in churna (powder) form. The powder form makes this traditional drug more stable for long-term storage and hence, easier to preserve.
Materials and Methods:
Saubhagya Shunthi Paka is an ayurvedic formulation containing Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis) as one of its chief ingredients. The basic preparation of this drug is a semisolid. We checked the microbial load and nutrient values (using International Standard IS and Association of Official Analytical chemists AOAC methods)
The powdered form of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna yielded a weight loss of approximately 17.64% of the total weight of ingredients. The total energy of Churna (calculated based on nutrient content) was found higher over Paka.
Saubhagya Shunthi Churna may be a good therapeutic and dietary medicine for Indian women, which may be easily prepared at home.
Ayurveda; Churna (powder); saubhagya shunthi paka; paka (semi-solid); puerperium
For evaluation of the effect of Ahara on Health in relation to Matra, Desha and Kala, an interview based survey study was carried out by simple randomized selection of healthy and unhealthy individuals. It was found that consideraton of Matra, Desha and Kala in aspect of Ahara taking were found beneficial for health.
Ahara; Matra; Desha; Kala; Health
The spice Zingiber officinale or ginger possesses antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this traditional herbal medicine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induced neurotoxicity have not yet been studied. The present study considers the effects of Zingiber officinale on MDMA-induced spatial memory impairment and apoptosis in the hippocampus of male rats.
Materials and Methods:
In this experimental study, 21 adult male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g) were classified into three groups (control, MDMA, and MDMA plus ginger). The groups were intraperitoneally administered 10 mg/kg MDMA, 10 mg/kg MDMA plus 100 mg/kg ginger extract, or 1 cc/kg normal saline as the control solution for one week (n=7 per group). Learning memory was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) after the last administration. Finally, the brains were removed to study the cell number in the cornu ammonis (CA1) hippocampus by light microscope, Bcl-2 by immunoblotting, and Bax expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data was analyzed using SPSS 16 software and a one-way ANOVA test.
Escape latency and traveled distances decreased significantly in the MDMA plus ginger group relative to the MDMA group (p<0.001). Cell number increased in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax were observed in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group (p<0.05).
Our findings suggest that ginger consumption may lead to an improvement of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.
Apoptosis; Ginger; Spatial Memory; MDMA; Hippocampus; Bcl-2 Family
Mother and child care has been described in great detail in Ayurveda. All basic principles of Ayurveda need to be applied to deal with the problems of maternal and foetal mortality. Rules of Ahara (diet), Vihara (lifestyle), Sadavrutta (moral conduct), along with varied therapies are used in tackling the various problems. There is need to take an in depth view at causes. Major changes in lifestyle may be required. Uses of various Ayurvedic formulations like various ghrtas and tailas (ghees and oils) have given wonderful results. Ayurveda aims at producing “Supraja” or healthy progeny. Ayurveda provides answers to some of the most worrying problems facing doctors today.
The concept of personalized medicine has been around for as long as people have been practicing medicine. From Charaka to Hippocrates, all have practiced the personalized approach for treating a disease. In the 21st century, personalized medicine is all about DNA. Whereas the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and epigenetic factors influence drug response and form the basis of personalized medicine, the tridosha theory forms the basis of Prakriti-based medicine. It is well established by now that western allopathic medicine is excellent in handling acute medical crises, whereas Ayurveda has successfully demonstrated an ability to manage chronic disorders that Western medicine has been unable to cure. With effective integration of ‘omics’ Prakriti-based medicine can play a vital role in this changing scenario of global health wisdom as Ayurveda offers its modalities by way of ahara (diet), vihara (lifestyle), and aushadhi (medication), which are the three pillars of prakriti-based medicine making it a holistic science. Prakriti-based medicine and other traditional medicine systems have the potential to offer remedies to the challenging health issues like adverse drug reactions, drug withdrawals, and economic disparities among few. An integrative global approach could do wonders to health sciences benefiting a broad spectrum of patients.
Ayurgenomics; epigenetics; pharmacogenomics; personalized medicine; pharmacogenetics; single nucleotide polymorphism
Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is a herb used for culinary and therapeutic purposes due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials.
We examined its protective ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver.
Materials & Methods:
Ground Zingiber officinale (7%, w/w of feed) was administered to rats either at the same time with the exposure ofheavy metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. Animals were exposed to either of Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) in drinking water. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS.
Weight losses induced by these metals were not reversed by Zingiber officinale administration. There was a significant (P<0.01) increase in protection to Pb (97%) and Cd (63%) accumulation when compared to Hg (32%) at week 2. The protective ability was significantly (P<0.01) decreased at week 4 when compared to week 2 for Cd and Pb but not to Hg in groups 3 (50%) and 4 (52%). At week 6, hepatoprotection to Hg (44%) and Cd (85%) was significantly (P<0.01) different but not to Pb which was only significant (P<0.05) in week 2 of treatment for all groups.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Zingiber officinale affected the bioavailability, elimination and uptake of these metals in a time-dependent way with highest beneficial reducing effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the liver.
Accumulation; cadmium; lead; liver; mercury; protection; Zingiber officinale
The multidisciplinary “New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative” Arthritis Project was undertaken to validate Ayurvedic medicines. Herbal formulations in popular use were selected by expert consensus and standardized using modern tools. Our clinical strategy evolved from simple exploratory evaluations to better powered statistically designed drug trials. The results of the first drug trial are presented here. Five oral formulations (coded A, B, C, D and E), with a common base of Zingiber officinale and Tinospora cordifolia with a maximum of four plant extracts, were evaluated; with placebo and glucosamine as controls. 245 patients suffering from symptomatic OA knees were randomized into seven arms (35 patients per arm) of a double blind, parallel efficacy, multicentric trial of sixteen weeks duration. The groups matched well at baseline. There were no differences for patient withdrawals (17.5%) or adverse events (AE) of mild nature. Intention-to-treat efficacy analysis, demonstrated no significant differences (P < .05) for pain (weight bearing) and WOMAC questionnaire (knee function); placebo response was high. Based on better pain relief, significant (P < .05) least analgesic consumption and improved knee status, “C” formulation was selected for further development. Controlled exploratory drug trials with multiple treatment arms may be used to economically evaluate several candidate standardized formulations.
Description of Vandhyatva is available in most of the Ayurvedic classics, including Nidana (diagnosis), Samprapti (etiopathogenesis), Lakshana (symptomatology), Bheda (types) and Chikitsa (treatment). In current study, efforts have been made to study the effect of Nasya and Matra Basti on anovulation (Beeja Dushti). Ovulation is under the control of Vata. Narayana Taila is attributed for its effect in Vandhyatva. 24 patients of female infertility having anovulatory factor, being diagnosed by Trans-Vaginal Sonography (TVS) for 2 consecutive cycles were divided in two groups. Patients in Group A (n = 12) administered the drug through Nasya and in Group B (n = 12) through Matra Basti. Ovulation occurred 36.36% of patients in group A and 66.16% of patients group B. Matra Basti showed better results than Nasya group on anovulation.
Anovulation; infertility; Matra Basti; Narayana Taila; Nasya; Vandhyatva
Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside, however, renal toxicity has limited its usage. This study was designed to evaluate the curative and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against gentamicin tubular toxicity in rats. The phenolic and flavonoid components and antioxidant activity of ginger were also evaluated.
In a preclinical study, 50 male Wistar rats were designated into 5 groups of 10 and treated as follows: Group I: vehicle. Group II: 200 mg/kg/d of ginger for 3 days then, GM (80 mg/kg) for 7 days. Group III: 200 mg/kg ginger orally for 3 days, then ginger plus GM for 7 days. Group IV: GM for 7 days. Group V: GM for 10 days. Group VI: GM for 7 days, then 200 mg/kg ginger orally for 10 days. At the end of the study, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were histologically evaluated.
Ginger could prevent degeneration of the renal cells and reduce the severity of tubular damage caused by gentamicin. However, it could not regenerate the GM degeneration.
The results indicate that ginger is effective as a prophylaxis agent, but has not curative effect.
Gentamicin; ginger; nephrotoxicity; tubular damage; zingiber officinale
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a burning senile problem of elderly men and no definitive conservative cure is available. The present available surgical and minimal invasive methods have their own limitations. Hence, to find out a suitable Ayurvedic approach, an effort has been made towards the management of BPH, In this study, 32 selected patients of Mootraghata at par to BPH were divided into three groups randomly and treated accordingly. In group A, Gokshuradi compound (GC) Vati (GV) 500 mg was given three times a day with luke-warm water after food; while in group B, Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita (DGG) as Matra Basti (MB) of 60 ml, once in a day, just after lunch and combined therapy of both formulations in group C was administered. Out of 32 patients, total 30 patients (10 in each group) were completed the treatment course of 21 days. In results, 54.09% improvement was seen in group C, 45.67% in group A and 47.99% in group B. The size of prostate gland was found reduced highly significant in group C. Hence, it is concluded that combined therapy of GV and DGG MB is beneficial without developing any adverse drug reactions and can be prescribed safely for Mootraghata (BPH).
Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita; Gokshuradi Vati; Matra Basti; Mootraghata
In Ayurveda, three modes of healing are narrated, viz. Daiva-Vyapashraya, Yukti-Vyapashraya, and Sattvavajaya Chikitsa. In the present study, an effort has been made to assess the effect of Sattvavajaya Chikitsa on both Shareera and Manasa Doshas. Similarly, the impact of Yukti-Vyapashraya Chikitsa on both kinds of Doshas has been observed. The psychosomatic disease selected for the study was Manasa-Dosha Ajeerna. The standard drug taken for Ajeerna was Shunthi, while for Sattvavajaya “Trance/Clinical Hypnosis” was applied on the patients. The study was carried out on 27 patients suffering from Ajeerna and having a significant stress score. Patients were divided into two groups with simple random sampling method: Group S was treated with Shunthi tablet, while in group PS, placebo (rice powder tablet) along with Sattvavajaya Chikitsa was provided to the patients. Duration of the treatment was 10 days. Classical signs and symptoms of Ajeerna were studied before and after treatment. Amongst the registered patients, 25 patients completed the course of treatment while 2 dropped out. Group S had shown significant improvement in Vataja and Kaphaja symptoms, while group PS showed significant effect on Pittaja symptoms. In Tamasika
Manobhavas causing Ajeerna, group PS had shown significant improvement, while group S showed significant and highly significant effect on Rajasika and Tamasika Bhavas, respectively.
Dosha; Manasa-Dosha Ajeeerna; Sattvavajaya
In clinical practice, Guna which are to be with Bhisak are mainly the Paradi Gunas which can also be called as Miscellaneous Gunas. As rightly quoted by Acarya Caraka, for getting success in the treatment Paradi Gunas are the best. The Sutra quotes “Sidhyupaya Cikitsayam” which means that Cikitsa i. e. Dhatusamya will be done mainly with the help of Paradi Gunas. Thus in this study an attempt was made to know the comparative effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana alone and Samyukta effect in Kaphaja Kasa. Three groups were made for proper evaluation of the therapy. In Group-A Haritaki Tablet 2 gm/ twice a day (500 mg tablet × 4), In Group-B Saindava Lavana Curna 2 gm/ twice a day and in Group-C Haritaki + Saindhava lavana Tablet 4 gm/twice a day (500 mg tablet × 8) was given. Results were assessed after 7 days with the help of a specially prepared proforma. The hematological, Urine and Stool investigations were carried out. In subjective and objective criterias, significant results were found in Group-C as compared to Group-A and Group-B. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the combined (Samyoga) effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana is much efficient than the single drug therapy.
Guna; Haritaki; Paradi Guna; Saindhava lavana; Samyoga
Sandhigatavata is described under vatavyadhi in all ayurvedic classical texts. Osteoarthritis is the most common articular disorder which begins asymptomatically in the second and third decades and is extremely common by age 70. Here Matra Vasti (therapeutic enema) was given with Bala taila as Vasti is the best treatment for vatavyadhies. It has vatashamaka and rasayana properties. Indigenous compound drug containing Guggulu, Shallaki, Yastimadhu, Pippali, Guduchi, Nirgundi, Kupilu and Godanti was given in one group along with Matra Vasti. In this study, 33 patients of Sandhigatavata completed the treatment. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixteen patients in Group-A (sarvanga Abhyanga-swedana + matravasti) and 17 patients in Group-B (sarvanga Abhyanga–swedana+ matravasti + indigenous compound drug). The results of the study indicate that the patients of both the groups obtained highly significant relief in almost all the signs and symptoms of Sandhigatavata.
Abhyanga; indigenous compound drug; Matra Vasti; osteoarthritis; Sandhigatavata; swedana; vatavyadhi; therapeutic enema.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is one of the most commonly used spices around the world and a traditional medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Unani-Tibb medicines for several thousand years. However, there was still lack of systemic safety evaluation. We conducted a 35-day toxicity study on ginger in rats. Both male and female rats were daily treated with ginger powder at the dosages of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight by a gavage method for 35 days. The results demonstrated that this chronic administration of ginger was not associated with any mortalities and abnormalities in general conditions, behavior, growth, and food and water consumption. Except for dose-related decrease in serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in males, ginger treatment induced similar hematological and blood biochemical parameters to those of controlled animals. In general, ginger treatment caused no overt organ abnormality. Only at a very high dose (2000 mg/kg), ginger led to slightly reduced absolute and relative weights of testes (by 14.4% and 11.5%, respectively). This study provides a new understanding of the toxicological properties of ginger.
Ginger; Safety; Toxicity; Rat
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplements are being promoted for arthritis treatment in western societies based on ginger’s traditional use as an anti-inflammatory in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. However, scientific evidence of ginger’s antiarthritic effects is sparse, and its bioactive joint-protective components have not been identified. Therefore, the ability of a well-characterized crude ginger extract to inhibit joint swelling in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis, was compared to that of a fraction containing only gingerols and their derivatives. Both extracts were efficacious in preventing joint inflammation. However, the crude dichloromethane extract, which also contained essential oils and more polar compounds, was more efficacious (when normalized to gingerol content) in preventing both joint inflammation and destruction. In conclusion, these data document a very significant joint-protective effect of these ginger samples, and suggest that non-gingerol components are bioactive and can enhance the antiarthritic effects of the more widely studied gingerols.
Dichlorvos and lindane pesticide causes toxicity in animals including humans. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a culinary medicine in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, possessing a number of pharmacological properties.
This study was designed to assess ameliorating effects of ginger juice in dichlorvos and lindane induced neurotoxicity in wistar rats.
Materials and Methods:
Dichlorvos (8.8 mg/kg bw) and lindane (8.8 mg/kg bw) were orally administered alone as well as in combination to adult male and female wistar rats for 14 days followed by the post-treatment of ginger juice (100 mg/kg bw) for 14 days. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), quinine reductase (QR), and protein level were measured to evaluate the toxicity of these pesticides in brain.
Dichlorvos and lindane administration alone and in combination increased LPO and decreased the GSH level, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity, and protein. Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is believed to be involved in the toxicities induced by these pesticides. Post-treatment of ginger juice decreased LPO and increased the level of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity and protein in the brain of rats.
The results indicated that dichlorovos and lindane induced tissue damage was ameliorated by ginger juice.
Dichlorvos; lindane; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; Zingiber officinale
Manahshila (Realgar) is one of the three major Arsenicals used in Ayurvedic therapeutics since ages. It is indicated in skin, respiratory, ophthalmic and psychological disorders. It is mentioned to be the best among Rasayanas and a good aphrodisiac. As Manahshila is indicated in Unmada (Psychological disorder); wide use of Manahshila in the formulations mentioned for psychological disorders; some of those formulations are used in treatment of sleeplessness and Ardraka (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) which is a commonly used Shodhana reagent of Manahshila is reported to be sedative, the potential sedative hypnotic activity is inferred and an experimental study was carried out to evaluate the sedative hypnotic activity of Manahshila. Effect of Ardraka Shodhita Manahshila (ASM) on the spontaneous motor activity of albino rats in actophotometer and on diazepam induced sleeping time was evaluated. There was a statistically significant reduction in the spontaneous motor activity (P<0.001) in the ASM treated Manahshila and there was early onset and hypnotic potentiation in the diazepam induced sleep in rats (P<0.01).
Sedative hypnotic; Spontaneous Motor Activity; Actophotometer; Sleeping Time Test; Psychological Disorders
To identify factors within the South Yorkshire coalfields that influence use of health services by people with angina.
Qualitative study using semistructured individual and group interviews.
General practice and community settings in Barnsley and Rotherham health authorities.
14 patients with stable angina and nine primary care staff had individual interviews plus five community groups and one group of general practitioners.
Main outcome measures
Barriers to accessing health services.
A complex web of factors was identified that prevented, delayed, or facilitated referral to secondary care. Delay, denial, and self management by patients meant that the full extent of symptoms often remained hidden from general practitioners, resulting in a delayed or missed referral. Barriers identified fell into six categories: structural, personal, social and cultural, past experience and expectations, diagnostic confusion, and knowledge and awareness.
Many of the factors influencing referral operate before general practitioners become involved. Community development could be one way of tackling inequalities and promoting sustainable change. Structural changes are needed to improve access and increase the acceptability of general practice services. Primary care staff should be educated to detect underreporting of symptoms and promote appropriate referral.
What is already known on this topicAn inverse correlation has been shown between deprivation and cardiac revascularisationFear of hospitals, denial of ill health, and low expectations may prevent people with angina accessing health servicesWhat this study addsFear, denial, and low expectations were important barriers to accessing health services, reinforcing earlier findingsOther factors may be specific to the study population—for example, coping, independence, and attributing symptoms to industrially related lung diseaseMany of the barriers operate before general practitioners are involved, making it difficult to identify solutions
Mandip and Chandola reported that administration of Rasayana (Guduchi and Bhringaraja) after Koshtha Shuddhi with Aragvadha Hima and simultaneous giving of Shirishadi decoction orally and applying of Snuhyadi Lepa externally provided complete remission to 22.6% patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) and checked the recurrences of the disease in the 89.5% patients. As in this group, cure rate was not up to the expectation; therefore, it was thought desirable to see whether performing of Virechana Karma instead of Koshtha Shuddhi prior to the administration of the above drugs enhances the cure rate for the Vicharchika (Eczema) patients. For the present study, 39 patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) were registered, of which 32 patients completed the full course of the treatment. These patients were given Virechana after preparing with the proper internal Snehana, Abhyanga, and Svedana as per classical method. After the Samsarjana Krama, they were administered the Shirishadi decoction and Guduchi-Bhringraja Rasayana powder orally with simultaneous local application of Snuhyadi Lepa on the eczematous lesions. The results of this study showed that when Virechana Karma was performed prior to the administration of Guduchi-Bhringaraja Rasayana and Shirishadi decoction orally and SnuhyadiLepa externally, it not only increased the cure rate to 81.3% in the patients of Vicharchika (Eczema) but also checked the recurrences to great extent as only negligible number of the patients reported the recurrence.
Eczema; Koshtha Shuddhi; Rasayana; Vicharchika; Virechana Karma
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosco) is widely used in foods as a spice all around the world. It has been reported to have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We investigated the effect of ginger in ethionine induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: group 1 and 2 served as controls and they received normal rat chow and olive oil respectively. Group 3 was fed with ginger oleoresin dissolved in olive oil at 100 mg/kg body wt. Group 4 was fed with choline deficient diet and 0.1% ethionine in drinking water (CDE diet), and group 5 received ginger with CDE diet. Blood samples were taken from the orbital sinus at 0 and 8 weeks of experiment for the determination of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde (MDA). Rats were also killed at 8 weeks for the observation of liver tumor formation. CDE diet induced the formation of liver nodules in rats and increased SOD activity. However, it had no effect on catalase, GPx and MDA levels when compared to both controls at 8 weeks of experiment. When CDE rats were treated with ginger, the formation of liver tumour, SOD activity and MDA level reduced, catalase activity was increased but no change was observed for GPx activity when compared to CDE group. In conclusion, ginger supplementation suppressed liver carcinogenesis by scavenging the free radical formation, and by reducing lipid peroxidation.
Choline deficient diet; Ethionine; Liver cancer; Ginger; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation
This research is carried out with the aim to study Agnidipana effect of Panchakola Siddha Yavagu which comprises Pippali (Piper longum), Pippalimula (root of Piper longum), Chavya (Piper chaba Hunter), Chitraka (Plumbago zelynica) and Nagara (Zingiber officinale) which are all in equal proportion processed in six times of water. A randomized open clinical trial on 47 patients of Agnimandya has been screened on the basis of clinical findings and the patients were allocated to two groups. Group A having 29 cases received the trial drug (Panchakola Siddha Yavagu) and 18 cases in Group B received simple Yavagu with roasted rice powder as the control group. Special scoring pattern was done for the assessment of Agnimandya state. Complete cure of the patient was found in 17.24% of the patients, 34.48% patients were improved moderately as well as markedly, whereas mild improvement was observed in 13.80% patients by treatment with Panchakola Yavagu.
Agnimandya; Agnidipana; Panchakola; Yavagu
Zingiber officinale R. rhizome (ginger) is a popular spice that has traditionally been used to combat the effects of various inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea.
This was a randomized, controlled trial. The study was based on a sample of one hundred and twenty students with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. The students were all residents of the dormitories of Shahed University. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups, one for ginger and the other for placebo in two different treatment protocols with monthly intervals. The ginger and placebo groups in both protocols received 500 mg capsules of ginger root powder or placebo three times a day. In the first protocol ginger and placebo were given two days before the onset of the menstrual period and continued through the first three days of the menstrual period. In the second protocol ginger and placebo were given only for the first three days of the menstrual period. Severity of pain was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analogue scale.
There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the two groups (placebo n = 46, ginger n = 56). The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in the severity of pain between ginger and placebo groups for protocol one (P = 0.015) and protocol two (P = 0.029). There was also significant difference in duration of pain between the two groups for protocol one (P = 0.017) but not for protocol two (P = 0.210).
Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in students with ginger for 5 days had a statistically significant effect on relieving intensity and duration of pain.
The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women.
In this work, one of Zingiber officinale components, 10-shogaol, was tested with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, metal chelating ability, and reducing power to show antioxidant activity. 10-Shogaol promoted human normal epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts cell growths. 10-Shogaol enhanced growth factor production in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), platelet derived growth factor-αβ (PDGF-αβ) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) of both cells. In the in vitro wound healing assay for 12 or 24 h, with 10-shogaol, the fibroblasts and keratinocytes migrated more rapidly than the vehicle control group. Thus, this study substantiates the target compound, 10-shogaol, as an antioxidant for human skin cell growth and a migration enhancer with potential to be a novel wound repair agent.
ginger; 10-shogaol; antioxidant activities; skin cell; proliferation; growth factors; migration