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1.  PA02.07. Rational scientific analysis of modern lifestyle as a nidana w.s.r to viruddha ahara 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S52.
To understand the concept of viruddha ahara as a nidana in causation of diseases and to know its relavance in the present era. In the classics hitabhuk, mitabhuk, kshutabhuk, rhutubhuk are mentioned for maintaing the health of a person. Ahara that which vitiates dosha and which is antagonist to the dhatu in the body is known as viruddha ahara.
Classical literatures like bruhat trayi, laghu trayi, other texts and contemporary books are reviewed. The datas collected are analyzed scientifically with the help of contemporary science.
The eighteen types of viruddha ahara mentioned in the classics like desha, kala, agni, matra, etc. are understood with the help of examples like Agni viruddha In mandagni condition consuming guru snigdha ahara. In condition like dyspepsia where impairement in gastric, bile, pancreatic secretions are present, due to increased intake of mamsala ahara which are rich in amino acids and lipids impaires metabolism. Satmya viruddha Person satmya with katu ushna dravya sevana consuming increased swadu sheeta dravya. Persons habituated with rich spicy diet like pepper which causes irritation of gastric mucosa leading to increased gastric juice secretion, if increased intake of chilled soft drinks in such persons causes constriction of gastric mucosa leading to less gastric juice secretion. Avastha viruddha after nidra consuming kaphavardhka ahara like curd. After sleep basal metabolic rate of the body is reduced, curd which is rich in fats and carbohydrates requires more time for digestion. The rest types of viruddha ahara are analyzed and understood scientifically in the same manner as explained above.
Ayurveda emphazises on nidana parivarjanameva chikitsa, understanding the nidana is prime important. Viruddha ahara affects the body metabolism and hence the concept of viruddha ahara is relevant to present era.
PMCID: PMC4147524
2.  Observations on Vamana procedure in healthy volunteers 
Ayu  2011;32(1):40-45.
Vamana Karma is one of the five Pradhana Karmas of Panchakarma which is successfully used in treating Kaphaj disorders. Panchakarma is also indicated in healthy states. (C.Su. 16/13-16) for Shodhana. Textual references are available in Ayurvedic classics, but the procedure needs to be validated in the modern times when Ahara Shakti, Bala and Agni of the individuals have decreased considerably. So the effect of procedure was observed in 30 healthy volunteers of age group 18 to 60 years. Lakshanik, Vaigiki, Maniki and Antiki Shuddhi were observed and vomitus was analyzed macroscopically, microscopically and chemically.
PMCID: PMC3215415  PMID: 22131756
Agni; Ahara Shakti; Bala; Kaphaj disorders; Panchakarma; Shodhana; Vamana Karma
3.  PA03.07. A clinical comparative study of Matra Vasti and Vaitran Vasti in the treatment of Gridhrasi w.s.r to Sciatica 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S76.
Sciatica is a vata dominant vikar and vasti is a vata dominant chikitsa. Matra Vasti is a nirapad vasti and can be given in any condition without following the ahara and vihara, then what is need for Vaitran Vasti? So, here an effort was made to study the effect of Matra vasti and Vaitran Vasti separately in the treatment of Grihdrasi.
30 patients were randomly selected from the OPD and IPD of Kayachikitsa Department of Ayurvedic Medical College,Davanagere, Karnataka and were separated in two groups of 15 each,and a study was conducted. Along with vasti chikitsa oral medication was also given. Ekangvir rasa in the dose of 500mg B.D and Lashunadi vati in the dose of 2 tabs. B.D.
Results were evaluated on the basis of symptoms of types of Gridhrasi i.e vataja and vatakaphaja as mentioned in Charak Samhita which showed marked improvement in all the symptoms. A Ttest was performed which gave a significant result of (P<.001). Results were also seen on the basis of International Scale which resulted in improvement in functional ability and reduction in functional disability.
It can be said that Vasti plays an important role in the treatment of Grihdrasi. In Vataja type Matra Vasti had played an supreme role as it helps in treating degenerative pathology and in Vatakaphaja type Vaitran Vasti had played a first rate role as it helps in treating inflammatory pathology.
PMCID: PMC4147550
4.  OA03.09. Effect of local application of swetaaparajita moola & chitraka moola along with Ewe's milk on vitiligo (switra) in children 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S32.
To find the efficacy of local application of Swetaaparajita moola & Chitraka moola along with Ewe's milk on vitiligo (switra) in children.
All the patients were given classical Virechana with 20 gm. Aragvadha phalamajja, after performing Pachana with Trikatu churna, internal Snehana with Moorchita goghruta, Abhyanga with Moorchita tilataila as per classical method. Then treated group patients were treated with local application of Swetaaparajita moola & Chitraka moola along with Ewe's milk, while placebo group patients were treated with arial roots of Vata (Neghrodha) on lesion once in morning & then exposed to sunlight for 15 min. for period of two months. All the patients in both groups were given khadiraodaka to drink.
The two months treatment statistically significantly increased the number of black spots in the lesion on an average by 31% and improved the colour of the patches towards the normal on an average by 38.33% while there was 19% reduction in size of the patches.
The effect of the trial drug was seen significant in increasing the black spots and alteration in color, but reduction in size was comparatively less.
PMCID: PMC4147502
5.  Pharmaceutical preparation of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna: A herbal remedy for puerperal women 
In the last few decades, there has been exponential growth in the field of herbal remedies. Pharmacopoeial preparations like avleha or paka (semi-solid), swarasa (expressed juice), kalka (mass), him (cold infusion) and phanta (hot infusion), kwatha (decoction) and churna (powder) form the backbone of Ayurvedic formulations. Newer guidelines for standardization, manufacture, and quality control, and scientifically rigorous research will be necessary for traditional treatments. This traditional knowledge can serve as powerful search engine that will greatly facilitate drug discovery.
The aim of the present study is to standardize Saubhagya Shunthi Paka in churna (powder) form. The powder form makes this traditional drug more stable for long-term storage and hence, easier to preserve.
Materials and Methods:
Saubhagya Shunthi Paka is an ayurvedic formulation containing Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis) as one of its chief ingredients. The basic preparation of this drug is a semisolid. We checked the microbial load and nutrient values (using International Standard IS and Association of Official Analytical chemists AOAC methods)
The powdered form of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna yielded a weight loss of approximately 17.64% of the total weight of ingredients. The total energy of Churna (calculated based on nutrient content) was found higher over Paka.
Saubhagya Shunthi Churna may be a good therapeutic and dietary medicine for Indian women, which may be easily prepared at home.
PMCID: PMC2876929  PMID: 20532094
Ayurveda; Churna (powder); saubhagya shunthi paka; paka (semi-solid); puerperium
6.  Role of diet and lifestyle in the management of Madhumeha (Diabetes Mellitus) 
Ayu  2013;34(2):167-173.
From ancient to modern times, the perspective to visualize the management of Madhumeha (DM) has shifted from holistic to drug oriented. Therefore, until a few years ago, the revival of the holistic approach, the Ayurvedic diet, and lifestyle were not being much focused. This research work was planned to evaluate the extra effects of Ayurvedic Ahara and Vihara in the management of Madhumeha and to project them socially. A total of 30 patients were selected and divided into two groups. Group A was treated with Ayurvedic Ahara and Vihara with Varadi Kwatha and group B was treated with only Varadi Kwatha for 8 weeks. The study showed highly significant results in most of the parameters in both the groups. However, further trials with increased number of patients are needed to support the current observations.
PMCID: PMC3821245  PMID: 24250125
Ahara; Diabetes Mellitus; diet; lifestyle; Madhumeha; Varadi Kwatha; Vihara
7.  Zingiber Officinale Alters 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rat Brain 
Cell Journal (Yakhteh)  2012;14(3):177-184.
The spice Zingiber officinale or ginger possesses antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this traditional herbal medicine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induced neurotoxicity have not yet been studied. The present study considers the effects of Zingiber officinale on MDMA-induced spatial memory impairment and apoptosis in the hippocampus of male rats.
Materials and Methods:
In this experimental study, 21 adult male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g) were classified into three groups (control, MDMA, and MDMA plus ginger). The groups were intraperitoneally administered 10 mg/kg MDMA, 10 mg/kg MDMA plus 100 mg/kg ginger extract, or 1 cc/kg normal saline as the control solution for one week (n=7 per group). Learning memory was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) after the last administration. Finally, the brains were removed to study the cell number in the cornu ammonis (CA1) hippocampus by light microscope, Bcl-2 by immunoblotting, and Bax expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data was analyzed using SPSS 16 software and a one-way ANOVA test.
Escape latency and traveled distances decreased significantly in the MDMA plus ginger group relative to the MDMA group (p<0.001). Cell number increased in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax were observed in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group (p<0.05).
Our findings suggest that ginger consumption may lead to an improvement of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC3584433  PMID: 23508562
Apoptosis; Ginger; Spatial Memory; MDMA; Hippocampus; Bcl-2 Family
8.  Concept of Ahara in relation to Matra, Desha, Kala and their effect on Health 
Ayu  2010;31(1):101-105.
For evaluation of the effect of Ahara on Health in relation to Matra, Desha and Kala, an interview based survey study was carried out by simple randomized selection of healthy and unhealthy individuals. It was found that consideraton of Matra, Desha and Kala in aspect of Ahara taking were found beneficial for health.
PMCID: PMC3215310  PMID: 22131693
Ahara; Matra; Desha; Kala; Health
9.  Development and psychometric properties of the Carer – Head Injury Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale (C-HINAS) and the Carer – Head Injury Participation Scale (C-HIPS): patient and family determined outcome scales 
Develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Carer – Head Injury Participation Scale (C-HIPS) and its biggest factor the Carer – Head Injury Neurobehavioral Assessment Scale (C-HINAS). Furthermore, the aim was to examine the inter-informant reliability by comparing the self reports of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the carer reports on the C-HIPS and the C-HINAS.
Thirty-two TBI individuals and 27 carers took part in in-depth qualitative interviews exploring the consequences of the TBI. Interview transcripts were analysed and key themes and concepts were used to construct a 49-item and 58-item patient (Patient – Head Injury Participation Scale [P-HIPS]) and carer outcome measure (C-HIPS) respectively, of which 49 were parallel items and nine additional items were used to assess carer burden. Postal versions of the P-HIPS, C-HIPS, Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-3 (MPAI-3), and the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) were completed by a cohort of 113 TBI individuals and 80 carers. Data from a sub-group of 66 patient/carer pairs were used to compare inter-informant reliability between the P-HIPS and the C-HIPS, and the P-HINAS and the C-HINAS respectively.
All individual 49 items of the C-HIPS and their total score showed good test-retest reliability (0.95) and internal consistency (0.95). Comparisons with the MPAI-3 and GOSE found a good correlation with the MPAI-3 (0.7) and a moderate negative correlation with the GOSE (−0.6). Factor analysis of these items extracted a 4-factor structure which represented the domains ‘Emotion/Behavior’ (C-HINAS), ‘Independence/Community Living’, ‘Cognition’, and ‘Physical’. The C-HINAS showed good internal consistency (0.92), test-retest reliability (0.93), and concurrent validity with one MPAI subscale (0.7). Assessment of inter-informant reliability revealed good correspondence between the reports of the patients and the carers for both the C-HIPS (0.83) and the C-HINAS (0.82).
Both the C-HINAS and the C-HIPS show strong psychometric properties. The qualitative methodology employed in the construction stage of the questionnaires provided good evidence of face and content validity. Comparisons between the P-HIPS and the C-HIPS, and the P-HINAS and the C-HINAS indicated high levels of agreement suggesting that in situations where the patient is unable to provide self-reports, information provided by the carer could be used.
PMCID: PMC2654792  PMID: 19300569
traumatic brain injury; neurobehavioral outcome measure; C-HIPS; C-HINAS; psychometrics
10.  Maternal Health, Supraja (Eugenics) and Ayurveda 
Ancient Science of Life  2008;28(1):44-48.
Mother and child care has been described in great detail in Ayurveda. All basic principles of Ayurveda need to be applied to deal with the problems of maternal and foetal mortality. Rules of Ahara (diet), Vihara (lifestyle), Sadavrutta (moral conduct), along with varied therapies are used in tackling the various problems. There is need to take an in depth view at causes. Major changes in lifestyle may be required. Uses of various Ayurvedic formulations like various ghrtas and tailas (ghees and oils) have given wonderful results. Ayurveda aims at producing “Supraja” or healthy progeny. Ayurveda provides answers to some of the most worrying problems facing doctors today.
PMCID: PMC3336340  PMID: 22557298
11.  Evaluating higher doses of Shunthi - Guduchi formulations for safety in treatment of osteoarthritis knees: A Government of India NMITLI arthritis project 
Results of an exploratory trial suggested activity trends of Zingiber officinale-Tinopsora cordifolia (platform combination)-based formulations in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) Knees. These formulations were “platform combination+Withania somnifera+Tribulus terrestris” (formulation B) and “platform combination+Emblica officinale” (formulation C). This paper reports safety of these formulations when used in higher doses (1.5–2 times) along with Sallaki Guggul and Bhallataka Parpati (a Semecarpus anacardium preparation).
Materials and Methods:
Ninety-two patients with symptomatic OA knees were enrolled in a 6 weeks investigator blind, randomized parallel efficacy 4-arm multicenter drug trial. The 4 arms were (I) formulation B, 2 t.i.d.; (II) formulation B, 2 q.i.d.; (III) platform combination+Sallaki Guggul; (IV) Bhallataka Parpati+formulation C. A detailed enquiry was carried out for adverse events (AE) and drug toxicity as per a priori check list and volunteered information. Laboratory evaluation included detailed hematology and metabolic parameters. Patients were examined at baseline, first and fourth weeks, and on completion. Standard statistical program (SPSS version 12.5) was used for analysis.
None of the patients reported serious AE or withdrew due to any drug-related toxicity. Mild gut–related (mostly epigastric burning) AE was reported. A mild increase in liver enzymes [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)] without any other hepatic abnormality was reported in 2 patients (group IV). Other laboratory parameters remained normal. The mean improvement in active pain visual analog scale (1.4, CI 0.5–2.22), WOMAC (functional activity questionnaire) pain score (1.37, CI 0.22–2.5), and urinary C-TAX (cartilage collagen breakdown product) assay was maximum (NS) in group IV. Lower dose group I showed numerically superior improvement compared with higher dose group II.
The results suggested that despite higher doses, standardized Ayurvedic formulations demonstrated a good safety profile. An improved efficacy and likely chondroprotective effect was shown by group IV intervention. A confirmatory drug trial with adequate power and sample size was planned based on the learning from this trial.
PMCID: PMC3326794  PMID: 22529679
Ayurveda; osteoarthritis; WOMAC; Pain VAS; chondroprotective
12.  Stereological study of the effect of ginger's alcoholic extract on the testis in busulfan-induced infertility in rats 
Background: In traditional medicine zingiber officinale used to regulate female menstural cycle and treat male infertility. Recent studies have suggested the possible role of ginger extract in improving the testicular damage of busulfan.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zingiber officinale on the sperm parameters, testosterone level and the volume of the testes and seminiferous tubules by stereological methods.
Materials and Methods: Fifty rats were divided into four groups. All the rats were given a single intraperitoneally injection of 5mg/kg busulfan solution. The first group was kept as busulfan control, while the other groups were orally administrated ginger extract in graded doses of 50, 100 and 150mg/kg b.wt, for 48 consecutive days. At the end, all animals were anesthetized and their testes and vas deference were removed, fixed, embedded, and stained. The volume of testes and seminiferous tubules were estimated by cavalieri methods.
Results: The result showed, that zingiber officinale increased the volumes of seminiferous tubule in 100mg/kg treated group compared to control group. Sperm count (706×105 and 682×105) and the level of testosterone (50.90 ng/mL and 54.10 ng/mL) enhanced in 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg treated groups compared to control group (p=0.00).
Conclusion: It seems that zingiber officinale stimulate male reproductive system in induce busulfan infertility.
PMCID: PMC3941314  PMID: 24639780
Busulfan; Cavalieri method; Ginger extract
13.  Comparative study on the hepatoprotection to heavy metals of Zingiber officinale 
Pharmacognosy Research  2012;4(4):208-213.
Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is a herb used for culinary and therapeutic purposes due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials.
We examined its protective ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver.
Materials & Methods:
Ground Zingiber officinale (7%, w/w of feed) was administered to rats either at the same time with the exposure ofheavy metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. Animals were exposed to either of Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) in drinking water. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS.
Weight losses induced by these metals were not reversed by Zingiber officinale administration. There was a significant (P<0.01) increase in protection to Pb (97%) and Cd (63%) accumulation when compared to Hg (32%) at week 2. The protective ability was significantly (P<0.01) decreased at week 4 when compared to week 2 for Cd and Pb but not to Hg in groups 3 (50%) and 4 (52%). At week 6, hepatoprotection to Hg (44%) and Cd (85%) was significantly (P<0.01) different but not to Pb which was only significant (P<0.05) in week 2 of treatment for all groups.
Discussion and Conclusion:
Zingiber officinale affected the bioavailability, elimination and uptake of these metals in a time-dependent way with highest beneficial reducing effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the liver.
PMCID: PMC3510873  PMID: 23225964
Accumulation; cadmium; lead; liver; mercury; protection; Zingiber officinale
14.  OA01. 34. Effect of maternal ahara on foetal outcome 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S34.
Maternal Ahara is an important modulator of maternal health and foetal growth. Various dietary regimens for pregnant women are described under Garbhini Paricharya, emphasising on real demand of the time for proper growth and development of foetus, for normal labour, for keeping good health of the mother and making free from postnatal complications of mother and child. Birth weight of newborn is strongest indicator of perinatal mortality. Pathya Ahara during pregnancy could decrease the incidence of LBW babies, improves survival of newborns and decreases perinatal mortality.
Pregnant women (100), registered in S.S.Hospital, BHU and delivered live born single babies were included and those with known medical illness, associated obstetric complications, unknown last menstrual period, cases of multiple pregnancy and congenital malformation were excluded. Pregnant women were subjected to detailed dietary profile to know the quality of food consumed during pregnancy and their newborns were subjected to anthropometric measurements to assess foetal outcome.
Out of 100 pregnant women 39 had taken Satvika- Rajasika ahara, 22 had Satvika-Tamsika ahara and 39 were taking Rajasika-Tamasika ahara. Most of the mothers taken Satvika-Rajasika ahara delivered fair or wheatish complexioned babies with higher birth weight and crown-heel length. Majority of women with low birth weight, and dark complexioned babies were taking Rajasika-Tamasika ahara. Significant association was observed between quality of maternal ahara and baby™s head circumference, chest circumference and mid-arm circumference. These measures were gradually less in babies of mothers taken Satvika-Tamasika and Rajasika-Tamasika Ahara.
Food items mentioned in Garbhini Paricharya are mainly Satvika in nature. Satvika Ahara is well nourishing and balanced diet containing all essential nutrients like carbohydrates, fats, vegetable proteins, minerals and vitamins. By improving the quality of maternal Ahara, foetal outcome will be better in the form of increased birth weight and decreased perinatal mortality.
PMCID: PMC3800912
15.  Role of Nasya and Matra Basti with Narayana Taila on anovulatory factor 
Ayu  2013;34(1):81-85.
Description of Vandhyatva is available in most of the Ayurvedic classics, including Nidana (diagnosis), Samprapti (etiopathogenesis), Lakshana (symptomatology), Bheda (types) and Chikitsa (treatment). In current study, efforts have been made to study the effect of Nasya and Matra Basti on anovulation (Beeja Dushti). Ovulation is under the control of Vata. Narayana Taila is attributed for its effect in Vandhyatva. 24 patients of female infertility having anovulatory factor, being diagnosed by Trans-Vaginal Sonography (TVS) for 2 consecutive cycles were divided in two groups. Patients in Group A (n = 12) administered the drug through Nasya and in Group B (n = 12) through Matra Basti. Ovulation occurred 36.36% of patients in group A and 66.16% of patients group B. Matra Basti showed better results than Nasya group on anovulation.
PMCID: PMC3764886  PMID: 24049410
Anovulation; infertility; Matra Basti; Narayana Taila; Nasya; Vandhyatva
16.  Role of Sattvavajaya Chikitsa (Trance therapy) in the management of Manasa-Dosha Ajeerna  
Ayu  2012;33(1):78-84.
In Ayurveda, three modes of healing are narrated, viz. Daiva-Vyapashraya, Yukti-Vyapashraya, and Sattvavajaya Chikitsa. In the present study, an effort has been made to assess the effect of Sattvavajaya Chikitsa on both Shareera and Manasa Doshas. Similarly, the impact of Yukti-Vyapashraya Chikitsa on both kinds of Doshas has been observed. The psychosomatic disease selected for the study was Manasa-Dosha Ajeerna. The standard drug taken for Ajeerna was Shunthi, while for Sattvavajaya “Trance/Clinical Hypnosis” was applied on the patients. The study was carried out on 27 patients suffering from Ajeerna and having a significant stress score. Patients were divided into two groups with simple random sampling method: Group S was treated with Shunthi tablet, while in group PS, placebo (rice powder tablet) along with Sattvavajaya Chikitsa was provided to the patients. Duration of the treatment was 10 days. Classical signs and symptoms of Ajeerna were studied before and after treatment. Amongst the registered patients, 25 patients completed the course of treatment while 2 dropped out. Group S had shown significant improvement in Vataja and Kaphaja symptoms, while group PS showed significant effect on Pittaja symptoms. In Tamasika Manobhavas causing Ajeerna, group PS had shown significant improvement, while group S showed significant and highly significant effect on Rajasika and Tamasika Bhavas, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3456870  PMID: 23049189
Dosha; Manasa-Dosha Ajeeerna; Sattvavajaya
17.  A clinical study of Haritaki and Saindhava Lavana in Kaphaja Kasa with special reference to Samyoga Guna 
Ayu  2011;32(3):357-360.
In clinical practice, Guna which are to be with Bhisak are mainly the Paradi Gunas which can also be called as Miscellaneous Gunas. As rightly quoted by Acarya Caraka, for getting success in the treatment Paradi Gunas are the best. The Sutra quotes “Sidhyupaya Cikitsayam” which means that Cikitsa i. e. Dhatusamya will be done mainly with the help of Paradi Gunas. Thus in this study an attempt was made to know the comparative effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana alone and Samyukta effect in Kaphaja Kasa. Three groups were made for proper evaluation of the therapy. In Group-A Haritaki Tablet 2 gm/ twice a day (500 mg tablet × 4), In Group-B Saindava Lavana Curna 2 gm/ twice a day and in Group-C Haritaki + Saindhava lavana Tablet 4 gm/twice a day (500 mg tablet × 8) was given. Results were assessed after 7 days with the help of a specially prepared proforma. The hematological, Urine and Stool investigations were carried out. In subjective and objective criterias, significant results were found in Group-C as compared to Group-A and Group-B. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the combined (Samyoga) effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana is much efficient than the single drug therapy.
PMCID: PMC3326882  PMID: 22736910
Guna; Haritaki; Paradi Guna; Saindhava lavana; Samyoga
18.  Ameliorating activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract against lead induced renal toxicity in male rats 
Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in lead induced toxicity rats. In this study renal glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and catalase enzymes were measured in lead nitrate (300 mg/kg BW), and lead nitrate plus ginger extract (150 mg/kg BW) treated rat groups for 1 week and 3 weeks respectively. The glutathione level and GSH dependent antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, and catalase significantly (P < 0.05) increased in ginger extract treated rat groups. In addition, histological studies showed lesser renal changes in lead plus ginger extract treated rat groups than that of lead alone treated rat groups. These results indicate that ginger extract alleviated lead toxic effects by enhancing the levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and catalase.
PMCID: PMC4008737  PMID: 24803697
Lead toxicity; Ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract; Rat kidney; Glutathione (GSH); Glutathione dependent antioxidant enzymes
19.  Preventive and Curative Effects of Ginger Extract Against Histopathologic Changes of Gentamicin-Induced Tubular Toxicity in Rats 
Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside, however, renal toxicity has limited its usage. This study was designed to evaluate the curative and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against gentamicin tubular toxicity in rats. The phenolic and flavonoid components and antioxidant activity of ginger were also evaluated.
In a preclinical study, 50 male Wistar rats were designated into 5 groups of 10 and treated as follows: Group I: vehicle. Group II: 200 mg/kg/d of ginger for 3 days then, GM (80 mg/kg) for 7 days. Group III: 200 mg/kg ginger orally for 3 days, then ginger plus GM for 7 days. Group IV: GM for 7 days. Group V: GM for 10 days. Group VI: GM for 7 days, then 200 mg/kg ginger orally for 10 days. At the end of the study, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were histologically evaluated.
Ginger could prevent degeneration of the renal cells and reduce the severity of tubular damage caused by gentamicin. However, it could not regenerate the GM degeneration.
The results indicate that ginger is effective as a prophylaxis agent, but has not curative effect.
PMCID: PMC3634170  PMID: 23626888
Gentamicin; ginger; nephrotoxicity; tubular damage; zingiber officinale
20.  A Randomized Controlled Exploratory Evaluation of Standardized Ayurvedic Formulations in Symptomatic Osteoarthritis Knees: A Government of India NMITLI Project 
The multidisciplinary “New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative” Arthritis Project was undertaken to validate Ayurvedic medicines. Herbal formulations in popular use were selected by expert consensus and standardized using modern tools. Our clinical strategy evolved from simple exploratory evaluations to better powered statistically designed drug trials. The results of the first drug trial are presented here. Five oral formulations (coded A, B, C, D and E), with a common base of Zingiber officinale and Tinospora cordifolia with a maximum of four plant extracts, were evaluated; with placebo and glucosamine as controls. 245 patients suffering from symptomatic OA knees were randomized into seven arms (35 patients per arm) of a double blind, parallel efficacy, multicentric trial of sixteen weeks duration. The groups matched well at baseline. There were no differences for patient withdrawals (17.5%) or adverse events (AE) of mild nature. Intention-to-treat efficacy analysis, demonstrated no significant differences (P < .05) for pain (weight bearing) and WOMAC questionnaire (knee function); placebo response was high. Based on better pain relief, significant (P < .05) least analgesic consumption and improved knee status, “C” formulation was selected for further development. Controlled exploratory drug trials with multiple treatment arms may be used to economically evaluate several candidate standardized formulations.
PMCID: PMC2964493  PMID: 20981160
21.  Combined ginger extract & Gelam honey modulate Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathway genes in colon cancer HT29 cells 
Nutrition Journal  2015;14:31.
The interconnected Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways play a central role in colorectal tumorigenesis, and they are targets for elucidating mechanisms involved in attempts to induce colon cancer cell death. Both ginger (Zingiber officinale) and honey have been shown to exhibit anti-tumor and anti-inflammation properties against many types of cancer, including colorectal cancer. However, there are currently no reports showing the combined effect of these two dietary compounds in cancer growth inhibition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of crude ginger extract and Gelam honey in combination as potential cancer chemopreventive agents against the colorectal cancer cell line HT29.
The cells were divided into 4 groups: the first group represents HT29 cells without treatment, the second and third groups were cells treated singly with either ginger or Gelam honey, respectively, and the last group represents cells treated with ginger and Gelam honey combined.
The results of MTS assay showed that the IC50 of ginger and Gelam honey alone were 5.2 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml, respectively, whereas the IC50 of the combination treatment was 3 mg/ml of ginger plus 27 mg/ml of Gelam honey with a combination index of < 1, suggesting synergism. Cell death in response to the combined ginger and Gelam honey treatment was associated with the stimulation of early apoptosis (upregulation of caspase 9 and IκB genes) accompanied by downregulation of the KRAS, ERK, AKT, Bcl-xL, NFkB (p65) genes in a synergistic manner.
In conclusion, the combination of ginger and Gelam honey may be an effective chemopreventive and therapeutic strategy for inducing the death of colon cancer cells.
PMCID: PMC4390091  PMID: 25889965
Ginger; Gelam honey; HT29 colon cancer cells; Ras/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways
22.  Selected spices and their combination modulate hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in experimental rats 
Biological Research  2014;47(1):5.
Effect of aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (garlic), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Capsicum fructensces (cayenne pepper) and their mixture on oxidative stress in rats fed high Cholesterol/high fat diet was investigated. Rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n = 6) and given different dietary/spice treatments. Group 1 standard rat chow (control), group 2, hypercholesterolemic diet plus water, and groups 3, 4, 5, 6, hypercholesterolemic diet with 0.5 ml 200 mg · kg-1 aqueous extracts of garlic, ginger, cayenne pepper or their mixture respectively daily for 4 weeks.
Pronounced oxidative stress in the hypercholesterolemic rats evidenced by significant (p < 0.05) increase in MDA levels, and suppression of the antioxidant enzymes system in rat’s liver, kidney, heart and brain tissues was observed. Extracts of spices singly or combined administered at 200 body weight significantly (p < 0.05) reduced MDA levels and restored activities of antioxidant enzymes.
It is concluded that consumption of garlic, ginger, pepper, or their mixture may help to modulate oxidative stress caused by hypercholesterolemia in rats.
PMCID: PMC4060372  PMID: 25027235
Lipid peroxidation; Oxidative stress; Spices; Hypercholesterolemia; ROS
23.  A Clinical study of Matra Vasti and an ayurvedic indigenous compound drug in the management of Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis) 
Ayu  2010;31(2):210-217.
Sandhigatavata is described under vatavyadhi in all ayurvedic classical texts. Osteoarthritis is the most common articular disorder which begins asymptomatically in the second and third decades and is extremely common by age 70. Here Matra Vasti (therapeutic enema) was given with Bala taila as Vasti is the best treatment for vatavyadhies. It has vatashamaka and rasayana properties. Indigenous compound drug containing Guggulu, Shallaki, Yastimadhu, Pippali, Guduchi, Nirgundi, Kupilu and Godanti was given in one group along with Matra Vasti. In this study, 33 patients of Sandhigatavata completed the treatment. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixteen patients in Group-A (sarvanga Abhyanga-swedana + matravasti) and 17 patients in Group-B (sarvanga Abhyanga–swedana+ matravasti + indigenous compound drug). The results of the study indicate that the patients of both the groups obtained highly significant relief in almost all the signs and symptoms of Sandhigatavata.
PMCID: PMC3215366  PMID: 22131712
Abhyanga; indigenous compound drug; Matra Vasti; osteoarthritis; Sandhigatavata; swedana; vatavyadhi; therapeutic enema.
24.  A clinical trial of Sri Lankan traditional decoction of Pitawakka Navaya in the treatment of Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola 
Ayu  2010;31(3):268-271.
Authentic Ayurvedic texts mention 11 types of Shiro Roga (diseases in the head). Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola, which occurs due to vitiation of Kapha and Vata Dosha, is one of them. Chronic sinusitis is a chronic inflammation of the sinuses. It can be correlated with Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola. Decoction of Pitawakka Navaya consists of nine ingredients; these are: Bhoomyamalaka, Haritaki, Barangi, Chavya, Pippali, Salarka, Guduchi, Shunthi and Maricha. These herbs, which pacify vitiated Vata Dosha and Kapha Dosha, are used by traditional physicians in Sri Lanka to treat Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola (chronic sinusitis). However, no scientific studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Pitawakka Navaya in the treatment of Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola. Hence, this clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the decoction of Pitawakka Navaya in the treatment of Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola. Sixty patients suffering from Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola were selected and examined. These patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each. The first group was treated with 120 ml of decoction of Pitawakka Navaya twice a day for 14 days. The second group was treated with 120 ml of placebo twice a day for 14 days. After treatment, most of the patients’ symptoms were completely or partially relieved. In <10% of the patients, some symptoms were unchanged or aggravated. It is observed that the traditional decoction Pitawakka Navaya is beneficial for Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola (chronic sinusitis).
PMCID: PMC3221057  PMID: 22131725
Chronic Sinusitis; Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola; Decoction of Pitawakka Navaya
25.  Evaluation of diet and life style in the etiopathogenesis of Urdhwaga Amlapitta (non-ulcer dyspepsia) 
Ayu  2013;34(4):352-355.
For a long time, infectious (communicable) diseases were the biggest killer diseases globally. But now, the trend is changing toward increased prevalence of chronic diseases with causative factors mostly related to diet and lifestyle. Among them, Urdhwaga Amlapitta (non-ulcer dyspepsia), a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorder, has acquired majority of the share with causative factors like improper diet and habits, stress, spicy irritant food, oily foods, bakery products, etc., A survey study was conducted on 138 patients, irrespective of sex, religion, etc., who had presented with the clinical symptoms of Urdhwaga Amlapitta and attended the OPD of Department of Basic Principles, at I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, between February 2009 and June 2010. Information on demography, dietary intake, and lifestyle factors was collected by standard questionnaires. The data revealed that majority of the patients indulged in faulty dietary habits like excess Katu Ahara Sevana (99.3%), Amla Ahara (95.65%), Guru Ahara (90.57%), Snigdha Ahara (86.23%), Viruddha (81.88%), Abhishyandi Ahara (81.88%), Atiushna Ahara (73.9%), Vidahi (51.44%), Pistanna (47.10%), etc., and the data on lifestyle revealed that majority of the patients indulged in Diwasvapna (89.85%), Antarodaka Paanam (81.88%), Chinta (79.71%), etc., This survey study upholds the novel concept of diet and lifestyle of Ayurveda. The data reflects that dietary patterns, lifestyle choices, and physical activities play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of Urdhwaga Amlapitta, and it is important for patients to have access to diet and lifestyle modifications. Currently, research in this area is minimal.
PMCID: PMC3968695  PMID: 24695749
Diet; life style; non ulcer dyspepsia; Urdhwaga Amlapitta

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