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1.  Neutraceuticals in Ayurveda with special reference to Avaleha Kalpana 
Ancient Science of Life  2008;28(2):29-32.
The use of Neutraceuticals has drastically risen in recent years. Dr Stephan De Felice coined the term Neutraceuticals from “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical” in 1989. Related terms are “functional food” and “dietary supplement”. In Ayurvedic pharmaceutics there are some secondary preparations like Avaleha Kalpana (Medicated semisolid preparation), Asavarista Kalpana (fermented preparation), Sneha Kalpana (Medicated fatty preparation), Ksheerapaka Kalpana (Medicated milk preparation) etc. which can be correlated with Neutraceuticals. In this paper “Neutraceuticals” and “Avaleha Kalpana” have been correlated and discussed.
PMCID: PMC3336349  PMID: 22557309
Neutraceuticals; Functional food; Avaleha Kalpana
2.  A comparative pharmacological evaluation of Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) prepared with Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) 
Ayu  2010;31(4):504-508.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers) is a well-known medicinal plant, which is abundantly used in different ayurvedic formulations utilizing varieties of media. The drug has properties like Rasayana (rejuvenating property), Krimighna (anthelmintics), and Kushtghna (used in skin disorders), as described in ayurvedic literature. Taila (oil) and Ghrita (ghee) are used as media in Ayurvedic Sneha (oleaginous) formulations. Both the test drugs, Guduchi Taila and Ghrita, are prescribed in Vatrakta (gout) and also indicated for Kushtha (skin disorder). With all these details, the Guduchi Taila and Guduchi Ghrita samples, prepared by using Taila and Ghrita as media, have been subjected to comparative pharmacological investigations, to assess the impact of the media on the expression of pharmacological activity. The formulations have been evaluated for immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-stress activities. Both the formulations have been found to be active in most of the experiments, however, with the change of media, their results vary at different levels. Taila prepared from Guduchi was found to have an immunostimulating activity. The formulation prepared with Ghrita exhibited an anti-stress effect with an immunosuppressing activity.
PMCID: PMC3202249  PMID: 22048548
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia wild miers); Guduchi Taila; Guduchi Ghrita; Immunomodulation; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-stress
3.  A clinical review of different formulations of Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) on Tamaka Shwasa (asthma) 
Ayu  2010;31(4):520-524.
Vasa (Adhatoda vasica Linn.) is a well known and easily available drug in almost all the seasons. Easy availability of any drug gains popularity among physicians as well as pharmaceuticals and this is the reason why almost every Kalpana of Vasa is found described in the Ayurvedika text. The different dosage forms of Vasa like Kvatha, Avaleha, Sneha, and Sandhana have been used for the treatment of Shwasa Roga. A number of research studies have been performed on different formulations of Vasa and its effect on Shwasa Roga. Therefore, a review study has been carried out on the Vasa extract, Vasa Avaleha (prepared from Svarasa and Kvatha), Vasa Ghrita, Vasarishta, and Vasakasava on Shwasa Roga, to know which formulation is better. It was found in the review that Vasa Ghana, Vasa Ghrita (1), and Vasa Avaleha have shown good results on Tamaka Shwasa.
PMCID: PMC3202261  PMID: 22048552
Ghana (extract); Avaleha; Shwasa; Asava; Arishta; Tamaka Shwasa; Adhatoda vasica
4.  A progressive review of Sandhana kalpana (Biomedical fermentation): An advanced innovative dosage form of Ayurveda 
Ayu  2011;32(3):408-417.
Sandhana kalpana (biomedical fermented formulations) are one of the best dosage forms of Ayurveda in practice since thousands of years. In order to prepare these medicaments, certain sets of conditions are prearranged, which lead to fermentation. Thus, products bequeath with self-generated ethyl alcohol, which potentiate these preparations (Asava–Arishta), pharmaceutically and therapeutically. Commonly, medicinal and commercial components of these formulations are prompting many researchers to contribute in manufacturing, quality control, safety, and efficacy of these formulations. To cope up with this, literature related to Asava–Arishta has been surveyed from the Vedic period to recent publications of Government of India, ie, Ayurvedic Formulary of India, and presented briefly here. In this review paper, we have discussed pioneering facts such as nature and amount of carbohydrate, type of containers, optimum temperature, variety and relevance of initiator of fermentation, manufacturing, regulatory rules, and business aspects of Asava-Arishta. After going through this basic information, any academician or researcher may show a way to further strengthen this dosage form.
PMCID: PMC3326893  PMID: 22529661
Asava; Arishta; ethyl alcohol; fermentation; quality control; Sandhana kalpana
Ancient Science of Life  1996;16(1):21-25.
Nowadays many drug industries are manufacturing a number of oil formulations and which are not assessable to know the specific Pakas (stage) of oil preparation. In Ayurveda five stages have been mentioned for medicated oils, these Ama, Mridu, Madhya Khara and Dadgha Paka, Medicated oils obtained by Mridu, Madhya Khara and Dadgha Paka, are considered to be of therapeutic value and are advocated for clinical usage but those obtained by Ama and Dadgha pakas are not recommended. Most of the pharmacies are marketing the oils only by name but are not mentioning the Paka. In order to standardize these pakas with scientific explanation a oil preparation called Ksheerabala taila is selected for the study.
PMCID: PMC3331133  PMID: 22556766
6.  Effect of Purificatory Measures Through Cow's Urine and Milk on Strychnine and Brucine Content of Kupeelu (Strychnos Nuxvomica Linn.) Seeds 
Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs.
PMCID: PMC3746529  PMID: 23983327
Kupeelu; Strychnos nuxvomica; Shodhana; strychnine; Ayurveda; brucine; Cow's milk; Cow's urine
7.  Simultaneous quantification of tumor uptake for targeted and non-targeted liposomes and their encapsulated contents by ICP-MS 
Analytical chemistry  2012;84(17):7578-7582.
Liposomes are intensively being developed for biomedical applications including drug and gene delivery. However, targeted liposomal delivery in cancer treatment is a very complicated multi-step process. Unfavorable liposome biodistribution upon intravenous administration and membrane destabilization in blood circulation could result in only a very small fraction of cargo reaching the tumors. It would therefore be desirable to develop new quantitative strategies to track liposomal delivery systems to improve the therapeutic index and decrease systemic toxicity. Here, we developed a simple and non-radiative method to quantify the tumor uptake of targeted and non-targeted control liposomes as well as their encapsulated contents simultaneously. Specifically, four different chelated lanthanide metals were encapsulated or surface-conjugated onto tumor-targeted and non-targeted liposomes, respectively. The two liposome formulations were then injected into tumor-bearing mice simultaneously and their tumor delivery was determined quantitatively via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), allowing for direct comparisons. Tumor uptake of the liposomes themselves and their encapsulated contents were consistent with targeted and non-targeted liposome formulations that were injected individually.
PMCID: PMC3443955  PMID: 22882145
Ancient Science of Life  1993;12(3-4):358-362.
In ancient days, Physicians having the comprehensive knowledge of Bhaishajya Kalpana, used to prepare the drugs themselves to treat their patients. So there was no doubt in obtaining genuine drug with desired therapeutic effect. But in recent years, the growing population and their life style, industrialization etc have forced physicians to depend on market preparations. As such we find the necessity of standardization of these preparations. The quality assessments of a drug, which is a chemical irrespective of the system is possible by ‘Thin Layer Chromatographic technique’ using known Chemical constituents as reference standards. A herbal preparation ‘Kutajarishta’, has been standardized by using this technique and the significance of the findings is discussed.
PMCID: PMC3336554  PMID: 22556614
9.  A Comparative Study of the effect of Vasa Avaleha prepared with Vasa Swarasa and Vasa Kwatha in Tamaka Shwasa 
Ancient Science of Life  2009;28(3):23-28.
Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) is used to treat the diseases such as Shwasa, Kasa and Raktapitta in different dosage forms like Swarasa, Avaleha and Ghrita. Although the Avaleha Kalpana is not available in Brihattraya, but Gada Nigraha by Aacharya Sodhal and Bhava Prakasha have described its use in the form of Avaleha to treat the diseases of Respiratory System.
The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of two types of Vasa Avaleha prepared with either ‘Swarasa’ or ‘Kwatha’ of Vasa during their preparation. The outcomes were assessed on the basis of relief in subjective symptoms and certain hematologicalparameters.
Total 35 patients were enrolled for the study. Both the groups showed highly significant results on cardinal symptoms like frequency, intensity and duration of Shwasa (dyspnoea), Kasa (coughing), Peenasa (rhinitis) with maximum percentage in Vasa Avaleha (Swarasa). The formulations also shows a insignificant decrease in haematocrit values which includes Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Lymphocyte count and TL.STL. Overall Vasa Avaleha (Swarasa) shows maximum percentage of improvement than the other group.
PMCID: PMC3336325  PMID: 22557317
10.  Bhaishajya Kalpanaa - The Ayurvedic Pharmaceutics - An Overview 
In Ayurvedic therapeutics, drug therapy is given prime importance. There is a very well developed sub-discipline entirely devoted to drug formulations known as “Bhaisajya Kalpanaa”. Considering its importance, different aspects of this discipline have been presented in this review to familiarize the readers, especially those who have just started studying Ayurveda, with concept of ayurvedic pharmaceutics. The Ayurvedic drug formulation is based on what is known as “Pancavidha Kasaaya” concept. According to this concept there are five basic forms of formulation known as 1-‘Swarasa’ the expressed juice, 2-‘Kalka’, a fine paste obtained by grinding fresh or wet grinding dried plant material 3- ‘Kwaatha’, the decoction, 4- ‘Sheeta’ or ‘Hima’, the cold water infusion and 5- ‘Faanta’, the hot water infusion. Different aspects of their preparation and use have been discussed. Further from the above basic forms, a number of other formulations are derived; a brief description of each of them has been given along with brief outlines of drug formulations meant for specific routes. The third part of the review is devoted to discussion of influence of different factors on the expression of pharmacological activity.
PMCID: PMC3025621  PMID: 21461144
Ayurvedic pharmaceutics; Bhaisajya Kalpanaa; Pancavidha Kasaaya; Ayurvedic formulations Traditional systems of medicine
11.  Challenges in Development of Targeted Liposomal Therapeutics 
The AAPS Journal  2012;14(2):303-315.
Liposomes, phospholipid vesicles with a bilayered membrane structure, have been widely used as pharmaceutical carriers for drugs and genes, in particular for treatment of cancer. To enhance the efficacy of the liposomal drugs, drug-loaded liposomes are targeted to the tumors by means of passive (enhanced permeability and retention mediated) targeting, based on the longevity of liposomes in blood and its accumulation in pathological sites with compromised vasculature, and active targeting, based on the attachment of specific ligands to the liposomal surface to bind certain antigens on the target cells. Antibody-targeted liposomes loaded with anticancer drugs demonstrate high potential for clinical applications. This review highlights evolution of liposomes for both passive and active targeting and challenges in development of targeted liposomal therapeutics specifically antibody-targeted liposomes.
PMCID: PMC3326155  PMID: 22415612
active targeting; immunoliposomes; passive targeting; stimuli sensitive; targeted liposomes
12.  A Clinical study of Matra Vasti and an ayurvedic indigenous compound drug in the management of Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis) 
Ayu  2010;31(2):210-217.
Sandhigatavata is described under vatavyadhi in all ayurvedic classical texts. Osteoarthritis is the most common articular disorder which begins asymptomatically in the second and third decades and is extremely common by age 70. Here Matra Vasti (therapeutic enema) was given with Bala taila as Vasti is the best treatment for vatavyadhies. It has vatashamaka and rasayana properties. Indigenous compound drug containing Guggulu, Shallaki, Yastimadhu, Pippali, Guduchi, Nirgundi, Kupilu and Godanti was given in one group along with Matra Vasti. In this study, 33 patients of Sandhigatavata completed the treatment. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixteen patients in Group-A (sarvanga Abhyanga-swedana + matravasti) and 17 patients in Group-B (sarvanga Abhyanga–swedana+ matravasti + indigenous compound drug). The results of the study indicate that the patients of both the groups obtained highly significant relief in almost all the signs and symptoms of Sandhigatavata.
PMCID: PMC3215366  PMID: 22131712
Abhyanga; indigenous compound drug; Matra Vasti; osteoarthritis; Sandhigatavata; swedana; vatavyadhi; therapeutic enema.
13.  Modeling the Release Kinetics of Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Molecules from Liposomal Nanocarriers 
Journal of Drug Delivery  2011;2011:376548.
Liposomes are frequently used as pharmaceutical nanocarriers to deliver poorly water-soluble drugs such as temoporfin, cyclosporine A, amphotericin B, and paclitaxel to their target site. Optimal drug delivery depends on understanding the release kinetics of the drug molecules from the host liposomes during the journey to the target site and at the target site. Transfer of drugs in model systems consisting of donor liposomes and acceptor liposomes is known from experimental work to typically exhibit a first-order kinetics with a simple exponential behavior. In some cases, a fast component in the initial transfer is present, in other cases the transfer is sigmoidal. We present and analyze a theoretical model for the transfer that accounts for two physical mechanisms, collisions between liposomes and diffusion of the drug molecules through the aqueous phase. Starting with the detailed distribution of drug molecules among the individual liposomes, we specify the conditions that lead to an apparent first-order kinetic behavior. We also discuss possible implications on the transfer kinetics of (1) high drug loading of donor liposomes, (2) attractive interactions between drug molecules within the liposomes, and (3) slow transfer of drugs between the inner and outer leaflets of the liposomes.
PMCID: PMC3134868  PMID: 21773045
14.  Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content 
Ayu  2011;32(3):402-407.
Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil (Eranda taila), ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa), in the purification of Kupeelu seeds. In the present study an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by performing two different methods (one classical and another traditional) using Kanji and Ardraka swarasa as Shodhana media. This study reveals that both the methods studied reduce the strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). After purification in Kanji and Ardraka swarasa, the strychnine content was reduced by 39.25% and 67.82%, respectively, and the brucine content in the purified seeds was also found to have decreased by 17.60% and 40.06%, in comparison to the raw seeds.
PMCID: PMC3326892  PMID: 22529660
Ardraka swarasa; brucine; kanji; kupeelu; shodhana; strychnine
15.  Pharmaceutical preparation of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna: A herbal remedy for puerperal women 
In the last few decades, there has been exponential growth in the field of herbal remedies. Pharmacopoeial preparations like avleha or paka (semi-solid), swarasa (expressed juice), kalka (mass), him (cold infusion) and phanta (hot infusion), kwatha (decoction) and churna (powder) form the backbone of Ayurvedic formulations. Newer guidelines for standardization, manufacture, and quality control, and scientifically rigorous research will be necessary for traditional treatments. This traditional knowledge can serve as powerful search engine that will greatly facilitate drug discovery.
The aim of the present study is to standardize Saubhagya Shunthi Paka in churna (powder) form. The powder form makes this traditional drug more stable for long-term storage and hence, easier to preserve.
Materials and Methods:
Saubhagya Shunthi Paka is an ayurvedic formulation containing Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis) as one of its chief ingredients. The basic preparation of this drug is a semisolid. We checked the microbial load and nutrient values (using International Standard IS and Association of Official Analytical chemists AOAC methods)
The powdered form of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna yielded a weight loss of approximately 17.64% of the total weight of ingredients. The total energy of Churna (calculated based on nutrient content) was found higher over Paka.
Saubhagya Shunthi Churna may be a good therapeutic and dietary medicine for Indian women, which may be easily prepared at home.
PMCID: PMC2876929  PMID: 20532094
Ayurveda; Churna (powder); saubhagya shunthi paka; paka (semi-solid); puerperium
16.  Effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna, Vriddhadaru Mula Churna and Kandughna Taila in Shlipada (Manifested filariasis) 
Ayu  2012;33(1):102-109.
At present there are effective drugs in eradicating microfilariae but treatments to control the progression of manifested filariasis, periodic adenolymphangitis (ADL) and lymphedema are not available in conventional system of medicine. So far National Ayurveda Research Institute for Vector-borne diseases, Vijayawada, has conducted many clinical trails on manifested filariasis patients with the classical Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-mineral drugs and found significant results on ADL, lymphedema and other acute and chronic clinical manifestations. An effort has been made to find the effect of Kuberaksha Patra Churna [Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.], Vriddhadaru Mula Churna [Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj.] and Kandughna Taila (oil prepared from 10 Ayurvedic drugs) in manifested filarial patients. Based on inclusion criteria 133 patients were included in three groups (45 in Gr.I, 45 in Gr.II and 43 in Gr.III) and 120 patients completed the study (40 in each group). In Gr. I Argyreia nervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. root powder, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. leaf powder mixed equally was given in the dose of 5 g twice a day for 30 days. In Gr.II along with Gr. I internal drugs Kandughna Taila was applied externally in sufficient quantity once a day for 30 days. Gr. III is a control study with Ayurvedic established drug ‘Nityananda Rasa’ 1 tablet thrice daily for 30 days. Group I and II drugs showed highly significant effect on lymphedema, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, pain, tenderness, heaviness, deformity, fever and rigors (P<0.0001). Group III drug showed highly significant (P<0.0001) effect on lymphedema, deformity and heaviness; statistically significant (P=0.0018) on pain and tenderness; Significant effect on fever (P=0.0290), rigor (P=0.0290) and in lymphangitis (P=0.0384) and non-significant effect on lymphadenitis (P=0.1033). On statistical analysis effect of treatment on Hb and eosinophil count was found non-significant in three groups. On ESR, effect of treatment was found significant in Gr. III and non-significant in Gr. I and Gr. II.
PMCID: PMC3456846  PMID: 23049193
Argyreia nervosa; Caesalpinia bonduc; fever; filariasis; lymphadenitis; lymphangitis; lymphedema; Shlipada
17.  Local Targeted Therapy of Liver Metastasis from Colon Cancer by Galactosylated Liposome Encapsulated with Doxorubicin 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e73860.
Since regional drug administration enables to maintain a high drug concentration within tumors, we compared the plasma concentration and biodistribution of doxorubicin (Dox) from drug-loaded conventional liposomes by local or systemic administration. The results demonstrated that drug concentration was substantially improved in liver as well as a decrease in blood and other organs by spleen injection mimicking portal vein perfusion (regional administration). To further investigate the targeted therapeutic effect of galactosylated liposome encapsulated doxorubicin (Dox) by regional administration, liver targeting liposomes were prepared by incorporating galactosylated-DPPE to conventional liposomes. Liposome uptake and targeting were verified in vitro and in vivo by fluorescence microscopy and xenogen IVIS imaging system, respectively. The results showed that galactose targeted liposomes presented a stronger specific cell uptake by human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells compared to the non-targeted liposomes. In vivo fluorescence imaging showed that the intra-hepatic deposition of conventional and galactosylated liposomes via spleen injection was more than that via tail vein administration, and galactosylated liposomes had higher fluorescent intensity over conventional liposomes in the liver post spleen administration. The anti-tumor effect of various drug administration routes for both liposomal formulations was evaluated using a murine liver metastasis model of colon cancer. The results indicated that tumor progression in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly suppressed by Dox-loaded galactosylated liposomes via spleen injection, while no significance was observed in non-targeted formulations. Our data indicated that local perfusion of galactosylated liposomal doxorubicin had a great promise for the treatment of liver metastasis from colon cancer.
PMCID: PMC3770687  PMID: 24040096
18.  Dendrimeric Systems and Their Applications in Ocular Drug Delivery 
The Scientific World Journal  2013;2013:732340.
Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most attractive and challenging research area for pharmaceutical scientists and ophthalmologists. Absorption of an ophthalmic drug in conventional dosage forms is seriously limited by physiological conditions. The use of nonionic or ionic biodegradable polymers in aqueous solutions and colloidal dosage forms such as liposomes, nanoparticles, nanocapsules, microspheres, microcapsules, microemulsions, and dendrimers has been studied to overcome the problems mentioned above. Dendrimers are a new class of polymeric materials. The unique nanostructured architecture of dendrimers has been studied to examine their role in delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents. Dendrimers can enhance drug's water solubility, bioavailability, and biocompatibility and can be applied for different routes of drug administration successfully. Permeability enhancer properties of dendrimers were also reported. The use of dendrimers can also reduce toxicity versus activity and following an appropriate application route they allow the delivery of the drug to the targeted site and provide desired pharmacokinetic parameters. Therefore, dendrimeric drug delivery systems are of interest in ocular drug delivery. In this review, the limitations related to eye's unique structure, the advantages of dendrimers, and the potential applications of dendrimeric systems to ophthalmology including imaging, drug, peptide, and gene delivery will be discussed.
PMCID: PMC3874982  PMID: 24396306
19.  Review of research works done on Tamra Bhasma [Incinerated Copper] at Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Jamnagar 
Ayu  2013;34(1):21-25.
The metal, Tamra though mentioned in Ayurveda with a wide range of therapeutic utilities; is attributed with Ashta Maha Dosha. Hence, one should be cautious while using Tamra Bhasma. Considering the significance of Tamra in therapeutics, many studies have been carried out at different centers of India. Aim of the present study was to compile such available research works done on Tamra in the Department of Rasa Shastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana (RS and BK), IPGT and RA, Jamnagar and provide brief information about pharmaceutical, analytical, and pharmacological studies. Total eleven studies on Tamra Bhasma, which revalidated the impact of classical guidelines, safety issues, and therapeutic utilities, were screened from PG Department of RS and BK, Institute for Post-Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. All studies revealed that Tamra Bhasma is safe clinically, experimentally at Therapeutic Equivalent Dose (TED) levels as no toxic hazards were reported during the treatment period. In all aspects (pharmaceutical, pharmacological, and clinical) Somnathi Tamra Bhasma has proven to be better than Tamra Bhasma. The clinical efficacy of Tamra Bhasma has been evaluated in Shvasa, Kasa, Yakrit Pliha Vriddhi, Grahani, etc. conditions. Satisfactory responses with a decrease in the intensity of signs and symptoms were reported in all the studies. Though certain limitations were observed in these researches, the results can be considered as a lead for further well stratified studies covering larger population. No adverse effects were reported in any of these studies.
PMCID: PMC3764875  PMID: 24049401
Bhasma; Grahani; Rasa Shastra; safety; Somanathi Tamra; Tamra toxicity
20.  Administration of Liposomal Agents and Blood Clearance Capacity of the Mononuclear Phagocyte System 
As liposomes are cleared from the circulation to a substantial extent by the phagocytic cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), there is a question whether administration of liposome-based therapeutic agents interferes with clearance of infectious organisms by the MPS from blood. In the present study, at first the effect of administration of three types of empty liposomes (devoid of drug), differing in blood residence time, on carbon clearance and bacterial clearance from blood was studied with mice. Classical liposomes (LIP A) and placebo liposomes with lipid composition as in AmBisome (LIP B) or as in Doxil (LIP C) were used. Liposomes were administered intravenously as a single dose. Second, the effect of multiple-dose administration of AmBisome on bacterial blood clearance was studied with rats. AmBisome was administered with two different dosage schedules. The blood clearance capacity of the MPS was monitored at different time points after the last liposome injection. It was shown that the carbon blood clearance capacity of the MPS was impaired only at a high lipid dose of empty classical liposomes. The bacterial blood clearance capacity was never impaired, not even after prolonged treatment with AmBisome administered in a clinically relevant regimen.
PMCID: PMC105665  PMID: 9661003
21.  Liposomes and nanotechnology in drug development: focus on ocular targets 
Poor drug delivery to lesions in patients’ eyes is a major obstacle to the treatment of ocular diseases. The accessibility of these areas to drugs is highly restricted by the presence of barriers, including the corneal barrier, aqueous barrier, and the inner and outer blood–retinal barriers. In particular, the posterior segment is difficult to reach for drugs because of its structural peculiarities. This review discusses various barriers to drug delivery and provides comprehensive information for designing nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery systems for the treatment of ocular diseases. Nanoparticles can be designed to improve penetration, controlled release, and drug targeting. As highlighted in this review, the therapeutic efficacy of drugs in ocular diseases has been reported to be enhanced by the use of nanoparticles such as liposomes, micro/nanospheres, microemulsions, and dendrimers. Our recent data show that intravitreal injection of targeted liposomes encapsulating an angiogenesis inhibitor caused significantly greater suppression of choroidal neovascularization than did the injection of free drug. Recent progress in ocular drug delivery systems research has provided new insights into drug development, and the use of nanoparticles for drug delivery is thus a promising approach for advanced therapy of ocular diseases.
PMCID: PMC3576887  PMID: 23439842
intravitreal injection; drug delivery system; age-related macular degeneration; APRPG-modified PEGylated liposome; DDS
Ancient Science of Life  1999;18(3-4):275-278.
Karpoordi Taila is a medicated oil used in Ayurvedic system of Medicine for ‘Vaathavikaram’. The drugs used in karpoorradi Taila are trachysperum ammi (Linn) Sprague (Ayamodakam) and Cinnammomum camphora (Linn) Nees and Eberm (Karpooram). The phyusico chemical standards and the Thin Layer chromatographic standards presented in this paper can be used as finger print standards for karpporadi Taila.
PMCID: PMC3336471  PMID: 22556904
23.  Targeted Liposomal Drug Delivery to Monocytes and Macrophages 
Journal of Drug Delivery  2010;2011:727241.
As the role of monocytes and macrophages in a range of diseases is better understood, strategies to target these cell types are of growing importance both scientifically and therapeutically. As particulate carriers, liposomes naturally target cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), particularly macrophages. Loading drugs into liposomes can therefore offer an efficient means of drug targeting to MPS cells. Physicochemical properties including size, charge and lipid composition can have a very significant effect on the efficiency with which liposomes target MPS cells. MPS cells express a range of receptors including scavenger receptors, integrins, mannose receptors and Fc-receptors that can be targeted by the addition of ligands to liposome surfaces. These ligands include peptides, antibodies and lectins and have the advantages of increasing target specificity and avoiding the need for cationic lipids to trigger intracellular delivery. The goal for targeting monocytes/macrophages using liposomes includes not only drug delivery but also potentially a role in cell ablation and cell activation for the treatment of conditions including cancer, atherosclerosis, HIV, and chronic inflammation.
PMCID: PMC3065850  PMID: 21512579
24.  Application of liposomes in drug development — focus on gastroenterological targets 
Over the past decade, liposomes became a focal point in developing drug delivery systems. New liposomes, with novel lipid molecules or conjugates, and new formulations opened possibilities for safely and efficiently treating many diseases including cancers. New types of liposomes can prolong circulation time or specifically deliver drugs to therapeutic targets. This article concentrates on current developments in liposome based drug delivery systems for treating diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We will review different types and uses of liposomes in the development of therapeutics for gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC3623572  PMID: 23630417
liposome; colorectal cancer; inflammatory bowel disease; drug delivery
25.  OA01. 35. Role of matravasti as rasayana in jarajanya vikara - A clinical study 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S35.
To prove whether Matravasti shows multiple effects on different systems in old people and to substantiate the effects of Matravasti and Rasayana on clinical basis in ageing.
Eighty two patients - Men of age group 50 - 80 years; Women aged above 45 years or who have attained Menopause and <75 years suffering from common problems of old age irrespective of sex, caste, religion etc. were registered for the study from the OPD of MCD Ayurvedic Dispensary, Krishna Nagar, Delhi and OPD and IPD of PG Dept. of Panchakarma, Madhav vilas hospital, Jaipur. Out of which, 16 patients dropped out did not complete treatment. Matravasti was administered for 21 times with Balashwagandha lakshadi (BAL) Taila on alternate days with a dosage 30 - 80 ml accordingly. After completion of 21 days of Matravasti, all the patients were reviewed for successive 6 months. All the cases were assessed by considering 15 different aspects reflecting the common problems of ageing like Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) etc.,
The overall effect and maximum benefit observed was FAIR (25 % - 50 %) in 38 cases out of 66 patients. GOOD response (51 - 75 % response) in 26 cases and remaining 2 cases Best response (>75%). And the maximum benefit observed among all the cases is 81.8 % and the least effect was 25 %. Among all clinical parameters considered for the study maximum efficacy was found in sleep disturbances (67.5%) followed with gait balance deficit (56.25%), emotional status (55.1%), urinary incontinence (55%), Mobility (53.96 %), IADL (51.3%), ADL(50.8%), constipation (49.5%), cognitive status (48.78%), pain (48.14%), dyspnoea (47.25%), hearing impairment (42.5%), visual impairment (41.8%), dermatological manifestations (41.17%), and involuntary movements (22.2%).
Matravasti is a multifaceted and highly effective therapeutic measure in the geriatric conditions.
PMCID: PMC3800913

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