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1.  Ploidy manipulation of the gametophyte, endosperm and sporophyte in nature and for crop improvement: a tribute to Professor Stanley J. Peloquin (1921–2008) 
Annals of Botany  2009;104(5):795-807.
Emeritus Campbell-Bascom Professor Stanley J. Peloquin was an internationally renowned plant geneticist and breeder who made exceptional contributions to the quantity, quality and sustainable supply of food for the world from his innovative and extensive scientific contributions. For five decades, Dr Peloquin merged basic research in plant reproduction, cytology, cytogenetics, genetics, potato (Solanum tuberosum) improvement and education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Successive advances across these five decades redefined scientific comprehension of reproductive variation, its genetic control, genetic effects, evolutionary impact and utility for breeding. In concert with the International Potato Center (CIP), he and others translated the advances into application, resulting in large benefits on food production worldwide, exemplifying the importance of integrated innovative university research and graduate education to meet domestic and international needs.
Dr Peloquin is known to plant breeders, geneticists, international agricultural economists and potato researchers for his enthusiastic and incisive contributions to genetic enhancement of potato using haploids, 2n gametes and wild Solanum species; for his pioneering work on potato cultivation through true seed; and as mentor of a new generation of plant breeders worldwide. The genetic enhancement of potato, the fourth most important food crop worldwide, benefited significantly from expanded germplasm utilization and advanced reproductive genetic knowledge, which he and co-workers, including many former students, systematically transformed into applied breeding methods. His research on plant sexual reproduction included subjects such as haploidization and polyploidization, self- and cross-incompatibility, cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer genes, gametophytic/sporophytic heterozygosity and male fertility, as well as endosperm dosages and seed development. By defining methods of half-tetrad analysis and new cytological techniques, he elucidated modes, mechanisms and genetic controls and effects of 2n gametes in Solanum. Ramifications extend to many other crops and plants, in both basic and applied sciences.
Based upon a foundation of genetics, cytogenetics and plant reproductive biology, Dr Peloquin and co-workers developed methods to use 2n gametes and haploids for breeding, and used them to move genes for important horticultural traits from wild tuber-bearing Solanum species to cultivated potato for the betterment of agriculture. The resulting potato germplasm included combinations of yield, adaptation, quality and disease resistance traits that were previously unavailable. This elite plant germplasm was utilized and distributed to 85 countries by the CIP, because it not only increased potato yields and quality, it also broadened the adaptation of potato to lowland tropical regions, where humanity has benefited from this addition to their food supply.
PMCID: PMC2749530  PMID: 19689972
2n gametes; endosperm balance number; haploid; Solanum; true potato seed
2.  IFDAS 
Anesthesia Progress  2000;47(1):13-25.
PMCID: PMC2149005
3.  IFDAS Reports 
Anesthesia Progress  1995;42(3-4):158-159.
PMCID: PMC2148915
4.  IFDAS Reports 
Anesthesia Progress  1995;42(2):65-68.
PMCID: PMC2148849
Anesthesia Progress  2007;54(1):1.
PMCID: PMC1821132
6.  IFDAS News, July 2008 
Anesthesia Progress  2008;55(4):133.
PMCID: PMC2614652
7.  IFDAS Newsletter 
Anesthesia progress  2005;52(3):111-112.
PMCID: PMC1586788
Anesthesia Progress  2009;56(2):35.
PMCID: PMC2699689
9.  Redox Pioneer: Professor Helmut Sies 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2014;21(18):2459-2468.
Professor Helmut Sies
Dr. Helmut Sies (MD, 1967) is recognized as a Redox Pioneer, because he authored five articles on oxidative stress, lycopene, and glutathione, each of which has been cited more than 1000 times, and coauthored an article on hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian systems cited more than 5000 times (Google Scholar). He obtained preclinical education at the University of Tübingen and the University of Munich, clinical training at Munich (MD, 1967) and Paris, and completed Habilitation at Munich (Physiological Chemistry and Physical Biochemistry, 1972). In early research, he first identified hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a normal aerobic metabolite and devised a method to quantify H2O2 concentration and turnover in cells. He quantified central redox systems for energy metabolism (NAD, NADP systems) and antioxidant GSH in subcellular compartments. He first described ebselen, a selenoorganic compound, as a glutathione peroxidase mimic. He contributed a fundamental discovery to the physiology of GSH, selenium nutrition, singlet oxygen biochemistry, and health benefits of dietary lycopene and cocoa flavonoids. He has published more than 600 articles, 134 of which are cited at least 100 times, and edited 28 books. His h-index is 115. During the last quarter of the 20th century and well into the 21st, he has served as a scout, trailblazer, and pioneer in redox biology. His formulation of the concept of oxidative stress stimulated and guided research in oxidants and antioxidants; his pioneering research on carotenoids and flavonoids informed nutritional strategies against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and aging; and his quantitative approach to redox biochemistry provides a foundation for modern redox systems biology. Helmut Sies is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2459–2468.
The joy of exploring the unknown and finding something novel and noteworthy: what a privilege!
PMCID: PMC4245851  PMID: 25178739
10.  The life, achievements and legacy of a great Canadian investigator: Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (1877–1950) 
The present paper reviews the life and achievements of Professor Boris Petrovich Babkin (MD DSc LLD). History is only worth writing about if it teaches us about the future; therefore, this historical review concludes by describing what today’s and future gastrointestinal physiologists could learn from Dr Babkin’s life.
Dr Babkin was born in Russia in 1877. He graduated with an MD degree from the Military Medical Academy in St Petersburg, Russia, in 1904. Not being attracted to clinical practice, and after some hesitation concerning whether he would continue in history or basic science of medicine, he entered the laboratory of Professor Ivan Petrovich Pavlov. Although he maintained an interest in history, in Pavlov’s exciting environment he became fully committed to physiology of the gastrointestinal system. He advanced quickly in Russia and was Professor of Physiology at the University of Odessa. In 1922, he was critical of the Bolshevik revolution, and after a short imprisonment, he was ordered to leave Russia. He was invited with his family by Professor EH Starling (the discoverer of secretin) to his department at University College, London, England. Two years later, he was offered a professorship in Canada at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. After contributing there for four years, he joined McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, in 1928 as Research Professor. He remained there for the rest of his career. Between 1940 and 1941, he chaired the Department, and following retirement, he remained as Research Professor. At the invitation of the world-famous neurosurgeon, Wilder Penfield, Dr Babkin continued as Research Fellow in the Department of Neurosurgery until his death in 1950 at age 73.
His major achievements were related to establishing the concept of brain-gut-brain interaction and the influence of this on motility, as well as on interface of multiple different cells, nerves and hormones on secretory function. He had a major role in the rediscovery of gastrin. He established a famous school of gastrointestinal physiologists at McGill University. He supported his trainees and helped them establish their careers. He received many honors: a DSc in London, England, and an LLD from Dalhousie University. Most importantly, he was the recipient of the Friedenwald Medal of the American Gastroenterological Association for lifelong contributions to the field. Dr Babkin taught us his philosophical aspect of approaching physiology, his devotion to his disciples and his overall kindness. Most importantly, he has proven that one can achieve international recognition by publishing mainly in Canadian journals. He is an example to follow.
PMCID: PMC2659943  PMID: 17001399
Biography; Boris Petrovich Babkin; Brain-gut-brain interaction; Friedenwald Medal; Gastrin; GI secretions; Ivan Petrovich Pavlov; McGill University; Mentor; Physiologist
11.  Redox Pioneer: Professor Joe M. McCord 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2014;20(1):183-188.
Dr. Joe McCord (Ph.D. 1970) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because he has published at least three articles on antioxidant/redox biology as first/last author that have been cited over 1000 times and has published at least 37 articles each cited over 100 times. Dr. McCord is known for the monumental discovery of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) while a graduate student under fellow redox pioneer Irwin Fridovich and demonstrating its necessity to aerobic life. Beyond this, McCord's career is distinguished for bridging the gap from basic science to clinical relevance by showing the application of SOD and superoxide to human physiology, and characterizing the physiological functions of superoxide in inflammation, immunological chemotaxis, and ischemia–reperfusion injury, among other disease conditions. Work by McCord serves as the foundation upon which our understanding of how superoxide functions in a variety of physiological systems is built and demonstrates how superoxide is essential to aerobic life, yet, if left unchecked by SOD, toxic to a multitude of systems. These discoveries have substantial significance in a wide range of studies with applications in cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurology, and medicine, as well as general health and longevity. Dr. McCord's contributions to free radical biology have been recognized through many prestigious achievement awards, honorary titles, and conferences around the world; each serving as a testament to his status as a redox pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 183–188.
PMCID: PMC3881026  PMID: 24117164
12.  Review of the Southeast Asian species of the Aenictus javanus and Aenictus philippinensis species groups (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Aenictinae)  
ZooKeys  2012;49-78.
The Southeast Asian species of the Aenictus javanus and Aenictus philippinensis groups are revised. Six species (four named and two new species) of the Aenictus javanus group occurring in this area are: Aenictus doydeei Jaitrong & Yamane, 2011, Aenictus duengkaei Jaitrong & Yamane, sp. n., Aenictus javanus Emery, 1896, Aenictus longinodus Jaitrong & Yamane, sp. n., Aenictus nishimurai Terayama & Kubota, 1993, and Aenictus piercei Wheeler & Chapman, 1930. Four species (three named and one new species) are recognized in the Aenictus philippinensis group: Aenictus pangantihoni Zettel & Sorger, 2010, Aenictus philippinensis Chapman, 1963, Aenictus punctatus Jaitrong & Yamane, sp. n., and Aenictus rabori Chapman, 1963. Aenictus piercei is removed from the members of the Aenictus piercei group sensu Jaitrong and Yamane (2011) and transferred to the Aenictus javanus group. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for Aenictus piercei and Aenictus rabori. Size variation occurs among individuals from single colonies of the Aenictus javanus group, while the workers in the Aenictus philippinensis group are clearly monomorphic.
PMCID: PMC3361139  PMID: 22679379
Aenictus javanus group; Aenictus philippinensis group; army ants; taxonomy; new species; Southeast Asia
13.  Insights into Ayurvedic biology—sA conversation with Professor M.S. Valiathan 
Professor Marthanda Varma Sankaran Valiathan, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, ex President of the Indian National Science Academy, is a reputed cardiac surgeon who made original contributions to cardiology and the development of medical technology. He is widely recognized for his role in pioneering the joint culture of medicine and technology, and laying the foundations for the medical devices industry in India. He has pioneered several scientific studies in the field of Ayurveda and authored several books on the subject. In this free and frank interview he discusses three important phases in his life, and his passion for the convergence of modern biology and Ayurveda as a new discipline of science “Ayurvedic Biology”.
PMCID: PMC3545245  PMID: 23326096
Ayurvedic Biology; Professor Valiathan; interview
14.  Redox Pioneer: Professor Stuart A. Lipton 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2013;19(8):757-764.
Professor Stuart A. Lipton
Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because of his publication of four articles that have been cited more than 1000 times, and 96 reports which have been cited more than 100 times. In the redox field, Dr. Lipton is best known for his work on the regulation by S-nitrosylation of the NMDA-subtype of neuronal glutamate receptor, which provided early evidence for in situ regulation of protein activity by S-nitrosylation and a prototypic model of allosteric control by this post-translational modification. Over the past several years, Lipton's group has pioneered the discovery of aberrant protein nitrosylation that may contribute to a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). In particular, the phenotypic effects of rare genetic mutations may be understood to be enhanced or mimicked by nitrosative (and oxidative) modifications of cysteines and thereby help explain common sporadic forms of disease. Thus, Lipton has contributed in a major way to the understanding that nitrosative stress may result from modifications of specific proteins and may operate in conjunction with genetic mutation to create disease phenotype. Lipton (collaborating with Jonathan S. Stamler) has also employed the concept of targeted S-nitrosylation to produce novel neuroprotective drugs that act at allosteric sites in the NMDA receptor. Lipton has won a number of awards, including the Ernst Jung Prize in Medicine, and is an elected fellow of the AAAS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 757–764.
PMCID: PMC3749706  PMID: 23815466
15.  Congenital Elevation of the Scapula 
Dr. Robert D. Schrock was born in 1884 in Delaware, Ohio [3]. His father, William A., was a physician, as was his son, Robert D., Jr. The family subsequently moved to Decatur, Indiana. Dr. Robert Schrock obtained his undergraduate work at Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Indiana, in 1908 [2] and his medical degree at Cornell University Medical School in 1912 [2]. He completed postgraduate work at the New York Hospital in New York City. He briefly practiced in Omaha with Dr. John Lord, then served as a surgeon in WW I, working under Lt. Col. Joel Goldthwait in France. After the war he returned to Omaha to again practice with Lord. In 1921 he was appointed to the faculty of the University of Nebraska School of Medicine and became Professor and Chair in 1932, a post he held until 1949, when he became Professor Emeritus.
Dr. Schrock became active in many medical organizations and in 1928 was elected President of the Clinical Orthopaedic Society, one of the two major groups that founded the AAOS, and was also active in the other, the American Orthopaedic Association. He was, as a result, involved in the early foundations of the AAOS, and became its President in 1940. He served as a civilian consultant to the Secretary of War from 1943 to 1945. With great prescience he commented in his Presidential Address to the AAOS in 1941 about Board certification, “This is not a hallmark of excellence in perpetuity. Products are frequently certified for a definite period of time if maintained under certain optimum conditions. Some people, like products, improve with advancing years, others deteriorate and some in cold storage remain frigidly good but no better. Orthopaedic surgeons, like human beings, are influenced by environment, necessity, ambition, health and avocational interest in other pursuits of happiness…If the measure of continued merit is to be maintained through our oncoming years, there need be an awareness of change, open mindedness to new concepts, elasticity in viewpoint, with a ready reception and stimulating encouragement to the newer generation whose future is in the making” [3].
The article we reprint describes a seemingly radical approach to a difficult problem: congenital elevation of the scapula (Sprengel’s deformity) [4]. Shrock noted the few previous attempts to address this problem were “…rather indefinite and in too many the results seemed discouraging. Most of the reports indicated considerable conservatism in the operative attack” [4]. He advocated “a far more radical procedure, but based upon the suggestions obtained from previous reports” [4]. As in earlier reports, he recommended sectioning the chondroosseous scapulothoracic bridge, but he then described a radical subperiosteal dissection of the scapula leaving the rhomboids, serratus magnus, and subscapularis muscles with the periosteal sleeve, then distally transplanting the entire scapula within that sleeve. (Interested readers can also see Campbell’s description in 1939 [1]). If this did not allow adequate drop of the scapula, he then performed an osteotomy at the base of the acromion. A postoperative dressing which maintained downward and backward pressure on the scapula was, he insisted, a critical detail. He reported two cases with good results in followup at 15 and 16 months postoperatively [4]. Dr. Robert D. Schrock is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983.
Campbell WC. Operative Orthopedics. Saint Louis, MO: CV Mosby Co; 1939.Cornell Alumni News. 1912. Cornell College Web site. Available at: Accessed August 17, 2007.Robert D. Schrock, M.D. 1884–1960. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1961;43:155–157.Schrock RD. Congenital elevation of the scapula. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1926;8:207–215.
PMCID: PMC2505287  PMID: 18196376
16.  Retinal neovascularisation: early contributions of Professor Michaelson and recent observations. 
The late Professor I. C. Michaelson's pioneer contributions to the development and pathophysiology of the retinal vasculature have laid the groundwork for a generation of ophthalmic research scientists to pursue this exciting field of investigation. In more recent studies it has been found that, in diabetic retinopathy, branch vein occlusion, sickle cell retinopathy, and retrolental fibroplasia, retinal neovascularisation follows the development of retinal capillary closure. The capillary closure or nonperfusion has been demonstrated by fluorescein angiography. A working hypothesis to explain the clinical and experimental observations is that these areas of nonperfused retina are ischaemic or hypoxic and liberate a theoretical angiogenic or vasoproliferative substance which stimulates the development of retinal neovascularisation. In postulating this working hypothesis it is important to recognise, firstly, that this hypothesis remains to be proved, and, secondly, that retinal neovascularisation may develop from other stimuli such as intraocular inflammation where retinal ischaemia is not apparent.
PMCID: PMC1040236  PMID: 6197084
17.  Redox Pioneer: Professor Joseph Loscalzo 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2010;13(7):1125-1132.
Professor Joseph Loscalzo
Dr. Joseph Loscalzo (M.D., 1978; Ph.D., 1977) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because he has published two articles in the field of antioxidant/redox biology that have been cited more than 1,000 times and 22 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Dr. Loscalzo is known for his seminal contributions to our understanding of the vascular biology of nitric oxide. His initial discovery that the antiplatelet effects of organic nitrates are potentiated by thiols through a mechanism that involved metabolism to S-nitrosothiols was followed by the demonstration that S-nitrosothiols are formed endogenously through S-transnitrosation, stabilize nitric oxide, and facilitate the transport and transfer of nitric oxide between and within cells of the vessel wall. These properties led to the development of S-nitrosothiol–containing pharmacotherapies to treat disease states characterized by nitric oxide deficiency. Dr. Loscalzo's other scientific contributions include identifying the vascular functional consequences of genetic deficiencies of antioxidant enzymes that decrease nitric oxide bioavailability, collectively termed the “oxidative enzymopathies,” and demonstrating the role of mitochondria in modulating the disulfide subproteome, and in redox signaling in hypoxia. He has received numerous awards and honors for his scientific contributions, including election to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 1125–1132.
PMCID: PMC2959177  PMID: 20443733
18.  Redox Pioneer: Professor Irwin Fridovich 
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling  2011;14(3):335-340.
Professor Irwin Fridovich
Dr. Irwin Fridovich (Ph.D., 1955) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because as first/last author he has published at least 1 paper on antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited over 1000 times and has published at least 10 papers each cited over 100 times. In collaboration with his graduate student, Joe McCord, Dr. Fridovich discovered the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Subsequently, he and his colleagues demonstrated that the enzyme is ubiquitous among aerobic biota and comprises a critical defense against oxidative stress. With coworkers, Dr. Fridovich identified the first physiological targets of superoxide, the iron–sulfur clusters of dehydratases. They also showed that SOD is just one of several strategies by which cells fend off oxidative stress. It is now clear that organisms are chronically exposed to endogenous superoxide; further, microbes, plants, and mammals all employ superoxide as a weapon to poison their competitors. Thus, the achievement of Fridovich's laboratory was not only the seminal discovery of SOD but also the painstaking work over the subsequent decades that illuminated its place in biology. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 355–340.
When, by chance, you make an observation that cannot be explained in terms of current knowledge, do not hesitate to pursue it even though it may seem esoteric or unimportant. It may well lead you to discoveries of considerable importance.
PMCID: PMC3026652  PMID: 20518701
19.  SYNAPSE, Symposium for Young Neuroscientists and Professors of the Southeast: A One-day, Regional Neuroscience Meeting Focusing on Undergraduate Research 
The Symposium for Young Neuroscientists and Professors of the Southeast (SYNAPSE; was designed to encourage contacts among faculty and students interested in neuroscience. Since its inception in 2003, the SYNAPSE conference has consistently drawn faculty and undergraduate interest from the region. This unique meeting provides undergraduates with a valuable opportunity for neuroscience education; students interact with noted neuroscience faculty, present research results, obtain feedback from neuroscientists at other institutions, and form connections with other neuroscientists in the region. Additionally, SYNAPSE allows undergraduate students and faculty to attend workshops and panel discussions about issues related to professional skills and career options. The SYNAPSE conference currently travels among host institutions in the southeastern United States in two-year cycles. This article briefly describes the genesis of SYNAPSE and reviews SYNAPSE conferences from 2006 through 2010. The goal of this paper is to highlight key issues organizers have experienced launching, sustaining, and hosting this regional undergraduate neuroscience conference as well as assist faculty to develop similar conferences.
PMCID: PMC3592723  PMID: 23493950
undergraduate education; neuroscience; conferences
20.  Forecasting the student–professor matches that result in unusually effective teaching 
Two important influences on students' evaluations of teaching are relationship and professor effects. Relationship effects reflect unique matches between students and professors such that some professors are unusually effective for some students, but not for others. Professor effects reflect inter-rater agreement that some professors are more effective than others, on average across students.
We attempted to forecast students' evaluations of live lectures from brief, video-recorded teaching trailers.
Participants were 145 college students (74% female) enrolled in introductory psychology courses at a public university in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Students viewed trailers early in the semester and attended live lectures months later. Because subgroups of students viewed the same professors, statistical analyses could isolate professor and relationship effects.
Evaluations were influenced strongly by relationship and professor effects, and students' evaluations of live lectures could be forecasted from students' evaluations of teaching trailers. That is, we could forecast the individual students who would respond unusually well to a specific professor (relationship effects). We could also forecast which professors elicited better evaluations in live lectures, on average across students (professor effects). Professors who elicited unusually good evaluations in some students also elicited better memory for lectures in those students.
It appears possible to forecast relationship and professor effects on teaching evaluations by presenting brief teaching trailers to students. Thus, it might be possible to develop online recommender systems to help match students and professors so that unusually effective teaching emerges.
PMCID: PMC4354448  PMID: 24953773
Teaching Evaluations; SRM; G theory; Person Perception; RRT
21.  Medical ethics education: a professor of religion investigates. 
Journal of Medical Ethics  1983;9(1):8-11.
A study was carried out in a large teaching hospital to ascertain the current view of members of ten ward teams in regard to certain problems in the field of medical ethics. The investigator accompanied each team on their morning rounds and sat in on their discussions. At the end of each week he interviewed the faculty member, residents, intern, and medical students who comprised that team. Responses to these fifty open-ended interviews were grouped into categories that seemed natural to the data. These were tabulated and commented upon. The conclusions drawn were that there is an urgent need for ethical discourse in medical education, but that there are certain built-in difficulties in bringing this about in a significant way. Focus of attention upon critical incidents that come up in the normal cycle of ward rounds appeared to be the optimum approach to take.
PMCID: PMC1060840  PMID: 6834405
22.  The Scientific Production of Full Professors of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de SÃO Paulo: A View of the Period of 2001–2006 
Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil)  2009;64(9):903-909.
The scientific production of institutions of higher education, as well as the dissemination and use of this published work by peer institutions, can be assessed by means of quantitative and qualitative measurements. This type of analysis can also serve as the basis of further academic actions. Variables such as the type of evaluation, the number of faculty members and the decision to include or exclude researchers who are not professors are difficult to measure when comparing different schools and institutions.
The purpose of this study was to assess the scientific production of tenured faculty from the Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina performed from 2001 to 2006.
Medline/PubMed database was considered and the Impact factors (IFs - Journal Citation Report, 2006) and the number of generated citations (Web of Science/ISI Thomson) were also evaluated.
The analysis of the scientific production of 66 full professors (level MS-6) revealed 1,960 scientific articles published in 630 scientific journals, of which 31.3% were Brazilian and 68.7% were from international sources. Among these, 47% of the articles were published in 62.9% of the journals with IFs above 10, although 16.4% of the journals did not have assigned IF values. We verified that 45% of the published articles received 9,335 citations (average of 11 + 17), with the majority of these (8,968 citations) appearing in international scientific journals.
Our results indicate that it is possible to analyze the scientific production of a learning institution by the number of papers published by full professors, taking into account not only their academic position and influence, but also the fact that publication is an opportunity to stimulate joint projects with other members of the same institution.
PMCID: PMC2745140  PMID: 19759885
Scientific publication indicators; Research personnel/Statistics and numerical data; Medline/utilization; Impact factor; Bibliometric indicators
23.  Nonfixed Retirement Age for University Professors: Modeling Its Effects on New Faculty Hires 
Service science  2012;4(1):69-78.
We model the set of tenure-track faculty members at a university as a queue, where “customers” in queue are faculty members in active careers. Arrivals to the queue are usually young, untenured assistant professors, and departures from the queue are primarily those who do not pass a promotion or tenure hurdle and those who retire. There are other less-often-used ways to enter and leave the queue. Our focus is on system effects of the elimination of mandatory retirement age. In particular, we are concerned with estimating the number of assistant professor slots that annually are no longer available because of the elimination of mandatory retirement. We start with steady-state assumptions that require use of Little’s Law of Queueing, and we progress to a transient model using system dynamics. We apply these simple models using available data from our home university, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
PMCID: PMC3737001  PMID: 23936582
education; workforce management; retirement policy; mandatory retirement age; university faculty; queues; Little’s Law; Age Discrimination in Employment Act; system dynamics; modeling; simulation
24.  Genetic Engineering of a Mouse 
Genetic engineering is the process of modifying an organism’s genetic composition by adding foreign genes to produce desired traits or evaluate function. Dr. Jon W. Gordon and Sterling Professor Emeritus at Yale Dr. Frank H. Ruddle were pioneers in mammalian gene transfer research. Their research resulted in production of the first transgenic animals, which contained foreign DNA that was passed on to offspring. Transgenic mice have revolutionized biology, medicine, and biotechnology in the 21st century. In brief, this review revisits their creation of transgenic mice and discusses a few evolving applications of their transgenic technology used in biomedical research.
PMCID: PMC3117405  PMID: 21698043
transgenic; transgenic technology; Frank Ruddle; Jon Gordon; somatic cell genetics; gene mapping; overexpression; knockout; genetic modification
25.  Lewis A. Sayre: The First Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery in America 
Lewis Albert Sayre (1820–1900) is considered to be among the founding fathers of orthopaedic surgery in the United States. He studied medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons (now of Columbia University). Sayre later helped establish the first academic department of orthopaedics at the Bellevue Medical College where he served as their first Professor of Orthopaedics. Lewis Sayre treated a considerable diversity of musculoskeletal conditions and meticulously documented them with written notes, sketches, and photographs. As a public figure, his methods were controversial, attracting praise by some and inviting criticism by other prominent members of the international community. He made great strides for physicians, helping to charter the American Medical Association and to establish the weekly publication of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
PMCID: PMC2493005  PMID: 18566873

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