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1.  A look into Lee's score: peri-operative cardiovascular risk assessment in non-cardiac surgeries—usefulness of revised cardiac risk index 
Indian Heart Journal  2012;64(2):134-138.
The revised cardiac risk index (RCRI/Lee's score) was designed for peri-operative risk assessment before elective major non-cardiac surgeries. Through this article, we report the usefulness of RCRI in our daily practice, while evaluating patients undergoing surgeries of varying risk.
Only referred patients, aged ≥ 40 years, were included. Risk stratification was done using RCRI scoring system. Patients were categorised into 4 classes depending on 0, 1, 2, and ≥3 risk predictors (risk predictors were high-risk surgery, history of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), diabetes on insulin, history of stroke (cerebrovascular accident [CVA]), history of congestive heart failure (CHF) and serum creatinine of >2 mg%). Electrocardiograms (ECG) were done in all patients, while troponin I in intermediate and high-risk patients, and in others if symptomatic. Perioperative cardiovascular events were managed appropriately.
Of the 920 patients included, only 853 patients were analysed as 67 patients were not operated upon. The mean age was 59 ± 11years and 46% of the patients were women. Two hundred and ninety-two underwent high-risk surgeries, 97 patients had history of IHD, 89 had history of CHF, 36 gave history of CVA, 269 patients were diabetics on insulin and 68 had serum creatinine >2 mg%. Number of patients in Lee's classes I, II, III, and IV were 311, 347, 150, and 52, respectively. 26 out of 853 patients had peri-operative events. Of the six variables in RCRI, only history of IHD was an independent predictor of events. Event rates increased as the RCRI class increased, i.e. 1.7%, 2.0%, 6.7%, and 7.7% for classes I–IV, respectively. Age >70 years, poor general medical condition, emergency surgery and left bundle branch block (LBBB) on ECG, were significantly associated with peri-operative events.
The RCRI is a useful tool in pre-operative risk stratification. It should perhaps be further updated to improve its predictive accuracy.
PMCID: PMC3860848  PMID: 22572486
Non-cardiac surgeries; Peri-operative evaluation; Revised cardiac risk index
2.  Does the revised cardiac risk index predict cardiac complications following elective lung resection? 
Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) score and Thoracic Revised Cardiac Risk Index (ThRCRI) score were developed to predict the risks of postoperative major cardiac complications in generic surgical population and thoracic surgery respectively. This study aims to determine the accuracy of these scores in predicting the risk of developing cardiac complications including atrial arrhythmias after lung resection surgery in adults.
We studied 703 patients undergoing lung resection surgery in a tertiary thoracic surgery centre. Observed outcome measures of postoperative cardiac morbidity and mortality were compared against those predicted by risk.
Postoperative major cardiac complications and supraventricular arrhythmias occurred in 4.8% of patients. Both index scores had poor discriminative ability for predicting postoperative cardiac complications with an area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.59 (95% CI 0.51-0.67) for the RCRI score and 0.57 (95% CI 0.49-0.66) for the ThRCRI score.
In our cohort, RCRI and ThRCRI scores failed to accurately predict the risk of cardiac complications in patients undergoing elective resection of lung cancer. The British Thoracic Society (BTS) recommendation to seek a cardiology referral for all asymptomatic pre-operative lung resection patients with > 3 RCRI risk factors is thus unlikely to be of clinical benefit.
PMCID: PMC3879030  PMID: 24289748
Risk factors; Lung; Surgery; Complications; Cardiac arrhythmia
3.  Plasma N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Is Predictive of Perioperative Cardiac Events in Patients Undergoing Vascular Surgery 
Identification of patients at high risk for perioperative cardiac events (POCE) is clinically important. This study aimed to determine whether preoperative measurement of plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) could predict POCE, and compared its predictive value with that of conventional cardiac risk factors and stress thallium scans in patients undergoing vascular surgery.
Patients scheduled for non-cardiac vascular surgery were prospectively enrolled. Clinical risk factors were identified, and NT-proBNP levels and stress thallium scans were obtained. POCE was the composite of acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure including acute pulmonary edema, and primary cardiac death within 5 days after surgery. A modified Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) was proposed and compared with NT-proBNP; a positive result for ischemia and a significant perfusion defect (≥ 3 walls, moderate to severely decreased, reversible perfusion defect) on the thallium scan were added to the RCRI.
A total of 365 patients (91% males) with a mean age of 67 years had a median NT-proBNP level of 105.1 pg/mL (range of quartile, 50.9 to 301.9). POCE occurred in 49 (13.4%) patients. After adjustment for confounders, an NT-proBNP level of > 302 pg/mL (odds ratio [OR], 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1 to 10.3; p < 0.001) and a high risk by the modified RCRI (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.6 to 9.3; p = 0.002) were independent predictors for POCE. Comparison of the area under the curves for predicting POCE showed no statistical differences between NT-proBNP and RCRI.
Preoperative measurement of NT-proBNP provides information useful for prediction of POCE as a single parameter in high-risk patients undergoing noncardiac vascular surgery.
PMCID: PMC3443723  PMID: 23019395
Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; Vascular surgical procedures; Postoperative complications
4.  Preoperative NT-proBNP and CRP predict perioperative major cardiovascular events in non-cardiac surgery 
Heart  2009;96(1):56-62.
To investigate whether simple and non-invasive measurement of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict perioperative major cardiovascular event (PMCE).
Prospective, single-centre, cohort study.
A 1900-bed tertiary-care university hospital in Seoul, Korea
Design and patients:
The predictive power of NT-proBNP, CRP and Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) for the risk of PMCE (myocardial infarction, pulmonary oedema or cardiovascular death) were evaluated from a prospective cohort of 2054 elective major non-cardiac surgery patients. Optimal cut-off values were derived from receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis.
Main outcome measurement:
PMCE (myocardial infarction, pulmonary oedema or cardiovascular death) within postoperative 30 days.
PMCE developed in a total of 290 patients (14.1%). Each increasing quartile of NT-proBNP or CRP level was associated with a greater risk of PMCE after adjustment for traditional clinical risk factors. The relative risk (RR) of highest versus lowest quartile was 5.2 for NT-proBNP (p<0.001) and 3.7 for CRP (p<0.001). Both NT-proBNP (cut-off  = 301 ng/l) and CRP (cut-off  = 3.4 mg/l) predicted PMCE better than RCRI (cut-off  = 2) by ROC analysis (p<0.001). Moreover, the predictive power of RCRI (adjusted RR  = 1.5) could be improved significantly by addition of CRP and NT-proBNP to RCRI (adjusted RR 4.6) (p<0.001).
High preoperative NT-proBNP or CRP is a strong and independent predictor of perioperative major cardiovascular event in non-cardiac surgery. The predictive power of current clinical risk evaluation system would be strengthened by these biomarkers.
PMCID: PMC2791233  PMID: 19861299
5.  Comparison of Transthoracic Echocardiography With N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide as a Tool for Risk Stratification of Patients Undergoing Major Noncardiac Surgery 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(9):505-511.
Background and Objectives
The role of preoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for the risk stratification has not been well investigated yet. We compared the predictive power of TTE with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a representative biomarker that predicts perioperative cardiovascular risk, and investigated whether these tests have incremental value to the clinically determined risk.
Subjects and Methods
We evaluated the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI), TTE, and NT-proBNP in 1,923 noncardiac surgery cases. The primary endpoint was a perioperative major cardiovascular event (PMCE), which was defined by any single or combined event of secondary endpoints including myocardial infarction, development of pulmonary edema, or primary cardiovascular death within 30 days after surgery.
All echocardiographic parameters including left ventricular ejection fraction, regional wall motion score index, and transmitral early diastolic velocity/tissue Doppler mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/E') were predictive of PMCE (c-statistics=0.579±0.019 to 0.589±0.015), but none of these parameters were better than the clinically determined RCRI (c-statistics=0.594±0.019) and were inferior to NT-proBNP (c-statistics=0.748±0.019, p<0.001). The predictive power of RCRI {adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.4} could be improved by addition of echocardiographic parameters (adjusted RR=1.8, p<0.001), but not to that extent as by addition of NT-proBNP to RCRI (adjusted RR=3.7, p<0.001).
TTE was modestly predictive of perioperative cardiovascular events but was not superior to NT-proBNP. Moreover, it did not have incremental value to the clinically determined risk. The results of our study did not support the use of routine echocardiography before noncardiac surgery.
PMCID: PMC3193041  PMID: 22022325
Cardiovascular disease; Postoperative complications; Echocardiography; Natriuretic peptides
6.  An international prospective cohort study evaluating major vascular complications among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: the VISION Pilot Study 
Open Medicine  2011;5(4):e193-e200.
Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, our objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility of undertaking a large international cohort study; (2) estimate the current incidence of major perioperative vascular events; (3) compare the observed event rates to the expected event rates according to the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI); and (4) provide an estimate of the proportion of myocardial infarctions without ischemic symptoms that may go undetected without perioperative troponin monitoring.
An international prospective cohort pilot study.
Patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who were > 45 years of age, receiving a general or regional anesthetic, and requiring hospital admission.
Patients had a Roche fourth-generation Elecsys troponin T measurement collected 6 to 12 hours postoperatively and on the first, second, and third days after surgery. Our primary outcome was major vascular events (a composite of vascular death [i.e., death from vascular causes], nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal cardiac arrest, and nonfatal stroke) at 30 days after surgery. Our definition for perioperative myocardial infarction included: (1) an elevated troponin T measurement with at least one of the following defining features: ischemic symptoms, development of pathologic Q waves, ischemic electrocardiogram changes, coronary artery intervention, or cardiac imaging evidence of myocardial infarction; or (2) autopsy findings of acute or healing myocardial infarction.
We recruited 432 patients across 5 hospitals in Canada, China, Italy, Colombia, and Brazil. During the first 30 days after surgery, 6.3% (99% confidence interval 3.9–10.0) of the patients suffered a major vascular event (10 vascular deaths, 16 nonfatal myocardial infarctions, and 1 nonfatal stroke). The observed event rate was increased 6-fold compared with the event rate expected from the RCRI. Of the 18 patients who suffered a myocardial infarction, 12 (66.7%) had no ischemic symptoms to suggest myocardial infarction.
This study suggests that major perioperative vascular events are common, that the RCRI underestimates risk, and that monitoring troponins after surgery can assist physicians to avoid missing myocardial infarction. These results underscore the need for a large international prospective cohort study.
PMCID: PMC3345376  PMID: 22567075
7.  Preoperative cardiac risk assessment in geriatric patients with hip fractures: an orthopedic surgeons’ perspective 
Osteoporosis International  2010;21(Suppl 4):587-591.
Hip fracture is one of the most common orthopedic conditions and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. With a progressively aging population, the annual incidence of hip fracture is expected to increase substantially. Emerging evidence suggests that early surgery (<24 h) minimizes complications secondary to immobilization, including orthostatic pneumonia and venous thromboembolism. Delayed surgical repair (>48 h) has been consistently demonstrated to be associated with an increased risk of 30-day and 1-year mortality. Nonetheless, early surgery necessitates a shorter time for preoperative medical preparation, in particular cardiac assessment. Patients who undergo emergent orthopedic surgery are therefore at greater risk of perioperative cardiac events than those who undergo elective surgery. In addition, the prompt triage system for preoperative cardiac assessment not only identifies patients at high risk of perioperative cardiac complications but also reduces unnecessary cardiac consultations for low-risk patients. We review the current recommendations for preoperative cardiac assessment adapted for patients with hip fracture and describe our current triage system for preoperative cardiac consultation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00198-010-1393-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC2974919  PMID: 21057998
8.  Ogilvie’s syndrome after lower extremity arthroplasty 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  1999;42(2):133-137.
To alert surgeons who perform arthroplasty to the possibility of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie’s syndrome) after elective orthopedic procedures. To identify possible risk factors and emphasize the need for prompt recognition, careful monitoring and appropriate management so as to reduce morbidity and mortality.
A case series.
A university-affiliated hospital that is a major referral centre for orthopedic surgery.
Four patients who had Ogilvie’s syndrome after lower extremity arthroplasty. Of this group, 2 had primary hip arthroplasty, 1 had primary knee arthroplasty and 1 had revision hip arthroplasty.
Main outcome measures
Morbidity and mortality.
In all 4 patients Ogilvie’s syndrome was recognized late and required surgical intervention. Two patients died as a result of postoperative complications.
Our case series identified increasing age, immobility and patient-controlled narcotic analgesia as potential risk factors for Ogilvie’s syndrome in the postoperative orthopedic patient. Prompt recognition and early consultation with frequent clinical and radiographic monitoring are necessary to avoid colonic perforation and its significant associated death rate.
PMCID: PMC3788976  PMID: 10223075
9.  Perioperative predictors of morbidity and mortality following cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2012;6(3):242-247.
Prediction of outcome after cardiac surgery is difficult despite a number of models using pre-, intra- and post-operative factors. Ideally, risk factors operating in all three phases of the patients’ stay in the hospital should be incorporated into any outcome prediction model. The aim of the present study was to identify the perioperative risk factors associated with morbidity, mortality and length of stay in the recovery room (LOSR) and length of stay in the hospital (LOSH).
Eighty-eight adults of either sex, patients undergoing elective open cardiac surgery were studied prospectively. The ability of a number of pre-, intra- and post-operative factors to predict outcome in the form of mortality, immediate morbidity (LOSR) and intermediate morbidity (LOSH) was assessed.
Factors associated with higher mortality were preoperative prothrombin index (PTI), American Society of Anesthesiology-Physical Status (ASA-PS) grade, Cardiac Anaesthesia Risk Evaluation (CARE) score and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, intraoperative duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (DCPB), number of inotropes used while coming off cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperatively, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II excluding the Glassgow Comma Scale (GCS) component and the number of inotropes used. Immediate morbidity was associated with preoperative PTI, inotrope usage intra- and post-operatively and the APACHE score. Intermediate morbidity was associated with DCPB and intra- and post-operative inotrope usage. Individual surgeon influenced the LOSR and the LOSH.
APACHE score, a general purpose severity of illness score, was relatively ineffective in the postoperative period because of sedation, neuromuscular blockade and elective ventilation used in a number of these patients. The preoperative and intraoperative factors like CARE, ASA-PS grade, NYHA, DCPB and number of inotropes used influencing morbidity and mortality are consistent with the literature, despite the small size of our sample.
PMCID: PMC3498662  PMID: 23162397
Cardiac surgery; outcome prediction; prognostication; risk stratification
10.  The mortality, morbidity and cost benefits of elective total knee arthroplasty in the nonagenarian population 
International Orthopaedics  2007;32(3):339-343.
With the increasing life expectancy, a greater number of elderly patients are being referred to an orthopaedic department to have elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Total knee arthroplasty should be considered in the very elderly only after carefully balancing the benefits of surgery against the risks of surgery. The aim of this study was to analyse the mortality, morbidity and cost benefits of elective TKA in a cohort group of the nonagenarian population. Between 1990 and 2006, 42 patients ≥90 years of age had TKA surgery. Patient’s notes were retrospectively analysed. A cost-benefit analysis was carried out by comparing the surgical costs against nursing home placement. The mean age at surgery was 90.4 years (range: 90–90.6). There was one major and 11 minor postoperative complications with no immediate or late postoperative deaths. The Knee Society Scores improved from 25 points (range: 8–44) to 81 points (range: 60–95), and the WOMAC Scores improved from 62 points (range: 54–73) to 41 points (range: 34–46) (p < 0.002). The calculated cost-benefit savings for 42 patients at 5 years after TKA was estimated to be £2,746,839. Total knee arthroplasty in the nonagenarian population is safe, beneficial and cost-effective.
PMCID: PMC2323413  PMID: 17333185
11.  Improved perioperative neurological monitoring of coronary artery bypass graft patients reduces the incidence of postoperative delirium: the Haga Brain Care Strategy 
Postoperative delirium is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiovascular surgery. Risk factors for postoperative delirium include poor cerebral haemodynamics and perioperative cerebral desaturations. Our aim was to reduce the postoperative delirium rate by using a new prevention strategy called the Haga Brain Care Strategy. This study evaluates the efficacy of the implementation of the Haga Brain Care Strategy to reduce the postoperative delirium rate after elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures. The primary endpoint was the postoperative delirium rate, and the secondary endpoint was the length of stay in the intensive care unit.
The Haga Brain Care Strategy consisted of the conventional screening protocol for delirium with the addition of preoperative transcranial Doppler examinations, perioperative cerebral oximetry, modified Rankin score, delirium risk score and (if indicated) duplex examination of the carotid arteries. In case of poor preoperative haemodynamics, the cerebral blood flow was optionally optimized by angioplasty or the patient was operated on under mild hypothermic conditions. Perioperative cerebral desaturations >20% outside the normal range resulted in intervention to restore cerebral oxygenation. Cerebral oximetry was discontinued when patients regained consciousness. Patients undergoing elective CABG procedures in 2010 were compared with patients scheduled for coronary bypass graft procedures in 2009 who had not been exposed to additional Haga Brain Care Strategy assessment.
A total of 233 and 409 patients were included in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The number of patients subjected in 2010 to transcranial Doppler examinations, cerebral oximetry or both (Haga Brain Care Strategy) were 262 (64.1%), 201 (49.1%) and 139 (34.0%), respectively. The overall rate of postoperative delirium decreased from 31 (13.3%) in 2009 to 30 (7.3%) in 2010 (P = 0.019). A binary logistic regression model showed that the Haga Brain Care Strategy was an independent predictor of a reduced risk of developing a postoperative delirium (odd ratio = 0.37, P = 0.021).
With the implementation of the Haga Brain Care Strategy in 2010, a reduction of the incidence of postoperative delirium in patients undergoing elective CABG procedures was observed. In addition, the length of stay in the intensive care unit showed an overall tendency to decline. The limited number of observations and the current study design do not allow a full evaluation of the Haga Brain Care Strategy but the data support the idea that a sophisticated preoperative assessment of cerebral haemodynamics and perioperative monitoring of cerebral oximetry reduce the incidence of the postoperative delirium in CABG surgery.
PMCID: PMC3445390  PMID: 22778141
Postoperative delirium; Cerebral oximetry; Transcranial Doppler; Coronary artery bypass grafting
12.  Postoperative B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels Associated With Prolonged Hospitalization in Hypertensive Patients After Non-Cardiac Surgery 
Korean Circulation Journal  2012;42(8):521-527.
Background and Objectives
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is an important marker for the diagnosis of heart failure and is useful towards predicting morbidity and mortality after non-cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, information on the relationship between postoperative BNP levels and perioperative prognosis after non-cardiac surgery is scarce. The purpose of the study was to assess whether postoperative BNP levels could be used as a predictor of prolonged hospitalization in elderly hypertensive patients after non-cardiac surgery.
Subjects and Methods
Ninety-seven (97) patients, aged 55 years or older (mean age: 73.12±10.05 years, M : F=24 : 73) were enrolled in a prospective study from May 2005 through August 2010. All patients underwent total knee or hip replacement. Postoperative BNP and other diagnostic data were recorded within 24 hours of surgery. Patients that required a prolonged hospital stay due to operative causes, such as wound infection and re-operation, were excluded.
The length of hospital stay was significantly correlated with postoperative BNP levels (p=0.031). Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated postoperative BNP levels as predictors of hospital stay ≥30 days with areas under the curve of 0.774 (95% confidence interval: 0.679-0.87, p<0.0001). A BNP cut-off value above 217.5 pg/mL had a sensitivity of 80.6% and a specificity of 66.7% for predicting postoperative hospital stays of 30 days or more.
Postoperative BNP levels may predict the length of hospital stays after non-cardiac surgery in hypertensive patients. Elevated BNP levels were associated with prolonged hospitalization after elective orthopedic surgery.
PMCID: PMC3438261  PMID: 22977447
Natriuretic peptin, brain; Hospitalization; Postoperative period; Hypertension
13.  N-Terminal Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide Is Useful to Predict Cardiac Complications Following Lung Resection Surgery 
Cardiovascular complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality following non-cardiac thoracic operations. Recent studies have demonstrated that elevation of N-Terminal Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels can predict cardiac complications following non-cardiac major surgery as well as cardiac surgery. However, there is little information on the correlation between lung resection surgery and NT-proBNP levels. We evaluated the role of NT-proBNP as a potential marker for the risk stratification of cardiac complications following lung resection surgery.
Material and Methods
Prospectively collected data of 98 patients, who underwent elective lung resection from August 2007 to February 2008, were analyzed. Postoperative adverse cardiac events were categorized as myocardial injury, ECG evidence of ischemia or arrhythmia, heart failure, or cardiac death.
Postoperative cardiac complications were documented in 9 patients (9/98, 9.2%): Atrial fibrillation in 3, ECG-evidenced ischemia in 2 and heart failure in 4. Preoperative median NT-proBNP levels was significantly higher in patients who developed postoperative cardiac complications than in the rest (200.2 ng/L versus 45.0 ng/L, p=0.009). NT-proBNP levels predicted adverse cardiac events with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.545~0.988, p=0.01]. A preoperative NT-proBNP value of 160 ng/L was found to be the best cut-off value for detecting postoperative cardiac complication with a positive predictive value of 0.857 and a negative predictive value of 0.978. Other factors related to cardiac complications by univariate analysis were a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, a higher NYHA functional class and a history of hypertension. In multivariate analysis, however, high preoperative NT-proBNP level (>160 ng/L) only remained significant.
An elevated preoperative NT-proBNP level is identified as an independent predictor of cardiac complications following lung resection surgery.
PMCID: PMC3249272  PMID: 22263123
Cardiac; Complication; Lung surgery; Prognosis
14.  Safety and efficacy of routine postoperative ibuprofen for pain and disability related to ectopic bone formation after hip replacement surgery (HIPAID): randomised controlled trial 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2006;333(7567):519.
Objectives To determine the benefits and risks of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) as prophylaxis for ectopic bone formation in patients undergoing total hip replacement (or revision) surgery.
Design Double blind randomised placebo controlled clinical trial, stratified by treatment site and surgery (primary or revision).
Setting 20 orthopaedic surgery centres in Australia and New Zealand.
Participants 902 patients undergoing elective primary or revision total hip replacement surgery.
Intervention 14 days' treatment with ibuprofen (1200 mg daily) or matching placebo started within 24 hours of surgery.
Main outcome measures Changes in self reported hip pain and physical function 6 to 12 months after surgery (Western Ontario and McMaster University Arthritis index).
Results There were no significant differences between the groups for improvements in hip pain (mean difference -0.1, 95% confidence interval -0.4 to 0.2, P = 0.6) or physical function (-0.1, -0.4 to 0.2, P = 0.5), despite a decreased risk of ectopic bone formation (relative risk 0.69, 0.56 to 0.83) associated with ibuprofen. There was a significantly increased risk of major bleeding complications in the ibuprofen group during the admission period (2.09, 1.00 to 4.39).
Conclusions These data do not support the use of routine prophylaxis with NSAIDs in patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery.
Trial registration NCT00145730.
PMCID: PMC1562471  PMID: 16885182
15.  Impaired fasting glucose is associated with increased perioperative cardiovascular event rates in patients undergoing major non-cardiothoracic surgery 
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-established risk factor for perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. However, the impact of preoperative glucose levels on perioperative cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing nonemergent, major noncardiothoracic surgery is unclear.
Methods and Results
A total of 680 patients undergoing noncardiothoracic surgery were prospectively evaluated. Patients older than 18 years who underwent an elective, nonday case, open surgical procedure were enrolled. Electrocardiography and cardiac biomarkers were obtained 1 day before surgery, and on days 1, 3 and 7 after surgery. Preoperative risk factors and laboratory test results were measured and evaluated for their association with the occurrence of in-hospital perioperative cardiovascular events. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) defined as fasting plasma glucose values of 100 to 125 mg/dl; DM was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl and/or plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl or the current use of blood glucose-lowering medication, and glucose values below 100 mg/dl were considered normal. Plasma glucose levels were significantly higher in patients with perioperative cardiovascular events (n = 80, 11.8%) in comparison to those without cardiovascular events (131 ± 42.5 vs 106.5 ± 37.5, p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with IFG and DM were at 2.1- and 6.4-fold increased risk of perioperative cardiovascular events, respectively. Every 10 mg/dl increase in preoperative plasma glucose levels was related to a 11% increase for adverse perioperative cardiovascular events.
Not only DM but also IFG is associated with increased perioperative cardiovascular event rates in patients undergoing noncardiothoracic surgery.
PMCID: PMC3143921  PMID: 21756307
noncardiothoracic surgery; preoperative glucose levels; cardiovascular complications
16.  Milrinone Use is Associated With Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation Following Cardiac Surgery 
Circulation  2008;118(16):1619-1625.
Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF), a frequent complication following cardiac surgery, causes morbidity and prolongs hospitalization. Inotropic drugs are commonly used perioperatively to support ventricular function. This study tested the hypothesis that the use of inotropic drugs is associated with postoperative AF.
Methods and Results
We evaluated perioperative risk factors in 232 patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery. All patients were in sinus rhythm at surgery. Sixty-seven (28.9%) patients developed AF a mean of 2.9±2.1 days after surgery. Patients who developed AF stayed in the hospital longer (P<0.001) and were more likely to die (P=0.02). Milrinone use was associated with an increased risk of postoperative AF (58.2% versus 26.1% in non-users, P<0.001). Older age (63.4±10.7 versus 56.7±12.3 years, P<0.001), hypertension (P=0.04), lower preoperative ejection fraction (P=0.03), mitral valve surgery (P=0.02), right ventricular dysfunction (P=0.03), and higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) (27.1±9.3 versus 21.8±7.5 mmHg, P=0.001) were also associated with postoperative AF. In multivariable logistic regression, age (P<0.001), ejection fraction (P=0.02), and milrinone use (odds ratio 4.86, 95% CI 2.31-10.25, P<0.001) independently predicted postoperative AF. When data only from patients with pulmonary artery catheters were analyzed and PAP was included in the model, age, milrinone use (odds ratio 4.45, 95% CI 2.01-9.84, P<0.001), and higher PAP (P=0.02) were associated with an increased risk of postoperative AF. Adding other potential confounders or stratifying analysis by mitral valve surgery did not change the association of milrinone use with postoperative AF.
Milrinone use is an independent risk factor for postoperative AF following elective cardiac surgery.
PMCID: PMC2770257  PMID: 18824641
atrial fibrillation; surgery; inotropic agents
17.  Early postoperative statin therapy is associated with a lower incidence of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery 
To test the hypothesis that perioperative statin use reduces acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery
Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from an ongoing clinical trial
Quaternary-care university hospital
Three hundred twenty-four elective adult cardiac surgery patients
Measurements and Main Results
We assessed the association of preoperative statin use, early postoperative statin use, and acute statin withdrawal with the incidence of AKI. Early postoperative statin use was defined as statin treatment within the first postoperative day. Statin withdrawal was defined as discontinuation of preoperative statin treatment prior to surgery until at least postoperative day 2. Logistic regression and propensity score modeling were used to control for AKI risk factors. Sixty-eight of 324 patients (21.0%) developed AKI. AKI patients stayed in the hospital longer (P=0.03) and were more likely to develop pneumonia (P=0.002) or die (P=0.001). Higher body mass index (P=0.003), higher central venous pressure (P=0.03), and statin withdrawal (27.4 vs. 14.7%, P=0.046) were associated with a higher incidence of AKI, while early postoperative statin use was protective (12.5 vs. 23.8%, P=0.03). Preoperative statin use did not affect risk of AKI. In multivariate logistic regression, age (P=0.03), male gender (P=0.02), body mass index (P<0.001), and early postoperative statin use (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.72, P=0.006) independently predicted AKI. Propensity score-adjusted risk assessment confirmed the association between early postoperative statin use and reduced AKI (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.13–0.70, P=0.005).
Early postoperative statin use is associated with a lower incidence of AKI among both chronic statin users and statin-naïve cardiac surgery patients.
PMCID: PMC2992577  PMID: 20599398
acute kidney injury; acute renal failure; cardiac surgery; statin; oxidative stress; obesity
18.  Utility of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide for Predicting Perioperative Cardiovascular Events in Patients Without History of Cardiovascular Disease Undergoing Major Non-Cardiac Surgery 
Korean Circulation Journal  2011;41(1):11-15.
Background and Objectives
Patients without previous history of cardiac disease can be regarded as low-risk when undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to examine whether preoperative B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level predicted postoperative cardiac events in these patients.
Subjects and Methods
Preoperative BNP level was measured in 163 patients whose risk was considered low according to the Revised Cardiac Risk Index. Postoperative cardiac events, including death during hospitalization, myocardial injury, arrhythmia, cerebrovascular accidents and congestive heart failure were assessed.
Postoperative cardiac events occurred in 8 patients (4.9%). Preoperative BNP levels were significantly higher among patients who experienced postoperative cardiac events, compared to those who did not (130.6±148.8 vs. 57.9±70.8 pg/mL, p=0.009).
Preoperative BNP level may provide prognostic information in low-risk patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery.
PMCID: PMC3040397  PMID: 21359063
B-type natriuretic peptide; Perioperative care; Cardiovascular disease
19.  Eradication of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by “ring fencing” of elective orthopaedic beds 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2004;329(7458):149-151.
Problem Deep infection after joint arthroplasty can be catastrophic, leading to further surgery, loss of the prosthesis, disability, and risk of mortality. Twenty nine new cases of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurred in the first year after elective orthopaedic surgery was centralised to a district general hospital in Essex.
Design Prospective trial to establish whether ring fencing of elective orthopaedic beds and introduction of simple infection control measures has an effect on the rates of postoperative infections and number of patients treated.
Participants and setting All patients undergoing primary hip or knee replacement in a district general hospital in Essex, England, between July 1999 and July 2001.
Main measures for improvement Number of patients having joint replacement; number of all postoperative infections in the participant group; number of cases of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Strategies for change Ring fencing of the elective orthopaedic ward and introduction of simple infection control measures.
Effects of change The incidence of all postoperative infections decreased from 43/417 to 15/488 (P < 0.0001), with no new cases of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Lessons learnt The introduction of a ring fenced elective orthopaedic ward and simple infection control measures allowed 17% more patients to be treated and significantly reduced the incidence of all postoperative infections.
PMCID: PMC478226  PMID: 15258070
20.  Eradication of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by "ring fencing" of elective orthopaedic beds* 

Problem: Deep infection after joint arthroplasty can be catastrophic, leading to further surgery, loss of the prosthesis, disability, and risk of mortality. Twenty nine new cases of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurred in the first year after elective orthopaedic surgery was centralised to a district general hospital in Essex.
Design: Prospective trial to establish whether ring fencing of elective orthopaedic beds and introduction of simple infection control measures has an effect on the rates of postoperative infections and number of patients treated.
Participants and setting: All patients undergoing primary hip or knee replacement in a district general hospital in Essex, England, between July 1999 and July 2001.
Main measures for improvement: Number of patients having joint replacement; number of all postoperative infections in the participant group; number of cases of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Strategies for change: Ring fencing of the elective orthopaedic ward and introduction of simple infection control measures.
Effects of change: The incidence of all postoperative infections decreased from 43/417 to 15/488 (P < 0.0001), with no new cases of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Lessons learnt: The introduction of a ring fenced elective orthopaedic ward and simple infection control measures allowed 17% more patients to be treated and significantly reduced the incidence of all postoperative infections.
PMCID: PMC1743955
21.  Postoperative vascular complications in unrecognised Obstructive Sleep apnoea (POSA) study protocol: an observational cohort study in moderate-to-high risk patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery 
BMJ Open  2014;4(1):e004097.
Emerging epidemiological data suggest that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is common in the general surgical population. Unfortunately, the majority of these patients are unrecognised and untreated at the time of surgery. There is substantial biological rationale to indicate that patients with unrecognised OSA are at a higher risk of postoperative vascular events. However, the extent of this morbidity is currently unknown. We have initated the postoperative vascular complications in the unrecognised obstructive sleep apnoea (POSA) study to determine the associations between OSA, nocturnal hypoxia and major postoperative vascular events in 1200 moderate-to-high risk patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery.
Methods and analysis
The POSA study is an international prospective observational cohort study. Using a type 3 portable sleep monitoring device and ambulatory oximetry, we will quantify the severity of OSA. The primary outcome is a composite of vascular death, myocardial infarction; non-fatal cardiac arrest; stroke; pulmonary embolism; congestive heart failure and new arrhythmia within 30 days of surgery. As of November 2013, we have recruited over 700 patients from nine centres in six countries. The mean age is 68 years, the mean body mass index is 27 kg/m2 and 55% of patients are men. 27.9% of patients have known coronary artery disease, over 76% have diabetes. The majority of patients underwent orthopaedic surgery (28%) and colorectal resection (18.5%).
Ethics and dissemination
The POSA study has received ethics approval from all study sites before patient recruitment. Informed consent will be obtained from all patients. The POSA study will determine the risk of unrecognised OSA in major non-cardiac surgery. We will publish these findings in peer-reviewed journals.
Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT01494181
PMCID: PMC3902377  PMID: 24413351
22.  Design and Organization of the Dexamethasone, Light Anesthesia and Tight Glucose Control (DeLiT) Trial: a factorial trial evaluating the effects of corticosteroids, glucose control, and depth-of-anesthesia on perioperative inflammation and morbidity from major non-cardiac surgery 
BMC Anesthesiology  2010;10:11.
The perioperative period is characterized by an intense inflammatory response. Perioperative inflammation promotes postoperative morbidity and increases mortality. Blunting the inflammatory response to surgical trauma might thus improve perioperative outcomes. We are studying three interventions that potentially modulate perioperative inflammation: corticosteroids, tight glucose control, and light anesthesia.
The DeLiT Trial is a factorial randomized single-center trial of dexamethasone vs placebo, intraoperative tight vs. conventional glucose control, and light vs deep anesthesia in patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Anesthetic depth will be estimated with Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring (Aspect medical, Newton, MA). The primary outcome is a composite of major postoperative morbidity including myocardial infarction, stroke, sepsis, and 30-day mortality. C-reactive protein, a measure of the inflammatory response, will be evaluated as a secondary outcome. One-year all-cause mortality as well as post-operative delirium will be additional secondary outcomes. We will enroll up to 970 patients which will provide 90% power to detect a 40% reduction in the primary outcome, including interim analyses for efficacy and futility at 25%, 50% and 75% enrollment.
The DeLiT trial started in February 2007. We expect to reach our second interim analysis point in 2010. This large randomized controlled trial will provide a reliable assessment of the effects of corticosteroids, glucose control, and depth-of-anesthesia on perioperative inflammation and morbidity from major non-cardiac surgery. The factorial design will enable us to simultaneously study the effects of the three interventions in the same population, both individually and in different combinations. Such a design is an economically efficient way to study the three interventions in one clinical trial vs three.
Trial registration
This trial is registered at #: NTC00433251
PMCID: PMC2910009  PMID: 20591163
23.  Incidence and Risk Factors of Acute Postoperative Delirium in Geriatric Neurosurgical Patients 
Postoperative delirium (POD) is characterized by an acute change in cognitive function and can result in longer hospital stays, higher morbidity rates, and more frequent discharges to long-term care facilities. In this study, we investigated the incidence and risk factors of POD in 224 patients older than 70 years of age, who had undergone a neurosurgical operation in the last two years.
Data related to preoperative factors (male gender, >70 years, previous dementia or delirium, alcohol abuse, serum levels of sodium, potassium and glucose, and co morbidities), perioperative factors (type of surgery and anesthesia, and duration of surgery) and postoperative data (length of stay in recovery room, severity of pain and use of opioid analgesics) were retrospectively collected and statistically analyzed.
POD appeared in 48 patients (21.4%) by postoperative day 3. When we excluded 26 patients with previous dementia or delirium, 17 spontaneously recovered by postoperative day 14, while 5 patients recovered by postoperative 2 months with medication, among 22 patients with newly developed POD. The univariate risk factors for POD included previously dementic or delirious patients, abnormal preoperative serum glucose level, pre-existent diabetes, the use of local anesthesia for the operation, longer operation time (>3.2 hr) or recovery room stay (>90 min), and severe pain (VAS>6.8) requiring opioid treatment (p<0.05). Backward regression analysis revealed that previously dementic patients with diabetes, the operation being performed under local anesthesia, and severe postoperative pain treated with opioids were independent risk factors for POD.
Our study shows that control of blood glucose levels and management of pain during local anesthesia and in the immediate postoperative period can reduce unexpected POD and help preventing unexpected medicolegal problems and economic burdens.
PMCID: PMC2588241  PMID: 19096622
Anesthesia; Diabetes; Geriatric; Pain; Postoperative delirium (POD)
24.  The new cardiac surgery patient: defying previous expectations 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2006;49(2):117-122.
Studies conducted before 1999 of patients who had coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) have shown a tendency toward increasing preoperative risk factors. This study examines whether this trend of increasing risk in patients who have cardiac surgery has continued since 1999 and whether its effect on mortality and morbidity has changed.
We prospectively collected data for 2754 patients who had cardiac surgery, divided them into 4 cohorts based on the year of operation (2000–2003) and analyzed the data according to 56 predefined preoperative, operative and postoperative variables.
There were no significant changes in most preoperative risk factors over time, except for significant decreases in the proportion of elective (p = 0.016) and emergency/salvage operations (p < 0.001) and increases in urgent procedures and in the number of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) (p < 0.001). The proportion of CABG procedures decreased significantly, whereas the proportion of valve, CABG plus valve, and non-CABG surgeries increased. A significant increase in multiarterial graft use and a decrease in off-pump coronary artery bypass procedures were observed. Postoperative complication rates did not change during the 4 years except for a significant decrease in wound infections. No significant changes in overall mortality and mortality across types of procedure were observed. Median observed/expected ratios for expected length of stay in hospital and risk of mortality did not change significantly over time.
Patients' risk factors, except for CHF, did not change from 2000 to 2003. Despite more complicated procedures, the postoperative complication rates did not change except for a decrease in wound infections. These results suggest that the assumption of an inexorably increasing patient risk profile should be re-evaluated.
PMCID: PMC3207536  PMID: 16630423
25.  Risk factors of morbidity and mortality following hip fracture surgery 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;64(6):505-510.
The preoperative coexisting chronic systemic illness, delay in surgery, gender, and age were considered as risk factors for the complications after hip fracture surgery. The wider range of surgical delay and immobility-related pulmonary morbidity may affect postoperative complications and mortality. This study examined the risk factors for morbidity and mortality following the hip fracture surgery.
The patient data was collected retrospectively. The consecutive 506 patients with hip fracture surgery, aged 60 years or older, were included. The patients' age, gender, preexisting diseases, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, delay in surgical repair, duration of surgical procedure, and methods of anesthesia were noted. The thirty-day postoperative complications were reviewed, and cardiac complications, pulmonary complications, delirium, and death were recorded. The data was analyzed for postoperative complications and risk factors.
Atelectasis was associated with postoperative pulmonary complications. Male gender and age ≥ 80 years were associated with an increased incidence of postoperative delirium. ASA classification 3 was associated with death. A delay in surgery was not associated with any complications. Preexisting diseases and methods of anesthesia did not affect mortality and postoperative complications.
The results suggest that a delay in surgery did not affect the postoperative complications and morbidity.
PMCID: PMC3695247  PMID: 23814650
Hip fractures; Morbidity; Mortality

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