Autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease has provided significant understanding of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. The present review summarizes clinical, pathological, imaging, biochemical, and molecular studies of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the similarities and differences between the dominantly inherited form of Alzheimer's disease and the more common sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease. Current developments in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease are presented, including the international Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network and this network's initiative for clinical trials. Clinical trials in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease may test the amyloid hypothesis, determine the timing of treatment, and lead the way to Alzheimer's disease prevention.
The aims of this study are: (1) to determine the frequencies of the various genetic forms of retinitis pigmentosa; and (2) to perform segregation analysis on autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked families. The families studied consisted of 2 series of patients at Moorfields Eye Hospital: (1) 426 families seen in the Genetic Clinic; and (2) 289 families seen in the Electrodiagnostic Department. Comparison between the 2 series identified biases of ascertainment, and it was estimated that the combined series included 53% of simplex cases and a minimum of 15% of X-linked families. Segregation analysis of the Genetic Clinic series showed good agreement with expectation in autosomal dominant and X-linked families, but indicated that no more than 70% of all simplex cases were autosomal recessive. The rest of the simplex cases were mildly affected and may represent fresh autosomal dominant mutations, autosomal dominant transmission with reduced penetrance, the heterozygous state of X-linked disease in some of the females, and phenocopies.
Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive involuntary movements, neuropsychiatric disturbances, and cognitive impairment. The use of tetrabenazine (TBZ), a specific inhibitor of vesicular monoamine transporter, is approved for chorea in HD patients. We aimed to review the medical literature concerning the efficacy and tolerability of TBZ in the treatment of HD patients and to report our personal experience about TBZ use in a cohort of HD patients. We searched PubMed (1960 to July 2010) using the following keywords: “tetrabenazine” + “huntington’s disease + chorea”. We included randomized controlled trials, open-label trials, and retrospective studies. We excluded case reports and studies conducted on fewer than 20 patients. In addition, we retrospectively evaluated 2 years’ follow-up of TBZ treatment on motor and cognitive performances and functional abilities in 28 HD patients, compared with 10 patients treated by other neuroleptics (clotiapine). Only four papers fulfilled the requested criteria. In the first study, which included 84 randomized outpatients, TBZ showed a significant improvement of chorea compared with placebo. In the open-label study extension, TBZ confirmed its efficacy on chorea, with a frequent occurrence of withdrawals due to side effects. In a retrospective study of long-term efficacy, 63 patients under TBZ therapy for an average period of 34 months showed a stable effect on chorea, despite a slight reduction of effect over time. In a telephone survey conducted on a total of 118 patients affected by different movement disorders, TBZ showed the most favorable effect for the 28 included HD patients. Our HD patients showed a slight deterioration of motor performances over time that was nonsignificant compared with TBZ or clotiapine treatments. Despite the fact that the global effect of TBZ seems positive in HD, more attention on evaluating symptomatic treatments for cognitive and psychiatric deterioration as well as motor deterioration would alleviate this devastating disorder until a neuroprotective treatment becomes available.
Huntington’s disease; symptomatic treatment; tetrabenazine
A method is presented for estimating the probability of an affected child being born to a clinically unaffected subject who is at risk for having inherited a rare gene for an autosomal dominant disorder of unknown penetrance. The maximal risk is 8.6% for children of persons at 50% risk for having inherited the mutant gene regardless of the true penetrance of the disorder in question. Applications of this maximal risk figure, which should be of benefit in various counselling situations, are summarised.
Large mammals, including canids and felids, are affected by spontaneously occurring hereditary retinal diseases with similarities to those of humans. The large mammal models may be used for thorough clinical characterization of disease processes, understanding the effects of specific mutations, elucidation of disease mechanisms, and for development of therapeutic intervention. Two well-characterized feline models are addressed in this paper. The first model is the autosomal recessive, slowly progressive, late-onset, rod-cone degenerative disease caused by a mutation in the CEP290 gene. The second model addressed in this paper is the autosomal dominant early onset rod cone dysplasia, putatively caused by the mutation found in the CRX gene. Therapeutic trials have been performed mainly in the former type including stem cell therapy, retinal transplantation, and development of ocular prosthetics. Domestic cats, having large human-like eyes with comparable spontaneous retinal diseases, are also considered useful for gene replacement therapy, thus functioning as effective model systems for further research.
Familial keloids have been reported, having either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance. We wished to determine the inheritance pattern and phenotype of keloids among multigenerational families, as a prelude to a positional mapping strategy to identify candidate genes.
We studied three African American families, one Afro-Caribbean family and one Asian-American family. Phenotyping including assessing all patients for the presence, distribution, and appearance of keloids, together with the timing of keloid onset and provocative factors. The clinical trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00005802).
Age of keloid onset varied considerably within families, but commonly occurred by the second decade. The fraction of affected individuals was 38%, 45%, 62%, 67% and 73% among the five families respectively. Keloid severity and morphology differed within and between families. A novel finding is that certain families manifest keloids in distinct locations, with one family showing an excess of extremity keloids and two families showing an excess of axilla-groin keloids.
Familial keloids appear to most commonly manifest autosomal dominant or semidominant inheritance, and there may be familial patterns of keloid distribution.
Muir-Torre syndrome is characterised by the association of sebaceous tumours of the skin with internal malignancy. In many instances there is a strong family history of cancer and the autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, tumour spectrum, and high incidence of synchronous and metachronous tumours show parallels with the cancer family syndrome or Lynch II syndrome. We report a five generation family with at least two persons displaying the Muir-Torre phenotype, while many other family members have had tumours consistent with cancer family syndrome. The majority of tumours are gastrointestinal, gynaecological, and urological, with several persons having multiple primaries. The prognosis appears to be better than would be expected. Sebaceous tumours are a marker for internal malignancy and should prompt a search for occult cancer in the individual person and family members. In documented Muir-Torre families, at risk persons should be entered into screening programmes similar to those used in the Lynch II syndrome.
A large proportion of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) suffers from polycystic liver disease. Symptoms arise when liver volume increases. The somatostatin analogue lanreotide has proven to reduce liver volume in patients with polycystic liver disease. However, this study also included patients with isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD). The RESOLVE trial aims to assess the efficacy of lanreotide treatment in ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers. In this study we present the design of the RESOLVE trial.
This open-label clinical trial evaluates the effect of 6 months of lanreotide in ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers. Primary outcome is change in liver volume determined by computerised tomography-volumetry. Secondary outcomes are changes in total kidney volume, kidney intermediate volume and renal function. Furthermore, urinary (NGAL, α1-microglobulin, KIM-1, H-FABP, MCP-1) and serum (fibroblast growth factor 23) biomarkers associated with ADPKD disease severity are assessed to investigate whether these biomarkers predict treatment responses to lanreotide. Moreover, safety and tolerability of the drug in ADPKD patients will be assessed.
We anticipate that lanreotide is an effective therapeutic option for ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers and that this trial aids in the identification of patient related factors that predict treatment response.
Trial registration number
Clinical trials.gov NCT01354405
ADPKD; Urinary biomarkers; Polycystic liver disease; Lanreotide
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder that is characterized by the development and growth of cysts in the kidneys and other organs. Urinary protein excretion is usually less than 1 g/24 hours in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and an association of nephrotic syndrome with this condition is considered rare. There are only anecdotal case reports of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease associated with nephrotic syndrome, with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis being the most commonly reported histopathological diagnosis. Nephrotic-range proteinuria in the presence of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, with or without an accompanying decline in renal function, should be investigated by open renal biopsy to exclude coexisting glomerular disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with histologically proven diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis presenting with nephrotic-range proteinuria. No other reports of this could be found in a global electronic search of the literature.
We report the case of a 35-year-old Indo-Aryan man with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease associated with nephrotic syndrome and a concomitant decline in his glomerular filtration rate. Open renal biopsy revealed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. An accurate diagnosis enabled us to manage him conservatively with a successful outcome, without the use of corticosteroid which is the standard treatment and the drug most commonly used to treat nephrotic syndrome empirically.
Despite the reluctance of physicians to carry out a renal biopsy on patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, our case supports the idea that renal biopsy is needed in patients with polycystic kidney disease with nephrotic-range proteinuria to make an accurate diagnosis. It also illustrates the importance of open renal biopsy in planning appropriate treatment for patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with nephrotic-range proteinuria. The treatment for various histological subtypes leading to nephrotic syndrome is different, and in this modern era we should practice evidence-based medicine and should avoid empirical therapy with its associated adverse effects.
Detailed clinical, ophthalmological, and molecular studies were performed on a multigeneration family in which there were many subjects with type 1 neurofibromatosis, a common autosomal dominant disorder. Affected family members displayed a wide range of clinical findings including, in two subjects, features seen in Noonan syndrome (triangular facies, downward slanting palpebral fissures, micrognathia, short stature, and learning disability). Subjects have been described previously whose features have overlapped with neurofibromatosis and Noonan syndrome, and it has been suggested that these persons might represent a separate condition. DNA haplotype analysis showed linkage of the neurofibromatosis phenotype seen in this family to the proximal long arm of chromosome 17 in the region where the type 1 neurofibromatosis gene has been mapped. These results imply that the Noonan phenotype seen in some patients with type 1 neurofibromatosis might be the result of variable or variant expression of the neurofibromatosis gene on chromosome 17. The possible role of non-specific factors, such as fetal hypotonia, in producing the neurofibromatosis-Noonan phenotype needs further investigation. The availability of closely linked and intragenic molecular markers for neurofibromatosis could potentially be useful in the diagnosis and characterisation of patients and families with atypical forms of neurofibromatosis.
This clinical report describes a male with autosomal recessive generalized hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. This case is unusual in coronal resorptions prior to tooth eruption. This finding has been reported in some cases of autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant and X linked amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). In reported cases, the defects were usually small and occurred in a maximum of 2 teeth per person. In our case, pre-eruptive coronal resorptions affected three second molar teeth from both jaws. On the other hand; congenitally missing teeth and malocclusion were present in this case. Recall evaluations at 3 month intervals occurred for a period of 2 years and then prosthodontic management began.
Amelogenesis imperfecta; Congenital missing teeth; Pre-eruptive coronal resorption; Malocclusion; Prosthetic restoration
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous central nervous system (CNS) malformation. Alobar HPE, which is its most severe form, is associated with a poor prognosis. At the milder end of the HPE spectrum microcephaly, hypotelorism, and single central maxillary incisor may be recognised. Currently, four genes have been identified for this condition. These include Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) on chromosome 7q36, which is thought to be responsible for a significant proportion of autosomal dominant HPE. We report an index case with alobar holoprosencephaly caused by an SHH mutation and six members of his family over two generations with this mutation, with a broad range of clinical presentation, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The combination of microcephaly, hypotelorism, subtle midline facial anomalies, and ADHD within a sibship should alert the physician to the possible diagnosis of HPE.
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor suppressor syndrome, characterized by hamartomatous growths in the brain, skin, kidneys, lungs, and heart, which lead to significant morbidity. TSC is caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes, whose products, hamartin and tuberin, form a tumor suppressor complex that regulates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Early clinical trials show that TSC-related kidney tumors (angiomyolipomas) regress when treated with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin (also known as sirolimus). Although side effects are tolerable, responses are incomplete, and tumor regrowth is common when rapamycin is stopped. Strategies for future clinical trials may include the investigation of longer treatment duration and combination therapy of other effective drug classes.
Here, we examine the efficacy of a prolonged maintenance dose of rapamycin in Tsc2+/- mice with TSC-related kidney tumors. Cohorts were treated with rapamycin alone or in combination with interferon-gamma (IFN-g). The schedule of rapamycin included one month of daily doses before and after five months of weekly doses. We observed a 94.5% reduction in kidney tumor burden in Tsc2+/- mice treated (part one) daily with rapamycin (8 mg/kg) at 6 months ≤ age < 7 months, (part 2) weekly with rapamycin (16 mg/kg) at 7 months ≤ age < 12 months, and (part 3) daily with rapamycin (8 mg/kg) at 12 months ≤ age < 13 months; but we did not observe any improvement with combination IFN-g plus rapamycin in this study. We also used a Tsc2-/- subcutaneous tumor model to evaluate other classes of drugs including sorafenib, atorvastatin, and doxycycline. These drugs were tested as single agents and in combination with rapamycin. Our results demonstrate that the combination of rapamycin and sorafenib increased survival and may decrease tumor volume as compared to rapamycin treatment alone while sorafenib as a single agent was no different than control. Atorvastatin and doxycycline, either as single agents or in combination with rapamycin, did not improve outcomes as compared with controls.
Our results indicate that prolonged treatment with low doses of mTOR inhibitors may result in more complete and durable TSC-related tumor responses, and it would be reasonable to evaluate this strategy in a clinical trial. Targeting the Raf/Mek/Erk and/or VEGF pathways in combination with inhibiting the mTOR pathway may be another useful strategy for the treatment of TSC-related tumors.
To identify the genetic defect in an autosomal dominant isolated ectopia lentis (EL) family.
Detailed family history and clinical data were collected from the family including sixteen patients with isolated EL. Blood samples of nine patients, one normal person and two unknown children’s were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes of peripheral blood. Genotyping was performed by microsatellite markers and logarithm-of-odds (LOD) scores were calculated using the LINKAGE Programs. Mutation screening in the candidate gene, fibrillin-1 (FBN1), was performed by direct sequencing.
Linkage to the FBN1 locus is verified. Mutation screening in FBN1 identified a C>T transition at nucleotide position c.2920. This nucleotide change results in the cysteine substitution for highly conserved arginine at codon 974 (p.R974C). This mutation is identified in all affected individuals but is not found in 50 control healthy people.
A novel mutation of FBN1 results in an arginine to cysteine residue (p.R974C) substitution, which is responsible for the patients with isolated EL in this Chinese family.
Mutations in the SPG4 gene (spastin) and in the SPG3A gene (atlastin) account for the majority of 'pure' autosomal dominant form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Recently, mutations in the REEP1 gene were identified to cause autosomal dominant HSP type SPG31. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of REEP1 mutations in a cohort of 162 unrelated Caucasian index patients with 'pure' HSP and a positive family history (at least two persons per family presented symptoms).
162 patients were screened for mutations by, both, DHPLC and direct sequencing.
Ten mutations were identified in the REEP1 gene, these included eight novel mutations comprising small insertions/deletions causing frame shifts and subsequently premature stop codons, one nonsense mutation and one splice site mutation as well as two missense mutations. Both missense mutations and the splice site mutation were not identified in 170 control subjects.
In our HSP cohort we found pathogenic mutations in 4.3% of cases with autosomal dominant inheritance. Our results confirm the previously observed mutation range of 3% to 6.5%, respectively, and they widen the spectrum of REEP1 mutations.
Genetic analysis of 457 patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) included categorisation of families by recognised mendelian pattern of inheritance and formal segregation analysis of all informative sibships. Of the 368 probands a surprisingly high 18% (68) had significant congenital loss of hearing and were diagnosed as having Usher syndrome. The RP probands were categorised as: 21.7% autosomal dominant, 9.0% X-linked, 16.0% autosomal recessive, 3.3% genetic type uncertain, and 50.0% simplex. Segregation analysis reflected this high proportion of simplex cases, accounting for reduced penetrance in dominant families; only 20% remain classified as sporadic (possibly nongenetic). In the matings between normal persons estimates of the segregation ratio also indicate lower values than expected. Unlike in RP sibship, segregation in the Usher syndrome is consistent with the hypothesis of recessive inheritance. Therefore RP with significant hearing loss segregates as expected, while even if a proband is classified as a dominant or recessive the recurrence risk for the RP phenotype may be below mendelian expectation.
Neurofibromatosis (NFT) is an autosomal dominant disorder. Several distinctive clinical features may be discovered in the presence of the disease, including ècafé au laité spots, cutaneous neurofibromas, axillary freckling, Lisch nodules, and a positive familial history.
Chiropractic management of this condition should include early recognition, appropriate supportive referral and symptomatic treatment of accompanying biomechanical dysfunctions. Early diagnosis will not only permit appropriate assessment, but will allow for vital genetic counselling.
neurofibromatosis; chiropractic; manipulation
Rod-cone dystrophies are heterogeneous group of inherited retinal disorders both clinically and genetically characterized by photoreceptor degeneration. The mode of inheritance can be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked. The purpose of this study was to identify mutations in one of the genes, PRPF31, in French patients with autosomal dominant RP, to perform genotype-phenotype correlations of those patients, to determine the prevalence of PRPF31 mutations in this cohort and to review previously identified PRPF31 mutations from other cohorts.
Detailed phenotypic characterization was performed including precise family history, best corrected visual acuity using the ETDRS chart, slit lamp examination, kinetic and static perimetry, full field and multifocal ERG, fundus autofluorescence imaging and optic coherence tomography. For genetic diagnosis, genomic DNA of ninety families was isolated by standard methods. The coding exons and flanking intronic regions of PRPF31 were PCR amplified, purified and sequenced in the index patient.
We showed for the first time that 6.7% cases of a French adRP cohort have a PRPF31 mutation. We identified in total six mutations, which were all novel and not detected in ethnically matched controls. The mutation spectrum from our cohort comprises frameshift and splice site mutations. Co-segregation analysis in available family members revealed that each index patient and all affected family members showed a heterozygous mutation. In five families incomplete penetrance was observed. Most patients showed classical signs of RP with relatively preserved central vision and visual field.
Our studies extended the mutation spectrum of PRPF31 and as previously reported in other populations, it is a major cause of adRP in France.
The osteopetroses are a group of conditions which are characterized by varying combinations of bony sclerosis and modelling defects. Classical osteopetrosis may be inherited as an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive: the former variety is benign, heterogeneous and comparatively common, while the latter is precocious, potentially lethal and rare. Many other craniotubular dysplasias and hyperostoses are loosely grouped with the osteopetroses. The commonest of these is the autosomal dominant form of craniometaphyseal dysplasia, while the others which are well known include Pyle disease, and van Buchem disease. Sclerosteosis is a progressive condition in which massive cranial thickening is associated with syndactyly and gigantism. Each of these disorders has specific clinical and radiographic features, which permit recognition. Diagnostic accuracy is crucial for treatment, prognostication and effective genetic management.
Hereditary coproporphyria (HCPO) is a low-penetrance, autosomal dominant, acute hepatic porphyria characterized by the overproduction and excretion of coproporphyrin. The most common neurological manifestations of this entity include peripheral, predominantly motor dysfunction, and central nervous system dysfunction. Ataxia associated with HCPO has not been reported previously. The aim of this article is to report a patient with HCPO presenting with acute ataxia.
We describe a 44-year-old patient presenting clinically with acute ataxia who was diagnosed with HCPO; mutations were analyzed in the coproporphyrin-oxidase III (CPOX) gene in the patient and in six asymptomatic first-degree relatives.
The patient was heterozygous for a mutation causing the amino acid exchange Q306X in the CPOX gene. No relatives carried the same or another mutation in the CPOX gene. HCPO should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with ataxia.
Ataxia; porphyria; hereditary coproporphyria; CPOX gene; mutations
A large family (13 affected members in three generations) is reported in which isolated microcephaly occurred without any other dysmorphic or neurological abnormalities. The family pedigree confirms the autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance, including one example of male to male transmission and the occurrence of a non-manifesting heterozygote resulting in a 'skipped generation'. There is considerable variation in the phenotypic expression of autosomal dominant microcephaly. This isolated (uncomplicated) type of microcephaly should be distinguished from other well defined, dominantly inherited forms of microcephaly.
Familial burning feet syndrome inherited as an autosomal
dominant trait has been described in only one family. Due to an
associated sensory neuropathy the autosomal dominant burning feet
syndrome was suggested to represent a variant form of hereditary
sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I (HSAN I). Clinical,
histopathological, and molecular genetic studies were performed in a
large German kindred with autosomal dominant burning feet syndrome. The
autosomal dominant burning feet syndrome was associated with a
neuropathy predominantly affecting small unmyelinated nerve fibres.
Linkage to the HSAN I locus on chromosome 9q22 and to the
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2B (CMT 2B) locus on chromosome
3q13-q22 was excluded. The autosomal dominant burning feet syndrome is
neither allelic to HSAN I nor to CMT 2B and thus represents a distinct
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common genetic kidney condition and is associated with important renal and cardiovascular manifestations in childhood. Renal cystic disease can be documented in some cases as early as in utero. Early intervention is critical if the long-term complications of this condition, including end-stage renal disease, are to be ameliorated. Here we describe our ongoing randomized double-blind placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial to assess the effect of pravastatin treatment on renal and cardiovascular disease progression in 107 children and young adults age 8–22 years with ADPKD who are receiving the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril. Baseline demographic and laboratory data are provided. Results of this study could markedly impact the standard of care for evaluation and treatment of ADPKD in this population.
Pediatric; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; Statin; Renal volume
Cerebrospinal fluid and positron emission tomography biomarkers accurately predict an underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology; however, they represent either invasive or expensive diagnostic tools. Therefore, a blood-based biomarker like plasma amyloid beta (Aβ) that could correlate with the underlying AD pathology and serve as a prognostic biomarker or an AD screening strategy is urgently needed as a cost-effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool. In this paper we review the demographic, biologic, genetic and technical aspects that affect plasma Aβ levels. Findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of plasma Aβ, including autosomal dominant AD cases, sporadic AD cases, Down syndrome cases and population studies, are also discussed. Finally, we review the association between cerebrovascular disease and Aβ plasma levels and the responses observed in clinical trials. Based on our review of the current literature on plasma Aβ, we conclude that further clinical research and assay development are needed before measures of plasma Aβ can be interpreted so they can be applied as trait, risk or state biomarkers for AD.
Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is an autosomal recessive inherited malformation defined pathologically by a variable degree of periportal fibrosis and irregularly shaped proliferating bile ducts. It is one of the fibropolycystic diseases, which also include Caroli disease, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Clinically it is characterized by hepatic fibrosis, portal hypertension, and renal cystic disease. CHF is known to occur in association with a range of both inherited and non-inherited disorders, with multiorgan involvement, as a result of ductal plate malformation. Because of the similarities in the clinical picture, it is necessary to differentiate CHF from idiopathic portal hypertension and early liver cirrhosis, for which a liver biopsy is essential. Radiological tests are important for recognizing involvement of other organ systems. With regards to our experience at Hacettepe University, a total of 26 patients have been diagnosed and followed-up between 1974 and 2009 with a diagnosis of CHF. Presentation with Caroli syndrome was the most common diagnosis, with all such patients presenting with symptoms of recurrent cholangitis and symptoms related to portal hypertension. Although portal fibrosis is known to contribute to the ensuing portal hypertension, it is our belief that portal vein cavernous transformation also plays an important role in its pathogenesis. In all patients with CHF portal vein morphology should be evaluated by all means since portal vein involvement results in more severe and complicated portal hypertension. Other associations include the Joubert and Bardet-Biedl syndromes.
Congenital hepatic fibrosis; Fibropolycystic disorders; Portal hypertension; Bardet Biedl syndrome