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1.  In Vivo Effects of a Synthetic 2-Kilodalton Macrophage-Activating Lipopeptide of Mycoplasma fermentans after Pulmonary Application  
Infection and Immunity  2002;70(7):3785-3792.
Mycoplasmas can cause interstitial pneumonias inducing critical illness in humans and animals. Mycoplasma infections are characterized by an influx of neutrophils, followed by an accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes. The present study deals with the question of which mycoplasmal components cause this host reaction. The mycoplasma-derived, macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2S-MALP-2 was used to mimic the sequelae of a mycoplasma infection. To this end, 2S-MALP-2 was intratracheally instilled into the lungs of Lewis rats, and the bronchoalveolar lavage cells were examined at different times after different doses of 2S-MALP-2. Application of 2.5 μg induced a pronounced leukocyte accumulation in the bronchoalveolar space. At 24 h after 2S-MALP-2 administration, the majority of leukocytes consisted of neutrophils, followed by macrophages, peaking on days 2 and 3. Lymphocyte numbers, although amounting to only a few percent of the total bronchoalveolar lavage cells, also increased significantly, with maximal lymphocyte accumulation occurring by 72 h after instillation. The leukocyte count of the lung interstitium was increased on day 3 after treatment. After 10 days all investigated cell populations returned to control levels. Transient chemotactic activity for neutrophils was detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid early after 2S-MALP-2 application, followed by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 activity (MCP-1) in lung homogenates. MCP-1 was produced by bronchoalveolar lavage cells upon stimulation with 2S-MALP-2. Our data indicate that mycoplasmal lipoproteins and lipopeptides are probably the most relevant mycoplasmal components for the early host reaction. The primary target cells are likely to be the alveolar macrophages liberating chemokines, which attract further leukocytes.
doi:10.1128/IAI.70.7.3785-3792.2002
PMCID: PMC128036  PMID: 12065522
2.  Pulmonary toxicity in hamsters of smoke particles from Kuwaiti oil fires. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1998;106(3):141-146.
The Kuwaiti oil wells set on fire by retreating Iraqi troops at the end of the Persian Gulf War released complex particles, inorganic and organic gases, and hydrocarbons into the atmosphere, damaging the environment where many people live and work. In this study, we assessed the health effects of particles from the Kuwaiti oil fires by instilling hamsters intratracheally with particles (<3.5 microM in size) collected in Ahmadi, a residential area in Kuwait located downwind of hundreds of oil fires. Twenty-four hours after instillation, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to assess various indicators of pulmonary inflammation, including neutrophil and macrophage numbers; albumin, an index of air-blood barrier permeability; and activities of three enzymes: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; an indicator of cell injury), myeloperoxidase (MPO; which indicates activation of neutrophils), and ss-N-acetylglucosaminidase (GLN; which is indicative of damage to macrophages or neutrophils). We compared the response of hamsters instilled with particles from Ahmadi to animals instilled with urban particles collected in St. Louis, Missouri. We also compared the Ahmadi particles against a highly fibrogenic positive control ([alpha]-quartz) and a relatively nontoxic negative control (iron oxide). When compared to hamsters instilled with particles from St. Louis, the animals treated with the Ahmadi particles had between 1.4- and 2.2-fold more neutrophils in their BAL fluids. The Ahmadi hamsters had more macrophages and lower MPO and LDH activities, but comparable albumin levels and GLN activities. Thus, the acute toxicity of the Ahmadi particles was roughly similar to that of urban particles collected in the United States, when identical masses were compared. However, the relatively higher concentrations of particles measured in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia during the oil fires (at times more than 16 times higher than the EPA standard) is of particular concern. In addition, since the long-term effects of exposure to these particles remains unknown, further studies are needed to fully assess the health effects of the Kuwaiti oil fires.
Images
PMCID: PMC1533036  PMID: 9449679
3.  Efficacy and Safety of Inhaled Carbon Monoxide during Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(7):e11565.
Background
Pulmonary inflammation is a major contributor to morbidity in a variety of respiratory disorders, but treatment options are limited. Here we investigate the efficacy, safety and mechanism of action of low dose inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation.
Methodology
Mice were exposed to 0–500 ppm inhaled CO for periods of up to 24 hours prior to and following intratracheal instillation of 10 ng LPS. Animals were sacrificed and assessed for intraalveolar neutrophil influx and cytokine levels, flow cytometric determination of neutrophil number and activation in blood, lung and lavage fluid samples, or neutrophil mobilisation from bone marrow.
Principal Findings
When administered for 24 hours both before and after LPS, inhaled CO of 100 ppm or more reduced intraalveolar neutrophil infiltration by 40–50%, although doses above 100 ppm were associated with either high carboxyhemoglobin, weight loss or reduced physical activity. This anti-inflammatory effect of CO did not require pre-exposure before induction of injury. 100 ppm CO exposure attenuated neutrophil sequestration within the pulmonary vasculature as well as LPS-induced neutrophilia at 6 hours after LPS, likely due to abrogation of neutrophil mobilisation from bone marrow. In contrast to such apparently beneficial effects, 100 ppm inhaled CO induced an increase in pulmonary barrier permeability as determined by lavage fluid protein content and translocation of labelled albumin from blood to the alveolar space.
Conclusions
Overall, these data confirm some protective role for inhaled CO during pulmonary inflammation, although this required a dose that produced carboxyhemoglobin values close to potentially toxic levels for humans, and increased lung permeability.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011565
PMCID: PMC2903490  PMID: 20644637
4.  Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor ω-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester, on silica-induced inflammatory reaction and apoptosis 
Background
Although nitric oxide is overproduced by macrophages and neutrophils after exposure to silica, its role in silica-induced inflammatory reaction and apoptosis needs further clarification. In this study, rats were intratracheally instilled with either silica suspension or saline to examine inflammatory reactions and intraperitoneally injected with ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, or saline to examine the possible role of nitric oxide production in the reaction.
Results
Results showed that silica instillation induced a strong inflammatory reaction indicated by increased total cell number, number of neutrophils, protein concentration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). There were no significant differences in these indices between silica-instilled groups with and without L-NAME injection (p > 0.05) except LDH level. The results also showed that apoptotic leucocytes were identified in BALF cells of silica-instilled groups whereas no significant difference was found between silica-instilled groups with and without L-NAME injection in the apoptotic reaction (p > 0.05). Silica instillation significantly increased the level of BALF nitrite/nitrate and L-NAME injection reduced this increase.
Conclusion
Intratracheal instillation of silica caused an obvious inflammatory reaction and leucocyte apoptosis, but these reactions were not influenced by intraperitoneal injection of L-NAME and reduced production of NO. This supports the possibility that silica-induced lung inflammation and BALF cell apoptosis are via NO-independent mechanisms.
doi:10.1186/1743-8977-3-14
PMCID: PMC1636655  PMID: 17090306
5.  Poractant alfa (Curosurf®) increases phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by alveolar macrophages in vivo 
Respiratory Research  2012;13(1):17.
Background
Clearance of apoptotic neutrophils in the lung is an essential process to limit inflammation, since they could become a pro-inflammatory stimulus themselves. The clearance is partially mediated by alveolar macrophages, which phagocytose these apoptotic cells. The phagocytosis of apoptotic immune cells by monocytes in vitro has been shown to be augmented by several constituents of pulmonary surfactant, e.g. phospholipids and hydrophobic surfactant proteins. In this study, we assessed the influence of exogenous poractant alfa (Curosurf®) instillation on the in vivo phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by alveolar macrophages.
Methods
Poractant alfa (200 mg/kg) was instilled intratracheally in the lungs of three months old adult male C57/Black 6 mice, followed by apoptotic neutrophil instillation. Bronchoalveloar lavage was performed and alveolar macrophages and neutrophils were counted. Phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils was quantified by determining the number of apoptotic neutrophils per alveolar macrophages.
Results
Exogenous surfactant increased the number of alveolar macrophages engulfing apoptotic neutrophils 2.6 fold. The phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils was increased in the presence of exogenous surfactant by a 4.7 fold increase in phagocytosed apoptotic neutrophils per alveolar macrophage.
Conclusions
We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of surfactant therapy may be mediated in part by increased numbers of alveolar macrophages and increased phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by alveolar macrophages.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-13-17
PMCID: PMC3310829  PMID: 22405518
Inflammation; Resolution; Anti inflammation; Drug therapy; Surfactant
6.  Persistent biological reactivity of quartz in the lung: raised protease burden compared with a non-pathogenic mineral dust and microbial particles. 
This study assessed the potential harmfulness of particles in the lung by measuring their ability to elicit and maintain an inflammatory response and to damage lung tissue. It compared the inflammogenicity of two nondurable, biological particulates (Corynebacterium parvum and zymosan) with a pathogenic mineral dust (quartz) and a nonpathogenic dust (titanium dioxide) by dosing rats via the intratracheal route and measuring the consequent alveolitis. The magnitude and duration of the inflammatory response were assessed by measuring the total number of leucocytes and the percentage of neutrophils obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. Two key functional parameters of the lavaged leucocytes--ability to degrade fibronectin and production of plasminogen activator--were also measured. A marked inflammatory response had occurred by one day after instillation, characterised by increases in total leucocyte numbers and percentage of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavages, with all four test materials. In all but the quartz exposed animals, the inflammation subsided rapidly thereafter, approaching control levels by 15 days after injection; in the quartz exposed animals the alveolitis persisted for up to 30 days. All of the inflammogens generated chemotaxins in rat serum in vitro and so, by analogy, might also be expected to generate chemotactic activity in alveolar lining fluid which could contribute to the generation of an inflammatory response. The cellular inflammatory response was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the proteolytic activity of the bronchoalveolar lavage leucocytes but production of plasminogen activator remained unchanged. In vitro exposure to the inflammogens had no effect on the proteolytic activity against fibronectin or on the plasminogen activator activity of bronchoalveolar leucocytes.
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PMCID: PMC1035314  PMID: 1993161
7.  Cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of PVP-coated silver nanoparticles after intratracheal instillation in rats 
Summary
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are among the most promising nanomaterials, and their usage in medical applications and consumer products is growing rapidly. To evaluate possible adverse health effects, especially to the lungs, the current study focused on the cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of AgNP after the intratracheal instillation in rats. Monodisperse, PVP-coated AgNP (70 nm) showing little agglomeration in aqueous suspension were instilled intratracheally. After 24 hours, the lungs were lavaged, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein, and cytokine levels as well as total and differential cell counts were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Instillation of 50 µg PVP-AgNP did not result in elevated LDH, total protein, or cytokine levels in BALF compared to the control, whereas instillation of 250 µg PVP-AgNP caused a significant increase in LDH (1.9-fold) and total protein (1.3-fold) levels as well as in neutrophil numbers (60-fold) of BALF. Furthermore, while there was no change in BALF cytokine levels after the instillation of 50 µg PVP-AgNP, instillation of 250 µg PVP-AgNP resulted in significantly increased levels of seven out of eleven measured cytokines. These finding suggest that exposure to inhaled AgNP can induce moderate pulmonary toxicity, but only at rather high concentrations.
doi:10.3762/bjnano.4.105
PMCID: PMC3896256  PMID: 24455451
cytotoxicity; inflammation; pulmonary toxicity; silver nanoparticles
8.  Evaluating the Suitability of Using Rat Models for Preclinical Efficacy and Side Effects with Inhaled Corticosteroids Nanosuspension Formulations 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2010;5(6):1010-1019.
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are often prescribed as first-line therapy for patients with asthma Despite their efficacy and improved safety profile compared with oral corticosteroids, the potential for systemic side effects continues to cause concern. In order to reduce the potential for systemic side effects, the pharmaceutical industry has begun efforts to generate new drugs with pulmonary-targeted topical efficacy. One of the major challenges of this approach is to differentiate both efficacy and side effects (pulmonary vs. systemic) in a preclinical animal model. In this study, fluticasone and ciclesonide were used as tool compounds to explore the possibility of demonstrating both efficacy and side effects in a rat model using pulmonary delivery via intratracheal (IT) instillation with nanosuspension formulations. The inhibition of neutrophil infiltration into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and cytokine (TNFα) production were utilized to assess pulmonary efficacy, while adrenal and thymus involution as well as plasma corticosterone suppression was measured to assess systemic side effects. Based on neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production data, the ED50s for ciclesonide and fluticasone were calculated to be 0.1 and 0.03 mg, respectively. At the ED50, the average adrenal involution was 7.6 ± 5.3% for ciclesonide versus 16.6 ± 5.1% for fluticasone, while the average thymus involution was 41.0 ± 4.3% for ciclesonide versus 59.5 ± 5.8% for fluticasone. However, the differentiation became less significant when the dose was pushed to the EDmax (0.3 mg for ciclesonide, 0.1 mg for fluticasone). Overall, the efficacy and side effect profiles of the two compounds exhibited differentiation at low to mid doses (0.03–0.1 mg ciclesonide, 0.01–0.03 mg fluticasone), while this differentiation diminished at the maximum efficacious dose (0.3 mg ciclesonide, 0.1 mg fluticasone), likely due to overdosing in this model. We conclude that the rat LPS model using IT administration of nanosuspensions of ICS is a useful tool to demonstrate pulmonary-targeted efficacy and to differentiate the side effects. However, it is only suitable at sub-maximum efficacious levels.
doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9597-y
PMCID: PMC2893943  PMID: 20672144
Inhale; Glucocorticoids; Inflammation; Nanosuspension; Safety; In vivo
9.  Evaluating the Suitability of Using Rat Models for Preclinical Efficacy and Side Effects with Inhaled Corticosteroids Nanosuspension Formulations 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2010;5(6):1010-1019.
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are often prescribed as first-line therapy for patients with asthma Despite their efficacy and improved safety profile compared with oral corticosteroids, the potential for systemic side effects continues to cause concern. In order to reduce the potential for systemic side effects, the pharmaceutical industry has begun efforts to generate new drugs with pulmonary-targeted topical efficacy. One of the major challenges of this approach is to differentiate both efficacy and side effects (pulmonary vs. systemic) in a preclinical animal model. In this study, fluticasone and ciclesonide were used as tool compounds to explore the possibility of demonstrating both efficacy and side effects in a rat model using pulmonary delivery via intratracheal (IT) instillation with nanosuspension formulations. The inhibition of neutrophil infiltration into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and cytokine (TNFα) production were utilized to assess pulmonary efficacy, while adrenal and thymus involution as well as plasma corticosterone suppression was measured to assess systemic side effects. Based on neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production data, the ED50s for ciclesonide and fluticasone were calculated to be 0.1 and 0.03 mg, respectively. At the ED50, the average adrenal involution was 7.6 ± 5.3% for ciclesonide versus 16.6 ± 5.1% for fluticasone, while the average thymus involution was 41.0 ± 4.3% for ciclesonide versus 59.5 ± 5.8% for fluticasone. However, the differentiation became less significant when the dose was pushed to the EDmax (0.3 mg for ciclesonide, 0.1 mg for fluticasone). Overall, the efficacy and side effect profiles of the two compounds exhibited differentiation at low to mid doses (0.03–0.1 mg ciclesonide, 0.01–0.03 mg fluticasone), while this differentiation diminished at the maximum efficacious dose (0.3 mg ciclesonide, 0.1 mg fluticasone), likely due to overdosing in this model. We conclude that the rat LPS model using IT administration of nanosuspensions of ICS is a useful tool to demonstrate pulmonary-targeted efficacy and to differentiate the side effects. However, it is only suitable at sub-maximum efficacious levels.
doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9597-y
PMCID: PMC2893943  PMID: 20672144
Inhale; Glucocorticoids; Inflammation; Nanosuspension; Safety; In vivo
10.  Lung exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles induces innate immune activation and long-lasting lymphocyte response in the Dark Agouti rat 
Journal of Immunotoxicology  2011;8(2):111-121.
Nanomaterial of titanium dioxide (TiO2) is manufactured in large-scale production plants, resulting in risks for accidental high exposures of humans. Inhalation of metal oxide nanoparticles in high doses may lead to both acute and long-standing adverse effects. By using the Dark Agouti (DA) rat, a strain disposed to develop chronic inflammation following exposure to immunoactivating adjuvants, we investigated local and systemic inflammatory responses after lung exposure of nanosized TiO2 particles up to 90 days after intratracheal instillation. TiO2 induced a transient response of proinflammatory and T-cell-activating cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant [CINC]-1, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], and IL-2) in airways 1-2 days after exposure, accompanied byaninfluxofeosinophilsand neutrophils. Neutrophil numbers remained elevated for 30 days, whereas the eosinophils declined to baseline levels at Day 8, simultaneously with an increase of dendritic cells and natural killer (NK) cells. The innate immune activation was followed by a lymphocyte expansion that persisted throughout the 90-day study. Lymphocytes recruited to the lungs were predominantly CD4+ helper T-cells, but we also demonstrated presence of CD8+T-cells, B-cells, and CD25+T-cells. In serum, we detected both an early cytokine expression at Days 1-2 (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, CINC-1, IL-10, and interferon-gamma [IFN-γ] and a second response at Day 16 of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), indicating systemic late-phase effects in addition to the local response in airways. In summary, these data demonstrate a dynamic response to TiO2 nanoparticles in the lungs of DA rats, beginning with an innate immune activation of eosinophils, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and NK cells, followed by a long-lasting activation of lymphocytes involved in adaptive immunity. The results have implications for the assessment of risks for adverse and persistent immune stimulation following nanoparticle exposures in sensitive populations.
doi:10.3109/1547691X.2010.546382
PMCID: PMC3104284  PMID: 21309687
Nanoparticles; TiO2; lung; inflammation; NK cells; T-cells; dendritic cells
11.  Lung inflammation and genotoxicity following pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles in ApoE-/- mice 
Background
The toxic and inflammatory potential of 5 different types of nanoparticles were studied in a sensitive model for pulmonary effects in apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE-/-). We studied the effects instillation or inhalation Printex 90 of carbon black (CB) and compared CB instillation in ApoE-/- and C57 mice. Three and 24 h after pulmonary exposure, inflammation was assessed by mRNA levels of cytokines in lung tissue, cell composition, genotoxicity, protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid.
Results
Firstly, we found that intratracheal instillation of CB caused far more pulmonary toxicity in ApoE-/- mice than in C57 mice. Secondly, we showed that instillation of CB was more toxic than inhalation of a presumed similar dose with respect to inflammation in the lungs of ApoE-/- mice. Thirdly, we compared effects of instillation in ApoE-/- mice of three carbonaceous particles; CB, fullerenes C60 (C60) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as well as gold particles and quantum dots (QDs). Characterization of the instillation media revealed that all particles were delivered as agglomerates and aggregates. Significant increases in Il-6, Mip-2 and Mcp-1 mRNA were detected in lung tissue, 3 h and 24 h following instillation of SWCNT, CB and QDs. DNA damage in BAL cells, the fraction of neutrophils in BAL cells and protein in BAL fluid increased statistically significantly. Gold and C60 particles caused much weaker inflammatory responses.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that ApoE-/- model is sensitive for evaluating particle induced inflammation. Overall QDs had greatest effects followed by CB and SWCNT with C60 and gold being least inflammatory and DNA-damaging. However the gold was used at a much lower mass dose than the other particles. The strong effects of QDs were likely due to Cd release. The surface area of the instilled dose correlated well the inflammatory response for low toxicity particles.
doi:10.1186/1743-8977-6-2
PMCID: PMC2636756  PMID: 19138394
12.  Toxicology of Nanomaterials: Permanent interactive learning 
Particle and Fibre Toxicology wants to play a decisive role in a time where particle research is challenged and driven by the developments and applications of nanomaterials. This aim is not merely quantitative in publishing a given number of papers on nanomaterials, but also qualitatively since the field of nanotoxicology is rapidly emerging and benchmarks for good science are needed. Since then a number of things have happened that merit further analysis. The interactive learning issue is best shown by report and communications on the toxicology of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). A special workshop on the CNT has now been organized twice in Nagano (Japan) and this editorial contains a summary of the most important outcomes. Finally, we take the opportunity discuss some recent reports from the nanotech literature, and more specifically a Chinese study that claims severe consequences of nanoparticle exposure.
doi:10.1186/1743-8977-6-28
PMCID: PMC2774283  PMID: 19863807
13.  Strain Differences Influence Murine Pulmonary Responses to Stachybotrys chartarum 
When the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum is inhaled, its mycotoxins may cause lung injury and inflammation. The severity of human responses to S. chartarum in both occupational and home settings varies widely. To explore these differences, we intratracheally instilled C3H/HeJ, BALB/c, and C57BL/6J mice with S. chartarum spores suspended in saline. One day later, the mice were humanely killed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, and biochemical and cellular indicators of lung injury and inflammation were measured. BALB/c mice showed the highest myeloperoxidase activity, albumin and hemoglobin levels, and neutrophil numbers in their BAL among the three strains. BALB/c was the only strain to show significant increases in keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, MCP-3, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-1γ, MIP-2, RANTES, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-3, IL-6, IL-18, leukemia inhibitory factor, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and TNF-α. A model of allergen-induced airway inflammation was examined to assess whether underlying allergic inflammation might contribute to increased susceptibility to S. chartarum–induced pulmonary inflammation and injury. Surprisingly, in BALB/c mice, ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation produced a protective effect against some S. chartarum–induced pulmonary responses. This is the first report of mammalian strain differences affecting responses to S. chartarum. These responses differ from those reported for LPS and other fungi. Analogous underlying genetic differences may contribute to the wide range of sensitivity to Stachybotrys among humans.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2005-0483OC
PMCID: PMC2643262  PMID: 16690987
BALB/c; C57BL/6; cytokines; lung diseases, fungal; mold
14.  The Role of CXCR2 in Cigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Inflammation 
It has been hypothesized that the destruction of lung tissue observed in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema is mediated by neutrophils recruited to the lungs by smoke exposure. This study investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CXCR2 in mediating neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs of mice acutely exposed to cigarette smoke. Exposure to dilute mainstream cigarette smoke for 1 hour, twice per day for 3 days induced acute inflammation in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice, with increased neutrophils and neutrophil chemotactic CXC chemokines MIP-2 and KC. Treatment with SCH-N, an orally active small molecule inhibitor of CXCR2, reduced the influx of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Histologic changes were seen, with drug treatment reducing perivascular inflammation and the number of tissue neutrophils. β-glucuronidase activity was reduced in the BAL fluid of mice treated with SCH-N, indicating that the reduction in neutrophils was associated with a reduction in tissue damaging enzymes. Interestingly, while MIP-2 and KC were significantly elevated in the BAL fluid of smoke exposed mice, they were further elevated in mice exposed to smoke and treated with drug. The increase in MIP-2 and KC with drug treatment may be due to the decrease in lung neutrophils which either are not present to bind these chemokines or which fail to provide a feedback signal to other cells that produce these chemokines. Overall, these results demonstrate that inhibiting CXCR2 reduces neutrophilic inflammation and associated lung tissue damage due to acute cigarette smoke exposure.
doi:10.1152/ajplung.00039.2005
PMCID: PMC2491909  PMID: 15833762
neutrophil chemokines; emphysema; COPD; MIP-2; KC
15.  Trimellitic Anhydride-Induced Allergic Response in the Lung: Role of the Complement System in Cellular Changes1 
Trimellitic anhydride (TMA) is a small molecular weight industrial compound that will cause asthma-like symptoms in humans. Some of these TMA-induced symptoms can be reproduced in the guinea pig. In the guinea pig model of TMA-induced asthma, intratracheal instillation of TMA coupled to guinea pig serum albumin causes an immediate bronchoconstriction and increase in airway microvascular leakage with concomitant decrease in circulating platelets and white blood cells and subsequent cellular infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophils and eosinophils into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, in the lung tissue an increase in eosinophil peroxidase activity (a measure of eosinophil numbers) occurs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether complement system activation was essential for any of these TMA-induced events. Guinea pigs pretreated with cobra venom factor (CVF) had significantly reduced amounts of complement component C3 in the lavage fluid 24 hours after TMA conjugated to guinea pig serum albumin challenge indicating that the CVF treatment was successful in depleting complement proteins. Pretreatment with CVF did not affect the immediate TMA-induced bronchoconstriction nor the TMA-induced microvascular leakage. In animals depleted of the complement system by pretreatment with CVF the TMA-induced increase in mononuclear cells, total white blood cells, red blood cells, and EPO activity in the bronchoalveolar lavage was significantly reduced. Thus, our results suggest that in the guinea pig, the complement system is an important source of mediators for cellular infiltration into the lung after exposure to this acid anhydride and that inhibiting complement activation may be useful in preventing the inflammatory cell infiltration in TMA-induced asthma.
PMCID: PMC2978651  PMID: 7752082
16.  A comparative study of lung toxicity in rats induced by three types of nanomaterials 
Nanoscale Research Letters  2013;8(1):521.
The public is increasingly exposed to various engineered nanomaterials because of their mass production and wide application. Even when the biological effects of nanomaterials have been assessed, the underlying mechanisms of action in vivo are poorly understood. The present study was designed to seek a simple, effective, and oxidative stress-based biomarker system used for screening toxicity of nanomaterials. Nano-ferroso-ferric oxide (nano-Fe3O4), nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were dispersed in corn oil and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rats were exposed to the three nanomaterials by intratracheal instillation once every 2 days for 5 weeks. We investigated their lung oxidative and inflammatory damage by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) detection and comparative proteomics by lung tissue. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of proteins isolated from the lung tissue, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, was performed. In the present study, we chose to detect lactate dehydrogenase, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde as the biomarker system for screening the oxidative stress of nanomaterials and IL-6 as the inflammatory biomarker in BALF. Proteomics analysis revealed 17 differentially expressed proteins compared with the control group: nine were upregulated and eight were downregulated. Our results indicated that exposure by intratracheal instillation to any of the three typical nanomaterials may cause lung damage through oxidative damage and/or an inflammatory reaction.
doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-521
PMCID: PMC3879061  PMID: 24321467
SWCNTs; Nano-Fe3O4; Nano-SiO2; BALF; Comparative proteomics analysis; Lung toxicity
17.  Long-term Pulmonary Responses to Quadweekly Intermittent Intratracheal Spray Instillations of Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles for 52 Weeks in Fischer 344 Rats 
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology  2013;26(4):393-403.
Information about potential risks of iron nanomaterials is still limited, while a wide variety of applications are expected. We recently reported acute phase responses of male and female Fischer 344 rats after a single intratracheal spray instillation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (magnetite), clearly showing dose-dependent pulmonary inflammatory changes (Tada et al., J Toxicol Pathol 25, 233–239, 2012). The present study assessed long-term responses of male and female Fischer 344 rats to multiple administrations of magnetite. Ten-week-old male and female Fischer 344 rats (n=20/group) were exposed to a total of 13 quadweekly intermittent intratracheal spray instillations of magnetite during the experimental period of 52 weeks, at doses of 0, 0.2 (low), 1.0 (medium) and 5.0 (high-dose) mg/kg body weight per administration. Absolute and relative lung weights of the high-dose group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Macroscopically, slight enlargement and scattered black patches were recognized in the lungs and the lung-associated lymph nodes of the high-dose group. Histopathologically, infiltration of macrophages phagocytosing magnetite (all dose groups) and of chronic inflammatory cells (medium- and high-dose males and high-dose females), alveolar bronchiolization and granuloma (high-dose group) were observed. In addition, alveolar hyperplasias were observed in some rats of the high-dose group, and cytoplasmic overexpression of β-catenin protein was immunohistochemically found in such lesions. The present results clearly show that instilled magnetite causes chronic inflammatory responses in the lung. These responses occur in a dose-dependent manner without apparent differences among sexes
doi:10.1293/tox.2013-0036
PMCID: PMC3921922  PMID: 24526812
magnetite; Fe3O4; nanoparticles; lung; intratracheal spray instillation; Fischer 344 rat
18.  Protein Kinase C–ζ Mediates Lung Injury Induced by Diesel Exhaust Particles 
Recently, we reported that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) disrupt tight junctions (TJs) in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) via an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated the role of protein kinase C (PKC)–ζ activation in DEP-induced lung injury. C57/bl6 mice were instilled intratracheally with 50 μl of saline containing 100 μg of DEPs or titanium dioxide (TiO2). Twenty-four hours later, bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to assess neutrophil counts and protein concentrations. In addition, in vitro experiments were performed in primary rat and human AECs exposed to DEPs (50 μg/cm2) for 3 hours. Transepithelial electrical conductance was measured, and TJ protein association was analyzed by immunoprecipitation. To determine whether the overexpression of antioxidants prevented DEP-induced lung injury, AECs and mice were infected with adenoviruses containing catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plasmids. In vivo, the overexpression of catalase and MnSOD prevented DEP-induced neutrophil recruitment. The inhibition of PKC-ζ activation also prevented DEP-induced neutrophil recruitment in vivo. In vitro, DEPs activated PKC-ζ in AECs, but not in alveolar macrophages. Using a specific myristolated PKC-ζ pseudosubstrate pepetide (PKC-ζ ps), we showed that PKC-ζ mediated the DEP-induced dissociation of occludin and zonula occludin–1 (ZO1) in rat and human AECs. In addition, the overexpression of constitutively active PKC-ζ induced the dissociation of occludin and ZO1 in AECs. DEP-induced TJ disruption occurs via PKC-ζ. TJ disruption seems to be in part responsible for DEP-induced lung injury.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2012-0056OC
PMCID: PMC3604088  PMID: 23221045
diesel exhaust particles; PKC-ζ; occludin; ZO1; ROS
19.  Long term effects of alumina on components of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rats. 
Significant differences in several components of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL fluid) have previously been reported in aluminium potroom workers compared with controls. The present paper describes the long term effects in rats of one time exposure to potroom aluminium oxide without fluorides (primary alumina (PA)) or with adsorbed fluorides (secondary alumina (SA)) on components of BAL fluid. Alumina dust (40 mg) suspended in saline was instilled intratracheally; controls received saline. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed one, four, and 12 months after exposure. The number of cells in BAL fluid was increased significantly (p < 0.05) by SA but not PA. The increase was mainly macrophages, but the concentrations of neutrophils also increased about 10-fold one and 12 months after exposure. Although albumin and hyaluronan concentrations did not differ from those of controls, fibronectin concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) increased one year after exposure both in PA exposed and SA exposed rats. The results indicate that SA, possibly because of adhered fluorides, induces early changes in alveolar cell populations including persistent neutrophilia. These cellular changes may have a destructive effect. The late pronounced increase of fibronectin in both PA and SA exposed rats indicates a delayed effect of alumina on the extracellular matrix.
PMCID: PMC1061256  PMID: 8435350
20.  Acute Phase Pulmonary Responses to a Single Intratracheal Spray Instillation of Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles in Fischer 344 Rats 
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology  2012;25(4):233-239.
Iron nanomaterials are of considerable interest for application to nanotechnology-related fields including environmental catalysis, biomedical imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia, because of their superparamagnetic characteristics and high catalytic abilities. However, information about potential risks of iron nanomaterials is limited. The present study assessed pulmonary responses to a single intratracheal spray instillation of triiron tetraoxide nanoparticles (magnetite) in rats. Ten-week-old male and female Fischer 344 rats (n=5/group) were exposed to a single intratracheal spray instillation of 0 (vehicle), 5.0, 15.0 or 45.0 mg/kg body weight (BW) of magnetite. After 14 days, the rats were sacrificed, and biological consequences were investigated. The lung weights of the 15.0 and 45.0 mg/kg BW male and female groups were significantly higher than those of the control groups. The lungs of treated rats showed enlargement and black patches originating from the color of magnetite. The typical histopathological changes in the lungs of the treated rats included infiltration of macrophages phagocytosing magnetite, inflammatory cell infiltration, granuloma formation and an increase of goblet cells in the bronchial epithelium. The results clearly show that instilled magnetite causes foreign body inflammatory and granulating lesions in the lung. These pulmonary responses occur in a dose-dependent manner in association with the increase in lung weight.
doi:10.1293/tox.25.233
PMCID: PMC3517918  PMID: 23345925
magnetite; Fe3O4; nanoparticles; lung; intratracheal spray instillation; Fischer 344 rat
21.  Pulmonary recruitment of neutrophils and bacterial clearance in mice inoculated with aerosols of Pasteurella haemolytica or Staphylococcus aureus. 
Pulmonary alveolar macrophages are considered to be the main phagocytic cell of the pulmonary defense mechanism. However recent studies indicate that neutrophils may also participate in the defense against inhaled bacteria. The aim of this investigation was to study in mice the correlation between numbers of phagocytic cells in the bronchoalveolar space and the pulmonary clearance of bacteria. White mice were exposed to aerosols of Pasteurella haemolytica (n = 129) or Staphylococcus aureus (n = 129) in three different experimental replicates. Another group of mice (n = 22) was sham exposed to an aerosol of sterile phosphate buffered solution in a single replicate. Animals were sacrificed at various times postaerosolization. The numbers of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages in lung lavages and the pulmonary bacterial clearance rates were determined and statistically analysed. No significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were observed in the rates of pulmonary clearance between the two genera of bacteria, but P. haemolytica had a significant (p less than 0.05) replicate effect. The number of alveolar macrophages was not significantly affected by either bacteria or phosphate buffered solution. Exposure to P. haemolytica resulted in dramatic, significant (p less than 0.01) but transient increases in neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar space as well as a significant (p less than 0.01) increase in the weights of lung. The correlation between neutrophils and clearance was positive for P. haemolytica but negative for S. aureus. These results indicate that both species of bacteria are rapidly eliminated from the lung despite a rather different cellular response.
PMCID: PMC1236181  PMID: 4041978
22.  Deducing in Vivo Toxicity of Combustion-Derived Nanoparticles from a Cell-Free Oxidative Potency Assay and Metabolic Activation of Organic Compounds 
Background
The inhalation of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) is believed to cause an oxidative stress response, which in turn may lead to pulmonary or even systemic inflammation.
Objective and Methods
In this study we assessed whether the in vivo inflammatory response—which is generally referred to as particle toxicity—of mice to CDNPs can be predicted in vitro by a cell-free ascorbate test for the surface reactivity or, more precisely, oxidative potency (OxPot) of particles.
Results
For six types of CDNPs with widely varying particle diameter (10–50 nm), organic content (OC; 1–20%), and specific Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area (43–800 m2/g), OxPot correlated strongly with the in vivo inflammatory response (pulmonary polymorphonuclear neutrophil influx 24 hr after intratracheal particle instillation). However, for CDNPs with high organic content, OxPot could not explain the observed inflammatory response, possibly due to shielding of the OxPot of the carbon core of CDNPs by an organic coating. On the other hand, a pathway-specific gene expression screen indicated that, for particles rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) enzyme-mediated biotransformation of bio-available organics may generate oxidative stress and thus enhance the in vivo inflammatory response.
Conclusion
The compensatory nature of both effects (shielding of carbon core and biotransformation of PAHs) results in a good correlation between inflammatory response and BET surface area for all CDNPs. Hence, the in vivo inflammatory response can either be predicted by BET surface area or by a simple quantitative model, based on in vitro OxPot and Cyp1a1 induction.
doi:10.1289/ehp.11370
PMCID: PMC2627865  PMID: 19165387
air pollution; BET; biotransformation; carbonaceous particles; Cyp1a1; dose response; nanoparticles; nanotoxicity; organic compounds; oxidative stress; particle toxicity; soot particles; specific surface area; surface toxicity; ultrafine particles
23.  Intratracheally administered titanium dioxide or carbon black nanoparticles do not aggravate elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in rats 
Background
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (NPs) have biological effects that could aggravate pulmonary emphysema. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether pulmonary administration of TiO2 or CB NPs in rats could induce and/or aggravate elastase-induced emphysema, and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Methods
On day 1, Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with 25 U kg−1 pancreatic porcine elastase or saline. On day 7, they received an intratracheal instillation of TiO2 or CB (at 100 and 500 μg) dispersed in bovine serum albumin or bovine serum albumin alone. Animals were sacrificed at days 8 or 21, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cellularity, histological analysis of inflammation and emphysema, and lung mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), macrophage inflammatory protein-2, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-1, and -12 were measured. In addition, pulmonary MMP-12 expression was also analyzed at the protein level by immunohistochemistry.
Results
TiO2 NPs per se did not modify the parameters investigated, but CB NPs increased perivascular/peribronchial infiltration, and macrophage MMP-12 expression, without inducing emphysema. Elastase administration increased BAL cellularity, histological inflammation, HO-1, IL-1β and macrophage MMP-12 expression and induced emphysema. Exposure to TiO2 NPs did not modify pulmonary responses to elastase, but exposure to CB NPs aggravated elastase-induced histological inflammation without aggravating emphysema.
Conclusions
TiO2 and CB NPs did not aggravate elastase-induced emphysema. However, CB NPs induced histological inflammation and MMP-12 mRNA and protein expression in macrophages.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-12-38
PMCID: PMC3499434  PMID: 22849372
COPD; Occupational medicine; Particles; Toxicity
24.  Neutrophil sequestration in rat lungs. 
Thorax  1995;50(6):661-667.
BACKGROUND--The transit of neutrophils through the pulmonary microvasculature is prolonged compared with red blood cells and is increased further during cigarette smoking and in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The increased residence time (sequestration) of neutrophils in the pulmonary capillaries in these conditions may be the first step leading to the accumulation of cells within the lung interstitium and in the bronchoalveolar space, so potentiating lung damage. A rat model has been developed to investigate the factors which may influence neutrophil transit through the lung microvasculature. METHODS--Intratracheal instillation of the heat killed organism Corynebacterium parvum was used to induce an acute neutrophil alveolitis. Neutrophils and red blood cells were isolated from donor rats, labelled with two distinct radioisotopes, and then reinjected into recipient rats to assess their transit through the pulmonary circulation. To ascertain whether peripheral blood neutrophils were minimally altered by the isolation procedure their functional status in vitro was compared with that of inflammatory neutrophils in a number of assays commonly used as descriptors of neutrophil activation. The influence of neutrophil activation on the accumulation of cells in the lungs was assessed by comparing the lung sequestration of control neutrophils, isolated from peripheral blood, with that of inflammatory neutrophils obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage of inflamed rat lungs. Lung sequestration of neutrophils was defined as the fold increase in the ratio of neutrophils labelled with chromium-51 to red blood cells labelled with technetium-99m in lung tissue compared with the same ratio in peripheral blood. RESULTS--Sequestration of peripheral blood neutrophils occurred in control rat lungs as shown by a 17.5 (2.1) fold increase in the ratio of neutrophils to red blood cells in the pulmonary circulation compared with the ratio of these cells in the peripheral circulation. When inflammatory neutrophils, obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from C parvum-treated animals, were injected into control rats, the increase was 90.6 (11.0) fold. Induction of an inflammatory response in the lung tissue of the recipient rat also caused an increase in the sequestration of control neutrophils compared with the same cells in control rat lungs which was, however, less marked than when inflammatory neutrophils were used (34.7 (4.7) fold). The mean (SE) pressure developed on filtration of inflammatory neutrophils in vitro through a millipore filter (7.53 (0.2) cm H2O) was greater than that of peripheral blood neutrophils (1.18 (0.2) cm H2O). Increased filtration pressure indicates a decrease in cell deformability and suggests that this may be a contributory factor to the increased sequestration of inflammatory neutrophils in the pulmonary vasculature. CONCLUSIONS--This study shows that there is sequestration of neutrophils in the pulmonary vasculature in normal rat lungs which increases in acute lung inflammation and when inflammatory neutrophils are injected into control animals. In this model changes in the neutrophil, such as cell deformability, may have a more important role in inducing increased neutrophil sequestration than the inflammatory response in the lungs.
PMCID: PMC1021268  PMID: 7638810
25.  Respiratory Syncytial Virus Binds and Undergoes Transcription in Neutrophils From the Blood and Airways of Infants With Severe Bronchiolitis 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2011;204(3):451-458.
Background. Neutrophils are the predominant cell in the lung inflammatory infiltrate of infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. Although it has previously been shown that neutrophils from both blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) are activated, little is understood about their role in response to RSV infection. This study investigated whether RSV proteins and mRNA are present in neutrophils from blood and BAL of infected infants.
Methods. We obtained blood and BAL samples from 20 infants with severe RSV bronchiolitis and 8 healthy control infants. Neutrophil RSV F, G, and N proteins, RSV N genomic RNA, and messenger RNA (mRNA) were quantified.
Results. RSV proteins were found in BAL and blood neutrophils in infants with RSV disease but not in neutrophils from healthy infants. BAL and blood neutrophils from infants with RSV disease, but not those from healthy infants, expressed RSV N genomic RNA, indicating uptake of whole virus; 17 of 20 BAL and 8 of 9 blood neutrophils from patients expressed RSV N mRNA.
Conclusions. This work shows, for the first time, the presence of RSV proteins and mRNA transcripts within BAL and blood neutrophils from infants with severe RSV bronchiolitis.
doi:10.1093/infdis/jir280
PMCID: PMC3132143  PMID: 21742845

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