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1.  Late Stage Freiberg Infraction in a Division I Collegiate Tennis Player 
Introduction:
Freiberg infraction is a relatively rare osteochondrosis of the metatarsal head. The etiology of Freiberg infraction is poorly understood but likely involves factors such as, repetitive trauma and vascular compromise. When discovered early, Freiberg infraction can be cured with conservative measures but late presentations require surgical intervention. We present a case of stage V Freiberg infraction in a Division I collegiate tennis player that responded to conservative treatment.
Case Report:
A 20 year old female tennis player presented with worsening of her chronic foot pain. She had tenderness to palpation and diminished range of motion at the second metatarsophalangeal joint. Radiographs revealed late stage Freiberg infraction of the second metatarsal. This patient’s pain was successfully treated with conservative measures; prolonging her collegiate tennis career.
Conclusion:
Surgical intervention is required for definitive treatment of late stage Freiberg infraction. Conservative treatment can be effective in prolonging the athlete’s career.
doi:10.13107/jocr.2250-0685.295
PMCID: PMC4719388  PMID: 27299057
Osteochondrosis; Freiberg infraction; Metatarsal; Foot pain
2.  Modified Weil Osteotomy for the Treatment of Freiberg's Disease 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2012;4(4):300-306.
Background
Numerous metatarsal osteotomies have been developed for the treatment of Freiberg's disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of modified Weil osteotomy in the treatment of Freiberg's disease.
Methods
From November 2001 to July 2008, nineteen patients (twenty feet), treated surgically for Freiberg's disease, were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 33.6 years (range, 17 to 62 years), the mean follow-up period was 71.6 months (range, 41 to 121 months). Clinical outcomes were evaluated according to visual analogue scale (VAS), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) lesser metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale, the patients' subjective satisfaction and range of motion (ROM) of metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. In the radiologic evaluation, initial metatarsal shortening by Freiberg's disease compared to opposite site, metatarsal shortening after modified Weil osteotomy compared with preoperative radiography and term for radiologic union were observed.
Results
VAS showed improvement from 6.2 ± 1.4 to 1.4 ± 1.5 at last follow-up (p < 0.0001). Points of AOFAS score increased from 63.3 ± 14.9 to 80.4 ± 5.6 (p < 0.0001). ROM of MTP joints also improved from 31.3 ± 10.1 to 48.3 ± 13.0 degrees at last follow-up (p < 0.0001). According to Smillie's classification system, there was no significant improvement of VAS, AOFAS score and ROM between early stages (stage I, II, and III) and late stages (stage IV and V). Out of twenty cases, nineteen (95%) were satisfied, reporting excellent or good results.
Conclusions
Modified Weil osteotomy is believed to be a useful method for the treatment of Freiberg's disease, not only in the early stages but also in the late stages. It relieves pain and improves function via shortening of metatarsals and restoration of MTP joint congruency.
doi:10.4055/cios.2012.4.4.300
PMCID: PMC3504695  PMID: 23205240
Freiberg's disease; Modified Weil osteotomy; Dorsal closing wedge osteotomy
3.  Results of two different surgical techniques in the treatment of advanced-stage Freiberg's disease 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2016;50(1):70-73.
Background:
Freiberg's disease is an osteochondrosis most commonly seen in adolescent women and characterized by pain, swelling and motion restriction in the second metatarsal. The early stages of this disease can be managed with semirigid orthoses, metatarsal bars and short leg walking cast. Number of operative methods are suggested which can be used depending on the pathophysiology of the disease, including abnormal biomechanics, joint congruence and degenerative process. We evaluated the outcomes of the patients with Freiberg's disease who were treated with dorsal closing-wedge osteotomy and resection of the metatarsal head.
Patients and Methods:
16 patients (11 female, 5 male) with a mean age of 24.5 (range 13–49 years) years who underwent dorsal closing wedge osteotomy or resection of the metatarsal head were included in this retrospective study. Second metatarsal was affected in 13 and third metatarsal in three patients. According to the Smillie's classification system, ten patients had type IV osteonecrosis and six patients had type V. The results of the patients were evaluated using the lesser metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal (LMPI) scale.
Results:
According to the LMPI scale, the postoperative scores for the osteotomy and excision groups were 86 (range 64–100) and 72.6 (range 60–85), respectively. In the osteotomy group, mean passive flexion restriction was 18° (range 0°–35°) and mean passive extension restriction was 12° (range 0°–25°). Mean metatarsal shortening was 2.2 mm (range 2–4 mm) in the osteotomy group as opposed to 9.8 mm (range 7–14 mm) in the excision group. Significant pain relief was obtained in both groups following the surgery.
Conclusions:
The decision of performing osteotomy or resection arthroplasty in the patients with advanced-stage Freiberg's disease should be based on the joint injury and the patients should be informed about the cosmetic problems like shortening which may arise from resection.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.173514
PMCID: PMC4759878  PMID: 26955180
Metatarsal; dorsal closing-wedge osteotomy; Freiberg's disease; metatarsal; osteochondrosis; resection; Osteonecrosis; metatarsus; osteotomy; arthroplasty
4.  Degenerative osteoarthritis of the second metatarsophalangeal joint: second toe rigidus 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(9):1863-1869.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic characteristics and structural configurations of a series of patients with a primary degenerative arthritis of the second metatarsophalangeal joint.
Methods
We studied 37 feet that had undergone surgical treatment for primary degenerative arthritis of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. The patients were compared with a randomly selected control group, without arthritis of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. The first, second, and fourth metatarsal lengths, and the size of the second metatarsal head were measured on weight-bearing anteroposterior radiographs. The patients were classified on the basis of joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte formation, and subchondral cystic change.
Results
The average second metatarsal length was significantly longer in the study group (P = 0.01). The average length of the first metatarsal relative to the fourth metatarsal was significantly shorter (P = 0.02) in the study group, while the average length of the second metatarsal relative to the fourth metatarsal was significantly longer (P = 0.01) in the study group. The average diameter of the second metatarsal head was significantly larger in the study group (P = 0.00), and the average ratio of this diameter relative to the length of the fourth metatarsal was significantly higher in the study group (P = 0.00). A total of four feet were classified as grade 0, nine as grade 1, 17 as grade 2, and seven as grade 3.
Conclusions
Second toe rigidus should be considered as a diagnosis in patients with painful limited dorsiflexion of the second metatarsophalangeal joint without evidence of Freiberg’s infraction or trauma.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-2035-x
PMCID: PMC3764303  PMID: 23892518
5.  Extra-articular dorsal closing-wedge osteotomy to treat late-stage Freiberg disease using polyblend sutures: technical tips and clinical results 
International Orthopaedics  2014;38(7):1401-1405.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes regarding the dorsal wedge osteotomy fixed using a polyblend suture and describe the usefulness of this fixation method for the treatment of Freiberg disease.
Methods
The subjects consisted of 13 feet from 13 cases suffering from Freiberg disease that underwent extra-articular dorsal closing-wedge osteotomy using a polyblend suture. The average age was 31.7 (range 13–72) years. The average follow-up period was 17 (range 14–24) months. Regarding image findings, time to bone union and metatarsal shortening was reviewed. The investigation was carried out using the range of motion (ROM), visual analog scale (VAS), and Japanese Society of the Surgery of Foot lesser toe scale (JSSF score) in the MTP joint before surgery and at the latest follow-up.
Results
Calluses under the metatarsal head were not observed in any cases. The mean metatarsal shortening was 2.33 ± 2.07 mm at follow-up. The bone union required an average of 8.4 ± 0.8 weeks. The average ROM of dorsal flexion improved from 37.2 ± 5.3° before surgery to 73.6 ± 9.9° at latest follow-up (p < 0.0001). The average ROM of plantar flexion improved from 16.0 ± 10.1° before surgery to 19.5 ± 8.6° at latest follow-up (p = 0.35). The average VAS significantly improved from 75.3 ± 8.5 before surgery to 4.9 ± 4.2 at latest follow-up (p < 0.0001). The average JSSF score significantly improved from 67.3 ± 9.4 points before surgery to 98.8 ± 3.0 points at the latest follow-up (p < 0.0001).
Conclusion
Extra-articular dorsal closing-wedge osteotomy using a polyblend suture was carried out to treat Freiberg disease. The bone union was observed in all cases with improved clinical results. Fixation using a polyblend suture was considered to be useful.
doi:10.1007/s00264-014-2381-3
PMCID: PMC4071500  PMID: 24867357
Freiberg disease; Polyblend suture; Closing-wedge osteotomy; Metatarsal
6.  The effect of foot orthoses with forefoot cushioning or metatarsal pad on forefoot peak plantar pressure in running 
Background
Foot orthoses are frequently used in sports for the treatment of overuse complaints with sufficient evidence available for certain foot-related overuse pathologies like plantar fasciitis, rheumatoid arthritis and foot pain (e.g., metatarsalgia). One important aim is to reduce plantar pressure under prominent areas like metatarsal heads. For the forefoot region, mainly two common strategies exist: metatarsal pad (MP) and forefoot cushioning (FC). The aim of this study was to evaluate which of these orthosis concepts is superior in reducing plantar pressure in the forefoot during running.
Methods
Twenty-three (13 female, 10 male) asymptomatic runners participated in this cross-sectional experimental trial. Participants ran in a randomised order under the two experimental (MP, FC) conditions and a control (C) condition on a treadmill (2.78 ms−1) for 2 min, respectively. Plantar pressure was measured with the in-shoe plantar pressure measurement device pedar-x®-System and mean peak pressure averaged from ten steps in the forefoot (primary outcome) and total foot was analysed. Insole comfort was measured with the Insole Comfort Index (ICI, sum score 0–100) after each running trial. The primary outcome was tested using the Friedman test (α = 0.05). Secondary outcomes were analysed descriptively (mean ± SD, lower & upper 95%-CI, median and interquartile-range (IQR)).
Results
Peak pressure [kPa] in the forefoot was significantly lower wearing FC (281 ± 80, 95%-CI: 246–315) compared to both C (313 ± 69, 95%-CI: 283–343; p = .003) and MP (315 ± 80, 95%-CI: 280–350; p = .001). No significant difference was found between C and MP (p = .858). Peak pressures under the total foot were: C: 364 ± 82, 95%-CI: 328–399; MP: 357 ± 80, 95%-CI: 326–387; FC: 333 ± 81 95%-CI: 298–368. Median ICI sum scores were: C 50, MP 49, FC 64.
Conclusions
In contrast to the metatarsal pad orthosis, the forefoot cushioning orthosis achieved a significant reduction of peak pressure in the forefoot of recreational runners. Consequently, the use of a prefabricated forefoot cushioning orthosis should be favoured over a prefabricated orthosis with an incorporated metatarsal pad in recreational runners with normal height arches.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13047-016-0176-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13047-016-0176-z
PMCID: PMC5112690  PMID: 27891180
Foot orthoses; Peak plantar pressure; Forefoot; Running
7.  Multi-plug insole design to reduce peak plantar pressure on the diabetic foot during walking 
There is evidence that appropriate footwear is an important factor in the prevention of foot pain in otherwise healthy people or foot ulcers in people with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. A standard care for reducing forefoot plantar pressure is the utilization of orthotic devices such as total contact inserts (TCI) with therapeutic footwear. Most neuropathic ulcers occur under the metatarsal heads, and foot deformity combined with high localized plantar pressure, appear to be the most significant factors contributing to these ulcers. In this study, patient-specific finite element models of the second ray of the foot were developed to study the influence of TCI design on peak plantar pressure (PPP) under the metatarsal heads. A typical full contact insert was modified based on the results of finite element analyses, by inserting 4 mm diameter cylindrical plugs of softer material in the regions of high pressure. Validation of the numerical model was addressed by comparing the numerical results obtained by the finite element method with measured pressure distribution in the region of the metatarsal heads for a shoe and TCI condition. Two subjects, one with a history of forefoot pain and one with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, were tested in the laboratory while wearing therapeutic shoes and customized inserts. The study showed that customized inserts with softer plugs distributed throughout the regions of high plantar pressure reduced the PPP over that of the TCI alone. This supports the outcome as predicted by the numerical model, without causing edge effects as reported by other investigators using different plug designs, and provides a greater degree of flexibility for customizing orthotic devices than current practice allows.
doi:10.1007/s11517-008-0311-5
PMCID: PMC2650823  PMID: 18266017
Finite element analysis; diabetic foot; insole design
8.  Choosing Among 3 Ankle-Foot Orthoses for a Patient With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction 
STUDY DESIGN
Case report.
BACKGROUND
No head-to-head comparisons of different orthoses for patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) have been performed to date. Additionally, the cost of orthoses varies considerably, thus choosing an effective orthosis that is affordable to the patient is largely a trial-and-error process.
CASE DESCRIPTION
A 77-year-old woman was seen with complaints of abnormal foot posture (“my foot is out”), minimal medial foot and ankle pain, and a 3-year history of conservatively managed stage II PTTD. The patient was not able to complete 1 single-limb heel rise on the involved side, while she could complete 3 on the uninvolved side. Ankle strength testing revealed a mild to moderate loss of plantar flexor strength (20%–31% deficit on the involved side), combined with a 22% deficit in isometric ankle inversion and forefoot adduction strength. To assist this patient in managing her flatfoot posture and PTTD, 3 orthoses were considered: an off-the-shelf ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), a custom solid AFO, and a custom articulated AFO. The patient’s chief complaint was partly cosmetic (“my foot is out”). As decreasing flatfoot kinematics may unload the tibialis posterior muscle, thus prevent the progression of foot deformity, the primary goal of orthotic intervention was to improve flatfoot kinematics. Given the difficulties in clinical approaches to evaluating flatfoot kinematics, a quantitative gait analysis, using a multisegment foot model, was used.
OUTCOMES
In the frontal plane, all 3 orthoses were associated with small changes toward hindfoot inversion. In the sagittal plane, between 2.7° and 6.1°, greater forefoot plantar flexion (raising the medial longitudinal arch) occurred. There were no differences among the orthoses on hindfoot inversion and forefoot plantar flexion. In the transverse plane, the off-the-shelf design was associated with forefoot abduction, the custom solid orthosis was associated with no change, and the custom articulated orthosis was associated with forefoot adduction.
DISCUSSION
Based on gait analysis, the higher-cost custom articulated orthosis was chosen as optimal for the patient. This custom articulated orthosis was associated with the greatest change in flatfoot deformity, assessed using gait analysis. The patient felt it produced the greatest correction in foot deformity. Reducing flatfoot deformity while allowing ankle movement may limit progression of stage II PTTD.
doi:10.2519/jospt.2009.3107
PMCID: PMC2872085  PMID: 19881002
biomechanics; PTTD; tendinopathy
9.  The Weil osteotomy for correction of the severe rheumatoid forefoot 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(9):1795-1798.
Purpose
In rheumatoid arthritis the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints are predominantly affected with resultant metatarsalgia and dislocation. Therapy options include many different surgical procedures with results that are not always satisfying. We present the oblique Weil metatarsal osteotomy as a treatment option for the rheumatic forefoot.
Methods
A total of 216 osteotomies in 63 consecutive patients (72 feet) with a mean age at the time of surgery of 59.3 years and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis were observed prospectively for an average of 57.4 months (minimum 36 months). All patients received a Weil osteotomy of the lesser metatarsals with at least one additional procedure of the forefoot. Patients were evaluated prospectively for clinical outcome by the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) lesser MTP-interphalangeal scale and subjective satisfaction. In the radiological evaluation weight-bearing X-rays were analysed for alignment, shortening and union.
Results
American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score increased significantly from 21.9 ± 6.7 to 63.3 ± 9.8 (p < 0.05). The increase was significant for all subgroups regarding pain, function and alignment. All joints were dorsally dislocated preoperatively; a subluxation was present in 13.6 % at follow-up. There was a significant decrease of callositas in 82 %, a decrease in need for orthopaedic shoes in 61 %, a decrease of MTP joint stiffness in 96 % and a relief of severe pain in 97 % of all patients. No metatarsal head dislocation or necrosis, pseudoarthrosis or screw perforation was observed. Of 63 patients, 55 (88 %) subjectively reported excellent or good results.
Conclusions
We conclude that the Weil procedure for lesser metatarsals is a satisfactory method for correcting the rheumatic forefoot and can be recommended as an approach for the future.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-2011-5
PMCID: PMC3764294  PMID: 23863996
10.  Early Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings After Autologous Osteochondral Plug Grafts For Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Humeral Capitellum 
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine  2016;4(7 suppl4):2325967116S00101.
Objectives:
Although good clinical outcomes of autologous osteochondral plug grafts for capitellar osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) have been reported, the timing of return to sports was various and still controversial. The period of graft incorporation and the lesion healing at repair site is important to establish the rehabilitation protocol, however there is little information. The aim of this study was to investigate early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical outcomes after autologous osteochondral plug grafts for capitellar OCD.
Methods:
Fifteen young baseball players with advanced lesions of capitellar OCD underwent a procedure using autologous osteochondral plug grafts and underwent MRI (1.5 T) scan at 3 and 6 months, postoperatively. Their mean age at the time of surgery was 13.5 years (range, 13-15 years). Four lesions were classified as International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) OCD III and 11 lesions as OCD IV. The mean size of the lesions (sagittal × coronal) was 16 × 14 mm and the mean surface area was 181 mm2. One to two osteochondral plug grafts, with a mean diameter of 7 mm (range, 6-8 mm), were harvested from the lateral femoral condyle and transplanted to the defects. The mean reconstruction rate was 41% (range, 12%-65%), which was calculated as (total surface area of the grafts × 100%)/ (surface area of the lesion). Patients were allowed to begin throwing after 3 months and to return to sports after 6 months. The mean follow-up was 21 months (range, 12-36 months). The MRI findings were assessed graft incorporation, which was indicated by no T1-low-signal-intensity at the graft and no fluid surrounding the graft on T2-weighted fat-suppression (Figure 1), and the lesion healing according to the scoring system of Henderson (4, complete healing; 16, no healing). MRI were blinded and randomized, and two observers reviewed independently and conferred when they differed. Clinical outcomes were evaluated as elbow pain, Timmerman and Andrews (T&A) scores, and return to baseball. We also analyzed the relationship between complete healing at 6 months and each factor: graft size, lesion size, reconstruction rate.
Results:
Grafts were incorporated in 11 patients at 3 months and 13 patients (87%) at 6 months, postoperatively (Table 1). Mean Henderson score were 4.6 at 3 months and 4.5 at 6 months, and complete healing was in 9 patients at 3 months and 11 patients (73%) at 6 months. The mean T&A score improved significantly from 141 to 184 (P < .05). Thirteen patients had no elbow pain and one patient had occasional mild throwing pain, and all these patients (93%) returned to a competitive level at 6 months. The remaining one patient whose reconstruction rate was 24% and MRI showed incomplete healing at 6 months was difficult to throw because of elbow pain and underwent revision surgery. There were no relationships between complete healing and graft or lesion size (mean graft size: complete 7.4 mm, incomplete 6.8 mm, P = .16, mean lesion size: complete 166 mm2, incomplete 220 mm2, P = .13). On the other hand, all nine patients whose reconstruction rate was 36% or more were achieved complete healing, whereas two of six patients (33%) less than 36% did (P < .05).
Conclusion:
These results indicated that our rehabilitation protocol was appropriate for young baseball players after autologous osteochondral plug grafts for capitellar OCD. Although it is not clinically required to reconstruct the entire articular defect, more than 36% of the area should be reconstructed.
doi:10.1177/2325967116S00101
PMCID: PMC4968382
11.  Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans in the lateral femoral condyle requiring osteochondral autograft as a revision procedure: a case report 
Background
The optimal treatment option for osteochondritis dissecans of the knee is still controversial. We report the case of a boy who developed osteochondritis dissecans in the lateral femoral condyles of his bilateral knees requiring repeat surgical procedures. There has been no literature reporting juvenile osteochondritis dissecans of bilateral knees requiring repeat surgical procedures.
Case presentation
A 6-year-old Japanese boy presented with pain in his bilateral knees. Although conservative treatment with prohibition of sports activities was continued for 6 months, healing could not be attained. Conservative treatment consisting of prohibition of sports activities that included running and jumping and use of a brace with a locking mechanism at full extension was applied. He was instructed to walk with the brace. Since his lateral femoral osteochondritis dissecans lesion was located at the contact area during flexion, weight bearing with the use of the brace could effectively unload the lesion. Surgery was subsequently conducted on his left knee which had a more advanced stage lesion. Transchondral drilling was performed because the articular surface maintained its smooth continuity. At 9 months after the surgery, no appreciable healing was observed in the follow-up radiographs. Moreover, during the postoperative time course, lesions suggestive of osteochondritis dissecans in his contralateral right knee had become more evident. Based on the diagnosis of delayed union of bilateral osteochondritis dissecans lesions, a second surgery was attempted. The preceding arthroscopic observation of his left knee showed preserved surface continuity with softening and suspected partial detachment. Considering the delayed healing process observed in this patient, autogenous cylindrical osteochondral graft transplantation (8 mm in diameter) was performed as a revision procedure, while transchondral drilling was performed for the stable osteochondritis dissecans lesion in his right knee. Postoperatively, healing was achieved at 6 months.
Conclusions
Following failed conservative treatment, he underwent arthroscopic drilling; however, the osteochondritis dissecans lesion did not heal requiring revision surgery using a cylindrical autogenous osteochondral graft. Finally, clinical and radiological healing was attained 6 months after the second surgery. Initial presentation at a young age with bilateral lesions may be clinical factors related to poor healing response and susceptibility to stress-related subchondral lesions.
doi:10.1186/s13256-015-0795-1
PMCID: PMC4714482  PMID: 26768479
Bilateral; Knee; Osteochondritis dissecans
12.  Osteochondral Autograft Plug Transfer for Treatment of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Adolescent Athletes 
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine  2014;2(2 Suppl):2325967114S00036.
Objectives:
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is a condition most commonly seen in adolescents involved in repetitive over-head sports and can profoundly affect both ability to return to play and long-term elbow function. Large, unstable defects, defined as those greater than 1 cm in size, have unproven or poor long term outcomes with surgical interventions such as fragment excision, microfracture or attempted fixation. Treatment of similarly sized OCD lesions in the knee with osteochondral autograft plug transfer has proven both effective and safe. While interest has developed for expansion of its use to the elbow, it has yet to be adequately studied. The goal of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes and return to play in adolescent athletes treated with osteochondral autograft plug transfer from the knee for large, unstable OCD defects of the capitellum.
Methods:
Inclusion Criteria: 1) Inability to participate in competitive sports 2) OCD defect of the capitellum that was either unstable on MRI or in patients who had failed 6 months of conservative treatment 3) Defect measuring at least 1 cm in area on diagnostic arthroscopy 4)Reconstruction of capitellar OCD with osteochondral autograft plug transfer 5) Minimum of 6 months post-operative follow-up. Data collection included chart review, determination of return to play, elbow range of motion, and DASH outcomes. The surgical technique was the same for all patients. It included initial diagnostic elbow arthroscopy, including loose body removal, followed by posterolateral approach to the elbow with lateral collateral ligament takedown from lateral epicondyle and eventual suture anchor repair, preparation of the capitellar osteochondral defect and appropriate plug transfer from the lateral trochlear ridge of the ipsilateral knee through a lateral approach. All patients followed the same post operative protocol, consisting of splint immobilization for 2 weeks, conversion to a hinged elbow brace for 4 weeks with progressive range of motion, and resumption of throwing and strengthening exercises at 3 months.
Results:
A cohort of 11 patients with a minimum of 6 months post procedure was identified. All patients were available for evaluation at an average 22.7 months follow up (range 6-49 months). Average age at the time of surgery was 14.5 years (range 13-17 years). The group consisted of 10 males and 1 female, all of which were involved in competitive athletics. Average return to play was 4.4 months (range 3-7 months). All athletes returned to at least their same level of play as pre-operatively. 3 have received Division 1 college scholarships (gymnastics, lacrosse and baseball pitcher). Of the 5 pitchers, 4 returned to pitching. The average DASH score was 1.36 (95% CI 0.59-2.12) and the average Sport Specific DASH score was 1.7 (95% CI -1.78-5.17). There were statistically significant improvements in elbow flexion from 125.45 degrees to 141.36 degrees (p=0.009) and extension from 20.45 degrees to 4.55 degrees (p=0.006). There was one adverse event. This consisted of a superficial wound infection, which resolved with surgical debridement and antibiotics and did not adversely affect eventual return to play. There were no complications or donor site morbidity related to graft harvest.
Conclusion:
Treatment of large, unstable osteochondritis dissecans lesions of the capitellum in adolescent athletes allows reliable return to high level of sports, is safe and has excellent long-term clinical outcomes.
doi:10.1177/2325967114S00036
PMCID: PMC4597502
13.  A new point of view for mosaicplasty in the treatment of focal cartilage defects of knee joint: honeycomb pattern 
SpringerPlus  2016;5(1):1170.
Background
A focal full thickness cartilage lesion of knee joint is one of the commonly seen intraarticular pathologies among the joint cartilage problems. Osteochondral autograft transfer mosaicplasty is a method which has satisfactory outcomes among the treatment preferences of cartilage defects. In spite of the favorable clinical results there are some pitfalls of mosaicplasty treatment especially in cases of large defects. One of the major problems of the classical OAT mosaicplasty is the gap spaces between the plugs. The objective of the present study is to report the early clinical and radiological outcomes and to evaluate the clinical application of a new hexagonal osteochondral graft system (HOGS) with the hypothesis of improvement of the OAT mosaicplasty method with the use of hexagonally shaped plugs. The study has intended to answer two questions. (1) Does mosaicplasty with the new HOGS has favorable early clinical outcomes? (2) Is it possible to arrange the osteochondral autografts without leaving gap spaces by using hexagonal pattern in OAT mosaicplasty?
Patients and methods
We designed a retrospective study to report analysis of early outcomes of the initial case series of OAT mosaicplasty by using a new HOGS. Six male individuals with the diagnosis of osteochondral defect and treated with HOGS and reached sixth month follow-up formed the basis of the study. The clinical status of the patients were evaluated with IKDC score. The radiological evaluations were carried out with direct X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The mosaicplasty procedures were carried out via standard surgical method of classical OAT mosaicplasty by using the HOGS following a diagnostic arthroscopy in the same session. The inclusion criteria was a full thickness osteochondral lesion of femoral condyle between 1.5 and 6 cm2 and completion of 6 month follow-ups. The patients having deformities around the knee or major ligament lesions were excluded. MOCART scoring system was used for the evaluation of follow-up MRI findings. The clinical status of the patients were evaluated with IKDC scores.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 40.8 (±5.2) years and the mean duration of the symptoms on presentation was 16 (±4.3) months. On the initial MRI studies mean defect area was measured 3.7 cm2 (±0.9) which was compatible with arthroscopic findings. During the surgical procedures it was possible to fill the defect area completely. The mean number of plugs in this series was 4.8 (±1.1). We did not faced with insufficient donor reserve problem in any of the cases. On the sixth month follow-up physical examination there was no limitation of the knee joint range of motion in the cases. All patients were able to bear weight on to their operated extremities without pain. The mean postoperative IKDC score improvement was 70.2 (±3.5) which shows significant improvement compared to preoperative scores. On the control MRI studies the bone integration of the hexagonal plugs were complete the cartilage continuity of the articular surfaces were intact and the grafts were well incorporated in all cases. The mean MOCART score on the 6th month MRI studies was 65.8 (±4.1).
Conclusion
The early outcomes of OAT mosaicplasty with HOGS are comparable to studies on the classical mosaicplasty. According to our observations in this study we can say that the gap space left between the cylindrical plugs can be solved by using hexagonal prism shaped plugs.
doi:10.1186/s40064-016-2796-y
PMCID: PMC4960096  PMID: 27512629
Mosaicplasty; Focal cartilage lesions; Knee; Honeycomb pattern
14.  Distal metatarsal coalition: A rare case report 
Highlights
•Metatarsal coalition is rare.•This is the second reported case occurring at the level of distal metatarsal.•Timing of ossification of coalition varies from one anatomical site to another.•Surgery performed before complete ossification of the coalition risks recurrence.•Conservative management should be persevered until skeletal maturity.
Introduction
Metatarsal coalition is an extremely rare condition. We report the second documented case of 4th and 5th distal metatarsal coalition in the literature.
Presentation of case
An eight-year-old girl was referred to an orthopaedic clinic with a four-month history of forefoot pain and swelling on the plantar aspect of the right little toe. Radiograph and clinical examination confirmed distal metatarsal coalition between the 4th and 5th metatarsals. Following a period of conservative treatment, excision was eventually performed due to worsening symptoms. Patient re-attended two years later with a recurrence of the coalition confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scan. The case was discussed at a tertiary paediatric orthopaedic insititution. Decision was made to manage patient conservatively with insole and physiotherapy until skeletal maturity. A year later, patient’s symptoms did not worsen, and her foot displayed no evidence of change in the arch and shape.
Discussion
The timing of ossification of coalition varies from one anatomical site to another. Surgery when performed before ossification is complete runs the risk of recurrence.
Conclusion
Our case report illustrates the importance of restoring normal weight bearing dynamics and pain relief when managing metatarsal coalition, or synostosis in skeletally immature patients. We recommend persevering with conservative treatment, with operative treatment reserved only as a later option, and ideally, until skeletal maturity is achieved.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.01.048
PMCID: PMC4353968  PMID: 25670408
Coalition; Distal metatarsal; Conservative treatment; Surgical treatment; Recurrence
15.  The Treatment of Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus with Autologous Osteochondral Transplantation and Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate 
Cartilage  2011;2(4):327-336.
Objective:
To present the functional results after autologous osteochondral transplantation with bone marrow aspirate concentrate in 72 patients, while placing an emphasis on the surgical technique.
Methods:
Between 2005 and 2009, 72 patients underwent autologous osteochondral transplantation under the care of the senior author. The mean patient age at the time of surgery was 34.19 years (range, 16-85 years). All patients were followed for a minimum of 1 year after surgery. The mean follow-up time was 28.02 months (range, 12-64 months). Patient-reported outcome measures were taken preoperatively and at final follow-up using the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and Short Form–12 (SF-12) general health questionnaire. Identical questionnaires were used in all instances.
Results:
The mean FAOS scores improved from 52.67 points preoperatively to 86.19 points postoperatively (range, 71-100 points). The mean SF-12 scores also improved from 59.40 points preoperatively to 88.63 points postoperatively (range, 52-98 points). Three patients reported donor site knee pain after surgery, and one patient required the decompression of a cyst that developed beneath the graft site approximately 2 years after the index procedure.
Conclusion:
Autologous osteochondral transplantation is a reproducible and primary treatment strategy for large osteochondral lesions of the talus.
doi:10.1177/1947603511400726
PMCID: PMC4297142  PMID: 26069591
cartilage transplantation < grafts; cartilage repair < repair; ankle < joint involved; sports injury < diagnosis; articular cartilage < tissue
16.  Osteogenic Protein-1 for Long Bone Nonunion 
Executive Summary
Objective
To assess the efficacy of osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) for long bone nonunion.
Clinical Need
Although most fractures heal within a normal period, about 5% to 10% do not heal and are classified as delayed or nonunion fractures. Nonunion and segmental bone loss after fracture, reconstructive surgery, or lesion excision can present complex orthopedic problems, and the multiple surgical procedures often needed are associated with patient morbidity and reduced quality of life.
Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of a delayed union or nonunion fractures, including deficiencies of calcium, vitamin D, or vitamin C, and side effects of medications such as anticoagulants, steroids, some anti-inflammatory drugs, and radiation. It has been shown that smoking interferes with bone repair in several ways.
Incidence of Nonunion and Delayed Union Cases
An estimated 5% to 10% of fractures do not heal properly and go on to delayed union or nonunion. If this overall estimate of incidence were applied to the Ontario population1, the estimated number of delayed union or nonunion in the province would be between 3,863 and 7,725.
Treatment of Nonunion Cases
The treatment of nonunion cases is a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. However, the basic principle behind treatment is to provide both mechanical and biological support to the nonunion site.
Fracture stabilization and immobilization is frequently used with the other treatment modalities that provide biological support to the fractured bone. Biological support includes materials that could be served as a source of osteogenic cells (osteogenesis), a stimulator of mesenchymal cells (osteoinduction), or a scaffold-like structure (osteoconduction).
The capacity to heal a fracture is a latent potential of the stromal stem cells, which synthesize new bone. This process has been defined as osteogenesis. Activation of the stem cells to initiate osteogenic response and to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts is called osteoinduction. These 2 properties accelerate the rate of fracture healing or reactivate the ineffective healing process. Osteoconduction occurs when passive structures facilitate the migration of osteoprogenitor cells, the perivascular tissue, and capillaries into these structures.
Bone Grafts and Bone Graft Substitutes
Bone graft and bone graft substitutes have one or more of the following components:
Undifferentiated stem cells
Growth factors
Structural lattice
Undifferentiated stem cells are unspecialized, multipotential cells that can differentiate into a variety of specialized cells. They can also replicate themselves. The role of stem cells is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are residing. A single stem cell can generate all cell types of that tissue. Bone marrow is a source of at least 2 kinds of stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells that form all types of blood cells, and bone marrow stromal stem cells that have osteogenic properties and can generate bone, cartilage, and fibrous tissue.
Bone marrow has been used to stimulate bone formation in bone defects and cases of nonunion fractures. Bone marrow can be aspirated from the iliac crest and injected percutaneously with fluoroscopic guidance into the site of the nonunion fracture. The effectiveness of this technique depends on the number and activity of stem cells in the aspirated bone marrow. It may be possible to increase the proliferation and speed differentiation of stem cells by exposing them to growth factor or by combining them with collagen.
Many growth factors and cytokines induced in response to injury are believed to have a considerable role in the process of repair. Of the many bone growth factors studied, bone morphogenetics (BMPs) have generated the greatest attention because of their osteoinductive potential. The BMPs that have been most widely studied for their ability to induce bone regeneration in humans include BMP-2 and BMP-7 (osteogenic protein). Human osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) has been cloned and produced with recombinant technology and is free from the risk of infection or allergic reaction.
The structural lattice is osteoconductive; it supports the ingrowth of developing capillaries and perivascular tissues. Three distinct groups of structural lattice have been identified: collagen, calcium sulphate, and calcium phosphate. These materials can be used to replace a lost segment of bone.
Grafts Used for Nonunion
Autologous bone graft is generally considered the gold standard and the best material for grafting because it contains several elements that are critical in promoting bone formation, including osteoprogenitor cells, the matrix, and bone morphogenetic proteins. The osteoconductive property of cancellous autograft is related to the porosity of bone. The highly porous, scaffold-like structure of the graft allows host osteoblasts and host osteoprogenitor cells to migrate easily into the area of the defect and to begin regeneration of bone. Sources of cancellous bone are the iliac crest, the distal femur, the greater trochanter, and the proximal tibia. However, harvesting the autologous bone graft is associated with postoperative pain at the donor site, potential injury to the surrounding arteries, nerves, and tissues, and the risk of infection. Thus the development of synthetic materials with osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties that can eliminate the need for harvesting has become a major goal of orthopedic research.
Allograft is the graft of tissue between individuals who are of the same species but are of a disparate genotype. Allograft has osteoconductive and limited osteoinductive properties. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is human cortical and cancellous allograft. These products are prepared by acid extraction of allograft bone, resulting in the loss of most of the mineralized component while collagen and noncollagenous proteins, including growth factors, are retained. Figures 1 to 5 demonstrate the osteogenic, osteoinduction, and osteoconduction properties of autologous bone graft, allograft, OP-1, bone graft substitutes, and bone marrow.
Autologous Bone Graft
Osteogenic Protein-1
Allograft bone and Demineralized Bone Matrix
Bone Graft Substitutes
Autologous Bone Marrow Graft
New Technology Being Reviewed: Osteogenic Protein-1
Health Canada issued a Class IV licence for OP-1 in June 2004 (licence number 36320). The manufacturer of OP-1 is Stryker Biotech (Hapkinton, MA).
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a humanitarian device exemption for the application of the OP-1 implant as an “alternative to autograft in recalcitrant long bone nonunions where use of autograft is unfeasible and alternative treatments have failed.” Regulatory agencies in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand have permitted the use of this implant in specific cases, such as in tibial nonunions, or in more general cases, such as in long bone nonunions.
According to the manufacturer, OP-1 is indicated for the treatment of long bone nonunions. It is contraindicated in the patient has a hypersensitivity to the active substance or collagen, and it should not be applied at the site of a resected tumour that is at or near the defect or fracture. Finally, it should not be used in patients who are skeletally immature (< 18 years of age), or if there is no radiological evidence of closure of epiphysis.
Review Strategy
Objective
To summarize the safety profile and effectiveness of OP-1 in the treatment of cases of long bone nonunion and bone defects
To compare the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of OP-1 in the treatment of long bone nonunions and bone defects with the alternative technologies, particularly the gold standard autologous bone graft.
Literature Search
International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessments (INAHTA), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the CCTR (formerly Cochrane Controlled Trials Register) were searched for health technology assessments. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Medline In Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations were searched from January 1, 1996 to January 27, 2004 for studies on OP-1. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The search yielded 47 citations. Three studies met inclusion criteria (2 RCTs and 1 Ontario-based study presented at an international conference.
Summary of Findings
Friedlaender et al. conducted a prospective, randomized, partially blinded clinical trial on the treatment tibial nonunions with OP-1. Tibial nonunions were chosen for this study because of their high frequency, challenging treatment requirements, and substantial morbidity. All of the nonunions were at least 9 months old and had shown no progress toward healing over the previous 3 months. The patients were randomized to receive either treatment with autologous bone grafting or treatment with OP-1 in a type-1 collagen carrier. Both groups received reduction and fixation with an intramedullary rod. Table 1 summarizes the clinical outcomes of this study.
Outcomes in a Randomized Clinical Trial on Tibial Nonunions: Osteogenic Protein-1 versus Autologous Bone Grafting
Clinical success was defined as full weight-bearing, loss of severe pain at the fracture site on weight-bearing, and no further surgical treatment to enhance fracture repair.
The results of this study demonstrated that recombinant OP-1 is associated with substantial clinical and radiographic success for the treatment of tibial nonunions when used with intramedullary rod fixation. No adverse event related to sensitization was reported. Five per cent of the patients in the OP-1 group had circulating antibodies against type 1 collagen. Only 10% of the patients had a low level of anti-OP-1 antibodies, and all effects were transient. Furthermore, the success rate with the OP-1 implant was comparable with those achieved with autograft at 9 and 24 months follow-up. Eighty-two per cent of patients were successful at 24 months follow-up in both groups.
Statistically significant increased blood loss in the group treated with the autograft was observed (P = .049). Patients treated with autograft had longer operation and hospitalization times. All patients in the autograft group had pain at the donor site after surgery, and more than 80% judged their postoperative pain as moderate or severe. At their 6-month visit, 20% of the patients in the autograft group had persistent pain, mild or moderate in nature, at the donor site. This number fell to 13% at 12 months.
All patients in each of the groups had at least 1 adverse event that wasn’t serious, such as fever, nausea and vomiting, leg edema, discomfort, and bruising at the operative site. The incidence of these events was similar in both groups. Serious adverse events were observed in 44% of both groups, none of which were considered related to the OP-1 implant or autograft.
On the basis of this data, the FDA issued a humanitarian device exemption for the application of OP-1 implant as an alternative to autograft in recalcitrant long bone nonunions when the use of autograft is unfeasible and alternative treatments have failed.
Study on Fibular Defects
Geesink et al. investigated the osteogenic activity of OP-1 by assessing its value in bridging fibular defects made at the time of tibial osteotomy for varus or valgus deformity of the knee. This study had 2 phases and included 12 patients in each phase. Each phase included 12 patients (6 in each group). Patients in the first phase received either DBM or were left untreated. Patients in the second phase received either OP-1 on collagen type-1 or collagen type-1 alone.
Radiological and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) evaluation showed that in patients in whom the defect was left untreated, no formation of bone occurred. At 12 months follow-up, new bone formation with bridging occurred in 4 of the 6 patients in DMB group, and 5 of the 6 patients in OP-1 group. One patient in OP-1 group did not show any evidence of new bone formation at any point during the study.
Ontario Pilot Study
A prospective pilot study was conducted in Ontario, Canada to investigate the safety and efficacy of OP-1 for the treatment of recalcitrant long bone nonunions. The study looked at 15 patients with complex, recalcitrant, long bone nonunions whose previous treatment had failed. The investigators concluded that this bone graft substitute appears to be safe and effective in providing sufficient biological stimulation in difficult to treat nonunions. Results of a more complete study on 70 patients are ready for publication. According to the principal investigator, OP-1 was 90% effective in inducing bone formation and bone healing in this sample.
Alternative Technologies
The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a literature search from January 1, 2000 to February 28, 2005 to identify studies on nonunions/bone defects that had been treated with alternative technologies. A review of these studies showed that, in addition to the gold standard autologous bone marrow grafting, bone allografts, demineralized bone matrices, bone graft substitutes, and autologous bone marrow have been used for treatment of nonunions and bone defects. These studies were categorized according to the osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenesis properties of the technologies studied.
A review of these studies showed that bone allografts have been used mostly in various reconstruction procedures to restore the defect after excavating a bone lesion. Two studies investigated the effectiveness of DBM in healing fracture nonunions. Calcium phosphate and calcium sulphate have been used mostly for repair of bone defects.
Several investigators have looked at the use of autologous bone marrow for treatment of long bone nonunions. The results of these studies show that method of percutaneous bone marrow grafting is highly effective in the treatment of long bone nonunions. In a total of 301 fractures across all studies, 268 (89%) healed with a mean healing time of 2.5 to 8 months. This healing time as derived from these case series is less than the timing of the primary end point in Friedlaender’s study (9 months). Table 2 summarizes the results of these studies. Table 2 summarizes the results of these studies.
Studies that used Percutaneous Bone Marrow Grafting for Treatment of Nonunions
Economic Analysis
Based on annual estimated incidence of long-bone nonunion of 3,863 - 7,725, the annual hospitalization costs associated with this condition is between $21.2 and $42.3 million based on a unit cost of $5,477 per hospital separation. When utilized, the device, a single vial of OP-1, is approximately $5,000 and if adopted universally in Ontario, the total device costs would be in the range of $19.3 - $38.6 million annually. The physician fee for harvest, insertion of bone, or OP-1 is $193 and is $193 for autologous bone marrow transplantation. Total annual physician costs are expected to be in the range of from $0.7 million to $1.3 million per year. Expenditures associated with long-bone nonunion are unlikely to increase since incidence of long-bone nonunion is unlikely to change in the future. However, the rate of uptake of OP-1 could have a significant impact on costs if the uptake were large.
The use of OP-1 and autologous bone marrow transplantation may offset pain medication costs compared with those associated with autologous bone harvest given that the former procedures do not involve the pain associated with the bone harvest site. However, given that this pain is normally not permanent, the overall offset is likely to be small. There are likely to be smaller OHIP costs associated with OP-1 than bone-harvest procedures given that only 1, rather than 2, incisions are needed when comparing the former with the latter procedure. This offset could amount to between $0.3 million to $0.7 million annually.
No data on the cost-effectiveness of OP-1 is available.
PMCID: PMC3382627  PMID: 23074475
17.  Treatment of Hemophilic Ankle Arthropathy with One-Step Arthroscopic Bone Marrow–Derived Cells Transplantation 
Cartilage  2015;6(3):150-155.
Objective
Ankle arthropathy is a frequent and invalidating manifestation of hemophilia. Arthrodesis is the gold standard surgical procedure in end-stage disease, with many drawbacks in young patients. Recent literature has shown increase interest in regenerative procedures in hemophilic arthropathy, which may be desirable to delay or even avoid arthrodesis. The aim of this article is to present five cases of osteochondral lesions in ankle hemophilic arthropathy treated with a regenerative procedure: bone marrow–derived cells transplantation (BMDCT).
Design
We report five hemophilic patients (four cases with hemophilia type A; one case with hemophilia type B) who have undergone BMDCT treatment, synovectomy, and arthroscopic debridement, with the use of autologous platelet-rich fibrin, to treat osteochondral lesions in hemophilic ankle arthropathy. The patients, included within this retrospective study, were clinically and radiologically evaluated with serial follow-ups, using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores, radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Results
The mean preoperative AOFAS score was 35. After a mean follow-up of 2 years, the mean postoperative AOFAS score was 81, which included three patients returning back to sporting activities. The MRI Mocart score demonstrated signs of regeneration of chondral and bony tissue. No progression of joint degeneration was shown radiographically.
Conclusion
BMDCT is a promising regenerative treatment for osteochondral lesions in mild ankle hemophilic arthropathy, which may be useful to delay or even avoid ankle arthrodesis. Nevertheless, longer follow-ups and a larger case series are required.
doi:10.1177/1947603515574286
PMCID: PMC4481389  PMID: 26175860
ankle; hemophilia; regenerative technique; one-step
18.  Treatment principles for osteochondral lesions in foot and ankle 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(9):1697-1706.
Osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) is a broad term used to describe an injury or abnormality of the talar articular cartilage and adjacent bone. A variety of terms have been used to refer to this clinical entity, including osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), osteochondral fracture and osteochondral defect. Whether OLT is a precursor to more generalised arthrosis of the ankle remains unclear, but the condition is often symptomatic enough to warrant treatment. In more than one third of cases, conservative treatment is unsuccessful, and surgery is indicated. There is a wide variety of treatment strategies for osteochondral defects of the ankle, with new techniques that have substantially increased over the last decade. The common treatment strategies of symptomatic osteochondral lesions include nonsurgical treatment, with rest, cast immobilisation and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Surgical options are lesion excision, excision and curettage, excision combined with curettage and microfracturing, filling the defect with autogenous cancellous bone graft, antegrade (transmalleolar) drilling, retrograde drilling, fixation and techniques such as osteochondral transplantation [osteochondral autograft transfer system (OATS)] and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Furthermore, smaller lesions are symptomatic and when left untreated, OCDs can progress; current treatment strategies have not solved this problem. The target of these treatment strategies is to relieve symptoms and improve function. Publications on the efficacy of these treatment strategies vary. In most cases, several treatment options are viable, and the choice of treatment is based on defect type and size and preferences of the treating clinician.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-2076-1
PMCID: PMC3764304  PMID: 23982639
Osteochondral lesions; Osteochondritis dissecans; Talus; Foot and ankle; Cartilage damage; Subchondral bone
19.  Radial head arthroplasty using a metatarsal osteochondral autograft 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(12):2501-2506.
Purpose
Treatment of comminuted fractures of the radial head is controversial, and considerable effort has been made to restore optimal function of the elbows, either by surgical reconstruction or prosthetic replacement. This report presents our experiences in treatment of unreconstructable radial head or neck fractures using osteochondral autografts harvested from the base of the second metatarsal bones.
Methods
Five patients with radial head and one with a radial neck fracture underwent treatment with osteochondral autografts. After excision of the unreconstructable radial head, the second metatarsal base was harvested and transplanted to the radius using the intramedullary nailing technique.
Results
The reconstructed elbows were examined clinically and radiographically for a mean period of 44.8 months (range, 24–72 months). At the last follow-up, in flexion-extension, the mean elbow mobility was 130°/10°. In supination-pronation, the mean elbow mobility was 73.3°/66.7°, with a mean loss of supination of 19.2° and loss of pronation of 12.5°. Grip strength was 91%, compared with the contralateral limb. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 94.2. The mean score of AOFAS rating system to the lesser toe was 93.7 points.
Conclusion
Radial head arthroplasty with an osteochondral autograft from the second metatarsal base appears to be an effective alternative for treatment of unreconstructable radial head fractures. A larger group of patients and a longer follow-up period will be required in order to ease concerns regarding the donor site; however, none of the patients who underwent this procedure showed any complications during follow-up.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1666-7
PMCID: PMC3508048  PMID: 23052277
20.  Particulated Juvenile Articular Cartilage Implantation in the Knee 
Cartilage  2014;5(2):74-77.
Objective:
The goal of this report is to describe the outcome of sequential particulated cartilage allograft and autologous osteochondral transfer treatments for an osteochondral lesion of the medial femoral condyle.
Methods:
A 44-year-old woman was treated with a particulated juvenile articular cartilage allograft (DeNovo NT) for a chondral lesion of the knee. As a result of continued pain, she had 2 further surgeries, including an autologous osteochondral transfer system procedure and finally a unicondylar knee arthroplasty. At the final procedure, the areas of the allograft and autograft tissue were biopsied for histological evaluation. The quality of the residual cartilage tissue was assessed first by equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent via micro–computed tomography (EPIC-µCT), and then by hematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O staining, and polarized light microscopy.
Results:
Despite showing good healing at 7 months postsurgery by MRI, at 28 months post DeNovo NT tissue implantation the excised cartilage tissue was heterogeneous, with some regions of hyaline-like cartilage and some regions of fibrocartilage. The later mosaicplasty may have helped maintain hyaline-like cartilage of the DeNovo NT tissue in its vicinity.
Conclusion:
This case report describes the cartilage repair tissue produced by DeNovo NT implantation and compares it with autologous osteochondral plug tissue.
doi:10.1177/1947603513515483
PMCID: PMC4297079  PMID: 26069686
osteochondral lesion; particulated juvenile cartilage; mosaicplasty; knee
21.  Direct comparison of different surgical approaches in a woman with bilateral osteochondrosis dissecans of her knees: a case report 
Background
Osteochondrosis dissecans is a disorder of the subchondral bone potentially affecting the adjacent articular cartilage. There remains disunity with regard to treatment methods.
Case presentation
We present the case of a 21-year-old Swiss woman who presented with clinically symptomatic bilateral osteochondrosis dissecans lesions at both medial femoral condyles. She underwent sequential surgical intervention and was prospectively monitored using clinical scores and magnetic resonance imaging. Her left knee was treated with an open refixation of the osteochondrosis dissecans lesion with two 2.0 mm screws in combination with a cancellous bone graft and subchondral drilling since the cartilage of the osteochondrosis dissecans lesion was intact. On her right knee, she underwent open removal of the defective bone and cartilage, cancellous bone graft with subchondral drilling and coverage with a bilayered collagenous membrane (autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis technique) since the cartilage of the osteochondrosis dissecans lesion was not intact. At final follow-up 12 months after surgery her Lysholm score had improved from 79 to 95 on her left side and from 74 to 78 on her right. Magnetic resonance imaging displayed good integration of the cancellous bone graft with a slight irregularity at the articular surface on her left side (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) 75). The magnetic resonance imaging of her right knee depicted satisfying bony reconstitution with yet more irregularity at the joint surface (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue 65) in comparison to her left femoral condyle.
Conclusions
In cases of failed conservative treatment of osteochondrosis dissecans lesions of the knee joint surgery should be taken into consideration. Considering this case, we believe that the focus should be the preservation of the cartilaginous layer whenever possible or at least replacement with high quality replacement tissue, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation.
doi:10.1186/s13256-015-0796-0
PMCID: PMC4719561  PMID: 26786243
Knee; OCD; OD; Osteochondrosis dissecans; Reconstruction; Refixation; Single patient
22.  Set screw fracture with cage dislocation after two-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF): a case report 
Introduction
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion is a popular procedure used to achieve spondylodesis in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal diseases. We present a rare case of a patient with a set screw fracture with cage dislocation after an open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first of its kind to be reported.
Case presentation
A 44-year-old Caucasian woman attended a follow-up appointment at our hospital 3 months after treatment for second-degree lumbar spondylolisthesis (L4/L5) and osteochondrosis (L5/S1) with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and dorsal spondylodesis. She complained of severe leg pain on the left side. Her physical examination revealed a normal neurological status, except for paresthesia of the entire left lower limb and at the ball of the left foot. Radiological imaging showed breaking of the set screws with cage dislocation. Surgical revision was then performed with exchange of the whole dorsal instrumentation and the dislocated cage. Six weeks post-operatively, the patient was seen again at our clinic without neurological complaints, except for decreased sensitivity on the dorsum of her left foot. The wound healing and radiological follow-up were uneventful.
Conclusions
Hardware-related complications are rarely seen in patients with open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, but must be kept in mind and can potentially cause severe neurological deficits.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-9-22
PMCID: PMC4333885  PMID: 25609204
Complication; Fracture; Set screw; TLIF; Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion
23.  A comparison between metatarsal head-resurfacing hemiarthroplasty and total metatarsophalangeal joint arthroplasty as surgical treatments for hallux rigidus: a retrospective study with short- to midterm follow-up 
Clinical Interventions in Aging  2016;11:1805-1813.
Purpose
We evaluated the short- to midterm outcomes of metatarsal head-resurfacing hemiarthroplasty and total metatarsophalangeal joint arthroplasty (total joint replacement [TJR]) as surgical treatments for advanced-stage hallux rigidus (HR).
Patients and methods
From 2012 to 2014, all data from patients who underwent surgery for the treatment of grades 2–3 HR were retrospectively reviewed, and 45 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 26 underwent metatarsal head-resurfacing hemiarthroplasty (Group I) and 19 underwent TJR (Group II). All patients were clinically graded prior to surgery and at their final follow-up visits using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society’s (AOFAS) hallux metatarsophalangeal–interphalangeal scale, a visual analog scale (VAS), and the “first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion” (MTPJ ROM) score.
Results
Metatarsal head resurfacing was performed on 26 patients. Two patients underwent bilateral procedures, yielding a total of 28 cases in Group I. TJR was performed on 19 patients in Group II. Of the 26 Group I patients, 12 (46.2%) were male and 14 (53.8%) were female, with a mean age of 56.3±4.5 years (range: 47–63 years); the mean follow-up duration was 29.9±5.2 months. Of the 19 Group II patients, eight (42.1%) were male and eleven (57.9%) were female, with a mean age of 57.1±5.8 years (range: 45–66 years); the mean follow-up duration was 27.1±7.5 months. Significant improvements were evident in the AOFAS scores, and the VAS scores decreased, in both groups. No significant difference was evident between groups I and II.
Conclusion
After failure of conservative treatment in patients with moderate-to-severe HR, both MTPJ hemiarthroplasty and TJR were associated with effective recovery of toe function and MTPJ ROM, as well as good short- to midterm functional outcomes.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S110865
PMCID: PMC5167455  PMID: 28008240
hallux rigidus; arthroplasty; surgical treatment; HemiCAP®; ToeFit-Plus®
24.  Oedema of the metatarsal heads II-IV and forefoot pain as an unusual manifestation of Lyme disease: a case report 
We report the case of a healthy 36 year old man who suffered from foot pain lasting for weeks, without having a specific medical history relating to it. The clinical evaluation was interpreted as a transfer metatarsalgia caused by a splayfoot. The radiographs revealed no pathology except the splayfoot deformity. Due to persistent pain and swelling of the entire forefoot, after two weeks of conventional treatment, magnet resonance images (MRI) and a blood sample were taken. The laboratory investigation showed raised levels of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein. The MRI showed up oedema in the metatarsal heads II-IV, as well as soft tissue swelling of the forefoot without any signs of decomposition.
Because of this atypical inflammation of the forefoot a laboratory investigation to check for rheumatology disease was done and revealed borrelia burgdorferi infection. On the basis of these findings, antibiotic treatment was started and maintained over three weeks. The symptoms disappeared after 2 weeks, and the patient was able to resume his sports activities.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-44
PMCID: PMC1950515  PMID: 17620125
25.  Treatment of deep articular talus lesions by matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation—results at five years 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(11):2279-2285.
Purpose
Treatment of focal full-thickness chondral or osteochondral defects of the talus remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the postoperative success and the long-term efficacy of matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation in these defects.
Methods
Matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) was applied in 22 consecutive patients (mean age 23.9 years) with full-thickness chondral or osteochondral lesions of the talus. The average defect-size was 1.94 cm² (range 1–6). In case of osteochondritis dissecans (n = 13) an autologous bone graft was performed simultaneously. Follow-ups were routinely scheduled up to 63.5 (±7.4) months, consisting of clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging.
Results
The AOFAS score improved significantly from 70.1 to 87.9/92.6/93.5/95.0/95.5 and 95.3 points at three, six, 12, 24, 36 and 63.5 months, respectively. On a visual analogue scale, pain intensity decreased from 5.7 (±2.6) to 0.9 (±0.8) while subjective function increased from 5.3 (±2.3) to 8.9 (±0.9) at final follow-up (each p < 0.001). The Tegner score rose significantly from 2.4 (±1.2) to 4.7 (±0.6). The MOCART score improved from 62.6 (±19.4) at three months to 83.8 (±9.4) at final follow-up. No significant differences were found between lesions caused by osteochondritis dissecans or trauma and between first- or second-line treatments. For all scores, the most benefit was seen within the first 12 months with stable results afterwards. No major complications were noted.
Conclusions
Matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation is capable of significant and stable long-term improvement of pain and functional impairment caused by focal full-thickness chondral and osteochondral talus lesions.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1635-1
PMCID: PMC3479272  PMID: 22885840

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