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1.  Modified Weil Osteotomy for the Treatment of Freiberg's Disease 
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery  2012;4(4):300-306.
Background
Numerous metatarsal osteotomies have been developed for the treatment of Freiberg's disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of modified Weil osteotomy in the treatment of Freiberg's disease.
Methods
From November 2001 to July 2008, nineteen patients (twenty feet), treated surgically for Freiberg's disease, were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 33.6 years (range, 17 to 62 years), the mean follow-up period was 71.6 months (range, 41 to 121 months). Clinical outcomes were evaluated according to visual analogue scale (VAS), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) lesser metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal scale, the patients' subjective satisfaction and range of motion (ROM) of metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. In the radiologic evaluation, initial metatarsal shortening by Freiberg's disease compared to opposite site, metatarsal shortening after modified Weil osteotomy compared with preoperative radiography and term for radiologic union were observed.
Results
VAS showed improvement from 6.2 ± 1.4 to 1.4 ± 1.5 at last follow-up (p < 0.0001). Points of AOFAS score increased from 63.3 ± 14.9 to 80.4 ± 5.6 (p < 0.0001). ROM of MTP joints also improved from 31.3 ± 10.1 to 48.3 ± 13.0 degrees at last follow-up (p < 0.0001). According to Smillie's classification system, there was no significant improvement of VAS, AOFAS score and ROM between early stages (stage I, II, and III) and late stages (stage IV and V). Out of twenty cases, nineteen (95%) were satisfied, reporting excellent or good results.
Conclusions
Modified Weil osteotomy is believed to be a useful method for the treatment of Freiberg's disease, not only in the early stages but also in the late stages. It relieves pain and improves function via shortening of metatarsals and restoration of MTP joint congruency.
doi:10.4055/cios.2012.4.4.300
PMCID: PMC3504695  PMID: 23205240
Freiberg's disease; Modified Weil osteotomy; Dorsal closing wedge osteotomy
2.  Degenerative osteoarthritis of the second metatarsophalangeal joint: second toe rigidus 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(9):1863-1869.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic characteristics and structural configurations of a series of patients with a primary degenerative arthritis of the second metatarsophalangeal joint.
Methods
We studied 37 feet that had undergone surgical treatment for primary degenerative arthritis of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. The patients were compared with a randomly selected control group, without arthritis of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. The first, second, and fourth metatarsal lengths, and the size of the second metatarsal head were measured on weight-bearing anteroposterior radiographs. The patients were classified on the basis of joint-space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte formation, and subchondral cystic change.
Results
The average second metatarsal length was significantly longer in the study group (P = 0.01). The average length of the first metatarsal relative to the fourth metatarsal was significantly shorter (P = 0.02) in the study group, while the average length of the second metatarsal relative to the fourth metatarsal was significantly longer (P = 0.01) in the study group. The average diameter of the second metatarsal head was significantly larger in the study group (P = 0.00), and the average ratio of this diameter relative to the length of the fourth metatarsal was significantly higher in the study group (P = 0.00). A total of four feet were classified as grade 0, nine as grade 1, 17 as grade 2, and seven as grade 3.
Conclusions
Second toe rigidus should be considered as a diagnosis in patients with painful limited dorsiflexion of the second metatarsophalangeal joint without evidence of Freiberg’s infraction or trauma.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-2035-x
PMCID: PMC3764303  PMID: 23892518
3.  Multi-plug insole design to reduce peak plantar pressure on the diabetic foot during walking 
There is evidence that appropriate footwear is an important factor in the prevention of foot pain in otherwise healthy people or foot ulcers in people with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy. A standard care for reducing forefoot plantar pressure is the utilization of orthotic devices such as total contact inserts (TCI) with therapeutic footwear. Most neuropathic ulcers occur under the metatarsal heads, and foot deformity combined with high localized plantar pressure, appear to be the most significant factors contributing to these ulcers. In this study, patient-specific finite element models of the second ray of the foot were developed to study the influence of TCI design on peak plantar pressure (PPP) under the metatarsal heads. A typical full contact insert was modified based on the results of finite element analyses, by inserting 4 mm diameter cylindrical plugs of softer material in the regions of high pressure. Validation of the numerical model was addressed by comparing the numerical results obtained by the finite element method with measured pressure distribution in the region of the metatarsal heads for a shoe and TCI condition. Two subjects, one with a history of forefoot pain and one with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy, were tested in the laboratory while wearing therapeutic shoes and customized inserts. The study showed that customized inserts with softer plugs distributed throughout the regions of high plantar pressure reduced the PPP over that of the TCI alone. This supports the outcome as predicted by the numerical model, without causing edge effects as reported by other investigators using different plug designs, and provides a greater degree of flexibility for customizing orthotic devices than current practice allows.
doi:10.1007/s11517-008-0311-5
PMCID: PMC2650823  PMID: 18266017
Finite element analysis; diabetic foot; insole design
4.  Choosing Among 3 Ankle-Foot Orthoses for a Patient With Stage II Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction 
STUDY DESIGN
Case report.
BACKGROUND
No head-to-head comparisons of different orthoses for patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) have been performed to date. Additionally, the cost of orthoses varies considerably, thus choosing an effective orthosis that is affordable to the patient is largely a trial-and-error process.
CASE DESCRIPTION
A 77-year-old woman was seen with complaints of abnormal foot posture (“my foot is out”), minimal medial foot and ankle pain, and a 3-year history of conservatively managed stage II PTTD. The patient was not able to complete 1 single-limb heel rise on the involved side, while she could complete 3 on the uninvolved side. Ankle strength testing revealed a mild to moderate loss of plantar flexor strength (20%–31% deficit on the involved side), combined with a 22% deficit in isometric ankle inversion and forefoot adduction strength. To assist this patient in managing her flatfoot posture and PTTD, 3 orthoses were considered: an off-the-shelf ankle-foot orthosis (AFO), a custom solid AFO, and a custom articulated AFO. The patient’s chief complaint was partly cosmetic (“my foot is out”). As decreasing flatfoot kinematics may unload the tibialis posterior muscle, thus prevent the progression of foot deformity, the primary goal of orthotic intervention was to improve flatfoot kinematics. Given the difficulties in clinical approaches to evaluating flatfoot kinematics, a quantitative gait analysis, using a multisegment foot model, was used.
OUTCOMES
In the frontal plane, all 3 orthoses were associated with small changes toward hindfoot inversion. In the sagittal plane, between 2.7° and 6.1°, greater forefoot plantar flexion (raising the medial longitudinal arch) occurred. There were no differences among the orthoses on hindfoot inversion and forefoot plantar flexion. In the transverse plane, the off-the-shelf design was associated with forefoot abduction, the custom solid orthosis was associated with no change, and the custom articulated orthosis was associated with forefoot adduction.
DISCUSSION
Based on gait analysis, the higher-cost custom articulated orthosis was chosen as optimal for the patient. This custom articulated orthosis was associated with the greatest change in flatfoot deformity, assessed using gait analysis. The patient felt it produced the greatest correction in foot deformity. Reducing flatfoot deformity while allowing ankle movement may limit progression of stage II PTTD.
doi:10.2519/jospt.2009.3107
PMCID: PMC2872085  PMID: 19881002
biomechanics; PTTD; tendinopathy
5.  The Weil osteotomy for correction of the severe rheumatoid forefoot 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(9):1795-1798.
Purpose
In rheumatoid arthritis the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints are predominantly affected with resultant metatarsalgia and dislocation. Therapy options include many different surgical procedures with results that are not always satisfying. We present the oblique Weil metatarsal osteotomy as a treatment option for the rheumatic forefoot.
Methods
A total of 216 osteotomies in 63 consecutive patients (72 feet) with a mean age at the time of surgery of 59.3 years and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis were observed prospectively for an average of 57.4 months (minimum 36 months). All patients received a Weil osteotomy of the lesser metatarsals with at least one additional procedure of the forefoot. Patients were evaluated prospectively for clinical outcome by the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) lesser MTP-interphalangeal scale and subjective satisfaction. In the radiological evaluation weight-bearing X-rays were analysed for alignment, shortening and union.
Results
American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score increased significantly from 21.9 ± 6.7 to 63.3 ± 9.8 (p < 0.05). The increase was significant for all subgroups regarding pain, function and alignment. All joints were dorsally dislocated preoperatively; a subluxation was present in 13.6 % at follow-up. There was a significant decrease of callositas in 82 %, a decrease in need for orthopaedic shoes in 61 %, a decrease of MTP joint stiffness in 96 % and a relief of severe pain in 97 % of all patients. No metatarsal head dislocation or necrosis, pseudoarthrosis or screw perforation was observed. Of 63 patients, 55 (88 %) subjectively reported excellent or good results.
Conclusions
We conclude that the Weil procedure for lesser metatarsals is a satisfactory method for correcting the rheumatic forefoot and can be recommended as an approach for the future.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-2011-5
PMCID: PMC3764294  PMID: 23863996
6.  Treatment principles for osteochondral lesions in foot and ankle 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(9):1697-1706.
Osteochondral lesion of the talus (OLT) is a broad term used to describe an injury or abnormality of the talar articular cartilage and adjacent bone. A variety of terms have been used to refer to this clinical entity, including osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), osteochondral fracture and osteochondral defect. Whether OLT is a precursor to more generalised arthrosis of the ankle remains unclear, but the condition is often symptomatic enough to warrant treatment. In more than one third of cases, conservative treatment is unsuccessful, and surgery is indicated. There is a wide variety of treatment strategies for osteochondral defects of the ankle, with new techniques that have substantially increased over the last decade. The common treatment strategies of symptomatic osteochondral lesions include nonsurgical treatment, with rest, cast immobilisation and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Surgical options are lesion excision, excision and curettage, excision combined with curettage and microfracturing, filling the defect with autogenous cancellous bone graft, antegrade (transmalleolar) drilling, retrograde drilling, fixation and techniques such as osteochondral transplantation [osteochondral autograft transfer system (OATS)] and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Furthermore, smaller lesions are symptomatic and when left untreated, OCDs can progress; current treatment strategies have not solved this problem. The target of these treatment strategies is to relieve symptoms and improve function. Publications on the efficacy of these treatment strategies vary. In most cases, several treatment options are viable, and the choice of treatment is based on defect type and size and preferences of the treating clinician.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-2076-1
PMCID: PMC3764304  PMID: 23982639
Osteochondral lesions; Osteochondritis dissecans; Talus; Foot and ankle; Cartilage damage; Subchondral bone
7.  Radial head arthroplasty using a metatarsal osteochondral autograft 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(12):2501-2506.
Purpose
Treatment of comminuted fractures of the radial head is controversial, and considerable effort has been made to restore optimal function of the elbows, either by surgical reconstruction or prosthetic replacement. This report presents our experiences in treatment of unreconstructable radial head or neck fractures using osteochondral autografts harvested from the base of the second metatarsal bones.
Methods
Five patients with radial head and one with a radial neck fracture underwent treatment with osteochondral autografts. After excision of the unreconstructable radial head, the second metatarsal base was harvested and transplanted to the radius using the intramedullary nailing technique.
Results
The reconstructed elbows were examined clinically and radiographically for a mean period of 44.8 months (range, 24–72 months). At the last follow-up, in flexion-extension, the mean elbow mobility was 130°/10°. In supination-pronation, the mean elbow mobility was 73.3°/66.7°, with a mean loss of supination of 19.2° and loss of pronation of 12.5°. Grip strength was 91%, compared with the contralateral limb. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 94.2. The mean score of AOFAS rating system to the lesser toe was 93.7 points.
Conclusion
Radial head arthroplasty with an osteochondral autograft from the second metatarsal base appears to be an effective alternative for treatment of unreconstructable radial head fractures. A larger group of patients and a longer follow-up period will be required in order to ease concerns regarding the donor site; however, none of the patients who underwent this procedure showed any complications during follow-up.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1666-7
PMCID: PMC3508048  PMID: 23052277
8.  Treatment of deep articular talus lesions by matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation—results at five years 
International Orthopaedics  2012;36(11):2279-2285.
Purpose
Treatment of focal full-thickness chondral or osteochondral defects of the talus remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the postoperative success and the long-term efficacy of matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation in these defects.
Methods
Matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) was applied in 22 consecutive patients (mean age 23.9 years) with full-thickness chondral or osteochondral lesions of the talus. The average defect-size was 1.94 cm² (range 1–6). In case of osteochondritis dissecans (n = 13) an autologous bone graft was performed simultaneously. Follow-ups were routinely scheduled up to 63.5 (±7.4) months, consisting of clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging.
Results
The AOFAS score improved significantly from 70.1 to 87.9/92.6/93.5/95.0/95.5 and 95.3 points at three, six, 12, 24, 36 and 63.5 months, respectively. On a visual analogue scale, pain intensity decreased from 5.7 (±2.6) to 0.9 (±0.8) while subjective function increased from 5.3 (±2.3) to 8.9 (±0.9) at final follow-up (each p < 0.001). The Tegner score rose significantly from 2.4 (±1.2) to 4.7 (±0.6). The MOCART score improved from 62.6 (±19.4) at three months to 83.8 (±9.4) at final follow-up. No significant differences were found between lesions caused by osteochondritis dissecans or trauma and between first- or second-line treatments. For all scores, the most benefit was seen within the first 12 months with stable results afterwards. No major complications were noted.
Conclusions
Matrix associated autologous chondrocyte implantation is capable of significant and stable long-term improvement of pain and functional impairment caused by focal full-thickness chondral and osteochondral talus lesions.
doi:10.1007/s00264-012-1635-1
PMCID: PMC3479272  PMID: 22885840
9.  Set screw fracture with cage dislocation after two-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF): a case report 
Introduction
Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion is a popular procedure used to achieve spondylodesis in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal diseases. We present a rare case of a patient with a set screw fracture with cage dislocation after an open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first of its kind to be reported.
Case presentation
A 44-year-old Caucasian woman attended a follow-up appointment at our hospital 3 months after treatment for second-degree lumbar spondylolisthesis (L4/L5) and osteochondrosis (L5/S1) with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and dorsal spondylodesis. She complained of severe leg pain on the left side. Her physical examination revealed a normal neurological status, except for paresthesia of the entire left lower limb and at the ball of the left foot. Radiological imaging showed breaking of the set screws with cage dislocation. Surgical revision was then performed with exchange of the whole dorsal instrumentation and the dislocated cage. Six weeks post-operatively, the patient was seen again at our clinic without neurological complaints, except for decreased sensitivity on the dorsum of her left foot. The wound healing and radiological follow-up were uneventful.
Conclusions
Hardware-related complications are rarely seen in patients with open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, but must be kept in mind and can potentially cause severe neurological deficits.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-9-22
PMCID: PMC4333885  PMID: 25609204
Complication; Fracture; Set screw; TLIF; Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion
10.  Oedema of the metatarsal heads II-IV and forefoot pain as an unusual manifestation of Lyme disease: a case report 
We report the case of a healthy 36 year old man who suffered from foot pain lasting for weeks, without having a specific medical history relating to it. The clinical evaluation was interpreted as a transfer metatarsalgia caused by a splayfoot. The radiographs revealed no pathology except the splayfoot deformity. Due to persistent pain and swelling of the entire forefoot, after two weeks of conventional treatment, magnet resonance images (MRI) and a blood sample were taken. The laboratory investigation showed raised levels of white blood cell count and C-reactive protein. The MRI showed up oedema in the metatarsal heads II-IV, as well as soft tissue swelling of the forefoot without any signs of decomposition.
Because of this atypical inflammation of the forefoot a laboratory investigation to check for rheumatology disease was done and revealed borrelia burgdorferi infection. On the basis of these findings, antibiotic treatment was started and maintained over three weeks. The symptoms disappeared after 2 weeks, and the patient was able to resume his sports activities.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-44
PMCID: PMC1950515  PMID: 17620125
11.  Clinical Cartilage Restoration: Evolution and Overview 
Background
Clinical cartilage restoration is evolving, with established and emerging technologies. Randomized, prospective studies with adequate power comparing the myriad of surgical techniques used to treat chondral injuries are still lacking and it remains a challenge for the surgeon treating patients to make evidence-based decisions.
Questions/purposes
We reviewed the history of the major cartilage repair/restorative procedures, indications for currently available repair/restorative procedures, and postoperative management.
Methods
We performed searches using MEDLINE and cartilage-specific key words to identify all English-language literature. Articles were selected based on their contributions to our current understanding of the basic science and clinical treatment of articular cartilage lesions or historical importance. We then selected 77 articles, two of which are articles of historical importance.
Results
Current cartilage restorative techniques include débridement, microfracture, osteochondral fragment repair, osteochondral allograft, osteochondral autograft, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Pending techniques include two-staged cell-based therapies integrated into a variety of scaffolds, single-stage cell-based therapy, and augmentation of marrow stimulation, each with suggested indications including lesion size, location, and activity demands of the patient. The literature demonstrates variable improvements in pain and function contingent upon multiple variables including indications and application.
Conclusions
For the patient with symptomatic chondral injury, numerous techniques are available to the surgeon to relieve pain and improve function. Until rigorous clinical trials (prospective, adequately powered, randomized control) are available, treatment decisions should be guided by expert extrapolation of the available literature based in historically sound principles.
doi:10.1007/s11999-010-1764-z
PMCID: PMC3171560  PMID: 21240578
12.  Arthroscopic Osteochondral Grafting for Radiocarpal Joint Defects 
Journal of Wrist Surgery  2013;2(3):212-219.
Background Focal chondral lesion is a common cause of chronic wrist pain. The best treatment remains unknown. We have developed a technique of arthroscopic transplantation of an osteochondral autograft from the knee joint to the distal radius with satisfactory clinical results.
Materials and Methods Between December 2006 and December 2010, four patients (average age 31 years) with posttraumatic osteochondral lesions over the dorsal lunate fossa were treated with arthroscopic osteochondral grafting. Pre- and postoperative motion, grip strength, wrist functional performance score, pain score, and return to work status were charted. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and second-look arthroscopy were performed to assess graft incorporation.
Description of Technique With the arthroscope in the 3-4 portal, synovitis over the dorsal lunate fossa was débrided to uncover the underlying osteochondral lesion. We employed the 6-mm trephine of the Osteoarticular Transfer System (OATS) to remove the osteochondral defect. Osteochondral graft was harvested from the lateral femoral condyle and delivered into the wrist joint arthroscopically.
Results In all cases, grafts incorporation was completed by 3-4 months postoperative. All patients showed improvement in the wrist performance score (preoperative 27.5, postoperative 39 out of 40) with no pain on final follow-up at average 48.5 months (range 24-68 months). Grip strength improved from 62.6 to 98.2% of the contralateral side. Motion improved from 115.5 to 131.3°. X-ray images showed preserved joint space. Patient satisfaction was high with no complication.
Conclusion An arthroscopic-assisted transfer of an osteochondral graft is a viable treatment option for chondral defects of the distal radius.
doi:10.1055/s-0033-1351788
PMCID: PMC3764241  PMID: 24436819
wrist arthroscopy; osteochondral graft; radiocarpal joint; wrist surgery; focal; osteochondral defect
13.  Bone scintigraphy after osteochondral autograft transplantation in the knee 
Acta Orthopaedica  2010;81(2):206-210.
Background and purpose Autologous osteochondral transplantation (OCT) is an established method of treating articular cartilage defects in the knee. However, the potential for donor site morbidity remains a concern. Both the restoration of the original cartilage defect and the evolution of the donor site defects can be evaluated by bone scintigraphy. Thus, we performed a prospective bone scintigraphic evaluation in patients who were treated with OCT.
Patients and methods In 13 patients with a symptomatic articular cartilage defect, bone scintigraphies were obtained preoperatively, 1 year after osteochondral transplantation, and finally at an average follow-up of 4 (2.5–5.5) years. The evolution of scintigraphic activity was evaluated for both the recipient and the donor site. Parallel, clinical scoring was performed using the Lysholm knee scoring scale, the Cincinnati knee rating system, and the Tegner activity score.
Results The bone scintigraphic uptake was elevated at the involved femoral condyle preoperatively, and gradually decreased to normal levels in 7 of 11 cases. The originally normal uptake at the trochlea increased 1 year after transplantation. Then, a gradual decrease in uptake occurred again at this donor site to remain elevated at the final scintigraphy. A correlation was found between elevated scintigraphic activity and the presence of retropatellar crepitus. The mean Lysholm and Cincinnati scores had increased 1 year after transplantation. The mean Tegner score had increased 3 years after transplantation.
Interpretation Elevated bone scintigraphic activity from an osteochondral lesion in the knee can be restored with OCT. However, increased scintigraphic activity is introduced at the donor site, which becomes reduced with longer follow-up. The use of fairly large osteochondral plugs appears to correlate with retropatellar crepitus and increased scintigraphic activity, and is not therefore recommended.
doi:10.3109/17453671003587101
PMCID: PMC2852158  PMID: 21301491
14.  Traumatic Osteochondral Injury of the Femoral Head Treated by Mosaicplasty: A Report of Two Cases 
HSS Journal  2010;6(2):228-234.
The increased risk of symptomatic progression towards osteoarthritis after chondral damage has led to the development of multiple treatment options for cartilage repair. These procedures have evolved from arthroscopic lavage and debridement, to marrow stimulation techniques, and more recently, to osteochondral autograft and allograft transplants, and autogenous chondrocyte implantation. The success of mosaicplasty procedures in the knee has led to its application to other surfaces, including the talus, tibial plateau, patella, and humeral capitellum. In this report, we present two cases of a chondral defect to the femoral head after a traumatic hip dislocation, treated with an osteochondral autograft (OATS) from the ipsilateral knee, and the inferior femoral head, respectively, combined with a surgical dislocation of the hip. At greater than 1 year and greater than 5 years of follow-up, MRI studies have demonstrated good autograft incorporation with maintenance of articular surface conformity, and both patients clinically continue to have no pain and full active range of motion of their respective hips. In our opinion, treatment of osteochondral defects in the femoral head surface using a surgical dislocation combined with an OATS procedure is a promising approach, as full exposure of the femoral head can be obtained while preserving its vasculature, thus enabling adequate restoration of the articular cartilage surface.
doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9159-y
PMCID: PMC2926357  PMID: 21886541
hip dislocation; osteochondral autograft transplant; femoral head; osteochondral defect; osteochondral injury; mosaicplasty
15.  Atraumatic Osteochondral Fracture and Osteoarthritis in a Collegiate Volleyball Player: A Case Report 
Journal of Athletic Training  2000;35(1):80-85.
Objective:
To present the case of a collegiate athlete with an atraumatic osteochondral fracture influenced by the presence of osteoarthritis.
Background:
Osteochondral fractures are fairly common occurrences in athletes, although it can be difficult to recognize such an injury in the absence of a traumatic event. Osteoarthritis is 1 condition that can increase an athlete's susceptibility to an atraumatic osteochondral fracture. However, because of the atraumatic nature of the injury, the possibility of an osteochondral fracture may be overlooked.
Differential Diagnosis:
Meniscal damage, osteochondritis dissecans, patellofemoral disorders.
Treatment:
The osteochondral fragment was surgically removed, and fibrous growth was encouraged by drilling and laser smoothing.
Uniqueness:
Osteochondral fractures are usually associated with some type of traumatic mechanism, such as a rotational and compressive force. Also, osteoarthritis is not common in young collegiate athletes. However, this 20-year-old volleyball player had no apparent injury and lacked the usual signs and symptoms (eg, locking, giving way, crepitus, loss of range of motion) associated with an osteochondral fracture. The athlete's susceptibility to an osteochondral fracture was increased by the presence of osteoarthritis.
Conclusions:
The athletic trainer should consider the possibility of an osteochondral fracture in an athlete with persistent effusion and pain in the absence of a traumatic mechanism of injury.
Images
PMCID: PMC1323444  PMID: 16558614
osteochondritis dissecans; knee injury
16.  Tripod Index: Diagnostic Accuracy in Symptomatic Flatfoot and Cavovarus Foot: Part 2 
Background
The Tripod Index (TI) has been created to allow assessment of complex foot deformities. It utilizes tripod relationship between center of the heel, medial/lateral borders of the forefoot, and compare it to the center of the talar head. This study aimed to verify diagnostic accuracy of the TI in symptomatic flatfoot and cavovarus foot.
Methods
Weightbearing radiographs including foot AP with a hemispherical marker around the heel, lateral, and hindfoot alignment views were obtained on 91 patients (110 feet) presenting with medial foot and ankle pain and on 89 patients (90 feet) presenting with lateral foot and ankle pain between June 2010 and May 2011. Radiographs were evaluated blindly for the TI, AP talonavicular coverage angle, lateral talo-first metatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch angle, medial cuneiform-fifth metatarsal height, and coronal plane hindfoot alignment. The sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and predictive values were calculated. Clinically diagnosed flatfoot and cavovarus foot deformity indicated for surgical reconstruction by one of our foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeons was used as the accepted standard for diagnosis.
Results
In flatfoot, sensitivity of the TI was 100%, comparable with lateral talo-first metatarsal angle (100%), and medial cuneiform-fifth metatarsal height (100%). Specificity of the TI was 93%, comparable with coronal plane hindfoot alignment (98%), but superior to other parameters. Positive likelihood ratio of the TI was 14.29, which was less than coronal plane hindfoot alignment (47.5), but more than other parameters. In cavovarus foot, sensitivity of the TI was 96%, comparable with coronal plane hindfoot alignment (100%), but superior to other parameters. Specificity of the TI was 95%, comparable with lateral talo-first metatarsal angle (94%), but superior to other parameters. Positive likelihood ratio of the TI was 19.2, which was more than other parameters.
Conclusion
The Tripod Index showed high accuracy as a quantitative assessment in diagnosis of a symptomatic flatfoot and cavovarus foot.
PMCID: PMC3748891  PMID: 24027460
Tripod Index; Diagnostic test; Flatfoot; Cavovarus foot
17.  One-stage Metatarsal Lengthening by Allograft Interposition: A Novel Approach for Congenital Brachymetatarsia 
Background
Congenital brachymetatarsia, a shortened metatarsal bone, can be corrected surgically by callus distraction or one-stage lengthening using bone graft.
Questions/purposes
We asked whether one-stage metatarsal lengthening using metatarsal homologous bone graft could improve forefoot function, lead to metatarsal healing, restore metatarsal parabola, and improve cosmetic appearance.
Patients and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 29 patients (41 feet) in whom we lengthened 50 metatarsals. Surgery consisted of a transverse proximal osteotomy of the metatarsal shaft and interposition of a metatarsal homologous bone graft (average, 13 mm long) fixed with an intramedullary Kirschner wire. Minimum followup was 3 years (mean, 5 years; range, 3–11 years).
Results
Bone union was achieved in all cases. The mean preoperative American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 37 points (range, 28–53 points) and the mean postoperative score was 88 points (range, 74–96 points), with an average improvement of 51 points. Radiographically, the mean gain in length was 13 mm (range, 10–15 mm), and the mean percentage increase was 23%.
Conclusions
One-stage metatarsal lengthening using interposition of metatarsal homologous bone graft to correct congenital brachymetatarsia has low morbidity for the patient, limited complications, short recovery times, and restores forefoot anatomy.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-009-1212-0
PMCID: PMC2882014  PMID: 20058111
18.  Osteochondral autograft transplantation for malunited intra-articular fracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a case report 
Introduction
Malunited intra-articular fracture of the proximal inter-phalangeal (PIP) joint sometimes causes problems, such as range of motion (ROM) limitation in the joint or lack of digital dexterity; however, the treatment method has not yet been established. We report a juvenile case of osteochondral autograft tranplantation to treat a malunited intra-articular fracture of the middle finger.
Case report
A 14-year-old boy was injured at the right middle finger by a baseball impact and underwent conservative treatment. At 5 months after the injury, he complained of continuing pain and restricted ROM. Plain X-ray and CT images showed a bony defect in the articular surface of the PIP joint of the right middle finger. He was diagnosed with malunited intra-articular fracture of the PIP joint and underwent surgical treatment. First, through a palmar incision, a columnar-shaped drill hole was made at the recipient site of osteochondral defect. Then a cylindrical osteochondral plug, 4.5 mm in diameter, harvested from the knee, was inserted into the recipient hole and press-fitted. One year after surgery, the patient has neither pain nor ROM limitation of the finger and the knee joint. MRI showed smooth articular surface of the PIP joint.
Discussion
The benefits of our method include use of articular cartilage as a reconstruction material, availability for a relatively large cartilage defect, and stability of the autograft for the press-fitting method, which enable early mobilization exercise after surgery.
doi:10.1007/s00402-012-1622-4
PMCID: PMC3535410  PMID: 23070223
Proximal interphalangeal joint; Knee; Malunion; Osteochondral autograft transplantation
19.  Remission of severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep after bilateral excision of multiple foot neuromas: a case report 
Introduction
Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs in response to uncomfortable leg sensations. While asleep, 70 to 90 percent of patients with restless legs syndrome have periodic limb movements in sleep. Frequent periodic limb movements in sleep and related brain arousals as documented by polysomnography are associated with poorer quality of sleep and daytime fatigue. Restless legs syndrome in middle age is sometimes associated with neuropathic foot dysesthesias. The causes of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep are unknown, but the sensorimotor symptoms are hypothesized to originate in the central nervous system. We have previously determined that bilateral forefoot digital nerve impingement masses (neuromas) may be a cause of both neuropathic foot dysesthesias and the leg restlessness of restless legs syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of bilateral foot neuromas as a cause of periodic limb movements in sleep.
Case presentation
A 42-year-old Caucasian woman with severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep and bilateral neuropathic foot dysesthesias was diagnosed as having neuromas in the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head interspaces of both feet. The third interspace neuromas represented regrowth (or 'stump') neuromas that had developed since bilateral third interspace neuroma excision five years earlier. Because intensive conservative treatments including repeated neuroma injections and various restless legs syndrome medications had failed, radical surgery was recommended. All six neuromas were excised. Leg restlessness, foot dysesthesias and subjective sleep quality improved immediately. Assessment after 18 days showed an 84 to 100 percent reduction of visual analog scale scores for specific dysesthesias and marked reductions of pre-operative scores of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index, fatigue severity scale, and the international restless legs syndrome rating scale (36 to 4). Polysomnography six weeks post-operatively showed improved sleep efficiency, a marked increase in rapid eye movement sleep, and marked reductions in hourly rates of both periodic limb movements in sleep with arousal (135.3 to 3.3) and spontaneous arousals (17.3 to 0).
Conclusion
The immediate and near complete remission of symptoms, the histopathology of the excised tissues, and the marked improvement in polysomnographic parameters documented six weeks after surgery together indicate that this patient's severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep was of peripheral nerve (foot neuroma) origin. Further study of foot neuromas as a source of periodic limb movements in sleep and as a cause of sleep dysfunction in patients with or without concomitant restless legs syndrome, is warranted.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-4-306
PMCID: PMC2949698  PMID: 20849622
20.  Fresh-stored osteochondral allografts for the treatment of femoral head defects: surgical technique and preliminary results 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(6):1001-1006.
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to present the preliminary clinical and radiographic outcomes of the treatment of femoral head osteochondral defects in eight consecutive symptomatic patients with fresh-stored osteochondral allografts via a trochanteric osteotomy.
Methods
This study included all consecutive patients treated in our department between 2008 and 2010 for worsening pain and mechanical symptoms of femoral head osteochondral defects. Each patient had preoperative routine hip radiographs and a preoperative magnetic resonance imaging study that determined and recorded the defect size and femoral head diameters. Allograft donors were identified through the Multiple Organ Retrieval and Exchange program (Ontario, Canada).
Results
The osteochondral defects were secondary to osteochondritis dissecans in four patients, avascular necrosis in three and femoral head fracture without dislocation in one. The patients’ average age at surgery was 23.7 (range 17–42), and the average follow-up was 41 months (range 24–54). Follow-up included clinical and radiographic examinations at standard intervals. The average Harris hip scores improved from 57.7 (range 50–65) points preoperatively to 83.9 (range 72–94) points at latest follow-up. Five patients had good-to-excellent clinical outcomes, and one had a fair outcome. One patient was converted to a total hip arthroplasty due to progression of arthritis. Another patient’s graft subsided and he underwent a successful repeat transplantation. An additional patient required the removal of the screws transfixing her trochanter due to persistent irritation.
Conclusions
These findings indicate that fresh-stored osteochondral allograft transplantation using a trochanteric slide and surgical dislocation is a viable treatment option for femoral head defects in young patients.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-1868-7
PMCID: PMC3664145  PMID: 23553116
21.  Surgical Treatment Options for Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee 
Sports Health  2009;1(4):326-334.
Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee is identified with increasing frequency in the young adult patient. Left untreated, osteochondritis dissecans can lead to the development of osteoarthritis at an early age, resulting in progressive pain and disability. Treatment of osteochondritis dissecans may include nonoperative or operative intervention. Surgical treatment is indicated mainly by lesion stability, physeal closure, and clinical symptoms. Reestablishing the joint surface, maximizing the osteochondral biologic environment, achieving rigid fixation, and ensuring early motion are paramount to fragment preservation. In cases where the fragment is not amenable to preservation, the treatment may include complex reconstruction procedures, such as marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft, fresh osteochondral allograft, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. Treatment goals include pain relief, restoration of function, and the prevention of secondary osteoarthritis.
doi:10.1177/1941738109334216
PMCID: PMC3445128  PMID: 23015890
osteochondritis dissecans; knee; cartilage; surgical treatment
22.  Can Fresh Osteochondral Allografts Restore Function in Juveniles With Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee? 
Background
Failure of initial treatment for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) may require further surgical intervention, including microfracture, autograft chondrocyte implantation, osteochondral autografting, and fresh osteochondral allografting. Although allografts and autografts will restore function in most adults, it is unclear whether fresh osteochondral allograft transplantations similarly restore function in skeletally immature patients who failed conventional treatment.
Questions/purposes
Therefore, we determined function in (1) daily activity; (2) sports participation; and (3) healing (by imaging) in children with juvenile OCD who failed conventional therapy and underwent fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 11 children with OCD of the knee treated with a fresh stored osteochondral allograft between 2004 and 2009 (six males and five females). The average age of the children at the time of their allograft surgery was 15.2 years (range, 13–20 years). The clinical assessments included physical examination, radiography, MRI, and a modified Merle D’Aubigné-Postel score. The size of the allograft was an average of 5.11 cm2. The minimum followup was 12 months (average, 24 months; range, 12–41 months).
Results
All patients had returned to activities of daily living without difficulties at 6 months and returned to full sports activities between 9 and 12 months after surgery. The modified Merle D’Aubigné-Postel score improved from an average of 12.7 preoperatively to 16.3 at 24 months postoperatively. Followup radiographs at 2 years showed full graft incorporation and no demarcation between the host and graft bone.
Conclusions
Our observations suggested fresh osteochondral allografts restored short-term function in patients with juvenile OCD who failed standard treatments.
Level of Evidence
Level IV, case series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
doi:10.1007/s11999-012-2523-0
PMCID: PMC3586015  PMID: 22972653
23.  Rheumatoid forefoot deformity: pathophysiology, evaluation and operative treatment options 
International Orthopaedics  2013;37(9):1719-1729.
Despite recent advances in pharmacological management of rheumatoid arthritis, forefoot deformity, with its symptoms, remains a common problem, often requiring operative treatment. Typical deformities in these patients comprise hallux valgus and deformity of the lesser metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints and toes. With regard to the lesser rays the standard operative procedure, advocated for the disabling forefoot pain in these patients, remains metatarsal head resection. It should be considered that with increasing success of pharmacological treatment the degree of forefoot deformity in these patients is becoming less and that resection of the lesser MTP joints is becoming more and more superfluous. This supports a trend towards metatarsal head-preserving surgery. The optimal treatment of the hallux deformity remains unclear. Fusion of the first MTP joint is, generally, recommended. This article will discuss the current surgical options in rheumatoid forefoot pathology.
doi:10.1007/s00264-013-2014-2
PMCID: PMC3764283  PMID: 23892468
Rheumatoid forefoot deformity; Preservation of metatarsal heads; Fusion of first metatarsophalangeal joint
24.  Stem cell- and growth factor-based regenerative therapies for avascular necrosis of the femoral head 
Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a debilitating disease of multifactorial genesis, predominately affects young patients, and often leads to the development of secondary osteoarthritis. The evolving field of regenerative medicine offers promising treatment strategies using cells, biomaterial scaffolds, and bioactive factors, which might improve clinical outcome. Early stages of AVN with preserved structural integrity of the subchondral plate are accessible to retrograde surgical procedures, such as core decompression to reduce the intraosseous pressure and to induce bone remodeling. The additive application of concentrated bone marrow aspirates, ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stem cells, and osteogenic or angiogenic growth factors (or both) holds great potential to improve bone regeneration. In contrast, advanced stages of AVN with collapsed subchondral bone require an osteochondral reconstruction to preserve the physiological joint function. Analogously to strategies for osteochondral reconstruction in the knee, anterograde surgical techniques, such as osteochondral transplantation (mosaicplasty), matrix-based autologous chondrocyte implantation, or the use of acellular scaffolds alone, might preserve joint function and reduce the need for hip replacement. This review summarizes recent experimental accomplishments and initial clinical findings in the field of regenerative medicine which apply cells, growth factors, and matrices to address the clinical problem of AVN.
doi:10.1186/scrt98
PMCID: PMC3340551  PMID: 22356811
25.  The 5.5-year results of MegaOATS – autologous transfer of the posterior femoral condyle: a case-series study 
Introduction
Large osteochondral defects of the weight-bearing zones of femoral condyles in young and active patients were treated by autologous transfer of the posterior femoral condyle (large osteochondral autogenous transplantation system (MegaOATS)). The technique presented is a sound and feasible salvage procedure to address large osteochondral defects in weight-bearing zones.
Methods
Thirty-six patients between July 1996 and December 2000 were included. Thirty-three patients (10 females, 23 males) were evaluated by the Lysholm score and X-ray scans. A random sample of 16 individuals underwent magnetic resonance imaging analysis. The average age at the date of surgery was 34.3 (15 to 59) years, and the mean follow up was 66.4 (46 to 98) months. The mean defect size was 6.2 (2 to 10.5) cm2, in 27 patients affecting the medial femoral condyle and in six patients affecting the lateral femoral condyle. Trauma or osteochondrosis dissecans were pathogenetic in 82%.
Results
The Lysholm score in all 33 individuals showed a highly significant increase from a preoperative median 49.0 points to a median 86.0 points (P ≤ 0.001). Twenty-seven patients returned to recreational sports. X-ray scans showed a rounding of the osteotomy edge in 24 patients, interpreted as a partial remodelling of the posterior femoral condyle. Preoperative osteoarthritis in 17 individuals was related to significant lower Lysholm scores (P = 0.014), but progression in 17 patients did not significantly influence the score results (P = 0.143). All 16 magnetic resonance imaging examinations showed vital and congruent grafts.
Conclusion
Patients significantly improve in the Lysholm score, in daily-life activity levels and in return to recreational sports. Thirty-one out of 33 patients were comfortable with the results and would undergo the procedure again. The MegaOATS technique is therefore recommended as a salvage procedure for young individuals with large osteochondral defects in the weight-bearing zone of the femoral condyle.
doi:10.1186/ar2439
PMCID: PMC2483459  PMID: 18558007

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