Background and Objectives:
The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517) and nondonors (n = 316), between February and June 2008. All were males.
Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5%) and lack of time (16%) as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71%) and health reasons (19%). Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood.
These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.
Attitude to blood donation; donor compensation; donor motivation; Saudi blood donors
The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of King Saud University female students towards the implementation of premarital screening (PMS) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
Two consecutive surveys on knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) were conducted two and nine months after the compulsory implementation of PMS in KSA in 1/1/1425H. The female students of King Saud University were given health education lectures before the survey. The first survey was done with a designed close-ended questionnaire distributed at pre and post stages of the health education lecture. However, the second one explored the participants’ perception of the same items in open-ended questions summarized as a “consensus statement”. In fulfillment of their demands, the signed statement was mailed to the legislative authorities.
Results and discussion:
A total of 140 university female students attended the first lecture. The response rate for both pre and post lecture surveys were 132 (94.3%) and 128 (91.4%) respectively. A total of 112 out of 132 (84.8%) students in the pre test and 111 out of 128 (86.7%) in the post-test were single.
Of the married students 7/20 (35.0%) and 7/17 (41.2%) in pre and post tests had previously had PMS screening. The attitude of the students towards PMS was generally positive. One hundred and eight (81.8%) in the pre test and 110 (85.9%) in the post test saw the importance of PMS in controlling the commonest hereditary diseases. However, a smaller percentage of students (69.7% and 75.0%) in pre and post lecture respectively were in favor of the compulsory application of PMS in KSA. In spite of the positive attitude of all the students in the pre and post tests, fears were expressed towards the confidentiality of PMS test results and it was felt that social and psychological problems would ensue from abnormal results. This, however, does not represent the feeling of the entire population in KSA since the participants of the study formed a select group.
The second awareness lecture was attended by 319 students from the College of Education. They were subsequently requested to state their perceptions of PMS application with regard to its content, nature and method of application in KSA in their own words. The collected forms were summarized into a “consensus statement” and signed by all 319 students. They felt that the scope of PMS should be extended to investigate and screen for other diseases especially sexually transmitted diseases that would adversely affect the health of members of the family and the community as a whole. Their worry about the lack of screening for other diseases may be because a majority of the study group were single and would, therefore, refuse to get married on account of the risks to their future offspring. In addition, it may reflect their knowledge of the effects of globalization on the transmission of diseases.
Health education is an important means of improving the public's perception of newly-introduced health interventions. University students have a good perception of the compulsory implementation of PMS in KSA. Pre-marital screening could be extended to include a broader spectrum of health/genetic disorders and will be useful for early identification and possible intervention as well as the prevention of complications.
Premarital Screening; Health Education; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes mellitus attending a primary care clinic in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
A cross sectional study was carried out on men with diabetes mellitus followed in a primary care clinic of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from 13 November 2005 to 13 June 2006. A total of 186 diabetic patients were interviewed. Data collection forms were completed by a member of the medical staff, a family medicine consultant, during the consultation of diabetic patients in the primary care clinic. Erectile dysfunction was categorized as absent erectile dysfunction (normal function), partial erectile dysfunction, and complete erectile dysfunction. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
A total of 186 men with diabetes mellitus were interviewed during the study period. The majority of diabetic patients (95%) had type 2 diabetes. Most of the patients (68.8%) were on oral hypoglycemic agents, 24.7% on insulin injection, and 6.5% on diet only. The present study showed that 11.2% of the diabetic patients were suffering from complete and severe erectile dysfunction, while 64% of the patients complained of partial erectile dysfunction which was affecting their marital relationship. The cardiovascular risk factors in the 186 diabetic patients were hypertension 34.9%, smoking 13.4%, obesity 40%, and dyslipidemia 16.6%.
Complete (severe) and partial erectile dysfunction was quite common among adult diabetic patients in a hospital-based primary care setting in Saudi Arabia. It is important for primary care physicians to diagnose erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients, and to counsel them early, as most patients are hesitant to discuss their concern during a consultation. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the effect of other risk factors on erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients.
Erectile dysfunction; diabetes; primary care
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
The occurrence and progress of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors. Modification of barriers to healthy lifestyle can produce great benefits. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity and healthy eating among patients attending primary health care clinics in Riyadh city.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh city. Four hundred and fifty participants attending primary health care clinics (PHCC) from 1 March to 30 April 2007 were randomly selected. A questionnaire about barriers to physical activity and healthy eating was adapted from the CDC web site.
The prevalence of physical inactivity among the Saudi population in the study was 82.4% (371/450). Females were more physically inactive (87.6%, 268/306) compared to males (71.5%, 103/144) (P<.001). The most common barrier to physical activity was lack of resources (80.5%, 326/405), which was significantly higher among females than males and among the lower income versus the higher income group. The most common barrier to healthy diet was lack of willpower. More than four-fifths (80.3%, 354/441) of the study group stated that they did not have enough will to stick to a diet.
Lack of resources was the most important barrier for physical activity, while lack of willpower and social support were both barriers for adherence to physical activity and a healthy diet.
To study the reported practices of knowledge about and attitude towards smoking among nursing and medical laboratory technology (MLT) students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University at Dammam and Al-Khobar.
College of Medicine, Dammam and King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia
A cross-sectional approach involving a sample of 266 students and interns (152 nursing and 114 MLT), which included all enrolled students in the academic year (1998/1999). A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data covering knowledge, practice and attitude to smoking. SPSS was used for statistical analysis.
The overall smoking prevalence was low (5.6%), slightly higher among nursing (6.6%) versus MLT (4.4%) students. Knowledge of and attitude towards smoking was generally satisfactory in both groups, although deficient in some key areas, such as the addictive nature of smoking, some of its consequences on health, and difficulty of quitting.
Conclusion and Recommendations:
The prevalence of smoking among nursing and MLT students is generally low but their knowledge and attitude need improvement. Health education on facts, dangers and consequences of smoking should start as early as the primary school, and should continue throughout the education of future health professionals (role models for the community).
Smoking; tobacco consumption; university students; nursing; laboratory technology; knowledge/attitudes/practice (KAP); Saudi Arabia
Child care is mostly the responsibility of mothers. Several studies have revealed that the mothers’ education has a positive impact on their knowledge and practice in child health matters.
The study was undertaken to assess the level of mothers’ knowledge on certain aspects of child health care and whether there is any correlation between their level of knowledge and the number of years of formal education they have had.
Materials and Methods:
A two-part questionnaire was distributed. The first part comprised information about mother's nationality, age, work, level of education and number of children, in addition to sources of health information and the role of school education in child health matters. The second part contained 40 statements about different aspects of child health matters. A structured interview with the mothers who attended with their children at the pediatric outpatient clinic of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh during July and August 2007, was conducted by a trained non-medical research assistant using the items and statements of the questionnaire as a base. A knowledge score was calculated from the number of correct answers. The maximum score was 40. An arbitrary cut-off score of 25 was considered satisfactory.
Three-hundred-seventy-three questionnaires were completed. The mean score of the total sample was 25 (out of 40) and the minimum score obtained was 14, and the maximum 36. Fifty-eight percent scored 25 or more. Scrutiny of individual items on the questionnaire revealed significant and serious gaps in mother's knowledge. No statistically significant correlation was evident between mothers’ knowledge of child health related matters and level of education, age, or number of children.
Mothers’ knowledge of child health related matters is deficient. At present, knowledge on child health matters taught in schools in the Kingdom is inadequate. Health care institutions play a limited role in health education. There should be proper effective practical means of disseminating information on child health matters among mothers in our community.
Child health matters; health care professionals; mothers’ knowledge; school education
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a popular treatment option for many populations. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward CAM.
Material and Methods:
In this cross-sectional survey, a multistage random sample was taken from health professionals working in hospitals in Riyadh city and surrounding governorates. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, from 306 health professionals working in 19 hospitals, on socio-demographic data, knowledge about CAM and their sources, and attitudes toward CAM practices.
Of the participants, 88.9% had some knowledge about CAM. Respondents with a doctorate degree (94.74%) and 92.53% of those with a bachelor's degree had significantly higher knowledge of CAM than subjects with a diploma, a fellowship, or a master's degree (68.75%, 76.67%, and 85.41%, respectively, P = 0.004). Mass media represented 60.1% of sources of the knowledge of CAM followed by family, relatives, and friends (29.08%) and health educational organizations (14.71%). Participants estimated that prophetic medicine including prayer, honey and bee products, medical herbs, Hijama, nutrition and nutritional supplements, cauterization, and camel milk and urine were the most commonly used CAM practices (90.5%, 85%, 76.9%, 70.6%, 61.4%, 55.9%, and 52.5%, respectively) in addition to medical massage (61.8%) and acupuncture (55%). One hundred and fifteen (80%) physicians were ready to talk with their patients on CAM.
The willingness to improve knowledge and create a positive attitude in health professionals toward CAM has increased. Religious practices, especially those related to prophetic medicine, are more common in the region. Health educational organizations have to play a greater role by being the source of evidence-based knowledge of CAM. Talking on CAM with patients should be improved by rooting them on evidence-based practices.
Alternative; complementary; prophetic medicine; health educational organizations; health institutes ; health professionals; knowledge; attitude; mass media; Saudi Arabia
To determine the pattern of breast diseases among Saudi patients who underwent breast biopsy, with special emphasis on breast carcinoma.
A retrospective review was made of all breast biopsy reports of a mass or lump from male and female patients seen between January 2001 and December 2010 at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Of 1035 breast tissues reviewed, 939 specimens (90.7%) were from female patients. There were 690 benign (65.8%) and 345 (34.2%) malignant cases. In women, 603 (64.2%) specimens were benign and 336 (35.8%) were malignant. In men, 87 specimens (90.6%) were benign and 9 (9.4%) were malignant. All malignant cases from male patients belonged to invasive ductal carcinoma and the majority of malignant cases from female patients belonged to invasive/infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The proportion of malignancy was 18% in patients younger than 40 years and 63.2% in patients older than 60 years. The mean age of onset for malignancy was 48.6 years. The annual percentage incidence of malignant breast cancer steadily increased by 4.8%, from an annual rate of 23.5% in 2000 to 47.2% in 2007.
Among Saudi patients, there is a significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer, which occurs at an earlier age than in western countries. Continued vigilance, mammographic screening, and patient education are needed to establish early diagnosis and perform optimal treatment.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
The inclusion of detailed basic science courses in medical school curricula has been a concern of students. The main objective of this study was to explore the attitudes of medical students towards basic sciences courses taught to them in the preclinical years and the applicability of these courses to current clinical practice.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2008-2009 among medical students in their clinical years at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Thirty percent of all students (n=314) were randomly selected to receive a questionnaire designed to evaluate their opinions about course load, ability to recall information, value of practical sessions, availability of references and course guidelines, and the applicability of individual courses to clinical practice.
Students identified anatomy and pathology as the courses most overloaded with content (76% and 70%, respectively). Half of the students felt they retained the most knowledge of physiology (50%), while less than a quarter of students (19%) felt they retained the most information from biochemistry coursework. The role of practical sessions in facilitating theoretical understanding was more evident in anatomy (69%). Physiology was perceived as the subject with the highest applicability to clinical practice (66%), while pathology (29%) was identified as the subject with the least practical application. Students became increasingly negative in their opinions about basic science courses as they progressed through their medical education.
Current attitudes of medical students towards their basic science courses indicate a need to reform the curricula so as to maximize the benefit of these courses.
BACKGROUND--Appropriate treatment of severe community and hospital acquired pneumonias requiring admission to a medical intensive care unit depends on knowledge of the likely aetiological agents in any community. Little is known about the pattern and outcome of patients with such pneumonias in Saudi Arabia. METHODS--In a prospective study 113 patients with pneumonia were investigated in the medical intensive care unit at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 1991 and December 1992. The diagnosis was established by microscopy and culture of sputum, blood culture, or serological examination. A standard proforma was used to collect demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. RESULTS--A microbiological diagnosis was made in 80% of the cases with a single pathogen accounting for 69% of the isolates and multiple pathogens for 11%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common infecting agent (16%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (12%), Staphylococcus aureus (9%), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (8%). Pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophilia was diagnosed in three patients and infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in two. These five cases were identified by serological examination. Gram negative rods were the predominant pathogens in both community and hospital acquired pneumonia. The aetiology of pneumonia was not identified in 20% of cases. The overall mortality was 37%. Patients with hospital acquired pneumonia had a higher mortality than those with a community acquired pneumonia. Similarly, a high mortality was found in patients who had a serious underlying disease, abnormal mental state, diastolic blood pressure < 60 mm Hg, blood urea > 7 mmol/l, abnormal liver function tests, serum albumin < 30 g/l, those who required mechanical ventilatory support, and those with APACHE II scores > 20. CONCLUSIONS--This study highlights two major findings which differ from previous reports on the aetiology of pneumonia. Firstly, Gram negative rods were the predominant pathogens in community acquired pneumonia and secondly, M tuberculosis was an important cause of pneumonia in these patients, indicating that tuberculous pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pneumonia in Saudi Arabia.
Spirometry is the most basic, widely used and effort-dependent pulmonary function test. It assesses the lung volumes and flows, and is ideally suited to describe the effects of restriction or obstruction on lung function. Therefore, keeping in view the clinical applications of spirometry, this study attempts to explore the knowledge and practice about spirometry among pediatricians.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A questionnaire-based study was conducted across multiple centers in various hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The structured questionnaire, based upon knowledge and practice of spirometry, was distributed to 150 pediatricians in the various tertiary care hospitals in the metropolitan area of Riyadh.
Ninety-four percent of 113 pediatricians agreed that spirometry is a valuable tool in pediatric clinical practice. However, knowledge relating to spirometry was lacking among pediatricians, and about 86% of the study population did not demonstrate up-to-date knowledge of spirometry in pediatrics. Only 11% of pediatricians were very confident in interpreting spirometry results. No statistically significant association was observed between the distribution of responses relating to knowledge and practice of spirometry and the study variables including academic position, duration of practicing experience and number of patients attended daily.
The results indicated that pediatricians in Riyadh were lacking adequate knowledge about the clinical applications of spirometry in their daily clinical practice. Hence, it was suggested that pediatricians should attend periodical training, workshops and continuous medical education programmes to enhance their knowledge. This should especially be performed during their pediatric residency training programmes, as spirometry is one of the essential components in clinical practice.
Knowledge; pediatricians; practice; spirometry
Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community.
The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students' attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption.
A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).
A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19%) indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value <0.0001) and by senior more than junior students (<0.0001). About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20%) thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation.
Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Medical students; Saudi Arabia; smoking
Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in Saudi females. Breast self examination (BSE) is a practical screening method for early detection of breast cancer.
The aim of the study is to find out knowledge and practice of BSE among Saudi women and their attitude towards breast cancer.
157 Saudi women were randomly selected and interviewed in the general clinics of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, and a questionnaire was used to collect data.
The age range of the women was from 15 to 69 years with mean age of 32.5 years and median of 30 years. 80 (51%) out of 157 women were illiterate. 19 (12%) women were found to conduct BSE, 8 (5%) regularly and 11 (7%) irregularly. 145 (92%) showed willingness to seek medical advice if they discover lumps in their breasts. The motives of these women were, a desire to reach a diagnosis at an early stage in the hope of cure in 120 (76%) and fear of cancer in 25 (16%). 11 (7%) women were unwilling to seek medical advice and the motives of these women were fear of cancer in 5 (3%) and shyness in 6 (4%).
Conclusions & recommendations:
The proper technique of BSE should be taught to all Saudi women using all means of education either through books and magazines for literate women or through video films and self explanatory charts for illiterate women. A national campaign aimed at raising women's awareness about breast cancer and BSE is recommended.
Breast cancer; Breast self examination; knowledge; attitude; practice and education
Given that diabetes is an extremely common disorder in Saudi Arabia, the National Diabetes Registry was designed by King Saud University Hospital Diabetes Center in collaboration with King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in the year 2001. The aim of the registry is to identify risk factors related to diabetes and to provide statistics to public health programs and health care professionals for use in planning and evaluation. The registry was designed to provide information on the extent and nature of specific types of diabetes, diabetes complications, and treatment of diabetes in the Kingdom.
The registry has been available since 2001, with major collaborations from 26 hospitals as part of Phase I in which 100,000 patient data is to be collected on a regional level from Ar-Riyadh before extending the program to other regions of Saudi Arabia.
The web application was designed using relational database techniques along with on-line help topics to assist users to get acquainted with application functionalities. All Internet forms were designed with validation checks and appropriate messages to ensure quality of data.
The security measures established within the application ensure that only authorized users can gain access to the functionalities of the registry at allowed times. Administrative features were designed to manage the registry-related operations easily.
The diabetes registry has been in operation for almost 10 years, and around 67,000 patients have been registered to date. The Web-application offers an anytime-anywhere access to the registry’s data, removing geographical boundaries and allowing the national registry to provide real-time data entry, updates, reporting, and mapping functionalities more easily.
Merging related information in the form of databases can provide improved health care operations through instant access to data, ease of managing complex data structures, and creation of reports to be used by health care planners and hospital administrators.
centralized; diabetes; Internet; registry; Web-based
To study the attitudes of the patients towards medical students rotating in the dermatology clinic in the King Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU).
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and two adult outpatients attending the KFHU in Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia during the period March to June 2004 completed a questionnaire to evaluate their receptiveness towards medical students attending with the dermatologist.
Almost 57% preferred physician and medical student participation in their care and 46% welcomed their presence during physical examination. The majority of patients (64.8%) felt comfortable disclosing personal information to the medical student and (68.7%) enjoyed the interaction with the medical students. Patients (63.7%) agreed that the students understood their healthcare needs.
The majority of the patients in this study enjoyed their interactions with the students and felt comfortable disclosing information. Some patients want to spend time alone with the physician so permission for medical student participation should be requested.
Attitudes; dermatology subspeciality; education; medical student
To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis.
Materials and Methods:
Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC) or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test.
The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE); 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ‘heard of cancer warning signal’ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8%) felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6%) insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics.
Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information.
Attitude; breast self-examination; clinical breast examination; cancer prevention; cancer knowledge; mammography
Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients’ expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011) from a convenience sample of 448 patients using a 42-items questionnaire assessing six dimensions of the nursing care provided to, during hospitalization.
On a four–point scale (4-higly agree,3-agree, 2-disagree, and 1-higly disagree). The individual items of nursing care showing the lowest means were the information received from the nurses about self-help (2.81), the information about the laboratory results (2.76) and the way the nurse shared the patient's feeling (2.72). A strong correlation existed between the overall perception level and the variables of gender (P=0.01), and the types of department (0.004).
The findings of this study demonstrate negative experiences of patients with nursing care in dimensions of information, caring behavior, and nurse competency and technical care. Awareness of the importance of these dimensions of nursing care and ongoing support to investigate patients’ perception periodically toward quality of nursing care are critical to success the philosophy of patient centered health care.
Nursing care; Quality; Patients perception
To identify and quantify factors causing stress in the operating room (OR) and evaluate the relationship between these factors and surgeons’ stress level.
This is a prospective observational study from 32 elective surgical procedures conducted in the OR of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Before each operation, each surgeon was asked of stressors. Two interns observed 16 surgeries each, separately. The interns watched and took notes during the entire surgical procedure. During each operation, the observer recorded anxiety-inducing activities and events that occurred in real time by means of a checklist of 8 potential stressors: technical, patient problems, teamwork problems, time and management issues, distractions and interruptions, equipment problems, personal problems, and teaching. After each operation, surgeons were asked to answer the validated State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and self-report on their stress level from the 8 sources using a scale of 1–8 (1: stress free, 8: extremely stressful). The observer also recorded perceived stress levels experienced by the surgeons during the operation.
One hundred ten stressors were identified. Technical problems most frequently caused stress (16.4%) and personal issues the least often (6.4%). Frequently encountered stressors (teaching and distractions/interruptions) caused less stress to the surgeons. Technical factors, teamwork, and equipment problems occurred frequently and were also a major contributor to OR stress. All patients were discharged in good health and within 1 week of surgery.
Certain stressful factors do occur among surgeons in the OR and can increase the potential for errors. Further research is required to determine the impact of stress on performance and the outcome of surgery.
Operating room; stressful events; surgeon
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is well established worldwide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.
A cross-sectional descriptive household survey study of the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from 1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.
Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70% Saudi and 30% non-Saudis. About 89% of the participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g. (T.V., newspapers and radio) and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5% and 46.3% respectively). Nearly 85% of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write), as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89%), prayer (54%), honey and bee products (54%), hijama (35.71%) and cauterization or medical massage therapy (22%) were the commonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8%), regulations for CAM (94.9%), health education (96.6%), specialized centers (94.8%) and CAM clinics (92.7%). While only 8.3% of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.
There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positive attitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.
Complementary; Alternative medicine; Medical herbs; Body massage; Natural products; Prophetic medicine; Attitude; Safety; Efficacy; Saudi Arabia
To examine and compare the factors causing long waiting lists for non-urgent surgery in public (Ministry of Health, military, and teaching) and private hospitals in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine the relationship between the personal characteristics of the respondents (surgeons) and the surgery-delay experience.
Material and Methods:
The instrument used in this study was a self-administered questionnaire. Out of 500 distributed questionnaires 320 valid responses were returned. Data were collected from 14 public and private hospitals in Riyadh City. Frequencies and percentages; Mann-Whitney; Kruskall-Wallis one way ANOVA; Chi-square; Phi; and Cramers’ V tests were used in the statistical analysis..
Results show that seven factors were significantly important in causing long waiting lists. A significant difference with regard to the seriousness of this problem was found between the two types of hospitals.
This study shows that there is a significant difference in the seriousness of the problem between private and various types of public hospitals. Similar studies in different parts of the country are therefore recommended.
Non-urgent surgery; waiting lists; and private; MOH; military; and teaching hospitals
To estimate the prevalence of smoking among secondary school students in National Guard area of Riyadh, and explore the reasons for the smoking and the attitude of non-smoker toward smoking habit.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2009. By random sampling technique 255 students were enrolled from secondary school of National Guard area, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.
Current smokers represented 28.6% of the students. The most common reasons for smoking were: having free time (81.6%), for the relief of stress (63.2%) and seeing some of their teachers smoking (61.8%).
Most of the smokers started the habit before the age of 15 years old (89%). 84% of non-smokers suggested to ban smoking in public places. 42.2% of students were planning to start smoking in future.
Religion was the most important reason for not smoking among non smokers.
The prevalence of smoking is big enough a problem to be considered as a warning for an impending epidemic Health education provision should have a greater role in schools Governmental commitment and social support are vital if health education and awareness and especially quit smoking programs are to be implemented and sustained.
Secondary school student; smoking; shisha; magha; Riyadh
OBJECTIVE: To measure the smoking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi adults residing in Riyadh City, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Riyadh City were selected by stratified random sampling. Subjects resident in each PHCC catchment area were selected by systematic sampling from their records in the PHCCs; 1534 adults aged 15 years and older were interviewed during January to April 1994. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported smoking prevalence; age of smoking initiation; daily cigarette consumption; duration of smoking; reasons for smoking, not smoking, and quitting smoking; intentions to smoke in the future; and attitudes toward various tobacco control measures. RESULTS: 25.3% of respondents were current smokers, 10.2% were ex-smokers, and 64.5% had never smoked. About 79% of all smokers started smoking between the ages of 15 and 30 years, and 19.5% before age 15. Significantly higher smoking prevalence and daily cigarette consumption were associated with being male, single, and being more highly educated. Relief of psychological tension, boredom, and imitating others were the most important reasons for smoking, whereas health and religious considerations were the most important reasons for not smoking among never-smokers, for quitting among ex-smokers, and for attempting to quit or thinking about quitting among current smokers. About 90% of all subjects thought that they would not smoke in the future. Physicians and religious men were identified as the most effective anti-smoking advocates by a much higher proportion of respondents (44%) than nurses, health educators, and teachers (each less than 5%). Health and religious education were generally cited as more effective in deterring smoking than tobacco control laws and policies. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking is prevalent among Saudi adults in Riyadh, particularly males, most of whom begin to smoke rather early in life and continue for many years. Health and religious education should be the cornerstone for any organised tobacco control activities, which are urgently needed to combat the expected future epidemic of smoking-related health problems.
To examine the validity of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) as a numerical substitution of mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) in adult patients undergoing normothermic on pump beating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Materials and Methods:
Prospective clinical observational study was done at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Thirty four adult patients scheduled for coronary artery surgery were included. Patients were monitored by a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) as a part of our routine intraoperative monitoring. SvO2 and ScvO2 were simultaneously measured 15 minutes (T1) and 30 minutes (T2) after induction of anesthesia, 15 and 30 minutes after initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (T3 and T4), and 15 and 30 minutes after admission to intensive care unit (T5 and T6).
ScvO2 showed higher reading than SvO2 all through our study. Our results showed perfect positive statistically significant correlation between SvO2 and ScvO2 at all data points. Individual mean of difference (MOD) between both the readings at study time showed MOD of 1.34 and 1.44 at T1 and T2 simultaneously. This MOD was statistically insignificant, but after on pump beating normothermic bypass was initiated; MOD was 5.2 and 4.4 at T3 and T4 with high statistical significance. In ICU, MOD continues to have high statistical significance, MOD was 6.3 at T5 and at T6 it was 4.6.
In on pump beating CABG patients; ScvO2 and SvO2 are not interchangeable numerically. ScvO2 is useful in the meaning of trend; our data suggest that ScvO2 is equivalent to SvO2 , only in the course of clinical decisions as long as absolute values are not required.
Coronary artery bypass grafting; mixed venous oxygen saturation; coronary artery bypass grafting; mixed venous oxygen saturation; central venous oxygen saturation
Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. However the preventive measures for such problem are probably less than expected. The objectives of this study are to assess breast cancer knowledge and attitudes and factors associated with the practice of breast self examination (BSE) among female teachers of Saudi Arabia.
Patients and Methods:
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of teachers working in female schools in Buraidah, Saudi Arabia using a self-administered questionnaire to investigate participants’ knowledge about the risk factors of breast cancer, their attitudes and screening behaviors. A sample of 376 female teachers was randomly selected. Participants lived in urban areas, and had an average age of 34.7 ±5.4 years.
More than half of the women showed a limited knowledge level. Among participants, the most frequently reported risk factors were non-breast feeding and the use of female sex hormones. The printed media was the most common source of knowledge. Logistic regression analysis revealed that high income was the most significant predictor of better knowledge level. Knowing a non-relative case with breast cancer and having a high knowledge level were identified as the significant predictors for practicing BSE.
The study points to the insufficient knowledge of female teachers about breast cancer and identified the negative influence of low knowledge on the practice of BSE. Accordingly, relevant educational programs to improve the knowledge level of women regarding breast cancer are needed.
breast cancer; Saudi Arabia; knowledge; screening; self examination of breast
Health counseling before marriage can be a most worthwhile and satisfying aspect of preventive medicine. It is important in genetic diagnosis and the prevention of hereditary, sexually transmitted and other infectious diseases.
To determine the acceptance of the concept of Premarital Health Counseling (PMHC), and to identify some factors, which may efect this acceptance among Saudis who attend Primary Health Care Center in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), 1417H.
The present study is a cross-sectional one with a selected sample of Saudis who attended the Primary Health Care Centers in Riyadh during the year 1417H. A multistage sampling and equal allocation stratified sampling within was used to select 484 persons comprising an equal number of males and females, married and single above the age of 18 years. A pre-designed pre-tested questionnaire sheet was used to collect the required data, which were then tabulated and statistically analyzed.
The study indicated that 364 (75.2%) of the study population accepted the concept of Premarital Health Counseling. PMHC was positively affected by the advancing age, experience of marriage, educational level and well-understood Islamic-health related issues. Out f those who accepted the concept, 273 (75%) agreed on the exchange of PMHC certificates between couples to be married and 152 (42%) agreed on the implementation of legislation on PMHC. Also, 298 (82%) of them wanted PMHC to be confidential and 168 (46%) agreed to the concept despite its cost. As regards the location of PMHC, most of participants who agreed to PMHC would prefer it to be given at governmental establishments.
The study recommended the implementation of PMHC in Saudi Arabia, since it was accepted by the study population. However, further studies should be carried out to determine the details to be incorporated in the PMHC, their implementation and legislation on demographic basis of the Saudi community. Also, a community health education program for PMHC has to be devised in collaboration with Islamic leaders.
Attitudes; Premartial Health Counseling; Premarital counseling; Saudi Arabia