Background and Objectives:
The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517) and nondonors (n = 316), between February and June 2008. All were males.
Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5%) and lack of time (16%) as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71%) and health reasons (19%). Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood.
These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.
Attitude to blood donation; donor compensation; donor motivation; Saudi blood donors
Background and Aims:
Complementary alternative medicine (CAM) covers many types of treatments and procedures that are usually not included in conventional medicine and are used in addition to physician-prescribed drugs to “complement” treatment. Although liver disease is prevalent in Saudi Arabia, not much is known about CAM use among Saudi liver disease patients. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of CAM use in these patients and their attitudes toward it.
Materials and Methods:
Patients were recruited randomly from a tertiary care hepatology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from February 4 to March 20, 2012. A four-page questionnaire was used to interview patients.
Of all the 232 participants surveyed, 55.6% have used or are using CAM to treat their liver disease with 45.0% of CAM users stating that they believe it has a positive effect on their treatment. Honey was the most used CAM treatment among the participants (39.0%). Herb use was represented by 31.8% of all users, while 13.5% used bloodletting as a treatment. Cautery was the least used CAM method (3.4%). Nearly 76.6% of CAM users were satisfied with using alternative treatments to help control their disease. Nearly 69.4% of users and nonusers stated that they believe CAM treatments to have numerous beneficial effects. Nearly 60.5% of CAM users stated that their physician had no knowledge of their CAM use. Of the factors included in linear multivariate regression analysis (including: Age, gender, and family CAM use, among other socioeconomic factors) only family CAM use was considered a significant independent factor affecting participants CAM use (Beta = 0.582, 95% CI: 0.372-0.754, P = 0.0001).
More than half of the patients have reported CAM use. Overall, more than two-thirds of the entire sample believed that CAM treatments have numerous health benefits.
Complementary alternative medicine; herbs; liver disease; Saudi Arabia
Routine use of gloves, masks and spectacles are important in infection control. Aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infection control measures among the patients attending clinics of Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP) in Saudi Arabia.
Material and Methods:
It was a cross-sectional descriptive study of a convenient sample of dental patients attending dental clinics of RCsDP. A structured, close ended, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 350 patients and a response rate of 86% was obtained. Questionnaireconsisted of series of queries related to knowledge and attitudes of patients towards infection control measures. Data analysis included frequency distribution tables, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05.
Final study sample included 301 patients (147 males and 154 females). Almost 99%, 93.7% and 82.7% of the patients agreed that dentist should wear gloves, face mask and spectacles while providing treatment. However, 60.1%, 30% of the patients said that HIV and hepatitis-B infections can spread in dental clinics. Half of the patients felt that they were likely to contract AIDS and 77.7% refused to attend clinics if they knew that AIDS and Hepatitis-B patients treated there. Only 25.2% said that autoclave is the best method of sterilization. A significantly higher knowledge of infection control was observed among the previous dental visitors compared to the first time visitors to the dental clinics (P < 0.05).
Patients revealed adequate knowledge towards the use of gloves, face mask and spectacles by dentist. However, their knowledge regarding the spread of Hepatitis-B, HIV infection and use of autoclave was poor. Previous visitor of dental clinics showed higher knowledge of infection control as compared to the first time visitors. Many patients expressed their negative attitudes towards dental care due to AIDS and Hepatitis-B concerns.
Attitude; dental patients; infection control measures; knowledge
The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of King Saud University female students towards the implementation of premarital screening (PMS) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).
Two consecutive surveys on knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) were conducted two and nine months after the compulsory implementation of PMS in KSA in 1/1/1425H. The female students of King Saud University were given health education lectures before the survey. The first survey was done with a designed close-ended questionnaire distributed at pre and post stages of the health education lecture. However, the second one explored the participants’ perception of the same items in open-ended questions summarized as a “consensus statement”. In fulfillment of their demands, the signed statement was mailed to the legislative authorities.
Results and discussion:
A total of 140 university female students attended the first lecture. The response rate for both pre and post lecture surveys were 132 (94.3%) and 128 (91.4%) respectively. A total of 112 out of 132 (84.8%) students in the pre test and 111 out of 128 (86.7%) in the post-test were single.
Of the married students 7/20 (35.0%) and 7/17 (41.2%) in pre and post tests had previously had PMS screening. The attitude of the students towards PMS was generally positive. One hundred and eight (81.8%) in the pre test and 110 (85.9%) in the post test saw the importance of PMS in controlling the commonest hereditary diseases. However, a smaller percentage of students (69.7% and 75.0%) in pre and post lecture respectively were in favor of the compulsory application of PMS in KSA. In spite of the positive attitude of all the students in the pre and post tests, fears were expressed towards the confidentiality of PMS test results and it was felt that social and psychological problems would ensue from abnormal results. This, however, does not represent the feeling of the entire population in KSA since the participants of the study formed a select group.
The second awareness lecture was attended by 319 students from the College of Education. They were subsequently requested to state their perceptions of PMS application with regard to its content, nature and method of application in KSA in their own words. The collected forms were summarized into a “consensus statement” and signed by all 319 students. They felt that the scope of PMS should be extended to investigate and screen for other diseases especially sexually transmitted diseases that would adversely affect the health of members of the family and the community as a whole. Their worry about the lack of screening for other diseases may be because a majority of the study group were single and would, therefore, refuse to get married on account of the risks to their future offspring. In addition, it may reflect their knowledge of the effects of globalization on the transmission of diseases.
Health education is an important means of improving the public's perception of newly-introduced health interventions. University students have a good perception of the compulsory implementation of PMS in KSA. Pre-marital screening could be extended to include a broader spectrum of health/genetic disorders and will be useful for early identification and possible intervention as well as the prevention of complications.
Premarital Screening; Health Education; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes mellitus attending a primary care clinic in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
A cross sectional study was carried out on men with diabetes mellitus followed in a primary care clinic of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from 13 November 2005 to 13 June 2006. A total of 186 diabetic patients were interviewed. Data collection forms were completed by a member of the medical staff, a family medicine consultant, during the consultation of diabetic patients in the primary care clinic. Erectile dysfunction was categorized as absent erectile dysfunction (normal function), partial erectile dysfunction, and complete erectile dysfunction. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
A total of 186 men with diabetes mellitus were interviewed during the study period. The majority of diabetic patients (95%) had type 2 diabetes. Most of the patients (68.8%) were on oral hypoglycemic agents, 24.7% on insulin injection, and 6.5% on diet only. The present study showed that 11.2% of the diabetic patients were suffering from complete and severe erectile dysfunction, while 64% of the patients complained of partial erectile dysfunction which was affecting their marital relationship. The cardiovascular risk factors in the 186 diabetic patients were hypertension 34.9%, smoking 13.4%, obesity 40%, and dyslipidemia 16.6%.
Complete (severe) and partial erectile dysfunction was quite common among adult diabetic patients in a hospital-based primary care setting in Saudi Arabia. It is important for primary care physicians to diagnose erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients, and to counsel them early, as most patients are hesitant to discuss their concern during a consultation. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the effect of other risk factors on erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients.
Erectile dysfunction; diabetes; primary care
To study the reported practices of knowledge about and attitude towards smoking among nursing and medical laboratory technology (MLT) students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University at Dammam and Al-Khobar.
College of Medicine, Dammam and King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia
A cross-sectional approach involving a sample of 266 students and interns (152 nursing and 114 MLT), which included all enrolled students in the academic year (1998/1999). A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data covering knowledge, practice and attitude to smoking. SPSS was used for statistical analysis.
The overall smoking prevalence was low (5.6%), slightly higher among nursing (6.6%) versus MLT (4.4%) students. Knowledge of and attitude towards smoking was generally satisfactory in both groups, although deficient in some key areas, such as the addictive nature of smoking, some of its consequences on health, and difficulty of quitting.
Conclusion and Recommendations:
The prevalence of smoking among nursing and MLT students is generally low but their knowledge and attitude need improvement. Health education on facts, dangers and consequences of smoking should start as early as the primary school, and should continue throughout the education of future health professionals (role models for the community).
Smoking; tobacco consumption; university students; nursing; laboratory technology; knowledge/attitudes/practice (KAP); Saudi Arabia
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
The occurrence and progress of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors. Modification of barriers to healthy lifestyle can produce great benefits. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity and healthy eating among patients attending primary health care clinics in Riyadh city.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh city. Four hundred and fifty participants attending primary health care clinics (PHCC) from 1 March to 30 April 2007 were randomly selected. A questionnaire about barriers to physical activity and healthy eating was adapted from the CDC web site.
The prevalence of physical inactivity among the Saudi population in the study was 82.4% (371/450). Females were more physically inactive (87.6%, 268/306) compared to males (71.5%, 103/144) (P<.001). The most common barrier to physical activity was lack of resources (80.5%, 326/405), which was significantly higher among females than males and among the lower income versus the higher income group. The most common barrier to healthy diet was lack of willpower. More than four-fifths (80.3%, 354/441) of the study group stated that they did not have enough will to stick to a diet.
Lack of resources was the most important barrier for physical activity, while lack of willpower and social support were both barriers for adherence to physical activity and a healthy diet.
The Drug and Poison Information Center (DPIC) at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was founded in 1983. Since then it has responded adequately to queries from medical and non-medical callers from all over the Kingdom. Queries ranged from simple material identification to poisoning cases.
To assess the pattern and circumstances of poisoning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through reviewing data from DPIC in King Khalid University hospitals.
This is a retrospective study of referred cases and calls received by DPIC. All records and documentation forms during the study period were investigated.
This study included 1161 cases. There were 7.9% infants, 52.9% under 5 years old, 7.2% between 6–12 years old and 32.0% more than 12 years old. Number of males with toxic exposure was almost equal to that of females. More than 92% of cases were toxic exposure through oral route. Causes of poisoning include drugs among 76.7% of cases followed by household chemicals (6.8%). Suicidal intention was reported among 25.6% of cases. Using multivariate regression analysis, significant predictors of suicidal attempts are more than 12 years old, patients who were exposed to more than one toxin and patient who came to the hospital within 1–3 h since poisoning.
Establishing and operating DPIC centers throughout the kingdom, in addition to implementing of legislations to ban over the counter selling of medications and to sell potentially dangerous chemicals in childproof containers.
Poisoning; Saudi Arabia
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a popular treatment option for many populations. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward CAM.
Material and Methods:
In this cross-sectional survey, a multistage random sample was taken from health professionals working in hospitals in Riyadh city and surrounding governorates. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, from 306 health professionals working in 19 hospitals, on socio-demographic data, knowledge about CAM and their sources, and attitudes toward CAM practices.
Of the participants, 88.9% had some knowledge about CAM. Respondents with a doctorate degree (94.74%) and 92.53% of those with a bachelor's degree had significantly higher knowledge of CAM than subjects with a diploma, a fellowship, or a master's degree (68.75%, 76.67%, and 85.41%, respectively, P = 0.004). Mass media represented 60.1% of sources of the knowledge of CAM followed by family, relatives, and friends (29.08%) and health educational organizations (14.71%). Participants estimated that prophetic medicine including prayer, honey and bee products, medical herbs, Hijama, nutrition and nutritional supplements, cauterization, and camel milk and urine were the most commonly used CAM practices (90.5%, 85%, 76.9%, 70.6%, 61.4%, 55.9%, and 52.5%, respectively) in addition to medical massage (61.8%) and acupuncture (55%). One hundred and fifteen (80%) physicians were ready to talk with their patients on CAM.
The willingness to improve knowledge and create a positive attitude in health professionals toward CAM has increased. Religious practices, especially those related to prophetic medicine, are more common in the region. Health educational organizations have to play a greater role by being the source of evidence-based knowledge of CAM. Talking on CAM with patients should be improved by rooting them on evidence-based practices.
Alternative; complementary; prophetic medicine; health educational organizations; health institutes ; health professionals; knowledge; attitude; mass media; Saudi Arabia
Child care is mostly the responsibility of mothers. Several studies have revealed that the mothers’ education has a positive impact on their knowledge and practice in child health matters.
The study was undertaken to assess the level of mothers’ knowledge on certain aspects of child health care and whether there is any correlation between their level of knowledge and the number of years of formal education they have had.
Materials and Methods:
A two-part questionnaire was distributed. The first part comprised information about mother's nationality, age, work, level of education and number of children, in addition to sources of health information and the role of school education in child health matters. The second part contained 40 statements about different aspects of child health matters. A structured interview with the mothers who attended with their children at the pediatric outpatient clinic of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh during July and August 2007, was conducted by a trained non-medical research assistant using the items and statements of the questionnaire as a base. A knowledge score was calculated from the number of correct answers. The maximum score was 40. An arbitrary cut-off score of 25 was considered satisfactory.
Three-hundred-seventy-three questionnaires were completed. The mean score of the total sample was 25 (out of 40) and the minimum score obtained was 14, and the maximum 36. Fifty-eight percent scored 25 or more. Scrutiny of individual items on the questionnaire revealed significant and serious gaps in mother's knowledge. No statistically significant correlation was evident between mothers’ knowledge of child health related matters and level of education, age, or number of children.
Mothers’ knowledge of child health related matters is deficient. At present, knowledge on child health matters taught in schools in the Kingdom is inadequate. Health care institutions play a limited role in health education. There should be proper effective practical means of disseminating information on child health matters among mothers in our community.
Child health matters; health care professionals; mothers’ knowledge; school education
To determine the pattern of breast diseases among Saudi patients who underwent breast biopsy, with special emphasis on breast carcinoma.
A retrospective review was made of all breast biopsy reports of a mass or lump from male and female patients seen between January 2001 and December 2010 at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Of 1035 breast tissues reviewed, 939 specimens (90.7%) were from female patients. There were 690 benign (65.8%) and 345 (34.2%) malignant cases. In women, 603 (64.2%) specimens were benign and 336 (35.8%) were malignant. In men, 87 specimens (90.6%) were benign and 9 (9.4%) were malignant. All malignant cases from male patients belonged to invasive ductal carcinoma and the majority of malignant cases from female patients belonged to invasive/infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The proportion of malignancy was 18% in patients younger than 40 years and 63.2% in patients older than 60 years. The mean age of onset for malignancy was 48.6 years. The annual percentage incidence of malignant breast cancer steadily increased by 4.8%, from an annual rate of 23.5% in 2000 to 47.2% in 2007.
Among Saudi patients, there is a significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer, which occurs at an earlier age than in western countries. Continued vigilance, mammographic screening, and patient education are needed to establish early diagnosis and perform optimal treatment.
The purpose of this survey was to assess the level, sources, and need for information about dental implants among a selected sample of dental patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Materials and methods
Patients’ knowledge and awareness in using dental implants as an option in replacing missing teeth were evaluated through a standardized self- explanatory questionnaire distributed in two places in Riyadh: Military Hospital and College of Dentistry, King Saud University (Darraiyah campus). The questionnaires were handed to the patients during their regular dental visits. A total of 379 subjects were included in this survey.
The results of this study indicate that 66.4% of the subjects knew about dental implants. The subjects’ friends and their relatives were the main source of information about dental implants for 31.5% of the subjects, and dentists were the secondary source for 28.3% of the sample. About 82.4% of the subjects need more information about dental implants and 85.2% of them chose the dentist to be the desired source for such information, followed by the internet in 28.5% of the cases. Almost 74.4% of those surveyed did not know if their regular dentists use dental implants. High cost was the major factor in preventing patients from choosing implants in 86.5% of the cases while the long treatment time and fear of surgery was the factor in 71% and 68.6% of the subjects, respectively.
The results of this survey showed an acceptable level of awareness about dental implants among a selected sample of dental patients in Riyadh. It also showed the need for providing more general and accurate information to the patients about this treatment modality.
Dental implant; Patient knowledge; Missing teeth
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
The inclusion of detailed basic science courses in medical school curricula has been a concern of students. The main objective of this study was to explore the attitudes of medical students towards basic sciences courses taught to them in the preclinical years and the applicability of these courses to current clinical practice.
DESIGN AND SETTING:
A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2008-2009 among medical students in their clinical years at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Thirty percent of all students (n=314) were randomly selected to receive a questionnaire designed to evaluate their opinions about course load, ability to recall information, value of practical sessions, availability of references and course guidelines, and the applicability of individual courses to clinical practice.
Students identified anatomy and pathology as the courses most overloaded with content (76% and 70%, respectively). Half of the students felt they retained the most knowledge of physiology (50%), while less than a quarter of students (19%) felt they retained the most information from biochemistry coursework. The role of practical sessions in facilitating theoretical understanding was more evident in anatomy (69%). Physiology was perceived as the subject with the highest applicability to clinical practice (66%), while pathology (29%) was identified as the subject with the least practical application. Students became increasingly negative in their opinions about basic science courses as they progressed through their medical education.
Current attitudes of medical students towards their basic science courses indicate a need to reform the curricula so as to maximize the benefit of these courses.
To determine the effectiveness of a two-phase intervention designed to reduce the use of unsafe abbreviations.
An observational prospective study was conducted at the King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during May–September 2009. A list of unsafe abbreviations was formulated based on the recommendations of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices. The first 7000 medication orders written at the beginning of each period were collected. Phase one of the intervention involved educating health care professionals about the dangers of using unsafe abbreviations. In the second phase of the intervention, a policy was approved that prohibited the use of unsafe abbreviations hospital-wide. Then, another educational campaign targeted toward prescribers was organized. Descriptive statistics are used in this paper to present the results.
At baseline, we identified 1980 medication abbreviations used in 7000 medication orders (28.3%). Three months after phase one of the intervention, the number of abbreviations found in 7000 medication orders had decreased to 1489 (21.3%). Six months later, after phase two of the intervention, the number of abbreviations used had decreased to 710 (10%). During this phase, the use of all abbreviations had declined relative to the baseline and phase one use levels. The decrease in the use of abbreviations was statistically significant in all three periods (P < 0.001).
The implementation of a complex intervention program reduced the use of unsafe abbreviations by 65%.
Unsafe abbreviations; Medications
Treatment of DVT with LMWHs has been shown recently to be as effective as UFH with suggested lower costs. This study was conducted to determine and compare the cost of in-patient hospital treatment versus outpatient hospital treatment of patients with DVT.
All adult patients with acute proximal DVT referred to the Emergency Department of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between August 2009 and August 2010 were invited to the study. An economic analysis was performed to compare the cost impact of outpatients versus hospital treatment.
Sixty-one patients were included in the study, 31 were followed in the outpatient setting and 30 as the control group (inpatients). There were no significant differences in the outcome between the outpatient and inpatient group; three patients (9.7%) in the outpatient group and four patients (13.3%) in the inpatient group had recurrent DVT. Mean nursing cost was $55 for the outpatient group and $215 for the inpatient group, mean laboratory monitoring cost was $638 for outpatient group and $1511 for the inpatient group. Hospital stay and doctor’s fees amounted to a mean of $1000 for outpatient treatment and $2387 for inpatient treatment, p < 0.0001. The mean outpatient cost was significantly lower than the inpatient cost ($1750 vs. $4338, p < 0.0001).
Outpatient treatment of patients with DVT using LMWHs is cost-effective with no significant differences in the outcome of patients. OPD treatment of DVT is feasible in Saudi Arabia provided there is enough logistic support from thrombosis clinics and those involved in DVT care.
Deep vein thrombosis; Outpatient; Treatment; Anticoagulation; Economic evaluation; Patient safety
BACKGROUND--Appropriate treatment of severe community and hospital acquired pneumonias requiring admission to a medical intensive care unit depends on knowledge of the likely aetiological agents in any community. Little is known about the pattern and outcome of patients with such pneumonias in Saudi Arabia. METHODS--In a prospective study 113 patients with pneumonia were investigated in the medical intensive care unit at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 1991 and December 1992. The diagnosis was established by microscopy and culture of sputum, blood culture, or serological examination. A standard proforma was used to collect demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. RESULTS--A microbiological diagnosis was made in 80% of the cases with a single pathogen accounting for 69% of the isolates and multiple pathogens for 11%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common infecting agent (16%), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (12%), Staphylococcus aureus (9%), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (8%). Pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophilia was diagnosed in three patients and infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in two. These five cases were identified by serological examination. Gram negative rods were the predominant pathogens in both community and hospital acquired pneumonia. The aetiology of pneumonia was not identified in 20% of cases. The overall mortality was 37%. Patients with hospital acquired pneumonia had a higher mortality than those with a community acquired pneumonia. Similarly, a high mortality was found in patients who had a serious underlying disease, abnormal mental state, diastolic blood pressure < 60 mm Hg, blood urea > 7 mmol/l, abnormal liver function tests, serum albumin < 30 g/l, those who required mechanical ventilatory support, and those with APACHE II scores > 20. CONCLUSIONS--This study highlights two major findings which differ from previous reports on the aetiology of pneumonia. Firstly, Gram negative rods were the predominant pathogens in community acquired pneumonia and secondly, M tuberculosis was an important cause of pneumonia in these patients, indicating that tuberculous pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pneumonia in Saudi Arabia.
Spirometry is the most basic, widely used and effort-dependent pulmonary function test. It assesses the lung volumes and flows, and is ideally suited to describe the effects of restriction or obstruction on lung function. Therefore, keeping in view the clinical applications of spirometry, this study attempts to explore the knowledge and practice about spirometry among pediatricians.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A questionnaire-based study was conducted across multiple centers in various hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The structured questionnaire, based upon knowledge and practice of spirometry, was distributed to 150 pediatricians in the various tertiary care hospitals in the metropolitan area of Riyadh.
Ninety-four percent of 113 pediatricians agreed that spirometry is a valuable tool in pediatric clinical practice. However, knowledge relating to spirometry was lacking among pediatricians, and about 86% of the study population did not demonstrate up-to-date knowledge of spirometry in pediatrics. Only 11% of pediatricians were very confident in interpreting spirometry results. No statistically significant association was observed between the distribution of responses relating to knowledge and practice of spirometry and the study variables including academic position, duration of practicing experience and number of patients attended daily.
The results indicated that pediatricians in Riyadh were lacking adequate knowledge about the clinical applications of spirometry in their daily clinical practice. Hence, it was suggested that pediatricians should attend periodical training, workshops and continuous medical education programmes to enhance their knowledge. This should especially be performed during their pediatric residency training programmes, as spirometry is one of the essential components in clinical practice.
Knowledge; pediatricians; practice; spirometry
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking, knowledge about the ill effects of smoking on health, and the influence of family members’ smoking habits among Saudi female students.
This is a type of cross-sectional study. A sample of 1,070 female students was selected by a nonrandom and convenient sampling method from five colleges (Medicine, Business and Administration, Computer Sciences, Education, and Languages and Translation) of King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to determine the personal, social, and educational characteristics of the respondents. In addition, questions about their smoking types, status, duration of smoking, knowledge about the ill effects of smoking, daily cigarette consumption, and reasons for quitting smoking were included.
The students’ response rate was 85%. The prevalence of current smoking was 4.3% and 5.6% for cigarettes and water-pipes, respectively, whereas 3.9% of the participants were ex-smokers. The prevalence of current smoking was highest in the College of Business and Administration (10.81%) and lowest in the College of Medicine (0.86%). The majority (77%) of the smokers’ parents (current and ex-smokers) were also smokers. More than half (54%) of the smokers started their smoking habit for entertainment, and 44.4% of the participants did not know that smoking causes serious health problems. The most common factors for quitting smoking were health concerns (54%), religious beliefs (29%), and parent’s advice (17%).
The study concludes that the prevalence of smoking varies in different subject streams and that family and friends have a great influence on individuals starting or stopping smoking. Extensive health education programs are needed to educate young women on the health hazards of smoking and help stop them from smoking.
smoking prevalence; quitting smoking; female students; cigarettes per day
Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community.
The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students' attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption.
A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).
A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19%) indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value <0.0001) and by senior more than junior students (<0.0001). About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20%) thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation.
Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Medical students; Saudi Arabia; smoking
Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in Saudi females. Breast self examination (BSE) is a practical screening method for early detection of breast cancer.
The aim of the study is to find out knowledge and practice of BSE among Saudi women and their attitude towards breast cancer.
157 Saudi women were randomly selected and interviewed in the general clinics of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, and a questionnaire was used to collect data.
The age range of the women was from 15 to 69 years with mean age of 32.5 years and median of 30 years. 80 (51%) out of 157 women were illiterate. 19 (12%) women were found to conduct BSE, 8 (5%) regularly and 11 (7%) irregularly. 145 (92%) showed willingness to seek medical advice if they discover lumps in their breasts. The motives of these women were, a desire to reach a diagnosis at an early stage in the hope of cure in 120 (76%) and fear of cancer in 25 (16%). 11 (7%) women were unwilling to seek medical advice and the motives of these women were fear of cancer in 5 (3%) and shyness in 6 (4%).
Conclusions & recommendations:
The proper technique of BSE should be taught to all Saudi women using all means of education either through books and magazines for literate women or through video films and self explanatory charts for illiterate women. A national campaign aimed at raising women's awareness about breast cancer and BSE is recommended.
Breast cancer; Breast self examination; knowledge; attitude; practice and education
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide health issue with about 3% of the world’s population having HCV. In Saudi Arabia, prevalence ranges from 1.0% to 5.87%. Cutaneous diseases can indicate the presence of HCV infection.
The research project aims to identify prospectively the prevalence of HCV infection in 200 patients with various types of skin disorders and 50 healthy blood donors, and to quantify this association through clinical and laboratory investigations.
Two hundred patients with cutaneous manifestations who presented at the Dermatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) and King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Riyadh, and 50 healthy blood donors were prospectively studied. Patients were examined by a team of dermatologists and clinical data were collected through a standard questionnaire. Ten milliliters of venous blood were collected from fully consented, 8–10 h fasting patients and serum was analyzed for AST, ALT, double infection with HBsAg, anti-HCV antibodies, and screened for HCV-RNA-PCR.
Patients from the study (n = 200) consisted of 25 (12.5%) males and 175 (87.5%) females, with a mean age of 42.9 ± 15.06 years. Clinical examinations revealed that (35%) had urticaria, followed by pruritus (28%), lichen planus (25.5%), prurigo (10%), and palpable purpura (1.5%). The main serum levels of ALT and AST were within the normal reference ranges. Twenty-four patients (12%) tested positive for anti-HCV antibodies, with 15 (62.5%) being positive for the presence of HCV-RNA by PCR and 9 (37.5%) resulting negative for the viral RNA. Of the 24 anti-HCV positive patients, pruritus 12 (50%), urticaria 5 (20.8%), lichen planus 5(20.8%), and palpable purpura 2(8.3%). Five (2.5%) patients were positive for HBsAg, with 3 (60%) having pruritus and 2 (40%) presenting with urticaria. Of the 50 healthy blood donors, only one (2%) tested positive for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies, and all the donors tested negative for HBsAg.
Results clearly indicate the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies in 24 out of 200 patients (12%) with skin manifestations seen at the dermatology outpatient clinics and documented with HCV-RNA-PCR positivity of 15/24 (62.5%). A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant, therefore, it is suggested that patients presenting with urticaria, pruritus and LP be investigated to exclude the possibility of HCV infection.
HCV; Skin disease; Prevalence
Prescribing errors phenomena are very common within health care practice. These errors could result in adverse events and harm to patients. Pharmacist has an identified role in minimizing and preventing such errors.
To detect the incidence of prescribing errors for hospitalized patient, to evaluate the clinical impact of pharmacist intervention on the detection of these errors, and to propose a program to overcome this problem in a teaching hospital.
For one month period starting November until December 2009, the inpatient medication charts and orders were identified and rectified by ward and practicing pharmacists within inpatient pharmacy services in a teaching hospital at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) at King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on routine daily activities. Data were collected and evaluated. The causes of this problem were identified.
Approximately 113 (7.1%) prescribing errors were detected during the study period out of 1580 medication orders. Wrong strength and wrong administration frequency of the prescribed drug were the most errors encountered in the study, which were 35%, and 23%, respectively. Other errors such as wrong patient, wrong drug, and wrong dose were also encountered. Lack of knowledge of prescribing skill was the main cause of such errors.
Prescribing errors in teaching hospital within inpatient pharmacy services were noticed. The applied method in this project might be implemented as part of pharmacy quality assurance program for ongoing detection and monitoring of such errors. Technology in prescribing process will support the practitioner to reduce the incidence of these errors. Forcing ongoing professional communication and education within the medical team about prescribing errors now appear warranted.
Inpatient; Errors; Pharmacist role; Intervention
To study the attitudes of the patients towards medical students rotating in the dermatology clinic in the King Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU).
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and two adult outpatients attending the KFHU in Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia during the period March to June 2004 completed a questionnaire to evaluate their receptiveness towards medical students attending with the dermatologist.
Almost 57% preferred physician and medical student participation in their care and 46% welcomed their presence during physical examination. The majority of patients (64.8%) felt comfortable disclosing personal information to the medical student and (68.7%) enjoyed the interaction with the medical students. Patients (63.7%) agreed that the students understood their healthcare needs.
The majority of the patients in this study enjoyed their interactions with the students and felt comfortable disclosing information. Some patients want to spend time alone with the physician so permission for medical student participation should be requested.
Attitudes; dermatology subspeciality; education; medical student
Given that diabetes is an extremely common disorder in Saudi Arabia, the National Diabetes Registry was designed by King Saud University Hospital Diabetes Center in collaboration with King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in the year 2001. The aim of the registry is to identify risk factors related to diabetes and to provide statistics to public health programs and health care professionals for use in planning and evaluation. The registry was designed to provide information on the extent and nature of specific types of diabetes, diabetes complications, and treatment of diabetes in the Kingdom.
The registry has been available since 2001, with major collaborations from 26 hospitals as part of Phase I in which 100,000 patient data is to be collected on a regional level from Ar-Riyadh before extending the program to other regions of Saudi Arabia.
The web application was designed using relational database techniques along with on-line help topics to assist users to get acquainted with application functionalities. All Internet forms were designed with validation checks and appropriate messages to ensure quality of data.
The security measures established within the application ensure that only authorized users can gain access to the functionalities of the registry at allowed times. Administrative features were designed to manage the registry-related operations easily.
The diabetes registry has been in operation for almost 10 years, and around 67,000 patients have been registered to date. The Web-application offers an anytime-anywhere access to the registry’s data, removing geographical boundaries and allowing the national registry to provide real-time data entry, updates, reporting, and mapping functionalities more easily.
Merging related information in the form of databases can provide improved health care operations through instant access to data, ease of managing complex data structures, and creation of reports to be used by health care planners and hospital administrators.
centralized; diabetes; Internet; registry; Web-based
To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis.
Materials and Methods:
Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC) or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test.
The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE); 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ‘heard of cancer warning signal’ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8%) felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6%) insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics.
Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information.
Attitude; breast self-examination; clinical breast examination; cancer prevention; cancer knowledge; mammography