Powdery mildew (PM), caused by fungus Erysiphe necator, is one of the most devastating diseases of grapevine. To better understand grapevine-PM interaction and provide candidate resources for grapevine breeding, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed from E. necator-infected leaves of a resistant Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis clone “Shang-24”. A total of 492 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained and assembled into 266 unigenes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that 188 unigenes could be assigned with at least one GO term in the biological process category, and 176 in the molecular function category. Sequence analysis showed that a large number of these genes were homologous to those involved in defense responses. Genes involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, transport and signal transduction were also enriched in the library. Expression analysis of 13 selected genes by qRT-PCR revealed that most were induced more quickly and intensely in the resistant material “Shang-24” than in the sensitive V. pseudoreticulata clone “Hunan-1” by E. necator infection. The ESTs reported here provide new clues to understand the disease-resistance mechanism in Chinese wild grapevine species and may enable us to investigate E. necator-responsive genes involved in PM resistance in grapevine germplasm.
Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis; Erysiphe necator; SSH; EST; qRT-PCR
MLOs belong to the largest family of seven-transmembrane (7TM) domain proteins found in plants. The Arabidopsis and rice genomes contain 15 and 12 MLO family members, respectively. Although the biological function of most MLO family members remains elusive, a select group of MLO proteins have been demonstrated to negatively regulate defence responses to the obligate biotrophic pathogen, powdery mildew, thereby acting as “susceptibility” genes. Recently we identified a family of 17 putative VvMLO genes in the genome of the cultivated winegrape species, Vitis vinifera. Expression analysis indicated that the VvMLO family members respond differently to biotic and abiotic stimuli. Infection of V. vinifera by grape powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) specifically upregulates four VvMLO genes that are orthologous to the Arabidopsis and tomato MLOs previously demonstrated to be required for powdery mildew susceptibility. We postulate that one or more of these E. necator responsive VvMLOs may have a role in the powdery mildew susceptibility of grapevine.
MLO; powdery mildew; resistance; susceptibility; grapevine
In response to pathogen attack, grapevine synthesizes phytoalexins belonging to the family of stilbenes. Grapevine cell cultures represent a good model system for studying the basic mechanisms of plant response to biotic and abiotic elicitors. Among these, modified β-cyclodextrins seem to act as true elicitors inducing strong production of the stilbene resveratrol.
The transcriptome changes of Vitis riparia × Vitis berlandieri grapevine cells in response to the modified β-cyclodextrin, DIMEB, were analyzed 2 and 6 h after treatment using a suppression subtractive hybridization experiment and a microarray analysis respectively. At both time points, we identified a specific set of induced genes belonging to the general phenylpropanoid metabolism, including stilbenes and hydroxycinnamates, and to defence proteins such as PR proteins and chitinases. At 6 h we also observed a down-regulation of the genes involved in cell division and cell-wall loosening.
We report the first large-scale study of the molecular effects of DIMEB, a resveratrol inducer, on grapevine cell cultures. This molecule seems to mimic a defence elicitor which enhances the physical barriers of the cell, stops cell division and induces phytoalexin synthesis.
We reported that the RFP gene encodes a protein with putative zinc finger domains and was involved in the activation of the ret proto-oncogene. To further characterize the RFP protein, we developed a polyclonal antibody against the product synthesized from a fragment of the RFP cDNA expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis showed that RFP was identified as a 58 kDa protein in cell lysates from four human and rodent cell lines and from mouse testis. In addition, a unique 68 kDa protein was detected in the testis. Using AH7974 (rat ascites hepatoma) and Raji (human Burkitt lymphoma) cells, we demonstrated strong association of RFP with the nuclear matrix. Furthermore, RFP solubilized from the nuclear matrix had DNA-binding activity although it appears to bind more preferentially to double-stranded DNA than to single-stranded DNA. These results thus suggest that RFP may play a role in molecular processes which occur in the nuclear matrix.
The AP2/ERF protein family contains transcription factors that play a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions in plants. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is the only woody crop whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed expression profile of AP2/ERF-like genes is available for grapevine.
An exhaustive search for AP2/ERF genes was carried out on the Vitis vinifera genome and their expression profile was analyzed by Real-Time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in different vegetative and reproductive tissues and under two different ripening stages.
One hundred and forty nine sequences, containing at least one ERF domain, were identified. Specific clusters within the AP2 and ERF families showed conserved expression patterns reminiscent of other species and grapevine specific trends related to berry ripening. Moreover, putative targets of group IX ERFs were identified by co-expression and protein similarity comparisons.
The grapevine genome contains an amount of AP2/ERF genes comparable to that of other dicot species analyzed so far. We observed an increase in the size of specific groups within the ERF family, probably due to recent duplication events. Expression analyses in different aerial tissues display common features previously described in other plant systems and introduce possible new roles for members of some ERF groups during fruit ripening. The presented analysis of AP2/ERF genes in grapevine provides the bases for studying the molecular regulation of berry development and the ripening process.
Dehydrins (DHNs) protect plant cells from desiccation damage during environmental stress, and also participate in host resistance to various pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize the DHN gene families from Vitis vinifera and wild V. yeshanensis, which is tolerant to both drought and cold, and moderately resistant to powdery mildew.
Four DHN genes were identified in both V. vinifera and V. yeshanensis, which shared a high sequence identity between the two species but little homology between the genes themselves. These genes were designated DHN1, DHN2, DHN3 and DHN4. All four of the DHN proteins were highly hydrophilic and were predicted to be intrinsically disordered, but they differed in their isoelectric points, kinase selectivities and number of functional motifs. Also, the expression profiles of each gene differed appreciably from one another. Grapevine DHN1 was not expressed in vegetative tissues under normal growth conditions, but was induced by drought, cold, heat, embryogenesis, as well as the application of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). It was expressed earlier in V. yeshanensis under drought conditions than in V. vinifera, and also exhibited a second round of up-regulation in V. yeshanensis following inoculation with Erysiphe necator, which was not apparent in V. vinifera. Like DHN1, DHN2 was induced by cold, heat, embryogenesis and ABA; however, it exhibited no responsiveness to drought, E. necator infection, SA or MeJA, and was also expressed constitutively in vegetative tissues under normal growth conditions. Conversely, DHN3 was only expressed during seed development at extremely low levels, and DHN4 was expressed specifically during late embryogenesis. Neither DHN3 nor DHN4 exhibited responsiveness to any of the treatments carried out in this study. Interestingly, the presence of particular cis-elements within the promoter regions of each gene was positively correlated with their expression profiles.
The grapevine DHN family comprises four divergent members. While it is likely that their functions overlap to some extent, it seems that DHN1 provides the main stress-responsive function. In addition, our results suggest a close relationship between expression patterns, physicochemical properties, and cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions of the DHN genes.
Grapevine; Dehydrin; Stress-induced expression; Powdery mildew; Promoter
Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the enhanced freezing tolerance of V. amurensis remain unknown. Here we used deep sequencing data from restriction endonuclease-generated cDNA fragments to evaluate the whole genome wide modification of transcriptome of V. amurensis under cold treatment. Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Hamburg was used as control to help investigate the distinctive features of V. amruensis in responding to cold stress. Approximately 9 million tags were sequenced from non-cold treatment (NCT) and cold treatment (CT) cDNA libraries in each species of grapevine sampled from shoot apices. Alignment of tags into V. vinifera cv. Pinot noir (PN40024) annotated genome identified over 15,000 transcripts in each library in V. amruensis and more than 16,000 in Muscat of Hamburg. Comparative analysis between NCT and CT libraries indicate that V. amurensis has fewer differential expressed genes (DEGs, 1314 transcripts) than Muscat of Hamburg (2307 transcripts) when exposed to cold stress. Common DEGs (408 transcripts) suggest that some genes provide fundamental roles during cold stress in grapes. The most robust DEGs (more than 20-fold change) also demonstrated significant differences between two kinds of grapevine, indicating that cold stress may trigger species specific pathways in V. amurensis. Functional categories of DEGs indicated that the proportion of up-regulated transcripts related to metabolism, transport, signal transduction and transcription were more abundant in V. amurensis. Several highly expressed transcripts that were found uniquely accumulated in V. amurensis are discussed in detail. This subset of unique candidate transcripts may contribute to the excellent cold-hardiness of V. amurensis.
A large number of really interesting new gene (RING) E3 ligases contribute to the post-translational modification of target proteins during plant responses to environmental stresses. However, the physical interactome of RING E3 ligases in rice remains largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the expression patterns of 47 Oryza sativa RING finger protein (OsRFP) genes in response to abiotic stresses via semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in silico analysis. Subsequently, molecular dissection of nine OsRFPs was performed by the examination of their E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, subcellular localization, and physical interaction with target proteins. Most of the OsRFPs examined possessed E3 ligase activity and showed diverse subcellular localization. Yeast two-hybrid analysis was then employed to construct a physical interaction map of seven OsRFPs with their 120 interacting proteins. The results indicated that these OsRFPs required dynamic translocation and partitioning for their cellular activation. Heterogeneous overexpression of each of the OsRFP genes in Arabidopsis suggested that they have functionally diverse responses to abiotic stresses, which may have been acquired during evolution. This comprehensive study provides insights into the biological functions of OsRFPs, which may be useful in understanding how rice plants adapt to unfavourable environmental conditions.
E3 ligase; environmental stress; functional diversity; interactome; RING finger protein
RFP2, a gene frequently lost in various malignancies, encodes a protein with RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains that belongs to the RBCC/TRIM family of proteins. Here we demonstrate that Rfp2 is an unstable protein with auto-polyubiquitination activity in vivo and in vitro, implying that Rfp2 acts as a RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. Consequently, Rfp2 ubiquitin ligase activity is dependent on an intact RING domain, as RING deficient mutants fail to drive polyubiquitination in vitro and are stabilized in vivo. Immunopurification and tandem mass spectrometry enabled the identification of several putative Rfp2 interacting proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), including valosin-containing protein (VCP), a protein indispensable for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Importantly, we also show that Rfp2 regulates the degradation of the known ER proteolytic substrate CD3-δ, but not the N-end rule substrate Ub-R-YFP (yellow fluorescent protein), establishing Rfp2 as a novel E3 ligase involved in ERAD. Finally, we show that Rfp2 contains a C-terminal transmembrane domain indispensable for its localization to the ER and that Rfp2 colocalizes with several ER-resident proteins as analyzed by high-resolution immunostaining. In summary, these data are all consistent with a function for Rfp2 as an ERAD E3 ubiquitin ligase.
Powdery mildew and rust fungi are widespread, serious pathogens that depend on developing haustoria in the living plant cells. Haustoria are separated from the host cytoplasm by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane. They secrete effector proteins, some of which are subsequently transferred across this membrane to the plant cell to suppress defense.
In a cDNA library from barley epidermis containing powdery mildew haustoria, two-thirds of the sequenced ESTs were fungal and represented ~3,000 genes. Many of the most highly expressed genes encoded small proteins with N-terminal signal peptides. While these proteins are novel and poorly related, they do share a three-amino acid motif, which we named "Y/F/WxC", in the N-terminal of the mature proteins. The first amino acid of this motif is aromatic: tyrosine, phenylalanine or tryptophan, and the last is always cysteine. In total, we identified 107 such proteins, for which the ESTs represent 19% of the fungal clones in our library, suggesting fundamental roles in haustoria function. While overall sequence similarity between the powdery mildew Y/F/WxC-proteins is low, they do have a highly similar exon-intron structure, suggesting they have a common origin. Interestingly, searches of public fungal genome and EST databases revealed that haustoria-producing rust fungi also encode large numbers of novel, short proteins with signal peptides and the Y/F/WxC-motif. No significant numbers of such proteins were identified from genome and EST sequences from either fungi which do not produce haustoria or from haustoria-producing Oomycetes.
In total, we identified 107, 178 and 57 such Y/F/WxC-proteins from the barley powdery mildew, the wheat stem rust and the wheat leaf rust fungi, respectively. All together, our findings suggest the Y/F/WxC-proteins to be a new class of effectors from haustoria-producing pathogenic fungi.
Grape powdery mildew is caused by the North American native pathogen Erysiphe necator. Eurasian Vitis vinifera varieties were all believed to be susceptible. REN1 is the first resistance gene naturally found in cultivated plants of Vitis vinifera.
REN1 is present in 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Dzhandzhal kara', two grapevines documented in Central Asia since the 1920's. These cultivars have a second-degree relationship (half sibs, grandparent-grandchild, or avuncular), and share by descent the chromosome on which the resistance allele REN1 is located. The REN1 interval was restricted to 1.4 cM using 38 SSR markers distributed across the locus and the segregation of the resistance phenotype in two progenies of collectively 461 offspring, derived from either resistant parent. The boundary markers delimit a 1.4-Mbp sequence in the PN40024 reference genome, which contains 27 genes with known functions, 2 full-length coiled-coil NBS-LRR genes, and 9 NBS-LRR pseudogenes. In the REN1 locus of PN40024, NBS genes have proliferated through a mixture of segmental duplications, tandem gene duplications, and intragenic recombination between paralogues, indicating that the REN1 locus has been inherently prone to producing genetic variation. Three SSR markers co-segregate with REN1, the outer ones confining the 908-kb array of NBS-LRR genes. Kinship and clustering analyses based on genetic distances with susceptible cultivars representative of Central Asian Vitis vinifera indicated that 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Dzhandzhal kara' fit well into local germplasm. 'Kishmish vatkana' also has a parent-offspring relationship with the seedless table grape 'Sultanina'. In addition, the distant genetic relatedness to rootstocks, some of which are derived from North American species resistant to powdery mildew and have been used worldwide to guard against phylloxera since the late 1800's, argues against REN1 being infused into Vitis vinifera from a recent interspecific hybridisation.
The REN1 gene resides in an NBS-LRR gene cluster tightly delimited by two flanking SSR markers, which can assist in the selection of this DNA block in breeding between Vitis vinifera cultivars. The REN1 locus has multiple layers of structural complexity compared with its two closely related paralogous NBS clusters, which are located some 5 Mbp upstream and 4 Mbp downstream of the REN1 interval on the same chromosome.
Grapevine protection against diseases needs alternative strategies to the use of phytochemicals, implying a thorough knowledge of innate defense mechanisms. However, signalling pathways and regulatory elements leading to induction of defense responses have yet to be characterized in this species. In order to study defense response signalling to pathogens in Vitis vinifera, we took advantage of its recently completed genome sequence to characterize two putative orthologs of NPR1, a key player in salicylic acid (SA)-mediated resistance to biotrophic pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Two cDNAs named VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 were isolated from Vitis vinifera cv Chardonnay, encoding proteins showing 55% and 40% identity to Arabidopsis NPR1 respectively. Constitutive expression of VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 monitored in leaves of V. vinifera cv Chardonnay was found to be enhanced by treatment with benzothiadiazole, a SA analog. In contrast, VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 transcript levels were not affected during infection of resistant Vitis riparia or susceptible V. vinifera with Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew, suggesting regulation of VvNPR1 activity at the protein level. VvNPR1.1-GFP and VvNPR1.2-GFP fusion proteins were transiently expressed by agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, where they localized predominantly to the nucleus. In this system, VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 expression was sufficient to trigger the accumulation of acidic SA-dependent Pathogenesis-Related proteins PR1 and PR2, but not of basic chitinases (PR3) in the absence of pathogen infection. Interestingly, when VvNPR1.1 or AtNPR1 were transiently overexpressed in Vitis vinifera leaves, the induction of grapevine PR1 was significantly enhanced in response to P. viticola.
In conclusion, our data identified grapevine homologs of NPR1, and their functional analysis showed that VvNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.2 likely control the expression of SA-dependent defense genes. Overexpression of VvNPR1 has thus the potential to enhance grapevine defensive capabilities upon fungal infection. As a consequence, manipulating VvNPR1 and other signalling elements could open ways to strengthen disease resistance mechanisms in this crop species.
Plants such as grapevine (Vitis spp.) display significant inter-cultivar genetic and phenotypic variation. The genetic components underlying phenotypic diversity in grapevine must be understood in order to disentangle genetic and environmental factors.
We have shown that cDNA sequencing by RNA-seq is a robust approach for the characterization of varietal diversity between a local grapevine cultivar (Corvina) and the PN40024 reference genome. We detected 15,161 known genes including 9463 with novel splice isoforms, and identified 2321 potentially novel protein-coding genes in non-annotated or unassembled regions of the reference genome. We also discovered 180 apparent private genes in the Corvina genome which were missing from the reference genome.
The de novo assembly approach allowed a substantial amount of the Corvina transcriptome to be reconstructed, improving known gene annotations by robustly defining gene structures, annotating splice isoforms and detecting genes without annotations. The private genes we discovered are likely to be nonessential but could influence certain cultivar-specific characteristics. Therefore, the application of de novo transcriptome assembly should not be restricted to species lacking a reference genome because it can also improve existing reference genome annotations and identify novel, cultivar-specific genes.
Transcriptomics; RNA-Seq; de novo assembly; Grape; Varietal diversity
Here we describe a strategy to fluorescently label the envelope of rabies virus (RV), of the Rhabdoviridae family, in order to track the transport of single enveloped viruses in living cells. Red fluorescent proteins (tm-RFP) were engineered to comprise the N-terminal signal sequence and C-terminal transmembrane spanning and cytoplasmic domain sequences of the RV glycoprotein (G). Two variants of tm-RFP were transported to and anchored in the cell surface membrane, independent of glycosylation. As shown by confocal microscopy, tm-RFP colocalized at the cell surface with the RV matrix and G protein and was incorporated into G gene-deficient virus particles. Recombinant RV expressing the membrane-anchored tm-RFP in addition to G yielded infectious viruses with mosaic envelopes containing both tm-RFP and G. Viable double-labeled virus particles comprising a red fluorescent envelope and a green fluorescent ribonucleoprotein were generated by expressing in addition an enhanced green fluorescent protein-phosphoprotein fusion construct (S. Finke, K. Brzozka, and K. K. Conzelmann, J. Virol. 78:12333-12343, 2004). Individual enveloped virus particles were observed under live cell conditions as extracellular particles and inside endosomal vesicles. Importantly, double-labeled RVs were transported in the retrograde direction over long distances in neurites of in vitro-differentiated NS20Y neuroblastoma cells. This indicates that the typical retrograde axonal transport of RV to the central nervous system involves neuronal transport vesicles in which complete enveloped RV particles are carried as a cargo.
Chimeras created by fusing the monomeric red fluorescent protein (RFP) to a bacterial lipoprotein signal peptide (lipoRFPs) were visualized in the cell envelope by epifluorescence microscopy. Plasmolysis of the bacteria separated the inner and outer membranes, allowing the specific subcellular localization of lipoRFPs to be determined in situ. When equipped with the canonical inner membrane lipoprotein retention signal CDSR, lipoRFP was located in the inner membrane in Escherichia coli, whereas the outer membrane sorting signal CSSR caused lipoRFP to localize to the outer membrane. CFSR-RFP was also routed to the outer membrane, but CFNSR-RFP was located in the inner membrane, consistent with previous data showing that this sequence functions as an inner membrane retention signal. These four lipoproteins exhibited identical localization patterns in a panel of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, showing that the lipoprotein sorting rules are conserved in these bacteria and validating the use of E. coli as a model system. Although most predicted inner membrane lipoproteins in these bacteria have an aspartate residue after the fatty acylated N-terminal cysteine residue, alternative signals such as CFN can and probably do function in parallel, as indicated by the existence of putative inner membrane lipoproteins with this sequence at their N termini.
In plants, cytokinin (CK) perception and signaling pathway is composed by a histidine kinase receptor (HK) and a response regulator (RR), the signal being mediated by a histidine phosphotransfer (HPt), as described in Arabidopsis, maize and rice. From database searches we identified in grapevine three HKs, three HPs, four A-type RRs and six B-type RRs, suggesting a common mechanism for grapevine. The phylogenetic analysis of these Vitis genes showed a variable but high degree of homology with Arabidopsis sequences. When sulfate was withdrawn from the culture medium (−S) of in vitro Vitis shoots, we assessed a significant reduction in shoot branching. To ascertain the crosstalk of S status with CK signaling in grapevine, control and −S grown shoots and control, −S and −CK cell suspensions were used as experimental systems. Real-time PCR was elected to quantify the expression of key genes. The expression of CK receptor genes was downregulated in −S cells while not affected in −CK cells. In differentiated shoots no response to −S was observed on those genes. A-type VvRRa4 was downregulated in −S or −CK cells while Vitis B-type RRs did not respond either to CK or S starvation. The results suggest that Vitis CK signaling pathway is affected by −S, although differently according to the model system. Transcription of Vitis apical meristem-identity genes VvWUS, VvCLV and VvSTM and axillary meristem genes VvBRC1, VvBRC2, VvLAS, VvRAX and VvREV was estimated and VvSTM and VvLAS showed to be downregulated in −S. Then, the expression levels of VvSTM and VvLAS make them strong candidates to be associated with the branching pattern of Vitis shoots in −S.
apical meristem genes; axillary meristem genes; cytokinin signaling genes; sulfur; vitis
Salt stress is a major constraint for many crop plants, such as the moderately salt-sensitive economically important fruit crop grapevine. Plants have evolved different strategies for protection against salinity and drought. Jasmonate signalling is a central element of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. To discriminate stress quality, there must be cross-talk with parallel signal chains. Using two grapevine cell lines differing in salt tolerance, the response of jasmonate ZIM/tify-domain (JAZ/TIFY) proteins (negative regulators of jasmonate signalling), a marker for salt adaptation Na+/H+ EXCHANGER (NHX1), and markers for biotic defence STILBENE SYNTHASE (StSy) and RESVERATROL SYNTHASE (RS) were analysed. It is shown that salt stress signalling shares several events with biotic defence including activity of a gadolinium-sensitive calcium influx channel (monitored by apoplastic alkalinization) and transient induction of JAZ/TIFY transcripts. Exogenous jasmonate can rescue growth in the salt-sensitive cell line. Suppression of jasmonate signalling by phenidone or aspirin blocks the induction of JAZ/TIFY transcripts. The rapid induction of RS and StSy characteristic for biotic defence in grapevine is strongly delayed in response to salt stress. In the salt-tolerant line, NHX1 is induced and the formation of reactive oxygen species, monitored as stress markers in the sensitive cell line, is suppressed. The data are discussed in terms of a model where salt stress signalling acts as a default pathway whose readout is modulated by a parallel signal chain triggered by biotic factors downstream of jasmonate signalling.
Grapevine (V. rupestris, V. riparia); Harpin; jasmonic acid; JAZ/TIFY; salt stress
Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a particular type of defective class II transposons present in genomes as highly homogeneous populations of small elements. Their high copy number and close association to genes make their potential impact on gene evolution particularly relevant. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the MITE families directly related to grapevine “cut-and-paste” transposons. Our results show that grapevine MITEs have transduplicated and amplified genomic sequences, including gene sequences and fragments of other mobile elements. Our results also show that although some of the MITE families were already present in the ancestor of the European and American Vitis wild species, they have been amplified and have been actively transposing accompanying grapevine domestication and breeding. We show that MITEs are abundant in grapevine and some of them are frequently inserted within the untranslated regions of grapevine genes. MITE insertions are highly polymorphic among grapevine cultivars, which frequently generate transcript variability. The data presented here show that MITEs have greatly contributed to the grapevine genetic diversity which has been used for grapevine domestication and breeding.
Vitis; transposon; MITE
Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome into the host chromosome is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. The highly conserved cytosine–adenine (CA) dinucleotide sequence immediately upstream of the cleavage site is crucial for integrase (IN) activity. As this viral enzyme has an important role early in the HIV-1 replication cycle, interference with the IN substrate has become an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrated that a designed zinc finger protein (ZFP) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) targets the 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle junctions of HIV-1 DNA with nanomolar affinity. We report now that 2LTRZFP-GFP stably transduced into 293T cells interfered with the expression of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped lentiviral red fluorescent protein (RFP), as shown by the suppression of RFP expression. We also used a third-generation lentiviral vector and pCEP4 expression vector to deliver the 2LTRZFP-GFP transgene into human T-lymphocytic cells, and a stable cell line for long-term expression studies was selected for HIV-1 challenge. HIV-1 integration and replication were inhibited as measured by Alu-gag real-time PCR and p24 antigen assay. In addition, the molecular activity of 2LTRZFP-GFP was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results were confirmed by Alu-gag real-time PCR for integration interference. We suggest that the expression of 2LTRZFP-GFP limited viral integration on intracellular immunization, and that it has potential for use in HIV gene therapy in the future.
In this study, Sakkhachornphop and colleagues demonstrate that ex vivo transduction of human T lymphocytic cells with a lentiviral vector encoding a zinc finger protein that targets the 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle junctions of HIV-1 DNA leads to marked inhibition of HIV viral replication and integration as measured by p24 antigen assay and Alu-gag qPCR, respectively.
The overwintering mode of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator (syn. Uncinula necator), as mycelium in dormant buds (resulting in symptoms known as flag shoots) or as ascospores in cleistothecia, affects the temporal dynamics of epidemics early in the growing season. We tested whether distinct genetic groups (I and III) identified previously in E. necator correlate to overwintering modes in two vineyards in Tuscany, Italy, to determine whether diagnostic genetic markers could be used to predict overwintering. Samples from one vineyard were collected from flag shoots; the other vineyard, 60 km away, had no flag shoots, and mildew colonies were assumed to be derived from ascospores. Genetic markers putatively diagnostic for groups I and III showed that both types were common in the flag shoot subpopulation. Both genetic types were found in the ascospore population, although group III was dominant. We did not find strong genetic differentiation between the two subpopulations based on inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Although there was significant (P < 0.001) genetic differentiation between these subpopulations in 1997 and when 1997 and 1998 subpopulations were pooled (θ = 0.214 and 0.150, respectively), no differentiation was evident between vineyards in 1998 (θ = 0.138, P = 0.872). Moreover, we did not observe distinct lineages corresponding to overwintering modes, as observed in previous studies. We could not determine if differentiation resulted from biological differences or restricted gene flow between the two vineyards. Our samples were taken from both subpopulations early in the epidemic, while previous studies confounded overwintering mode and sampling time. These results do not support a strong correlation between overwintering and genetic groups, highlighting the need to base population biology studies on sound biological and epidemiological knowledge.
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs) from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. and hybrids of V. vinifera and V. labrusca, but there is no report on miRNAs from Vitis amurensis Rupr, a wild grapevine species.
A small RNA library from Amur grape was constructed and Solexa technology used to perform deep sequencing of the library followed by subsequent bioinformatics analysis to identify new miRNAs. In total, 126 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families were identified, and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. Significantly, 72 new potential Amur grape-specific miRNAs were discovered. The sequences of these new potential va-miRNAs were further validated through miR-RACE, and accumulation of 18 new va-miRNAs in seven tissues of grapevines confirmed by real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The expression levels of va-miRNAs in flowers and berries were found to be basically consistent in identity to those from deep sequenced sRNAs libraries of combined corresponding tissues. We also describe the conservation and variation of va-miRNAs using miR-SNPs and miR-LDs during plant evolution based on comparison of orthologous sequences, and further reveal that the number and sites of miR-SNP in diverse miRNA families exhibit distinct divergence. Finally, 346 target genes for the new miRNAs were predicted and they include a number of Amur grape stress tolerance genes and many genes regulating anthocyanin synthesis and sugar metabolism.
Deep sequencing of short RNAs from Amur grape flowers and berries identified 72 new potential miRNAs and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs, indicating that specific miRNAs exist in Amur grape. These results show that a number of regulatory miRNAs exist in Amur grape and play an important role in Amur grape growth, development, and response to abiotic or biotic stress.
Amur grape; microRNA; Sequences evolution; Solexa sequencing; miR-RACE; qRT-PCR
The oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni causes downy mildew in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). This pathogen is strictly biotrophic, thus completely dependent on living host cells for its survival. The molecular basis of compatibility and disease development in this system is poorly understood. We have carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify grapevine and P. viticola genes associated with the infection process.
We carried out cDNA-AFLP analysis on artificially infected leaves of the susceptible cultivar Riesling at the oil spot stage, on water-treated leaves and on a sample of pure sporangia as controls. Selective amplifications with 128 primer combinations allowed the visualization of about 7000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in infected leaves, 1196 of which (17%) were differentially expressed. We sequenced 984 fragments, 804 of which were identified as grapevine transcripts after homology searching, while 96 were homologous to sequences in Phytophthora spp. databases and were attributed to P. viticola. There were 82 orphan TDFs. Many grapevine genes spanning almost all functional categories were downregulated during infection, especially genes involved in photosynthesis. Grapevine genes homologous to known resistance genes also tended to be repressed, as were several resistance gene analogs and carbonic anhydrase (recently implicated in pathogen resistance). In contrast, genes encoding cytoskeletal components, enzymes of the phenylpropanoid and beta-oxidation pathways, and pathogenesis related proteins were primarily upregulated during infection. The majority of P. viticola transcripts expressed in planta showed homology to genes of unknown function or to genomic Phytophthora sequences, but genes related to metabolism, energy production, transport and signal transduction were also identified.
This study provides the first global catalogue of grapevine and P. viticola genes expressed during infection, together with their functional annotations. This will help to elucidate the molecular basis of the infection process and identify genes and chemicals that could help to inhibit the pathogen.
Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet).
The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024) genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 “Metabolic”, 15 “Genetic Information Processing”, 12 “Environmental Information Processing”, 3 “Cellular Processes”, 21 “Transport”, and 80 “Transcription Factors”. The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment.
VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage) and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome location can be accessed and downloaded from the VitisNet tab at http://vitis-dormancy.sdstate.org.
Downy mildew is a destructive grapevine disease caused by Plasmopara viticola (Berk. and Curt.) Berl. and de Toni, which can only be controlled by intensive fungicide treatments. Natural sources of resistance from wild grapevine (Vitis) species are used in conventional breeding approaches, but the signals and effectors involved in resistance in this important crop species are not well understood.
Early transcriptional changes associated with P. viticola infection in susceptible V. vinifera and resistant V. riparia plants were analyzed using the Combimatrix microarray platform. Transcript levels were measured 12 and 24 h post-inoculation, reflecting the time points immediately preceding the onset of resistance in V. riparia, as determined by microscopic analysis. Our data indicate that resistance in V. riparia is induced after infection, and is not based on differences in basal gene expression between the two species. The strong and rapid transcriptional reprogramming involves the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and enzymes required for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, many of which are also induced, albeit to a lesser extent, in V. vinifera. More interestingly, resistance in V. riparia also involves the specific modulation of numerous transcripts encoding components of signal transduction cascades, hypersensitive reaction markers and genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis. The limited transcriptional modulation in V. vinifera represents a weak attempted defense response rather than the activation of compatibility-specific pathways.
Several candidate resistance genes were identified that could be exploited in future biotechnological approaches to increase disease resistance in susceptible grapevine species. Measurements of jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate in infected leaves suggest that this hormone may also be involved in V. riparia resistance to P. viticola.
Cell wall apposition (CWA) formation is one of the first lines of defence used by plants to halt invading fungi such as powdery mildew. Lignin is a complex polymer of hydroxylated and methoxylated phenylpropane units (monolignols) and lignification renders the cell wall more resistant to pathogen attack. The role of monolignol biosynthesis in CWA-mediated defence against powdery mildew penetration into cereals is demonstrated here using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing and enzyme-specific inhibitors. Thirteen cDNAs representing eight genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis were cloned from an expression sequence tag (EST) library derived from the epidermis of diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum) infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Differential expression patterns were found for these genes in susceptible and resistant plants after infection. Transcripts of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (CAOMT), ferulic acid hydroxylase (FAH), caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAMT), and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) were accumulated, particularly in the epidermis. RNAi-mediated transient gene silencing in the epidermis led to a higher penetration efficiency of Bgt than in the controls. Gene silencing also compromised penetration resistance to varying degrees with different genes against an inappropriate pathogen, B. graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). Co-silencing led to greater penetration of Bgt or Bgh than when the genes were silenced separately. Fluorescence emission spectra analyses revealed that gene silencing hampered host autofluorescence response at fungal contact sites. These results illustrate that monolignol biosynthesis is critically important for host defence against both appropriate and inappropriate pathogen invasion in wheat.
Cell autofluorescence; cell wall apposition; cereal; methylated monolignol