While oscillations of the local field potential (LFP) are commonly attributed to the synchronization of neuronal firing rate on the same time scale, their relationship to coincident spiking in the millisecond range is unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence to reconcile the notions of synchrony at the level of spiking and at the mesoscopic scale. We demonstrate that only in time intervals of significant spike synchrony that cannot be explained on the basis of firing rates, coincident spikes are better phase locked to the LFP than predicted by the locking of the individual spikes. This effect is enhanced in periods of large LFP amplitudes. A quantitative model explains the LFP dynamics by the orchestrated spiking activity in neuronal groups that contribute the observed surplus synchrony. From the correlation analysis, we infer that neurons participate in different constellations but contribute only a fraction of their spikes to temporally precise spike configurations. This finding provides direct evidence for the hypothesized relation that precise spike synchrony constitutes a major temporally and spatially organized component of the LFP.
motor cortex; oscillation; population signals; synchrony
Local field potential (LFP) oscillations are often accompanied by synchronization of activity within a widespread cerebral area. Thus, the LFP and neuronal coherence appear to be the result of a common mechanism that underlies neuronal assembly formation. We used the olfactory bulb as a model to investigate: (1) the extent to which unitary dynamics and LFP oscillations can be correlated and (2) the precision with which a model of the hypothesized underlying mechanisms can accurately explain the experimental data. For this purpose, we analyzed simultaneous recordings of mitral cell (MC) activity and LFPs in anesthetized and freely breathing rats in response to odorant stimulation. Spike trains were found to be phase-locked to the gamma oscillation at specific firing rates and to form odor-specific temporal patterns. The use of a conductance-based MC model driven by an approximately balanced excitatory-inhibitory input conductance and a relatively small inhibitory conductance that oscillated at the gamma frequency allowed us to provide one explanation of the experimental data via a mode-locking mechanism. This work sheds light on the way network and intrinsic MC properties participate in the locking of MCs to the gamma oscillation in a realistic physiological context and may result in a particular time-locked assembly. Finally, we discuss how a self-synchronization process with such entrainment properties can explain, under experimental conditions: (1) why the gamma bursts emerge transiently with a maximal amplitude position relative to the stimulus time course; (2) why the oscillations are prominent at a specific gamma frequency; and (3) why the oscillation amplitude depends on specific stimulus properties. We also discuss information processing and functional consequences derived from this mechanism.
Olfactory function relies on a chain of neural relays that extends from the periphery to the central nervous system and implies neural activity with various timescales. A central question in neuroscience is how information is encoded by the neural activity. In the mammalian olfactory bulb, local neural activity oscillations in the 40–80 Hz range (gamma) may influence the timing of individual neuron activities such that olfactory information may be encoded in this way. In this study, we first characterize in vivo the detailed activity of individual neurons relative to the oscillation and find that, depending on their state, neurons can exhibit periodic activity patterns. We also find, at least qualitatively, a relation between this activity and a particular odor. This is reminiscent of general physical phenomena—the entrainment by an oscillation—and to verify this hypothesis, in a second phase, we build a biologically realistic model mimicking these in vivo conditions. Our model confirms quantitatively this hypothesis and reveals that entrainment is maximal in the gamma range. Taken together, our results suggest that the neuronal activity may be specifically formatted in time during the gamma oscillation in such a way that it could, at this stage, encode the odor.
We consider and analyze the influence of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) on homeostatic states in synaptically coupled neuronal oscillators. In contrast to conventional models of STDP in which spike-timing affects weights of synaptic connections, we consider a model of STDP in which the time lags between pre- and/or post-synaptic spikes change internal state of pre- and/or post-synaptic neurons respectively. The analysis reveals that STDP processes of this type, modeled by a single ordinary differential equation, may ensure efficient, yet coarse, phase-locking of spikes in the system to a given reference phase. Precision of the phase locking, i.e. the amplitude of relative phase deviations from the reference, depends on the values of natural frequencies of oscillators and, additionally, on parameters of the STDP law. These deviations can be optimized by appropriate tuning of gains (i.e. sensitivity to spike-timing mismatches) of the STDP mechanism. However, as we demonstrate, such deviations can not be made arbitrarily small neither by mere tuning of STDP gains nor by adjusting synaptic weights. Thus if accurate phase-locking in the system is required then an additional tuning mechanism is generally needed. We found that adding a very simple adaptation dynamics in the form of slow fluctuations of the base line in the STDP mechanism enables accurate phase tuning in the system with arbitrary high precision. Adaptation operating at a slow time scale may be associated with extracellular matter such as matrix and glia. Thus the findings may suggest a possible role of the latter in regulating synaptic transmission in neuronal circuits.
Neuronal oscillations in the gamma frequency range have been reported in many cortical areas, but the role they play in cortical processing remains unclear. We tested a recently proposed hypothesis that the intensity of sensory input is coded in the timing of action potentials relative to the phase of gamma oscillations, thus converting amplitude information to a temporal code. We recorded spikes and local field potential (LFP) from secondary somatosensory (SII) cortex in awake monkeys while presenting a vibratory stimulus at different amplitudes. We developed a novel technique based on matching pursuit to study the interaction between the highly transient gamma oscillations and spikes with high time-frequency resolution. We found that spikes were weakly coupled to LFP oscillations in the gamma frequency range (40−80 Hz), and strongly coupled to oscillations in higher gamma frequencies. However, the phase relationship of neither low-gamma nor high-gamma oscillations changed with stimulus intensity, even with a ten-fold increase. We conclude that, in SII, gamma oscillations are synchronized with spikes, but their phase does not vary with stimulus intensity. Furthermore, high-gamma oscillations (>60 Hz) appear to be closely linked to the occurrence of action potentials, suggesting that LFP high-gamma power could be a sensitive index of the population firing rate near the microelectrode.
Secondary somatosensory cortex; gamma; high-gamma; phase coding; local field potential; matching pursuit
Use of spike timing to encode information requires that neurons respond with high temporal precision and with high reliability. Fast fluctuating stimuli are known to result in highly reproducible spike times across trials, whereas constant stimuli result in variable spike times. Here, we have investigated how spike-time reliability depends on the time scale of fluctuations of the input stimuli in real neurons (mitral cells in the olfactory bulb and pyramidal cells in the neocortex) as well as in neuron models (integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley) with intrinsic noise. In all cases we found that for firing frequencies in the beta/gamma range, spike reliability is maximal when the input includes fluctuations on the time scale of a few milliseconds (2-5 ms), coinciding with the time scale of fast synapses, and decreases substantially for faster and slower inputs. In addition, we show mathematically that the existence of an optimal time scale for spike-time reliability is a general feature of neurons. Finally, we comment how these findings relate to the mechanisms that cause neuronal synchronization.
Limit cycle oscillators that are coupled in a pulsatile manner are referred to as pulse coupled oscillators. In these oscillators, the interactions take the form of brief pulses such that the effect of one input dies out before the next is received. A phase resetting curve (PRC) keeps track of how much an input advances or delays the next spike in an oscillatory neuron depending upon where in the cycle the input is applied. PRCs can be used to predict phase locking in networks of pulse coupled oscillators. In some studies of pulse coupled oscillators, a specific form is assumed for the interactions between oscillators, but a more general approach is to formulate the problem assuming a PRC that is generated using a perturbation that approximates the input received in the real biological network. In general, this approach requires that circuit architecture and a specific firing pattern be assumed. This allows the construction of discrete maps from one event to the next. The fixed points of these maps correspond to periodic firing modes and are easier to locate and analyze for stability compared to locating and analyzing periodic modes in the original network directly. Alternatively, maps based on the PRC have been constructed that do not presuppose a firing order. Specific circuits that have been analyzed under the assumption of pulsatile coupling include one to one lockings in a periodically forced oscillator or an oscillator forced at a fixed delay after a threshold event, two bidirectionally coupled oscillators with and without delays, a unidirectional N-ring of oscillators, and N all-to-all networks.
Pulse coupled oscillators; Phase resetting; Phase locking; Synchronization; Splay; Clustering
Experimental studies have observed Long Term synaptic Potentiation (LTP) when a presynaptic neuron fires shortly before a postsynaptic neuron, and Long Term Depression (LTD) when the presynaptic neuron fires shortly after, a phenomenon known as Spike Timing Dependant Plasticity (STDP). When a neuron is presented successively with discrete volleys of input spikes STDP has been shown to learn ‘early spike patterns’, that is to concentrate synaptic weights on afferents that consistently fire early, with the result that the postsynaptic spike latency decreases, until it reaches a minimal and stable value. Here, we show that these results still stand in a continuous regime where afferents fire continuously with a constant population rate. As such, STDP is able to solve a very difficult computational problem: to localize a repeating spatio-temporal spike pattern embedded in equally dense ‘distractor’ spike trains. STDP thus enables some form of temporal coding, even in the absence of an explicit time reference. Given that the mechanism exposed here is simple and cheap it is hard to believe that the brain did not evolve to use it.
Spiking in primary motor cortex (MI) exhibits a characteristic β-frequency periodicity, but the functional relevance of this rhythmic firing is controversial. We simultaneously recorded multiple single units and local field potentials (LFPs) in MI in two monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) during continuous, self-paced movements to serially presented targets. We find that the appearance of each new target evokes precisely-timed spiking in MI at a characteristic latency, but that the exact timing of this response varies depending on its relationship to the phase of the ongoing β-range oscillation. As a result of this interaction between evoked spiking and endogenous β periodicity, we find that the amount of information about target location encoded in the spiking of MI neurons is not simply a function of elapsed time, but depends also on oscillatory phase. Our results suggest that periodicity may be an important feature of the early stages of sensorimotor processing in the cortical motor system.
motor cortex; MI; oscillations; beta; timing; precision
In vivo studies have shown that neurons in the neocortex can generate action potentials at high temporal precision. The mechanisms controlling timing and reliability of action potential generation in neocortical neurons, however, are still poorly understood. Here we investigated the temporal precision and reliability of spike firing in cortical layer V pyramidal cells at near-threshold membrane potentials. Timing and reliability of spike responses were a function of EPSC kinetics, temporal jitter of population excitatory inputs, and of background synaptic noise. We used somatic current injection to mimic population synaptic input events and measured spike probability and spike time precision (STP), the latter defined as the time window (Δt) holding 80% of response spikes. EPSC rise and decay times were varied over the known physiological spectrum. At spike threshold level, EPSC decay time had a stronger influence on STP than rise time. Generally, STP was highest (≤2.45 ms) in response to synchronous compounds of EPSCs with fast rise and decay kinetics. Compounds with slow EPSC kinetics (decay time constants>6 ms) triggered spikes at lower temporal precision (≥6.58 ms). We found an overall linear relationship between STP and spike delay. The difference in STP between fast and slow compound EPSCs could be reduced by incrementing the amplitude of slow compound EPSCs. The introduction of a temporal jitter to compound EPSCs had a comparatively small effect on STP, with a tenfold increase in jitter resulting in only a five fold decrease in STP. In the presence of simulated synaptic background activity, precisely timed spikes could still be induced by fast EPSCs, but not by slow EPSCs.
The basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is a critical component of the neural circuit regulating fear learning. During fear learning and recall, the amygdala and other brain regions, including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, exhibit phase-locked oscillations in the high delta/low theta frequency band (∼2–6 Hz) that have been shown to contribute to the learning process. Network oscillations are commonly generated by inhibitory synaptic input that coordinates action potentials in groups of neurons. In the rat BLA, principal neurons spontaneously receive synchronized, inhibitory input in the form of compound, rhythmic, inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs), likely originating from burst-firing parvalbumin interneurons. Here we investigated the role of compound IPSPs in the rat and rhesus macaque BLA in regulating action potential synchrony and spike-timing precision. Furthermore, because principal neurons exhibit intrinsic oscillatory properties and resonance between 4 and 5 Hz, in the same frequency band observed during fear, we investigated whether compound IPSPs and intrinsic oscillations interact to promote rhythmic activity in the BLA at this frequency. Using whole-cell patch clamp in brain slices, we demonstrate that compound IPSPs, which occur spontaneously and are synchronized across principal neurons in both the rat and primate BLA, significantly improve spike-timing precision in BLA principal neurons for a window of ∼300 ms following each IPSP. We also show that compound IPSPs coordinate the firing of pairs of BLA principal neurons, and significantly improve spike synchrony for a window of ∼130 ms. Compound IPSPs enhance a 5 Hz calcium-dependent membrane potential oscillation (MPO) in these neurons, likely contributing to the improvement in spike-timing precision and synchronization of spiking. Activation of the cAMP-PKA signaling cascade enhanced the MPO, and inhibition of this cascade blocked the MPO. We discuss these results in the context of spike-timing dependent plasticity and modulation by neurotransmitters important for fear learning, such as dopamine.
Previous studies have shown that neurons within the vestibular nuclei (VN) can faithfully encode the time course of sensory input through changes in firing rate in vivo. However, studies performed in vitro have shown that these same VN neurons often display nonlinear synchronization (i.e. phase locking) in their spiking activity to the local maxima of sensory input, thereby severely limiting their capacity for faithful encoding of said input through changes in firing rate. We investigated this apparent discrepancy by studying the effects of in vivo conditions on VN neuron activity in vitro using a simple, physiologically based, model of cellular dynamics. We found that membrane potential oscillations were evoked both in response to step and zap current injection for a wide range of channel conductance values. These oscillations gave rise to a resonance in the spiking activity that causes synchronization to sinusoidal current injection at frequencies below 25 Hz. We hypothesized that the apparent discrepancy between VN response dynamics measured in in vitro conditions (i.e., consistent with our modeling results) and the dynamics measured in vivo conditions could be explained by an increase in trial-to-trial variability under in vivo vs. in vitro conditions. Accordingly, we mimicked more physiologically realistic conditions in our model by introducing a noise current to match the levels of resting discharge variability seen in vivo as quantified by the coefficient of variation (CV). While low noise intensities corresponding to CV values in the range 0.04–0.24 only eliminated synchronization for low (<8 Hz) frequency stimulation but not high (>12 Hz) frequency stimulation, higher noise intensities corresponding to CV values in the range 0.5–0.7 almost completely eliminated synchronization for all frequencies. Our results thus predict that, under natural (i.e. in vivo) conditions, the vestibular system uses increased variability to promote fidelity of encoding by single neurons. This prediction can be tested experimentally in vitro.
The vestibular system senses the motion of the head in space and is vital for gaze stability, posture control, and the computation of spatial orientation during everyday life. The activities of single vestibular neurons recorded in the brains of awake behaving animals show that they can accurately transmit information about the time course of head motion, which is necessary for several behaviors such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex required for gaze stabilization. In contrast, this is not the case when the same neurons are recorded in isolation and sensory stimulation is mimicked experimentally. We investigated the cause for this discrepancy by studying how a mathematical model of vestibular neuron activity responds to mimics of sensory stimulation under different conditions. We found that the differences in the activities of vestibular neurons recorded in awake behaving animals and in isolation can be explained by the addition of synaptic noise, which in turn, increases the variability of action potential firing that is seen in more natural conditions. Our modeling results make a clear prediction that can be tested experimentally.
During natural vision, primates perform frequent saccadic eye movements, allowing only a narrow time window for processing the visual information at each location. Individual neurons may contribute only with a few spikes to the visual processing during each fixation, suggesting precise spike timing as a relevant mechanism for information processing. We recently found in V1 of monkeys freely viewing natural images, that fixation-related spike synchronization occurs at the early phase of the rate response after fixation-onset, suggesting a specific role of the first response spikes in V1. Here, we show that there are strong local field potential (LFP) modulations locked to the onset of saccades, which continue into the successive fixation periods. Visually induced spikes, in particular the first spikes after the onset of a fixation, are locked to a specific epoch of the LFP modulation. We suggest that the modulation of neural excitability, which is reflected by the saccade-related LFP changes, serves as a corollary signal enabling precise timing of spikes in V1 and thereby providing a mechanism for spike synchronization.
free viewing; local field potential; phase locking; primary visual cortex; spike synchrony
While adaptation is widely thought to facilitate neural coding, the form of adaptation should depend on how the signals are encoded. Monaural neurons early in the interaural time difference (ITD) pathway encode the phase of sound input using spike timing rather than firing rate. Such neurons in chicken nucleus magnocellularis (NM) adapt to ongoing stimuli by increasing firing rate and decreasing spike timing precision. We measured NM neuron responses while adapting them to simulated physiological input, and used these responses to construct inputs to binaural coincidence detector neurons in nucleus laminaris (NL). Adaptation of spike timing in NM reduced ITD sensitivity in NL, demonstrating the dominant role of timing in the short-term plasticity as well as the immediate response of this sound localization circuit.
Single neurons in the cerebral cortex are immersed in a fluctuating electric field, the local field potential (LFP), which mainly originates from synchronous synaptic input into the local neural neighborhood. As shown by recent studies in visual and auditory cortices, the angular phase of the LFP at the time of spike generation adds significant extra information about the external world, beyond the one contained in the firing rate alone. However, no biologically plausible mechanism has yet been suggested that allows downstream neurons to infer the phase of the LFP at the soma of their pre-synaptic afferents. Therefore, so far there is no evidence that the nervous system can process phase information. Here we study a model of a bursting pyramidal neuron, driven by a time-dependent stimulus. We show that the number of spikes per burst varies systematically with the phase of the fluctuating input at the time of burst onset. The mapping between input phase and number of spikes per burst is a robust response feature for a broad range of stimulus statistics. Our results suggest that cortical bursting neurons could play a crucial role in translating LFP phase information into an easily decodable spike count code.
A fundamental question in neuroscience concerns the relation between the spiking of individual neurons and the aggregate electrical activity of neuronal ensembles as seen in local-field potentials (LFPs). Because LFPs reflect both spiking activity and subthreshold events, this question is not simply one of data aggregation. Recording from 20 neurosurgical patients, we directly examined the relation between LFPs and neuronal spiking. Examining 2,030 neurons in widespread brain regions, we found that firing rates were positively correlated with broadband (2 – 150 Hz) shifts in the LFP power spectrum. In contrast, narrowband oscillations correlated both positively and negatively with firing rates at different recording sites. Broadband power shifts were a more-reliable predictor of neuronal spiking than narrowband power shifts. These findings suggest that broadband LFP power provides valuable information concerning neuronal activity beyond that contained in narrowband oscillations.
Local field potentials; Broadband; Oscillations; Single-units; Humans; Epilepsy
We study the collective dynamics of a Leaky Integrate and Fire network in which precise relative phase relationship of spikes among neurons are stored, as attractors of the dynamics, and selectively replayed at different time scales. Using an STDP-based learning process, we store in the connectivity several phase-coded spike patterns, and we find that, depending on the excitability of the network, different working regimes are possible, with transient or persistent replay activity induced by a brief signal. We introduce an order parameter to evaluate the similarity between stored and recalled phase-coded pattern, and measure the storage capacity. Modulation of spiking thresholds during replay changes the frequency of the collective oscillation or the number of spikes per cycle, keeping preserved the phases relationship. This allows a coding scheme in which phase, rate and frequency are dissociable. Robustness with respect to noise and heterogeneity of neurons parameters is studied, showing that, since dynamics is a retrieval process, neurons preserve stable precise phase relationship among units, keeping a unique frequency of oscillation, even in noisy conditions and with heterogeneity of internal parameters of the units.
Learning and memory; Phase-of-spikes coding; Storage capacity; Replay; Associative memory ; Noise robustness; STDP
In simulating realistic neuronal circuitry composed of diverse types of neurons, we need an elemental spiking neuron model that is capable of not only quantitatively reproducing spike times of biological neurons given in vivo-like fluctuating inputs, but also qualitatively representing a variety of firing responses to transient current inputs. Simplistic models based on leaky integrate-and-fire mechanisms have demonstrated the ability to adapt to biological neurons. In particular, the multi-timescale adaptive threshold (MAT) model reproduces and predicts precise spike times of regular-spiking, intrinsic-bursting, and fast-spiking neurons, under any fluctuating current; however, this model is incapable of reproducing such specific firing responses as inhibitory rebound spiking and resonate spiking. In this paper, we augment the MAT model by adding a voltage dependency term to the adaptive threshold so that the model can exhibit the full variety of firing responses to various transient current pulses while maintaining the high adaptability inherent in the original MAT model. Furthermore, with this addition, our model is actually able to better predict spike times. Despite the augmentation, the model has only four free parameters and is implementable in an efficient algorithm for large-scale simulation due to its linearity, serving as an element neuron model in the simulation of realistic neuronal circuitry.
spiking neuron model; predicting spike times; reproducing firing patterns; leaky integrate-and-fire model; adaptive threshold; MAT model; voltage dependency; threshold variability
The ability of spiking neurons to synchronize their activity in a network depends on the response behavior of these neurons as quantified by the phase response curve (PRC) and on coupling properties. The PRC characterizes the effects of transient inputs on spike timing and can be measured experimentally. Here we use the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire (aEIF) neuron model to determine how subthreshold and spike-triggered slow adaptation currents shape the PRC. Based on that, we predict how synchrony and phase locked states of coupled neurons change in presence of synaptic delays and unequal coupling strengths. We find that increased subthreshold adaptation currents cause a transition of the PRC from only phase advances to phase advances and delays in response to excitatory perturbations. Increased spike-triggered adaptation currents on the other hand predominantly skew the PRC to the right. Both adaptation induced changes of the PRC are modulated by spike frequency, being more prominent at lower frequencies. Applying phase reduction theory, we show that subthreshold adaptation stabilizes synchrony for pairs of coupled excitatory neurons, while spike-triggered adaptation causes locking with a small phase difference, as long as synaptic heterogeneities are negligible. For inhibitory pairs synchrony is stable and robust against conduction delays, and adaptation can mediate bistability of in-phase and anti-phase locking. We further demonstrate that stable synchrony and bistable in/anti-phase locking of pairs carry over to synchronization and clustering of larger networks. The effects of adaptation in aEIF neurons on PRCs and network dynamics qualitatively reflect those of biophysical adaptation currents in detailed Hodgkin-Huxley-based neurons, which underscores the utility of the aEIF model for investigating the dynamical behavior of networks. Our results suggest neuronal spike frequency adaptation as a mechanism synchronizing low frequency oscillations in local excitatory networks, but indicate that inhibition rather than excitation generates coherent rhythms at higher frequencies.
Synchronization of neuronal spiking in the brain is related to cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, and memory. It is therefore important to determine which properties of neurons influence their collective behavior in a network and to understand how. A prominent feature of many cortical neurons is spike frequency adaptation, which is caused by slow transmembrane currents. We investigated how these adaptation currents affect the synchronization tendency of coupled model neurons. Using the efficient adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire (aEIF) model and a biophysically detailed neuron model for validation, we found that increased adaptation currents promote synchronization of coupled excitatory neurons at lower spike frequencies, as long as the conduction delays between the neurons are negligible. Inhibitory neurons on the other hand synchronize in presence of conduction delays, with or without adaptation currents. Our results emphasize the utility of the aEIF model for computational studies of neuronal network dynamics. We conclude that adaptation currents provide a mechanism to generate low frequency oscillations in local populations of excitatory neurons, while faster rhythms seem to be caused by inhibition rather than excitation.
Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs) and thalamic outputs (spikes) and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz), is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40–80 Hz) and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.
LGN; retina; visual coding; natural stimuli; oscillations
Gamma-band peaks in the power spectrum of local field potentials (LFP) are found in multiple brain regions. It has been theorized that gamma oscillations may serve as a ’clock’ signal for the purposes of precise temporal encoding of information and ’binding’ of stimulus features across regions of the brain. Neurons in model networks may exhibit periodic spike firing or synchronized membrane potentials that give rise to a gamma-band oscillation that could operate as a ’clock’. The phase of the oscillation in such models is conserved over the length of the stimulus. We define these types of oscillations to be autocoherent. We investigated the hypothesis that autocoherent oscillations are the basis of the experimentally observed gamma-band peaks: the autocoherent oscillator (ACO) hypothesis. To test the ACO hypothesis, we developed a new analysis technique to analyze the autocoherence of a time-varying signal. This analysis used the continuous Gabor transform to examine the time evolution of the phase of each frequency component in the power spectrum. Using this analysis method, we formulated a statistical test to compare the ACO hypothesis with measurements of the LFP in macaque primary visual cortex, V1. The experimental data were not consistent with the ACO hypothesis. Gamma-band activity recorded in V1 did not have the properties of a ’clock’ signal during visual stimulation. We propose instead that the source of the gamma-band spectral peak is the resonant V1 network driven by random inputs.
Visual Cortex; Local Field Potential; extracellular; V1; time-frequency analysis; data analysis
In the rodent hippocampus, a phase precession phenomena of place cell firing with the local field potential (LFP) theta is called “theta phase precession” and is considered to contribute to memory formation with spike time dependent plasticity (STDP). On the other hand, in the primate hippocampus, the existence of theta phase precession is unclear. Our computational studies have demonstrated that theta phase precession dynamics could contribute to primate–hippocampal dependent memory formation, such as object–place association memory. In this paper, we evaluate human theta phase precession by using a theory–experiment combined analysis. Human memory recall of object–place associations was analyzed by an individual hippocampal network simulated by theta phase precession dynamics of human eye movement and EEG data during memory encoding. It was found that the computational recall of the resultant network is significantly correlated with human memory recall performance, while other computational predictors without theta phase precession are not significantly correlated with subsequent memory recall. Moreover the correlation is larger than the correlation between human recall and traditional experimental predictors. These results indicate that theta phase precession dynamics are necessary for the better prediction of human recall performance with eye movement and EEG data. In this analysis, theta phase precession dynamics appear useful for the extraction of memory-dependent components from the spatio–temporal pattern of eye movement and EEG data as an associative network. Theta phase precession may be a common neural dynamic between rodents and humans for the formation of environmental memories.
We describe a novel mechanism that mediates the rapid and selective pattern formation of neuronal network activity in response to changing correlations of sub-threshold level input. The mechanism is based on the classical resonance and experimentally observed phenomena that the resonance frequency of a neuron shifts as a function of membrane depolarization. As the neurons receive varying sub-threshold input, their natural frequency is shifted in and out of its resonance range. In response, the neuron fires a sequence of action potentials, corresponding to the specific values of signal currents, in a highly organized manner. We show that this mechanism provides for the selective activation and phase locking of the cells in the network, underlying input-correlated spatio-temporal pattern formation, and could be the basis for reliable spike-timing dependent plasticity. We compare the selectivity and efficiency of this pattern formation to a supra-threshold network activation and a non-resonating network/neuron model to demonstrate that the resonance mechanism is the most effective. Finally we show that this process might be the basis of the phase precession phenomenon observed during firing of hippocampal place cells, and that it may underlie the active switching of neuronal networks to locking at various frequencies.
The integrity of the hippocampus is critical for both spatial navigation and episodic memory but how its neuronal firing patterns underlie those functions is not well understood. In particular the modality by which hippocampal place cells contribute to spatial memory is debated. We found that administration of the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 induced a profound and reversible behavioral deficit in the hippocampus-dependent delayed spatial alternation task. On the one hand, despite severe memory impairment, the location-dependent firing of CA1 hippocampal place cells remained largely intact. On the other hand, both spike-timing coordination between place cells at the theta timescale and theta phase precession of spikes were reversibly reduced. These results raise the possibility that cannabinoids impair memory primarily by altering short-term temporal dynamics of hippocampal neurons. We hypothesize that precise temporal coordination of hippocampal neurons is necessary for guiding behavior in spatial memory tasks.
place cells; spatial memory; Synchrony; Cannabinoids; Hippocampus; rat
Gamma frequency oscillations in cortical regions can be recorded during cognitive processes, including attention or memory tasks. These oscillations are generated locally as a result of reciprocal interactions between excitatory pyramidal cells and perisomatic inhibitory interneurons. Here, we examined the contribution of the three perisomatic interneuron types – the parvalbumin-containing fast-spiking basket (FSBC) and axo-axonic (AAC) cells, as well as the cholecystokinin-containing regular-spiking basket cells (RSBC) to cholinergically induced oscillations in hippocampal slices, a rhythmic activity that captures several features of the gamma oscillations recorded in vivo. By analyzing the spiking activities of single neurons recorded in parallel with local field potentials, we found that all three cell types fired phase-locked to the carbachol-induced oscillations, although with different frequencies and precision. During these oscillations FSBCs fired the most with the highest accuracy compared to the discharge of AACs and RSBCs. In further experiments we showed that activation of μ-opioid receptors by DAMGO, which significantly reduced the inhibitory, but not excitatory transmission, suppressed or even blocked network oscillations both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the desynchronization of pyramidal cell firing. Using paired recordings we demonstrated that carbachol application blocked GABA release from RSBCs and reduced it from FSBCs and AACs, whereas DAMGO further suppressed the GABA release only from FSBCs, but not from AACs.
These results collectively suggest that the rhythmic perisomatic inhibition, generating oscillatory fluctuation in local field potentials after carbachol treatment of hippocampal slices, is the result of periodic GABA release from FSBCs.
inhibition; rhythm; μ-opioid receptor; gamma oscillations; in vivo; in vitro
We study a network model of two conductance-based pacemaker neurons of differing natural frequency, coupled with either mutual excitation or inhibition, and receiving shared random inhibitory synaptic input. The networks may phase-lock spike-to-spike for strong mutual coupling. But the shared input can desynchronize the locked spike-pairs by selectively eliminating the lagging spike or modulating its timing with respect to the leading spike depending on their separation time window. Such loss of synchrony is also found in a large network of sparsely coupled heterogeneous spiking neurons receiving shared input.