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1.  SHRiMP: Accurate Mapping of Short Color-space Reads 
PLoS Computational Biology  2009;5(5):e1000386.
The development of Next Generation Sequencing technologies, capable of sequencing hundreds of millions of short reads (25–70 bp each) in a single run, is opening the door to population genomic studies of non-model species. In this paper we present SHRiMP - the SHort Read Mapping Package: a set of algorithms and methods to map short reads to a genome, even in the presence of a large amount of polymorphism. Our method is based upon a fast read mapping technique, separate thorough alignment methods for regular letter-space as well as AB SOLiD (color-space) reads, and a statistical model for false positive hits. We use SHRiMP to map reads from a newly sequenced Ciona savignyi individual to the reference genome. We demonstrate that SHRiMP can accurately map reads to this highly polymorphic genome, while confirming high heterozygosity of C. savignyi in this second individual. SHRiMP is freely available at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/shrimp.
Author Summary
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are revolutionizing the way biologists acquire and analyze genomic data. NGS machines, such as Illumina/Solexa and AB SOLiD, are able to sequence genomes more cheaply by 200-fold than previous methods. One of the main application areas of NGS technologies is the discovery of genomic variation within a given species. The first step in discovering this variation is the mapping of reads sequenced from a donor individual to a known (“reference”) genome. Differences between the reference and the reads are indicative either of polymorphisms, or of sequencing errors. Since the introduction of NGS technologies, many methods have been devised for mapping reads to reference genomes. However, these algorithms often sacrifice sensitivity for fast running time. While they are successful at mapping reads from organisms that exhibit low polymorphism rates, they do not perform well at mapping reads from highly polymorphic organisms. We present a novel read mapping method, SHRiMP, that can handle much greater amounts of polymorphism. Using Ciona savignyi as our target organism, we demonstrate that our method discovers significantly more variation than other methods. Additionally, we develop color-space extensions to classical alignment algorithms, allowing us to map color-space, or “dibase”, reads generated by AB SOLiD sequencers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000386
PMCID: PMC2678294  PMID: 19461883
2.  Coval: Improving Alignment Quality and Variant Calling Accuracy for Next-Generation Sequencing Data 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e75402.
Accurate identification of DNA polymorphisms using next-generation sequencing technology is challenging because of a high rate of sequencing error and incorrect mapping of reads to reference genomes. Currently available short read aligners and DNA variant callers suffer from these problems. We developed the Coval software to improve the quality of short read alignments. Coval is designed to minimize the incidence of spurious alignment of short reads, by filtering mismatched reads that remained in alignments after local realignment and error correction of mismatched reads. The error correction is executed based on the base quality and allele frequency at the non-reference positions for an individual or pooled sample. We demonstrated the utility of Coval by applying it to simulated genomes and experimentally obtained short-read data of rice, nematode, and mouse. Moreover, we found an unexpectedly large number of incorrectly mapped reads in ‘targeted’ alignments, where the whole genome sequencing reads had been aligned to a local genomic segment, and showed that Coval effectively eliminated such spurious alignments. We conclude that Coval significantly improves the quality of short-read sequence alignments, thereby increasing the calling accuracy of currently available tools for SNP and indel identification. Coval is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/coval105/.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075402
PMCID: PMC3792961  PMID: 24116042
3.  Ψ-RA: a parallel sparse index for genomic read alignment 
BMC Genomics  2011;12(Suppl 2):S7.
Background
Genomic read alignment involves mapping (exactly or approximately) short reads from a particular individual onto a pre-sequenced reference genome of the same species. Because all individuals of the same species share the majority of their genomes, short reads alignment provides an alternative and much more efficient way to sequence the genome of a particular individual than does direct sequencing. Among many strategies proposed for this alignment process, indexing the reference genome and short read searching over the index is a dominant technique. Our goal is to design a space-efficient indexing structure with fast searching capability to catch the massive short reads produced by the next generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technology.
Results
We concentrate on indexing DNA sequences via sparse suffix arrays (SSAs) and propose a new short read aligner named Ψ-RA (PSI-RA: parallel sparse index read aligner). The motivation in using SSAs is the ability to trade memory against time. It is possible to fine tune the space consumption of the index based on the available memory of the machine and the minimum length of the arriving pattern queries. Although SSAs have been studied before for exact matching of short reads, an elegant way of approximate matching capability was missing. We provide this by defining the rightmost mismatch criteria that prioritize the errors towards the end of the reads, where errors are more probable. Ψ-RA supports any number of mismatches in aligning reads. We give comparisons with some of the well-known short read aligners, and show that indexing a genome with SSA is a good alternative to the Burrows-Wheeler transform or seed-based solutions.
Conclusions
Ψ-RA is expected to serve as a valuable tool in the alignment of short reads generated by the next generation high-throughput sequencing technology. Ψ-RA is very fast in exact matching and also supports rightmost approximate matching. The SSA structure that Ψ-RA is built on naturally incorporates the modern multicore architecture and thus further speed-up can be gained. All the information, including the source code of Ψ-RA, can be downloaded at: http://www.busillis.com/o_kulekci/PSIRA.zip.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-S2-S7
PMCID: PMC3194238  PMID: 21989248
4.  Fast and SNP-tolerant detection of complex variants and splicing in short reads 
Bioinformatics  2010;26(7):873-881.
Motivation: Next-generation sequencing captures sequence differences in reads relative to a reference genome or transcriptome, including splicing events and complex variants involving multiple mismatches and long indels. We present computational methods for fast detection of complex variants and splicing in short reads, based on a successively constrained search process of merging and filtering position lists from a genomic index. Our methods are implemented in GSNAP (Genomic Short-read Nucleotide Alignment Program), which can align both single- and paired-end reads as short as 14 nt and of arbitrarily long length. It can detect short- and long-distance splicing, including interchromosomal splicing, in individual reads, using probabilistic models or a database of known splice sites. Our program also permits SNP-tolerant alignment to a reference space of all possible combinations of major and minor alleles, and can align reads from bisulfite-treated DNA for the study of methylation state.
Results: In comparison testing, GSNAP has speeds comparable to existing programs, especially in reads of ≥70 nt and is fastest in detecting complex variants with four or more mismatches or insertions of 1–9 nt and deletions of 1–30 nt. Although SNP tolerance does not increase alignment yield substantially, it affects alignment results in 7–8% of transcriptional reads, typically by revealing alternate genomic mappings for a read. Simulations of bisulfite-converted DNA show a decrease in identifying genomic positions uniquely in 6% of 36 nt reads and 3% of 70 nt reads.
Availability: Source code in C and utility programs in Perl are freely available for download as part of the GMAP package at http://share.gene.com/gmap.
Contact: twu@gene.com
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btq057
PMCID: PMC2844994  PMID: 20147302
5.  BFAST: An Alignment Tool for Large Scale Genome Resequencing 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(11):e7767.
Background
The new generation of massively parallel DNA sequencers, combined with the challenge of whole human genome resequencing, result in the need for rapid and accurate alignment of billions of short DNA sequence reads to a large reference genome. Speed is obviously of great importance, but equally important is maintaining alignment accuracy of short reads, in the 25–100 base range, in the presence of errors and true biological variation.
Methodology
We introduce a new algorithm specifically optimized for this task, as well as a freely available implementation, BFAST, which can align data produced by any of current sequencing platforms, allows for user-customizable levels of speed and accuracy, supports paired end data, and provides for efficient parallel and multi-threaded computation on a computer cluster. The new method is based on creating flexible, efficient whole genome indexes to rapidly map reads to candidate alignment locations, with arbitrary multiple independent indexes allowed to achieve robustness against read errors and sequence variants. The final local alignment uses a Smith-Waterman method, with gaps to support the detection of small indels.
Conclusions
We compare BFAST to a selection of large-scale alignment tools - BLAT, MAQ, SHRiMP, and SOAP - in terms of both speed and accuracy, using simulated and real-world datasets. We show BFAST can achieve substantially greater sensitivity of alignment in the context of errors and true variants, especially insertions and deletions, and minimize false mappings, while maintaining adequate speed compared to other current methods. We show BFAST can align the amount of data needed to fully resequence a human genome, one billion reads, with high sensitivity and accuracy, on a modest computer cluster in less than 24 hours. BFAST is available at http://bfast.sourceforge.net.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007767
PMCID: PMC2770639  PMID: 19907642
6.  Accurate estimation of short read mapping quality for next-generation genome sequencing 
Bioinformatics  2012;28(18):i349-i355.
Motivation: Several software tools specialize in the alignment of short next-generation sequencing reads to a reference sequence. Some of these tools report a mapping quality score for each alignment—in principle, this quality score tells researchers the likelihood that the alignment is correct. However, the reported mapping quality often correlates weakly with actual accuracy and the qualities of many mappings are underestimated, encouraging the researchers to discard correct mappings. Further, these low-quality mappings tend to correlate with variations in the genome (both single nucleotide and structural), and such mappings are important in accurately identifying genomic variants.
Approach: We develop a machine learning tool, LoQuM (LOgistic regression tool for calibrating the Quality of short read mappings, to assign reliable mapping quality scores to mappings of Illumina reads returned by any alignment tool. LoQuM uses statistics on the read (base quality scores reported by the sequencer) and the alignment (number of matches, mismatches and deletions, mapping quality score returned by the alignment tool, if available, and number of mappings) as features for classification and uses simulated reads to learn a logistic regression model that relates these features to actual mapping quality.
Results: We test the predictions of LoQuM on an independent dataset generated by the ART short read simulation software and observe that LoQuM can ‘resurrect’ many mappings that are assigned zero quality scores by the alignment tools and are therefore likely to be discarded by researchers. We also observe that the recalibration of mapping quality scores greatly enhances the precision of called single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Availability: LoQuM is available as open source at http://compbio.case.edu/loqum/.
Contact: matthew.ruffalo@case.edu.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/bts408
PMCID: PMC3436835  PMID: 22962451
7.  Comparison of solution-based exome capture methods for next generation sequencing 
Genome Biology  2011;12(9):R94.
Background
Techniques enabling targeted re-sequencing of the protein coding sequences of the human genome on next generation sequencing instruments are of great interest. We conducted a systematic comparison of the solution-based exome capture kits provided by Agilent and Roche NimbleGen. A control DNA sample was captured with all four capture methods and prepared for Illumina GAII sequencing. Sequence data from additional samples prepared with the same protocols were also used in the comparison.
Results
We developed a bioinformatics pipeline for quality control, short read alignment, variant identification and annotation of the sequence data. In our analysis, a larger percentage of the high quality reads from the NimbleGen captures than from the Agilent captures aligned to the capture target regions. High GC content of the target sequence was associated with poor capture success in all exome enrichment methods. Comparison of mean allele balances for heterozygous variants indicated a tendency to have more reference bases than variant bases in the heterozygous variant positions within the target regions in all methods. There was virtually no difference in the genotype concordance compared to genotypes derived from SNP arrays. A minimum of 11× coverage was required to make a heterozygote genotype call with 99% accuracy when compared to common SNPs on genome-wide association arrays.
Conclusions
Libraries captured with NimbleGen kits aligned more accurately to the target regions. The updated NimbleGen kit most efficiently covered the exome with a minimum coverage of 20×, yet none of the kits captured all the Consensus Coding Sequence annotated exons.
doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-9-r94
PMCID: PMC3308057  PMID: 21955854
8.  Probabilistic alignment leads to improved accuracy and read coverage for bisulfite sequencing data 
BMC Bioinformatics  2013;14:337.
Background
DNA methylation has been linked to many important biological phenomena. Researchers have recently begun to sequence bisulfite treated DNA to determine its pattern of methylation. However, sequencing reads from bisulfite-converted DNA can vary significantly from the reference genome because of incomplete bisulfite conversion, genome variation, sequencing errors, and poor quality bases. Therefore, it is often difficult to align reads to the correct locations in the reference genome. Furthermore, bisulfite sequencing experiments have the additional complexity of having to estimate the DNA methylation levels within the sample.
Results
Here, we present a highly accurate probabilistic algorithm, which is an extension of the Genomic Next-generation Universal MAPper to accommodate bisulfite sequencing data (GNUMAP-bs), that addresses the computational problems associated with aligning bisulfite sequencing data to a reference genome. GNUMAP-bs integrates uncertainty from read and mapping qualities to help resolve the difference between poor quality bases and the ambiguity inherent in bisulfite conversion. We tested GNUMAP-bs and other commonly-used bisulfite alignment methods using both simulated and real bisulfite reads and found that GNUMAP-bs and other dynamic programming methods were more accurate than the more heuristic methods.
Conclusions
The GNUMAP-bs aligner is a highly accurate alignment approach for processing the data from bisulfite sequencing experiments. The GNUMAP-bs algorithm is freely available for download at: http://dna.cs.byu.edu/gnumap. The software runs on multiple threads and multiple processors to increase the alignment speed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-14-337
PMCID: PMC3924334  PMID: 24261665
DNA methylation; Bisulfite sequencing; Probabilistic alignment; Parallel processing
9.  A novel multi-alignment pipeline for high-throughput sequencing data 
Mapping reads to a reference sequence is a common step when analyzing allele effects in high-throughput sequencing data. The choice of reference is critical because its effect on quantitative sequence analysis is non-negligible. Recent studies suggest aligning to a single standard reference sequence, as is common practice, can lead to an underlying bias depending on the genetic distances of the target sequences from the reference. To avoid this bias, researchers have resorted to using modified reference sequences. Even with this improvement, various limitations and problems remain unsolved, which include reduced mapping ratios, shifts in read mappings and the selection of which variants to include to remove biases. To address these issues, we propose a novel and generic multi-alignment pipeline. Our pipeline integrates the genomic variations from known or suspected founders into separate reference sequences and performs alignments to each one. By mapping reads to multiple reference sequences and merging them afterward, we are able to rescue more reads and diminish the bias caused by using a single common reference. Moreover, the genomic origin of each read is determined and annotated during the merging process, providing a better source of information to assess differential expression than simple allele queries at known variant positions. Using RNA-seq of a diallel cross, we compare our pipeline with the single-reference pipeline and demonstrate our advantages of more aligned reads and a higher percentage of reads with assigned origins.
Database URL: http://csbio.unc.edu/CCstatus/index.py?run=Pseudo
doi:10.1093/database/bau057
PMCID: PMC4062837  PMID: 24948510
10.  SAMMate: a GUI tool for processing short read alignments in SAM/BAM format 
Background
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology generates tens of millions of short reads for each DNA/RNA sample. A key step in NGS data analysis is the short read alignment of the generated sequences to a reference genome. Although storing alignment information in the Sequence Alignment/Map (SAM) or Binary SAM (BAM) format is now standard, biomedical researchers still have difficulty accessing this information.
Results
We have developed a Graphical User Interface (GUI) software tool named SAMMate. SAMMate allows biomedical researchers to quickly process SAM/BAM files and is compatible with both single-end and paired-end sequencing technologies. SAMMate also automates some standard procedures in DNA-seq and RNA-seq data analysis. Using either standard or customized annotation files, SAMMate allows users to accurately calculate the short read coverage of genomic intervals. In particular, for RNA-seq data SAMMate can accurately calculate the gene expression abundance scores for customized genomic intervals using short reads originating from both exons and exon-exon junctions. Furthermore, SAMMate can quickly calculate a whole-genome signal map at base-wise resolution allowing researchers to solve an array of bioinformatics problems. Finally, SAMMate can export both a wiggle file for alignment visualization in the UCSC genome browser and an alignment statistics report. The biological impact of these features is demonstrated via several case studies that predict miRNA targets using short read alignment information files.
Conclusions
With just a few mouse clicks, SAMMate will provide biomedical researchers easy access to important alignment information stored in SAM/BAM files. Our software is constantly updated and will greatly facilitate the downstream analysis of NGS data. Both the source code and the GUI executable are freely available under the GNU General Public License at http://sammate.sourceforge.net.
doi:10.1186/1751-0473-6-2
PMCID: PMC3027120  PMID: 21232146
11.  Fast and accurate short read alignment with Burrows–Wheeler transform 
Bioinformatics  2009;25(14):1754-1760.
Motivation: The enormous amount of short reads generated by the new DNA sequencing technologies call for the development of fast and accurate read alignment programs. A first generation of hash table-based methods has been developed, including MAQ, which is accurate, feature rich and fast enough to align short reads from a single individual. However, MAQ does not support gapped alignment for single-end reads, which makes it unsuitable for alignment of longer reads where indels may occur frequently. The speed of MAQ is also a concern when the alignment is scaled up to the resequencing of hundreds of individuals.
Results: We implemented Burrows-Wheeler Alignment tool (BWA), a new read alignment package that is based on backward search with Burrows–Wheeler Transform (BWT), to efficiently align short sequencing reads against a large reference sequence such as the human genome, allowing mismatches and gaps. BWA supports both base space reads, e.g. from Illumina sequencing machines, and color space reads from AB SOLiD machines. Evaluations on both simulated and real data suggest that BWA is ∼10–20× faster than MAQ, while achieving similar accuracy. In addition, BWA outputs alignment in the new standard SAM (Sequence Alignment/Map) format. Variant calling and other downstream analyses after the alignment can be achieved with the open source SAMtools software package.
Availability: http://maq.sourceforge.net
Contact: rd@sanger.ac.uk
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btp324
PMCID: PMC2705234  PMID: 19451168
12.  BOAT: Basic Oligonucleotide Alignment Tool 
BMC Genomics  2009;10(Suppl 3):S2.
Background
Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies generate tens of millions of sequencing reads in one run. These technologies are now widely used in biology research such as in genome-wide identification of polymorphisms, transcription factor binding sites, methylation states, and transcript expression profiles. Mapping the sequencing reads to reference genomes efficiently and effectively is one of the most critical analysis tasks. Although several tools have been developed, their performance suffers when both multiple substitutions and insertions/deletions (indels) occur together.
Results
We report a new algorithm, Basic Oligonucleotide Alignment Tool (BOAT) that can accurately and efficiently map sequencing reads back to the reference genome. BOAT can handle several substitutions and indels simultaneously, a useful feature for identifying SNPs and other genomic structural variations in functional genomic studies. For better handling of low-quality reads, BOAT supports a "3'-end Trimming Mode" to build local optimized alignment for sequencing reads, further improving sensitivity. BOAT calculates an E-value for each hit as a quality assessment and provides customizable post-mapping filters for further mapping quality control.
Conclusion
Evaluations on both real and simulation datasets suggest that BOAT is capable of mapping large volumes of short reads to reference sequences with better sensitivity and lower memory requirement than other currently existing algorithms. The source code and pre-compiled binary packages of BOAT are publicly available for download at http://boat.cbi.pku.edu.cn under GNU Public License (GPL). BOAT can be a useful new tool for functional genomics studies.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-S3-S2
PMCID: PMC2788372  PMID: 19958483
13.  LOCAS – A Low Coverage Assembly Tool for Resequencing Projects 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(8):e23455.
Motivation
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is a frequently applied approach to detect sequence variations between highly related genomes. Recent large-scale re-sequencing studies as the Human 1000 Genomes Project utilize NGS data of low coverage to afford sequencing of hundreds of individuals. Here, SNPs and micro-indels can be detected by applying an alignment-consensus approach. However, computational methods capable of discovering other variations such as novel insertions or highly diverged sequence from low coverage NGS data are still lacking.
Results
We present LOCAS, a new NGS assembler particularly designed for low coverage assembly of eukaryotic genomes using a mismatch sensitive overlap-layout-consensus approach. LOCAS assembles homologous regions in a homology-guided manner while it performs de novo assemblies of insertions and highly polymorphic target regions subsequently to an alignment-consensus approach. LOCAS has been evaluated in homology-guided assembly scenarios with low sequence coverage of Arabidopsis thaliana strains sequenced as part of the Arabidopsis 1001 Genomes Project. While assembling the same amount of long insertions as state-of-the-art NGS assemblers, LOCAS showed best results regarding contig size, error rate and runtime.
Conclusion
LOCAS produces excellent results for homology-guided assembly of eukaryotic genomes with short reads and low sequencing depth, and therefore appears to be the assembly tool of choice for the detection of novel sequence variations in this scenario.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023455
PMCID: PMC3156226  PMID: 21858125
14.  Annotation-based genome-wide SNP discovery in the large and complex Aegilops tauschii genome using next-generation sequencing without a reference genome sequence 
BMC Genomics  2011;12:59.
Background
Many plants have large and complex genomes with an abundance of repeated sequences. Many plants are also polyploid. Both of these attributes typify the genome architecture in the tribe Triticeae, whose members include economically important wheat, rye and barley. Large genome sizes, an abundance of repeated sequences, and polyploidy present challenges to genome-wide SNP discovery using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of total genomic DNA by making alignment and clustering of short reads generated by the NGS platforms difficult, particularly in the absence of a reference genome sequence.
Results
An annotation-based, genome-wide SNP discovery pipeline is reported using NGS data for large and complex genomes without a reference genome sequence. Roche 454 shotgun reads with low genome coverage of one genotype are annotated in order to distinguish single-copy sequences and repeat junctions from repetitive sequences and sequences shared by paralogous genes. Multiple genome equivalents of shotgun reads of another genotype generated with SOLiD or Solexa are then mapped to the annotated Roche 454 reads to identify putative SNPs. A pipeline program package, AGSNP, was developed and used for genome-wide SNP discovery in Aegilops tauschii-the diploid source of the wheat D genome, and with a genome size of 4.02 Gb, of which 90% is repetitive sequences. Genomic DNA of Ae. tauschii accession AL8/78 was sequenced with the Roche 454 NGS platform. Genomic DNA and cDNA of Ae. tauschii accession AS75 was sequenced primarily with SOLiD, although some Solexa and Roche 454 genomic sequences were also generated. A total of 195,631 putative SNPs were discovered in gene sequences, 155,580 putative SNPs were discovered in uncharacterized single-copy regions, and another 145,907 putative SNPs were discovered in repeat junctions. These SNPs were dispersed across the entire Ae. tauschii genome. To assess the false positive SNP discovery rate, DNA containing putative SNPs was amplified by PCR from AL8/78 and AS75 and resequenced with the ABI 3730 xl. In a sample of 302 randomly selected putative SNPs, 84.0% in gene regions, 88.0% in repeat junctions, and 81.3% in uncharacterized regions were validated.
Conclusion
An annotation-based genome-wide SNP discovery pipeline for NGS platforms was developed. The pipeline is suitable for SNP discovery in genomic libraries of complex genomes and does not require a reference genome sequence. The pipeline is applicable to all current NGS platforms, provided that at least one such platform generates relatively long reads. The pipeline package, AGSNP, and the discovered 497,118 Ae. tauschii SNPs can be accessed at (http://avena.pw.usda.gov/wheatD/agsnp.shtml).
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-59
PMCID: PMC3041743  PMID: 21266061
15.  Comparison of Sequence Reads Obtained from Three Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(5):e19534.
Next-generation sequencing technologies enable the rapid cost-effective production of sequence data. To evaluate the performance of these sequencing technologies, investigation of the quality of sequence reads obtained from these methods is important. In this study, we analyzed the quality of sequence reads and SNP detection performance using three commercially available next-generation sequencers, i.e., Roche Genome Sequencer FLX System (FLX), Illumina Genome Analyzer (GA), and Applied Biosystems SOLiD system (SOLiD). A common genomic DNA sample obtained from Escherichia coli strain DH1 was applied to these sequencers. The obtained sequence reads were aligned to the complete genome sequence of E. coli DH1, to evaluate the accuracy and sequence bias of these sequence methods. We found that the fraction of “junk” data, which could not be aligned to the reference genome, was largest in the data set of SOLiD, in which about half of reads could not be aligned. Among data sets after alignment to the reference, sequence accuracy was poorest in GA data sets, suggesting relatively low fidelity of the elongation reaction in the GA method. Furthermore, by aligning the sequence reads to the E. coli strain W3110, we screened sequence differences between two E. coli strains using data sets of three different next-generation platforms. The results revealed that the detected sequence differences were similar among these three methods, while the sequence coverage required for the detection was significantly small in the FLX data set. These results provided valuable information on the quality of short sequence reads and the performance of SNP detection in three next-generation sequencing platforms.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019534
PMCID: PMC3096631  PMID: 21611185
16.  Identification of rare DNA variants in mitochondrial disorders with improved array-based sequencing 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;39(1):44-58.
A common goal in the discovery of rare functional DNA variants via medical resequencing is to incur a relatively lower proportion of false positive base-calls. We developed a novel statistical method for resequencing arrays (SRMA, sequence robust multi-array analysis) to increase the accuracy of detecting rare variants and reduce the costs in subsequent sequence verifications required in medical applications. SRMA includes single and multi-array analysis and accounts for technical variables as well as the possibility of both low- and high-frequency genomic variation. The confidence of each base-call was ranked using two quality measures. In comparison to Sanger capillary sequencing, we achieved a false discovery rate of 2% (false positive rate 1.2 × 10−5, false negative rate 5%), which is similar to automated second-generation sequencing technologies. Applied to the analysis of 39 nuclear candidate genes in disorders of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, we confirmed mutations in the DNA polymerase gamma POLG in positive control cases, and identified novel rare variants in previously undiagnosed cases in the mitochondrial topoisomerase TOP1MT, the mismatch repair enzyme MUTYH, and the apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease APEX2. Some patients carried rare heterozygous variants in several functionally interacting genes, which could indicate synergistic genetic effects in these clinically similar disorders.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq750
PMCID: PMC3017602  PMID: 20843780
17.  CUSHAW3: Sensitive and Accurate Base-Space and Color-Space Short-Read Alignment with Hybrid Seeding 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86869.
The majority of next-generation sequencing short-reads can be properly aligned by leading aligners at high speed. However, the alignment quality can still be further improved, since usually not all reads can be correctly aligned to large genomes, such as the human genome, even for simulated data. Moreover, even slight improvements in this area are important but challenging, and usually require significantly more computational endeavor. In this paper, we present CUSHAW3, an open-source parallelized, sensitive and accurate short-read aligner for both base-space and color-space sequences. In this aligner, we have investigated a hybrid seeding approach to improve alignment quality, which incorporates three different seed types, i.e. maximal exact match seeds, exact-match k-mer seeds and variable-length seeds, into the alignment pipeline. Furthermore, three techniques: weighted seed-pairing heuristic, paired-end alignment pair ranking and read mate rescuing have been conceived to facilitate accurate paired-end alignment. For base-space alignment, we have compared CUSHAW3 to Novoalign, CUSHAW2, BWA-MEM, Bowtie2 and GEM, by aligning both simulated and real reads to the human genome. The results show that CUSHAW3 consistently outperforms CUSHAW2, BWA-MEM, Bowtie2 and GEM in terms of single-end and paired-end alignment. Furthermore, our aligner has demonstrated better paired-end alignment performance than Novoalign for short-reads with high error rates. For color-space alignment, CUSHAW3 is consistently one of the best aligners compared to SHRiMP2 and BFAST. The source code of CUSHAW3 and all simulated data are available at http://cushaw3.sourceforge.net.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086869
PMCID: PMC3899341  PMID: 24466273
18.  Transcriptome sequencing of the Microarray Quality Control (MAQC) RNA reference samples using next generation sequencing 
BMC Genomics  2009;10:264.
Background
Transcriptome sequencing using next-generation sequencing platforms will soon be competing with DNA microarray technologies for global gene expression analysis. As a preliminary evaluation of these promising technologies, we performed deep sequencing of cDNA synthesized from the Microarray Quality Control (MAQC) reference RNA samples using Roche's 454 Genome Sequencer FLX.
Results
We generated more that 3.6 million sequence reads of average length 250 bp for the MAQC A and B samples and introduced a data analysis pipeline for translating cDNA read counts into gene expression levels. Using BLAST, 90% of the reads mapped to the human genome and 64% of the reads mapped to the RefSeq database of well annotated genes with e-values ≤ 10-20. We measured gene expression levels in the A and B samples by counting the numbers of reads that mapped to individual RefSeq genes in multiple sequencing runs to evaluate the MAQC quality metrics for reproducibility, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy and compared the results with DNA microarrays and Quantitative RT-PCR (QRTPCR) from the MAQC studies. In addition, 88% of the reads were successfully aligned directly to the human genome using the AceView alignment programs with an average 90% sequence similarity to identify 137,899 unique exon junctions, including 22,193 new exon junctions not yet contained in the RefSeq database.
Conclusion
Using the MAQC metrics for evaluating the performance of gene expression platforms, the ExpressSeq results for gene expression levels showed excellent reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity that improved systematically with increasing shotgun sequencing depth, and quantitative accuracy that was comparable to DNA microarrays and QRTPCR. In addition, a careful mapping of the reads to the genome using the AceView alignment programs shed new light on the complexity of the human transcriptome including the discovery of thousands of new splice variants.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-264
PMCID: PMC2707382  PMID: 19523228
19.  CloudBurst: highly sensitive read mapping with MapReduce 
Bioinformatics  2009;25(11):1363-1369.
Motivation: Next-generation DNA sequencing machines are generating an enormous amount of sequence data, placing unprecedented demands on traditional single-processor read-mapping algorithms. CloudBurst is a new parallel read-mapping algorithm optimized for mapping next-generation sequence data to the human genome and other reference genomes, for use in a variety of biological analyses including SNP discovery, genotyping and personal genomics. It is modeled after the short read-mapping program RMAP, and reports either all alignments or the unambiguous best alignment for each read with any number of mismatches or differences. This level of sensitivity could be prohibitively time consuming, but CloudBurst uses the open-source Hadoop implementation of MapReduce to parallelize execution using multiple compute nodes.
Results: CloudBurst's running time scales linearly with the number of reads mapped, and with near linear speedup as the number of processors increases. In a 24-processor core configuration, CloudBurst is up to 30 times faster than RMAP executing on a single core, while computing an identical set of alignments. Using a larger remote compute cloud with 96 cores, CloudBurst improved performance by >100-fold, reducing the running time from hours to mere minutes for typical jobs involving mapping of millions of short reads to the human genome.
Availability: CloudBurst is available open-source as a model for parallelizing algorithms with MapReduce at http://cloudburst-bio.sourceforge.net/.
Contact: mschatz@umiacs.umd.edu
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btp236
PMCID: PMC2682523  PMID: 19357099
20.  A probabilistic method for the detection and genotyping of small indels from population-scale sequence data 
Bioinformatics  2011;27(15):2047-2053.
Motivation: High-throughput sequencing technologies have made population-scale studies of human genetic variation possible. Accurate and comprehensive detection of DNA sequence variants is crucial for the success of these studies. Small insertions and deletions represent the second most frequent class of variation in the human genome after single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Although several alignment tools for the gapped alignment of sequence reads to a reference genome are available, computational methods for discriminating indels from sequencing errors and genotyping indels directly from sequence reads are needed.
Results: We describe a probabilistic method for the accurate detection and genotyping of short indels from population-scale sequence data. In this approach, aligned sequence reads from a population of individuals are used to automatically account for context-specific sequencing errors associated with indels. We applied this approach to population sequence datasets from the 1000 Genomes exon pilot project generated using the Roche 454 and Illumina sequencing platforms, and were able to detect a significantly greater number of indels than reported previously. Comparison to indels identified in the 1000 Genomes pilot project demonstrated the sensitivity of our method. The consistency in the number of indels and the fraction of indels whose length is a multiple of three across different human populations and two different sequencing platforms indicated that our method has a low false discovery rate. Finally, the method represents a general approach for the detection and genotyping of small-scale DNA sequence variants for population-scale sequencing projects.
Availability: A program implementing this method is available at http://polymorphism.scripps.edu/~vbansal/software/piCALL/
Contact: vbansal@scripps.edu
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btr344
PMCID: PMC3137221  PMID: 21653520
21.  SOAP3-dp: Fast, Accurate and Sensitive GPU-Based Short Read Aligner 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e65632.
To tackle the exponentially increasing throughput of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), most of the existing short-read aligners can be configured to favor speed in trade of accuracy and sensitivity. SOAP3-dp, through leveraging the computational power of both CPU and GPU with optimized algorithms, delivers high speed and sensitivity simultaneously. Compared with widely adopted aligners including BWA, Bowtie2, SeqAlto, CUSHAW2, GEM and GPU-based aligners BarraCUDA and CUSHAW, SOAP3-dp was found to be two to tens of times faster, while maintaining the highest sensitivity and lowest false discovery rate (FDR) on Illumina reads with different lengths. Transcending its predecessor SOAP3, which does not allow gapped alignment, SOAP3-dp by default tolerates alignment similarity as low as 60%. Real data evaluation using human genome demonstrates SOAP3-dp's power to enable more authentic variants and longer Indels to be discovered. Fosmid sequencing shows a 9.1% FDR on newly discovered deletions. SOAP3-dp natively supports BAM file format and provides the same scoring scheme as BWA, which enables it to be integrated into existing analysis pipelines. SOAP3-dp has been deployed on Amazon-EC2, NIH-Biowulf and Tianhe-1A.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065632
PMCID: PMC3669295  PMID: 23741504
22.  BowStrap v1.0: Assigning statistical significance to expressed genes using short-read transcriptome data 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:275.
Background
Background: Deep RNA sequencing, the application of Next Generation sequencing technology to generate a comprehensive profile of the message RNA present in a set of biological samples, provides unprecedented resolution into the molecular foundations of biological processes. By aligning short read RNA sequence data to a set of gene models, expression patterns for all of the genes and gene variants in a biological sample can be calculated. However, accurate determination of gene model expression from deep RNA sequencing is hindered by the presence of ambiguously aligning short read sequences.
Findings
BowStrap, a program for implementing the sequence alignment tool ‘Bowtie’ in a bootstrap-style approach, accommodates multiply-aligning short read sequences and reports gene model expression as an averaged aligned reads per Kb of gene model sequence per million aligned deep RNA sequence reads with a confidence interval, suitable for calculating statistical significance of presence/absence of detected gene model expression. BowStrap v1.0 was validated against a simulated metatranscriptome. Results were compared with two alternate ‘Bowtie’-based calculations of gene model expression. BowStrap is better at accurately identifying expressed gene models in a dataset and provides a more accurate estimate of gene model expression level than methods that do not incorporate a boot-strap style approach.
Conclusions
BowStrap v1.0 is superior in ability to detect significant gene model expression and calculate accurate determination of gene model expression levels compared to other alignment-based methods of determining patterns of gene expression. BowStrap v1.0 also can utilize multiple processors as has decreased run time compared to the previous version, BowStrap 0.5. We anticipate that BowStrap will be a highly useful addition to the available set of Next Generation RNA sequence analysis tools.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-275
PMCID: PMC3494516  PMID: 22676709
Transcriptomics; Next Generation Sequencing; Gene expression; Metatranscriptome
23.  Large scale single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in unsequenced genomes using second generation high throughput sequencing technology: applied to turkey 
BMC Genomics  2009;10:479.
Background
The development of second generation sequencing methods has enabled large scale DNA variation studies at moderate cost. For the high throughput discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in species lacking a sequenced reference genome, we set-up an analysis pipeline based on a short read de novo sequence assembler and a program designed to identify variation within short reads. To illustrate the potential of this technique, we present the results obtained with a randomly sheared, enzymatically generated, 2-3 kbp genome fraction of six pooled Meleagris gallopavo (turkey) individuals.
Results
A total of 100 million 36 bp reads were generated, representing approximately 5-6% (~62 Mbp) of the turkey genome, with an estimated sequence depth of 58. Reads consisting of bases called with less than 1% error probability were selected and assembled into contigs. Subsequently, high throughput discovery of nucleotide variation was performed using sequences with more than 90% reliability by using the assembled contigs that were 50 bp or longer as the reference sequence. We identified more than 7,500 SNPs with a high probability of representing true nucleotide variation in turkeys. Increasing the reference genome by adding publicly available turkey BAC-end sequences increased the number of SNPs to over 11,000. A comparison with the sequenced chicken genome indicated that the assembled turkey contigs were distributed uniformly across the turkey genome. Genotyping of a representative sample of 340 SNPs resulted in a SNP conversion rate of 95%. The correlation of the minor allele count (MAC) and observed minor allele frequency (MAF) for the validated SNPs was 0.69.
Conclusion
We provide an efficient and cost-effective approach for the identification of thousands of high quality SNPs in species currently lacking a sequenced genome and applied this to turkey. The methodology addresses a random fraction of the genome, resulting in an even distribution of SNPs across the targeted genome.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-479
PMCID: PMC2772860  PMID: 19835600
24.  HSA: A Heuristic Splice Alignment Tool 
BMC Systems Biology  2013;7(Suppl 2):S10.
Background
RNA-Seq methodology is a revolutionary transcriptomics sequencing technology, which is the representative of Next generation Sequencing (NGS). With the high throughput sequencing of RNA-Seq, we can acquire much more information like differential expression and novel splice variants from deep sequence analysis and data mining. But the short read length brings a great challenge to alignment, especially when the reads span two or more exons.
Methods
A two steps heuristic splice alignment tool is generated in this investigation. First, map raw reads to reference with unspliced aligner - BWA; second, split initial unmapped reads into three equal short reads (seeds), align each seed to the reference, filter hits, search possible split position of read and extend hits to a complete match.
Results
Compare with other splice alignment tools like SOAPsplice and Tophat2, HSA has a better performance in call rate and efficiency, but its results do not as accurate as the other software to some extent.
Conclusions
HSA is an effective spliced aligner of RNA-Seq reads mapping, which is available at https://github.com/vlcc/HSA.
doi:10.1186/1752-0509-7-S2-S10
PMCID: PMC3866249  PMID: 24564867
25.  High Performance Multiple Sequence Alignment System for Pyrosequencing Reads from Multiple Reference Genomes 
Genome resequencing with short reads generated from pyrosequencing generally relies on mapping the short reads against a single reference genome. However, mapping of reads from multiple reference genomes is not possible using a pairwise mapping algorithm. In order to align the reads w.r.t each other and the reference genomes, existing multiple sequence alignment(MSA) methods cannot be used because they do not take into account the position of these short reads with respect to the genome, and are highly inefficient for large number of sequences. In this paper, we develop a highly scalable parallel algorithm based on domain decomposition, referred to as P-Pyro-Align, to align such large number of reads from single or multiple reference genomes. The proposed alignment algorithm accurately aligns the erroneous reads, and has been implemented on a cluster of workstations using MPI library. Experimental results for different problem sizes are analyzed in terms of execution time, quality of the alignments, and the ability of the algorithm to handle reads from multiple haplotypes. We report high quality multiple alignment of up to 0.5 million reads. The algorithm is shown to be highly scalable and exhibits super-linear speedups with increasing number of processors.
doi:10.1016/j.jpdc.2011.08.001
PMCID: PMC3486434  PMID: 23125479

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