Vitamin D deficiency is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality in the general population and in critically ill patients. However, no randomized controlled trial has evaluated so far whether treatment with sufficiently large doses of vitamin D can improve clinical outcome of patients in an intensive care setting.
The VITdAL@ICU trial is an investigator-initiated, non-commercial, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. This study compares high-dose oral cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) versus placebo treatment in a mixed population of 480 critically ill patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels at study enrollment (≤ 20ng/ml). Following an initial loading dose of 540,000 IU of vitamin D3, patients receive 90,000 IU of vitamin D3 on a monthly basis for 5 months. The study is designed to compare clinical outcome in the two study arms with the primary endpoint being length of hospital stay. Secondary endpoints include among others length of ICU stay, the percentage of patients with 25(OH)D levels > 30 ng/ml at day 7, ICU and hospital mortality and duration of mechanical ventilation. We describe here the VITdAL@ICU study protocol for the primary report.
This trial is designed to evaluate whether high-dose vitamin D3 is able to improve morbidity and mortality in a mixed population of adult critically ill patients and correct vitamin D deficiency safely.
Critical Illness; Vitamin D deficiency; Cholecalciferol; Vitamin D; Critical care; Intensive care; Vitamin D3
Background: Vitamin D insufficiency is common in cystic fibrosis (CF) and vitamin D repletion may have an important role in improving clinical outcomes in CF. This randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study examined the feasibility and impact of a single, large dose of cholecalciferol on vitamin D status and clinical outcomes in subjects with CF.
Methods: Thirty adults with were randomized in a double-blinded, pilot study to receive 250,000 IU cholecalciferol or placebo within 48 h of hospital admission for a pulmonary exacerbation. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), clinical outcomes and potential adverse events were assessed up to one year after randomization. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to evaluate the difference in mean serum concentrations and log-rank analyses were used to evaluate survival.
Results: Data from all subjects was analyzed. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased from a mean of 30.6 ± 3.2 ng/mL to 58.1 ± 3.5 ng/mL (p < 0.001) at one week and 36.7 ± 2.6 ng/mL by 12 weeks (p = 0.06) in the vitamin D group; in contrast, serum 25(OH)D concentrations remained unchanged in the placebo group. Unadjusted, one-year survival and hospital-free days were increased in the vitamin D group (p = 0.029, p = 0.036; respectively). There was also a trend toward increased IV antibiotic therapy-free days in the vitamin D group (p = 0.073). There were no signs of hypervitaminosis D or adverse events. Serum PTH and calcium concentrations were similar across both groups.
Conclusions: In this pilot study, a single, oral bolus of cholecalciferol increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations and was associated with a trend toward improved clinical outcomes in CF subjects hospitalized for a pulmonary exacerbation. Further investigation is needed into the clinical impact of improved vitamin D status in patients with CF.
vitamin D; cystic fibrosis; parathyroid hormone; anti-microbial peptide; pulmonary exacerbation
Oxidative stress is involved in the development of secondary tissue damage and organ failure. Micronutrients contributing to the antioxidant (AOX) defense exhibit low plasma levels during critical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early AOX micronutrients on clinical outcome in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with conditions characterized by oxidative stress.
We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center trial in patients admitted to a university hospital ICU with organ failure after complicated cardiac surgery, major trauma, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stratification by diagnosis was performed before randomization. The intervention was intravenous supplements for 5 days (selenium 270 μg, zinc 30 mg, vitamin C 1.1 g, and vitamin B1 100 mg) with a double-loading dose on days 1 and 2 or placebo.
Two hundred patients were included (102 AOX and 98 placebo). While age and gender did not differ, brain injury was more severe in the AOX trauma group (P = 0.019). Organ function endpoints did not differ: incidence of acute kidney failure and sequential organ failure assessment score decrease were similar (-3.2 ± 3.2 versus -4.2 ± 2.3 over the course of 5 days). Plasma concentrations of selenium, zinc, and glutathione peroxidase, low on admission, increased significantly to within normal values in the AOX group. C-reactive protein decreased faster in the AOX group (P = 0.039). Infectious complications did not differ. Length of hospital stay did not differ (16.5 versus 20 days), being shorter only in surviving AOX trauma patients (-10 days; P = 0.045).
The AOX intervention did not reduce early organ dysfunction but significantly reduced the inflammatory response in cardiac surgery and trauma patients, which may prove beneficial in conditions with an intense inflammation.
Clinical Trials.gov RCT Register: NCT00515736.
Vitamin D does not only regulate calcium homeostasis but also plays an important role as an immune modulator. It influences the immune system through the induction of immune shifts and regulatory cells resulting in immunologic tolerance. As such, vitamin D is thought to exert beneficial effects within the transplant setting, especially in kidney transplant recipients, considering the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in kidney transplant recipients.
The VITA-D study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with two parallel groups including a total of 200 kidney transplant recipients, is designed to investigate the immunomodulatory and renoprotective effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) within the transplant setting. Kidney transplant recipients found to have vitamin D deficiency defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 < 50 nmol per liter will be randomly assigned to receive either oral cholecalciferol therapy or placebo and will be followed for one year. Cholecalciferol will be administered at a dose of 6800 International Units daily over a time period of one year.
The objective is to evaluate the influence of vitamin D3 substitution in vitamin D deficient kidney transplant recipients on the post-transplant outcome. As a primary endpoint glomerular filtration rate calculated with the MDRD formula (modification of diet in renal disease) one year after kidney transplantation will be evaluated. Incidence of acute rejection episodes, and the number and severity of infections (analyzed by means of C-reactive protein) within the first year after transplantation will be monitored as well. As a secondary endpoint the influence of vitamin D3 on bone mineral density within the first year post-transplant will be assessed. Three DXA analyses will be performed, one within the first four weeks post-transplant, one five months and one twelve months after kidney transplantation.
Vitamin D (VitD) supplementation has been advocated for cardiovascular risk reduction; however, supporting data are sparse. The objective of this study was to determine whether VitD supplementation reduces cardiovascular risk. Subjects in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of post-menopausal women with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations >10 and <60 ng/mL were randomized to Vitamin D3 2500 IU or placebo, daily for 4 months. Primary endpoints were changes in brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and aortic augmentation index (AIx). The 114 subjects were mean (standard deviation) 63.9 (3.0) years old with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 31.3 (10.6) ng/mL. Low VitD (<30 ng/mL) was present in 47% and was associated with higher body-mass index, systolic blood pressure, glucose, CRP, and lower FMD (all p<0.05). After 4 months, 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels increased by 15.7 (9.3) ng/mL on vitamin D3 vs. −0.2 (6.1) ng/mL on placebo (p<0.001). There were no significant differences between groups in changes in FMD (0.3 [3.4] vs. 0.3 [2.6] %, p = 0.77), PWV (0.00 [1.06] vs. 0.05 [0.92] m/s, p = 0.65), AIx (2.7 [6.3] vs. 0.9 [5.6] %, p = 0.10), or CRP (0.3 [1.9] vs. 0.3 [4.2] mg/L, p = 0.97). Multivariable models showed no significant interactions between treatment group and low VitD status (<30 ng/mL) for changes in FMD (p = 0.65), PWV (p = 0.93), AIx (p = 0.97), or CRP (p = 0.26).In conclusion, VitD supplementation did not improve endothelial function, arterial stiffness, or inflammation. These observations do not support use of VitD supplementation to reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
Objective To test the efficacy of supplemental vitamin D and active forms of vitamin D with or without calcium in preventing falls among older individuals.
Data sources We searched Medline, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, BIOSIS, and Embase up to August 2008 for relevant articles. Further studies were identified by consulting clinical experts, bibliographies, and abstracts. We contacted authors for additional data when necessary.
Review methods Only double blind randomised controlled trials of older individuals (mean age 65 years or older) receiving a defined oral dose of supplemental vitamin D (vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) or vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol)) or an active form of vitamin D (1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 (1α-hydroxycalciferol) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol)) and with sufficiently specified fall assessment were considered for inclusion.
Results Eight randomised controlled trials (n=2426) of supplemental vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity among trials was observed for dose of vitamin D (700-1000 IU/day v 200-600 IU/day; P=0.02) and achieved 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration (25(OH)D concentration: <60 nmol/l v ≥60 nmol/l; P=0.005). High dose supplemental vitamin D reduced fall risk by 19% (pooled relative risk (RR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.92; n=1921 from seven trials), whereas achieved serum 25(OH)D concentrations of 60 nmol/l or more resulted in a 23% fall reduction (pooled RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.90). Falls were not notably reduced by low dose supplemental vitamin D (pooled RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.35; n=505 from two trials) or by achieved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l (pooled RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.84). Two randomised controlled trials (n=624) of active forms of vitamin D met our inclusion criteria. Active forms of vitamin D reduced fall risk by 22% (pooled RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.94).
Conclusions Supplemental vitamin D in a dose of 700-1000 IU a day reduced the risk of falling among older individuals by 19% and to a similar degree as active forms of vitamin D. Doses of supplemental vitamin D of less than 700 IU or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of less than 60 nmol/l may not reduce the risk of falling among older individuals.
To investigate the efficacy of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH)]D) levels and reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
In this double-blind, randomized controlled pilot study, participants with CKD stage 3 and 4 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 15–59 mL/min/1.73 m2), vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25[OH]D <30 ng/mL), and serum intact PTH levels >70 pg/mL were randomly assigned to receive either 50 000 IU of cholecalciferol or placebo once weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes (25[OH]D and PTH levels) were measured at baseline, week 6, and week 12. Secondary outcomes (1,25-dihydroxvitamin D and bone turnover markers) were measured at baseline and week 12. Because of skewed data distribution, statistical analyses were performed on a logarithmic scale. The difference between the group means was exponentiated to provide the geometric mean ratio. A linear mixed model using an unstructured variance-covariance matrix was used to examine change in the primary and secondary outcomes over time.
Geometric mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations of the study groups were similar at baseline (P = .77). At week 6, a significant difference between the treatment and placebo groups was detected (P = .001); this difference was maintained at week 12 (P = .002). Among cholecalciferol-treated participants, serum 25(OH)D concentration increased on average from 17.3 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.8–25.2) at baseline to 49.4 ng/mL (95% CI, 33.9–72.0) at week 12. As-treated analysis indicated a trend toward lower PTH levels among cholecalciferol-treated participants (P = .07).
Weekly cholecalciferol supplementation appears to be an effective treatment to correct vitamin D status in patients with CKD.
To evaluate the efficacy of a combined calcium and vitamin D (Ca-D3) supplement for vitamin D deficiency in a small group of postmenopausal women.
A prospective open label 3 month-study.
23 postmenopausal women (mean age 61.2 yrs) with vitamin D deficiency were given a combined oral Ca-D3 supplement called “Osteoblast”. The supplement comprises 500 mg elemental calcium and 500 IU of cholecalciferol. The dosing regimen comprised a loading dose of 1000 IU of cholecalciferol per day for one month (two tablets) and thereafter a maintenance dose of 500 IU of cholecalciferol per day for 2 months (one tablet).
Serum was collected for calcium, 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), and PTH measurements, as well as early morning 2-hour urine calcium/creatinine excretion index (Uca/creat). Specimens were collected at baseline and after 3 months of therapy. Data are reported as mean ± 1 standard error and 95% confidence intervals.
Data was available for the 21 subjects who completed the study. Two subjects (9%) withdrew because of gastrointestinal intolerance. There were 3 subjects with moderate (12.5–24 nmol/L) and 18 with mild (25–49 nmol/L) vitamin D deficiency. Ten subjects (48%) had secondary hyperparathyroidism. Following the oral Ca-D3 combination, serum 25OHD3 levels normalised in all subjects with 18 (86%) subjects achieving values of greater than 70 nmol/L. Serum 25OHD3 levels increased from 36 (31–41) to 91 (79–102) nmol/L (p = 0.0001), increasing by an average of 152% over the 3-month period. There was a corresponding 38% decrease in serum PTH concentrations at 3 months (5.1 + 0.6 pmol/L), compared with baseline (8.0 + 1 pmol/L) (p = 0.001). No subject developed hypercalcemia, but an elevated Uca/creat excretion index occurred in one subjects.
A combined oral Ca-D3 product (Osteoblast) is effective for treating vitamin D deficiency and is adequately tolerated.
Current treatments for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) are symptomatic and can only temporarily slow down ADRD. Future possibilities of care rely on multi-target drugs therapies that address simultaneously several pathophysiological processes leading to neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that the combination of memantine with vitamin D could be neuroprotective in ADRD, thereby limiting neuronal loss and cognitive decline. The aim of this trial is to compare the effect after 24 weeks of the oral intake of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) with the effect of a placebo on the change of cognitive performance in patients suffering from moderate ADRD and receiving memantine.
The AD-IDEA Trial is a unicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, intent-to-treat, superiority trial. Patients aged 60 years and older presenting with moderate ADRD (i.e., Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score between 10-20), hypovitaminosis D (i.e., serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] < 30 ng/mL), normocalcemia (i.e., serum calcium < 2.65 mmol/L) and receiving no antidementia treatment at time of inclusion are being recruited. All participants receive memantine 20 mg once daily -titrated in 5 mg increments over 4 weeks- and each one is randomized to one of the two treatment options: either cholecalciferol (one 100,000 IU drinking vial every 4 weeks) or placebo (administered at the same pace). One hundred and twenty participants are being recruited and treatment continues for 24 weeks. Primary outcome measure is change in cognitive performance using Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition score. Secondary outcomes are changes in other cognitive scores (MMSE, Frontal Assessment Battery, Trail Making Test parts A and B), change in functional performance (Activities of Daily Living scale, and 4-item Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale), posture and gait (Timed Up & Go, Five Time Sit-to-Stand, spatio-temporal analysis of walking), as well as the between-groups comparison of compliance to treatment and tolerance. These outcomes are assessed at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks, together with the serum concentrations of 25OHD, calcium and parathyroid hormone.
The combination of memantine plus vitamin D may represent a new multi-target therapeutic class for the treatment of ADRD. The AD-IDEA Trial seeks to provide evidence on its efficacy in limiting cognitive and functional declines in ADRD.
ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01409694
Alzheimer's disease; vitamin D; memantine; clinical trial; older adults
Evidence regarding the effectiveness of oral vitamin B12 in patients with serum vitamin B12 levels between 125-200 pM/l is lacking. We compared the effectiveness of one-month oral vitamin B12 supplementation in patients with a subtle vitamin B12 deficiency to that of a placebo.
This multicentre (13 general practices, two nursing homes, and one primary care center in western Switzerland), parallel, randomised, controlled, closed-label, observer-blind trial included 50 patients with serum vitamin B12 levels between 125-200 pM/l who were randomized to receive either oral vitamin B12 (1000 μg daily, N = 26) or placebo (N = 24) for four weeks. The institution's pharmacist used simple randomisation to generate a table and allocate treatments. The primary outcome was the change in serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels after one month of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in total homocysteine and serum vitamin B12 levels. Blood samples were centralised for analysis and adherence to treatment was verified by an electronic device (MEMS; Aardex Europe, Switzerland). Trial registration: ISRCTN 22063938.
Baseline characteristics and adherence to treatment were similar in both groups. After one month, one patient in the placebo group was lost to follow-up. Data were evaluated by intention-to-treat analysis. One month of vitamin B12 treatment (N = 26) lowered serum MMA levels by 0.13 μmol/l (95%CI 0.06-0.19) more than the change observed in the placebo group (N = 23). The number of patients needed to treat to detect a metabolic response in MMA after one month was 2.6 (95% CI 1.7-6.4). A significant change was observed for the B12 serum level, but not for the homocysteine level, hematocrit, or mean corpuscular volume. After three months without active treatment (at four months), significant differences in MMA levels were no longer detected.
Oral vitamin B12 treatment normalised the metabolic markers of vitamin B12 deficiency. However, a one-month daily treatment with1000 μg oral vitamin B12 was not sufficient to normalise the deficiency markers for four months, and treatment had no effect on haematological signs of B12 deficiency.
The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the effect of low-dose oral vitamin D in combination with current disease-modifying therapy on the prevention of progression of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). A phase II double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted between October 2007 and October 2008 included 50 patients with confirmed RRMS aged 25 to 57 years and normal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. They were randomly allocated to receive 12 months of treatment with either escalating calcitriol doses up to 0.5 μg/day or placebo combined with disease-modifying therapy. Response to treatment was assessed at eight-week intervals. In both groups, the mean relapse rate decreased significantly (P < 0.001). In the 25 patients treated with placebo, the mean (SD) Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) increased from 1.70 (1.21) at baseline to 1.94 (1.41) at the end of study period (P < 0.01). Average EDSS and relapse rate at the end of trial did not differ between groups. Adding low-dose vitamin D to routine disease-modifying therapy had no significant effect on the EDSS score or relapse rate. A larger phase III multicenter study of vitamin D in RRMS is warranted to more assess the efficacy of this intervention.
Data from laboratory studies, observational research, and/or secondary prevention trials suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD), but primary prevention trials with adequate dosing in general populations (i.e., unselected for disease risk) are lacking. The ongoing VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial trial of vitamin D (in the form of vitamin D3 [cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 fatty acid (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] + docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1 g/day) supplements in the primary prevention of cancer and CVD among a multi-ethnic population of 20,000 U.S. men aged ≥50 and women aged ≥55. The mean treatment period will be 5 years. Baseline blood samples will be collected in at least 16,000 participants, with follow-up blood collection in about 6000 participants. Yearly follow-up questionnaires will assess treatment compliance (plasma biomarker measures will also assess compliance in a random sample of participants), use of non-study drugs or supplements, occurence of endpoints, and cancer and vascular risk factors. Self-reported endpoints will be confirmed by medical record review by physicians blinded to treatment assignment, and deaths will be ascertained through national registries and other sources. Ancillary studies will investigate whether these agents affect risk for diabetes and glucose intolerance; hypertension; cognitive decline; depression; osteoporosis and fracture; physical disability and falls; asthma and other respiratory diseases; infections; rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid diseases, and other autoimmune disorders.
Cancer; cardiovascular disease; cholecalciferol; primary prevention; omega-3 fatty acids; vitamin D; randomized controlled trial
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) continues to be a substantial problem for many cancer patients. Pursuant to promising appearing pilot data, the current study evaluated the use of vitamin E for the prevention of CIPN.
A phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in patients undergoing therapy with neurotoxic chemotherapy, utilizing twice daily dosing of vitamin E (400 mg)/placebo. The primary endpoint was the incidence of grade 2+ sensory neuropathy (SN) toxicity (CTCAE v 3.0) in each treatment arm, analyzed by chi-square testing. Planned sample size was 100 patients per arm to provide 80% power to detect a difference in incidence of grade 2+ SN toxicity from 25% in the placebo group to 10% in the vitamin E group.
Two-hundred seven patients were enrolled between December 1, 2006 and December 14, 2007, producing 189 evaluable cases for analysis. Cytotoxic agents included taxanes (109), cisplatin (8), carboplatin (2), oxaliplatin (50), or combination (20). There was no difference in the incidence of grade 2+ SN between the two arms (34%—vitamin E, 29%—placebo; P=0.43). There were no significant differences between treatment arms for time to onset of neuropathy (P=0.58), for chemotherapy dose reductions due to neuropathy (P=0.21), or for secondary endpoints derived from patient-reported neuropathy symptom assessments. The treatment was well tolerated overall.
Vitamin E did not appear to reduce the incidence of sensory neuropathy in the studied group of patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy; Sensory neuropathy toxicity; Vitamin E
The claim that the symptoms of angina pectoris can usually be relieved by large doses of vitamin E has been reinvestigated by means of a randomized double-blind trial. The trial lasted nine weeks and consisted of two parts. One part was conducted as a regular double-blind trial involving 40 patients, half of whom received 3200 IU of vitamin E daily, while an equal number received an indistinguishable placebo. The second part of the trial involved 15 patients who were already taking a regular daily dose of between 400 and 2400 IU of vitamin E. Eight patients were assigned the same (or a larger) dose of vitamin E, while seven received placebo. Neither part of the trial yielded statistically convincing evidence that vitamin E is of value in the treatment of angina, but a small beneficial effect could not be ruled out. Taken in conjunction with the positive (but statistically non-significant) results obtained in the only other double-blind trial of vitamin E ever carried out on angina, and the encouraging results reported by other investigators in the treatment of intermittent claudication, it is suggested that further double-blind trials are justified.
Vitamin D insufficiency is common in hospitalized patients. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D may enhance the innate immune response by induction of cathelicidin (LL-37), an endogenous antimicrobial peptide produced by macrophages and neutrophils. Thus, the relationship between vitamin D status and LL-37 production may be of importance for host immunity, but little data is available on this subject, especially in the setting of human sepsis syndrome and other critical illness.
Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and LL-37 in critically ill adult subjects admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) with sepsis and without sepsis were compared to healthy controls.
Critically ill subjects had significantly lower plasma 25(OH)D concentrations compared to healthy controls. Mean plasma LL-37 levels were significantly lower in critically ill subjects compared to healthy controls. Vitamin D binding protein levels in plasma were significantly lower in critically ill subjects with sepsis compared to critically ill subjects without sepsis. There was a significant positive association between circulating 25(OH)D and LL-37 levels.
This study demonstrates an association between critical illness and lower 25(OH)D and DBP levels in critically ill patients as compared to healthy controls. It also establishes a positive association between vitamin D status and plasma LL-37, which suggests that systemic LL-37 levels may be regulated by vitamin D status. Optimal vitamin D status may be important for innate immunity especially in the setting of sepsis. Further invention studies to examine this association are warranted.
To assess vitamin D status and the influences of race, sun exposure and dietary vitamin D intake on vitamin D levels, and to evaluate two vitamin D repletion regimens in extremely obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery.
A cross-sectional analysis of dietary vitamin D, sun exposure, PTH [intact (iPTH) and PTH(1-84)] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD; differentiated 25OHD2 and 25OHD3) in 56 obese [body mass index (BMI) > 35 kg/m2] men and women (age 20–64 years). In a pilot clinical trial, 27 subjects with 25OHD levels < 62 nmol/l were randomized to receive ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol for 8 weeks.
Serum 25OHD was low (mean 45 ± 22 nmol/l) and was inversely associated with BMI (r = − 0.36, P < 0.01). Each BMI increase of 1 kg/m2 was associated with a 1.3 nmol/l decrease in 25OHD (P < 0.01). BMI, sun exposure, African American race and PTH predicted 40% of the variance in 25OHD (P < 0.0001). Serum 25OHD significantly increased at 4 and 8 weeks in both treatment groups (P < 0.001), whereas PTH(1-84) declined significantly in subjects treated with cholecalciferol (P < 0.007) and tended to decrease following ergocalciferol (P < 0.09).
In severely obese individuals, those who are African American, have higher BMI and limited sunlight exposure are at greatest risk for vitamin D insufficiency. These demographic factors can help to identify at-risk patients who require vitamin D repletion prior to bariatric surgery. Commonly prescribed doses of ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol are effective in raising 25OHD. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether these regimens have differential effects on PTH, and to determine the optimal regimen for vitamin D repletion in the extremely obese patient.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a variety of skeletal, cardiometabolic, and immunologic co-morbidities that are present in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a systematic review to investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation, in the form of ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol, on various health outcomes in early CKD. Seventeen clinical trials were identified, only two of which were randomized, placebo controlled trials. The majority of studies supplementing with > 2,000 IU/day of cholecalciferol achieved optimal vitamin D status, whereas studies supplementing with ergocalciferol were less consistent. Studies varied widely in their effects on lowering serum parathyroid hormone concentrations. Few studies investigated effects of vitamin D treatment on other clinical health indicators in early CKD. Rigorous studies are necessary to investigate optimal vitamin D dosing strategies in early CKD for the maintenance of adequate vitamin D status, management of secondary hyperparathyroidism and improvement of non-skeletal related clinical outcomes.
vitamin D; cholecalciferol; ergocalciferol; renal disease; secondary hyperparathyroidism; chronic kidney disease
In meta-analyses supplementation with vitamin D appears to reduce incidence of fractures, and in cross-sectional studies there is a positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and bone mineral density (BMD). However, the effect of supplementation with high doses of vitamin D on BMD is more uncertain and could in theory have both positive and negative effects.
The study was a one year, double blind placebo-controlled intervention trial performed at the University Hospital of North Norway. 421 subjects, 21 - 70 years old, were included and 312 completed the study. The subjects were randomized to vitamin D3 40.000 IU per week (DD group), vitamin D3 20.000 IU per week (DP group), or placebo (PP group). All subjects were given 500 mg calcium daily. Serum 25(OH)D, osteoprotegrin (OPG), receptoractivator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), and BMD at the lumbar spine and the hip were measured before and at the end of the study.
At baseline the mean serum 25(OH)D levels were 58 nmol/L (all subjects) and increased to 141 and 100 nmol/L in the DD and DP groups, respectively. After one year, no significant differences were found between the three groups regarding change in BMD, serum OPG or RANKL.
Supplementation with high doses of vitamin D for one year does not appear to have a negative effect on BMD in healthy subjects. In order to disclose a positive effect, subjects with low BMD and/or low serum 25(OH)D levels need to be studied.
The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00243256).
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on clinical recovery and severity of the addition of large doses of vitamin A to the standard treatment for childhood pneumonia. DESIGN: A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Study children were recruited at a public hospital in Recife, north east Brazil, an area of marginal vitamin A deficiency. SUBJECTS: 472 children aged 6 to 59 months with clinical diagnosis of pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS: 200,000 IU (infants) or 400,000 IU (1-4 year olds) of vitamin A in oil or similar capsules of placebo divided into two daily oral doses, in addition to the standard treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of the episode and incidence of adverse outcomes. RESULTS: The groups were similar with respect to overall duration of pneumonia and incidence of adverse outcomes. Children who received vitamin A, however, were less likely to have fever by day 3 (P = 0.008) and were 29% less likely to fail to respond to the first line antibiotic (P = 0.054). CONCLUSION: There was little evidence for an effect of vitamin A treatment on the immediate outcome of the pneumonia episode.
Vitamin D is important for gastrointestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, for bone mineralization, and is one useful therapeutic component in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Low levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D have been implicated as a risk factor for falls, for all fractures in general and for hip fractures in particular. At present there is a gap in the diagnosis and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in older adults with hip fractures.
To explore the distribution of and correlates to levels of vitamin D in a population of patients with a recent hip fracture.
25 hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in 526 screened subjects and 385 ultimately randomized patients who were part of the HORIZON RFT multinational trial, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial testing the efficacy of a yearly intravenous bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid, in the prevention of new clinical fractures in patients with recent hip fracture repair.
In screened patients, levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D were low (median=14.7 ng/mL, IQR=7.80,22.5,), and 51% were at or below the clinically meaningful threshold of 15 ng/mL. In randomized patients, in bivariate analyses, level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D was significantly (p<0.05) related to male gender (r=0.12), calcium (r=0.16), and bone mineral density at the femoral neck (r=0.22). Low serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (<15ng/mL) was related only to low calcium (odds=0.15 95%CI= 0.03, 0.63) in multivariate logistic models controlling for gender, age, race, BMI, living at home, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine clearance. However, low serum calcium is an insensitive and poorly specific means of identifying patients with vitamin D deficiency, with an area under the ROC of 0.6.
We conclude that vitamin D insufficiency is a common problem in this population of subjects who have recently suffered a hip fracture. This insufficiency is related only to calcium in multivariable controlled models, but cannot be reliably identified or excluded by measuring serum calcium alone. Physicians should be encouraged to check and monitor serum levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, or to universally treat for vitamin D deficiency in patients experiencing a low trauma hip fracture.
Antioxidant depletion is common in critically ill patients. This study was designed to determine the effects of PN, with or without glutamine (Gln) supplementation, on systemic antioxidant status in adult patients after major surgery who required parenteral nutrition (PN) in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) setting.
Fifty-nine SICU patients who required PN following pancreatic surgery or cardiac, vascular or colonic (non-pancreatic) surgery were randomized in a double-blind study to receive standard PN (Gln-free) or Gln-supplemented PN (Gln-PN) in which Gln was provided as alanyl-Gln dipeptide. Conventional PN vitamin and mineral doses were administered to all subjects. Plasma concentrations of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the anti-oxidant nutrients α-tocopherol, vitamin C and zinc were determined at baseline (initiation of study PN) and again after 7 days of study PN. Data were analyzed for the total study cohort and within the pancreatic surgery and non-pancreatic (cardiac, vascular and colonic) surgery patient subgroups.
Mean plasma antioxidant concentrations were within or slightly below the normal ranges at baseline. However, a high percentage of patients demonstrated below normal baseline plasma concentrations of GSH (59%), vitamin C (59%) and zinc (68%), respectively. A lower percentage of patients exhibited below normal plasma α-tocopherol levels (21%). Study PN significantly improved plasma zinc levels in the entire study group and each surgical subgroup. Gln-PN significantly improved the change in plasma reduced GSH from baseline to day 7 in the non-pancreatic surgery patients (PN: −0.27 µM vs Gln-PN: +0.26 µM; p<0.03).
Low plasma levels of key antioxidants were common in this group of SICU patients despite administration of PN containing conventional micronutrients. Compared to standard PN, Gln-supplemented PN improved plasma GSH levels in SICU patients after cardiac, vascular or colonic operations.
α-tocopherol; critical illness; glutathione; parenteral nutrition; vitamin C; zinc
Vitamin D insufficiency occurs commonly in HIV-infected youth in the United States. In light of the importance of vitamin D for skeletal and nonskeletal health, including innate immunity, developing methods for improving vitamin D status in HIV-infected children and adolescents is an important area of clinical research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of oral cholecalciferol, 100 000 IU every 2 months, and 1 g/day calcium on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, serum and urine calcium, and HIV disease progression during a 12-month period.
HIV-infected children and adolescents who were aged 6 to 16 years were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D (100 000 IU bimonthly) and calcium (1 g/day; n = 29) or double placebo (n = 27). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations as measured by radioimmunoassay, albumin-corrected calcium concentrations, and spot urinary calcium-creatinine ratios were determined monthly.
No abnormalities in serum calcium concentration were observed. One participant who received placebo developed hypercalciuria. No group differences were seen in the change in CD4 count or CD4% or viral load during 12 months. The overall mean monthly serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were higher in the group that received vitamin D and calcium than in the placebo group, as was the monthly serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D area under the curve. After completing 12 months of study, 2 (6.7%) participants in the group that received vitamin D and calcium had a trough serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration <20 ng/mL compared with 14 (50%) in the placebo group. Twelve (44.4%) in the group that received vitamin D and calcium had a trough serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of ≥30 ng/mL compared with 3 (11.1%) in the placebo group.
Administration of oral cholecalciferol to HIV-infected children and adolescents at a dosage of 100 000 IU every 2 months, together with 1 g/day calcium, is safe and results in significant increases in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations
HIV; cholecalciferol; vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; calcium; randomized; controlled trial
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a single large oral dose of vitamin A in treating acute shigellosis in children in Bangladesh. DESIGN: Randomised double blind controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: 83 children aged 1-7 years with bacteriologically proved shigellosis but no clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency; 42 were randomised to treatment with vitamin A and 41 formed a control group. INTERVENTION: Children were given a single oral dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A plus 25 IU vitamin E or a control preparation of 25 IU vitamin E. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical cure on study day 5 and bacteriological cure. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of the subjects in the two treatment groups were similar. Significantly more children in the vitamin A group than in the control group achieved clinical cure (19/42 (45%) v 8/14 (20%); chi 2 = 5.14, 1 df, P = 0.02; risk ratio = 0.68 (95% confidence interval; 0.50 to 0.93)). When cure was determined bacteriologically, the groups had similar rates (16/42 (38%) v 16/41 (39%); chi 2 = 0.02, 1 df, P = 0.89; risk ratio = 0.98 (0.70 to 1.39)). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin A reduces the severity of acute shigellosis in children living in areas where vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem.
Objective To determine whether vitamin A supplementation administered in the preschool years can lower the risk of hearing loss in adolescence and adulthood.
Design Follow-up study of adolescents and young adults who, as preschool aged children in 1989, were enrolled into a cluster randomised, double blinded, placebo controlled trial of vitamin A supplementation.
Setting South central, rural Nepal.
Participants 2378 adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 23, representing 51% of those who finished the original trial and 71% of those living in the study area in 2006.
Interventions Every four months for 16 months preschool children were visited at home, given an oral 200 000 IU dose of vitamin A (half dose at age 1-11 months, quarter dose at <1 month) or placebo and the parents were queried about any childhood illnesses in the previous week, including purulent discharge from the ears.
Main outcome measures Prevalence of mild or worse hearing loss (≥30 dB) in the most affected ear and tympanometric measures of middle ear function (peak height, ear canal volume, and gradient).
Results During the original trial, the prevalence of middle ear infection during the preschool years did not differ between the supplement groups. By adolescence and early adulthood, a non-significant 17% reduction in hearing loss occurred among those who had periodically received vitamin A compared with placebo as preschool aged children (odds ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.62 to 1.12). Among participants with any ear discharge in early childhood, vitamin A supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of hearing loss, by 42% (0.58, 0.37 to 0.92) compared with controls, after adjusting the confidence interval for the design effect of the original trial. Abnormal tympanometric peak height of the middle ear system was less likely among participants supplemented with vitamin A in childhood.
Conclusion In undernourished settings, periodic, high dose vitamin A supplementation may reduce the risk of hearing loss associated with purulent ear infections in early childhood.
Vitamin D and calcium affect several pathways involved in inflammation, tumor growth, and immune surveillance relevant to carcinogenesis. Also, epidemiologic evidence indicates that calcium and vitamin D may reduce risk for colorectal adenomas and cancer. To investigate the effects of calcium and vitamin D on biomarkers of inflammation in colorectal adenoma patients, we conducted a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial clinical trial (n=92), of 2 g/day calcium and/or 800 IU/day vitamin D3 supplementation vs. placebo over six months. Plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers (CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-8) and an anti-inflammatory marker (IL-10) were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. After six months of treatment, in the vitamin D3 supplementation group, CRP decreased 32% overall (p=0.11), 37% in men (p=0.05), and 41% among non-NSAID users (p=0.05) relative to placebo. In the vitamin D3 supplementation group, TNF-α decreased 13%, IL-6 32%, IL-1β 50%, and IL-8 15%; in the calcium supplementation group, IL-6 decreased 37%, IL-8 11%, and IL-1β 27%. Although these changes were not statistically significant, a combined inflammatory markers z-score decreased 77% (p=0.003) in the vitamin D3 treatment group overall, 83% (p=0.01) among men, and 48% among non-NSAID users (p=0.01). There was no evidence of synergy between vitamin D3 and calcium or effects on IL-10. These preliminary results are consistent with a pattern of reduction in tumor-promoting inflammation biomarkers with vitamin D3 or calcium supplementation alone, and support further investigation of vitamin D3 as a chemopreventive agent against inflammation and colorectal neoplasms.
Vitamin D; calcium; colonic neoplasms; inflammation; biomarkers; chemoprevention trial