Tuberculous aneurysm of the aorta is exceedingly rare. To date, the standard therapy for mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta has been surgery involving in-situ graft placement or extra-anatomic bypass surgery followed by effective anti-tuberculous medication. Only recently has the use of a stent graft in the treatment of tuberculous aortic aneurysm been described in the literature. We report two cases in which a tuberculous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta was successfully repaired using endovascular stent grafts. One case involved is a 42-year-old woman with a large suprarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and a right psoas abscess, and the other, a 41-year-old man in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptured during surgical drainage of a psoas abscess.
Aorta, disease; Aorta, aneurysm; Aorta, grafts and prostheses
We report a rare case of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with
Campylobacter fetus. A 72-year-old male admitted to the hospital
because of pain in the right lower quadrant with pyrexia. The enhanced abdominal computed
tomography (CT) examination showed abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) measuring 50 mm in
maximum diameter and a high-density area of soft tissue density from the right lateral
wall to the anterior wall of the aorta. However, since the patient showed no significant
signs of defervescence after antibiotics administration, so we performed emergency surgery
on the patient based on the diagnosis of impending rupture of mycotic AAA. The aneurysm
was resected in situ reconstruction using a bifurcated albumin-coated knitted Dacron graft
was performed. The cultures of blood and aneurysmal wall grew Campylobacter
fetus, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate surgical management in this
case, and the patient is making satisfactory progress. This is the fifth report of mycotic
AAA characterizing culture positive for Campylobacter fetus in blood and
tissue culture of the aortic aneurysm wall.
mycotic abdominal aneurysm; Campylobacter fetus; vascular surgery
We designed this study to evaluate a multi-institutional experience regarding the efficacy of cryopreserved aortic allografts in the treatment of infected aortic prosthetic grafts or mycotic aneurysms. We reviewed clinical data of all patients from 4 institutions who underwent in situ aortic reconstruction with cryopreserved allografts for either infected aortic prosthetic graft or mycotic aneurysms from during a 6-year period. Relevant clinical variables and treatment outcomes were analyzed.
A total of 42 patients (37 men; overall mean age 63 ± 13 years, range 41–74 years) were identified during this study period. Treatment indications included 34 primary aortic graft infections (81%), 6 mycotic aneurysms (22%), and 2 aortoenteric erosions (5%). Transabdominal and thoracoabdominal approaches were used in 38 (90%) and 4 patients (10%), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly identified organism (n=27, 64%). Although there was no intraoperative death, the 30-day operative mortality was 17% (n=7). There were 21 (50%) nonfatal complications, including local wound infection (n=8), lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (n=5), amputation (n=6), and renal failure requiring hemodialysis (n=2). The average length of hospital stay was 16.4 ± 7 days. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 months, reoperation for allograft revision was necessary in 1 patient due to graft thrombosis (6%). The overall treatment mortality rate was 21% (n=9).
In situ aortic reconstruction with cryopreserved allografts is an acceptable treatment method in patients with infected aortic prosthetic graft or mycotic aneurysms. Our study showed that mid-term graft-related complications such as reinfection or aneurysmal degeneration were uncommon.
Aneurysm, infected/surgery; bacterial infections/complications/surgery; arteries/transplantation; blood vessel prosthesis/adverse effects; cryopreservation; prosthesis-related infections/ surgery; staphylococcal infections/surgery; surgical wound infection/surgery; reoperation; transplantation, homologous
Mycotic aneurysms constitute a small proportion of aortic aneurysms. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysms has been applied with good short-term and midterm results. However, the uncommon aortoenteric fistula formation remains a potentially fatal complication when repairing such infective aneurysms. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with thoracic and abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysms, which were successfully treated with endografting. However, the patient presented 3 months later with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to erosion of the thoracic graft into the oesophagus. The patient was treated conservatively due to the high risk of surgical repair. There is currently little exposure to the management of mycotic aortic aneurysms. If suspected, imaging of the entire vasculature will aid initial diagnosis and highlight the extent of the disease process, allowing for efficient management. Aortic endografting for mycotic thoracic aneurysms is a high-risk procedure yet is still an appropriate intervention. Aortoenteric fistulae pose a rare but severe complication of aortic endografting in this setting.
Infected abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) can present insidiously with non-specific symptoms or they may present as ruptured AAA in the classical manner.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report two cases of mycotic AAA with Listeria monocytogenes. One patient presented with a ruptured aneurysm, while the other patient had a symptomatic non-ruptured presentation with computer tomography (CT) angiogram demonstrating peri-aortic inflammatory change of a rapidly expanding aneurysm. Both patients were treated with excision of the infected tissue and inlay prosthetic surgical repair as well as long term antibiotics.
Arterial aneurysms caused by L. monocytogenes are rare. Risk factors include immunosuppression, infective endocarditis, intravenous drug use and septicaemia. Listeria infections should be discussed with the Health Protection Agency and local microbiologists due to their ubiquity.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm due to L. monocytogenes is best managed via surgical resection in combination with long term antimicrobial therapy. The role of endovascular exclusion is unclear.
Mycotic; Aneurysm; Listeria; Monocytogenes; Aortic
An 81-year old woman with high fever and a history of hospital admission because of pyelonephritis 3 months previously was transferred to our hospital. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a mycotic pseudoaneurysm in the ascending aorta and a massive pericardial effusion. We resected the ascending aorta and the proximal part of the brachiocephalic artery and performed in situ revascularization with a prosthetic vascular graft. Bacterial examination proved that the causative micro-organism was Escherichia coli. The prosthetic graft was wrapped with a pedicled omentum following completion of the aortic reconstruction. Her postoperative course was uneventful. She was discharged from the hospital 1 month postoperatively.
Aneurysm (aorta/aortic); Infection; Pericardium; Prosthesis
Mycotic pseudoaneurysms of native arteries are rare. Treatment involves arterial excision with or without revascularization.
Presentation of case
A 49-year-old diabetic man presented with a 4-month history of progressive left mid-thigh pain, associated with a pulsatile mass and fever. Clinically, he appeared to have a mycotic pseudoaneurysm, which was confirmed by computed tomography. The aneurysm was excluded from the circulation by an extra-anatomical bypass graft using autologous vein.
Native arterial mycotic pseudoaneurysms typically occur in immuno-compromised patients. They may be successfully treated using autologous vein bypass.
Arterial infection is associated with immunosuppressive states and Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism in mycotic aneurysms. Also, Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and anaerobic species have been identified. Salmonella species are associated with mycotic aneurysms in the abdominal aorta and the use of autogenous vein grafts is the standard treatment for this condition. In lower extremities, autogenous conduits have been already used with good results of patency and freedom from re-infection. Endovascular treatment is a feasible approach in these situations, but there is not reports regarding long term results and this treatment is occasionally associated with prosthesis infection.
Pseudoaneurysm; Femoral artery; Salmonella
Mycotic aneurysms are uncommon, but are fatal without appropriate management. Previous reports have shown that anaerobes and gram-negative organisms are less common but more dangerous than other causative agents of mycotic aneurysm. We report the case of a 60-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis in the aorta, and a 10-day of history of lower abdominal pain and fever. This man was diagnosed with an uncommon abdominal aorta mycotic aneurysm caused by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Acinetobacter lwoffii. The aneurysm was successfully treated with antibiotics therapy and aorto-bi-external iliac artery bypass with debridement of the infected aortic wall. We present this case together with a review of the relevant literature.
Aneurysm; Infected; Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; Acinetobacter lwoffii
Primary infections of the aorta and infected aortic aneurysms are rare and are life threatening. Most of them are due to bacterial infection occurring in an atheromatous plaque or a pre existing aneurysm during bacteremia. Rarely spread from a contiguous septic process may be the cause. The reported hospital mortality ranges from 16–44%. Gram positive bacteria are still the most common causative organisms. More recently, Gram negative bacilli are seen increasingly responsible. The mortality rate is higher for the Gram negative infection since they most often cause supra renal aneurysms and are more prone for rupture. Best results are achieved by appropriate antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment. Excision of the infected aneurysm sac as well as surrounding tissue and in situ reconstruction of aorta is the preferred treatment. Pedicled omental cover also helps to reduce infection. Long term antibiotic is needed to prevent reinfection. Mortality is high for those who undergo emergency operation, with advanced age and for nonsalmonella infection.
aorta; aortitis; pseudo aneurysm; mycotic aneurysm
Abdominal aortic mural thrombus is uncommon in the absence of aneurysm or atherosclerosis.
We report the case of a 46-year-old man who presented to our institution with perforated appendicitis for which he initially declined surgery. Four days after admission he ultimately consented to appendectomy and abdominal washout. Follow-up imaging to evaluate for intra-abdominal abscess revealed mural thrombus of the infra-renal abdominal aorta extending into the left iliac artery. This thrombus was not present on the admission CT scan. The patient had no clinical signs of limb ischemia. Conservative treatment with therapeutic anticoagulation resulted in resolution of the thrombus.
While portal, mesenteric, and major retroperitoneal venous thrombosis are well associated with major intra-abdominal infection and inflammatory bowel disease, aorto-iliac arterial thrombus formation in the absence of associated aneurysm, atherosclerosis or embolic source is exceedingly rare. We are unaware of other reports of in-situ aorto-iliac arterial thrombus formation secondary to perforated appendicitis.
aorta; thrombosis; abdominal abscess
We encountered a patient with a large retroperitoneal hematoma due to rupture of a common femoral artery aneurysm. A 77-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with left groin pain and shock. Computed tomography demonstrated a large retroperitoneal hematoma involving the left iliofemoral segment with extravasation of contrast into the left groin from a ruptured left common femoral artery aneurysm. The patient also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Reconstruction of the common femoral artery with a graft was performed successfully. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and subsequently underwent Y-graft replacement of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Cases of true mycotic popliteal artery aneurysm are rare. Presentation is variable but invasive and non-invasive investigations collectively facilitate diagnosis and guide operative procedures. Definitive treatment generally utilizes surgical intervention with excision and reconstruction using autologous vein graft. Prolonged targeted antibiotic therapy is an important adjuvant.
We describe the clinical presentation, radiological investigations and strategies on the management of a 47-year-old Caucasian Irish man who presented with a mycotic aneurysm of the popliteal artery due to thromboembolisation from Streptococus pneumoniae endocarditis.
Cases of true mycotic popliteal artery aneurysms are rare. To the best of our knowledge this is the first documented case of a popliteal artery mycotic aneurysm developing secondary to Streptococus pneumoniae highlighting the changing profile of causative microorganisms.
A 61-year-old man complaining of lumbago and high-grade fever was admitted to our
institution. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a saccular aneurysm in the
infrarenal abdominal aorta and blood culture results were positive for
Streptococcus pneumoniae. He was diagnosed with infected
abdominal aortic aneurysm, and antibiotic therapy was initiated. Follow-up CT
demonstrated a rapidly-enlarging abdominal aortic aneurysm and a newly-developed
descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. For this case, two-stage surgery consisting
of extra-anatomical bypass and in-situ reconstruction using rifampicin-soaked
Dacron graft was performed after an interval of 37 days. The patient was
discharged 14 days after the second surgery without any complications.
infected aortic aneurysm; multiple aneurysms; rifampicin-soaked graft
In order to establish optimal management for aortoenteric fistula (AEF) the records of five patients treated for AEF (four aortoduodenal and one aortogastric fistula) were retrospectively reviewed. The arterial reconstruction procedures were selected according to the surgical findings, underlying cause, and patient status. In situ aortic reconstructions with prosthetic grafts were performed on three patients who had no gross findings of periaortic infection, whereas axillo-bifemoral bypass was carried out in the other two patients with periaortic purulence. In all patients, after retroperitoneal irrigation a pedicled omentum was used to cover the aortic graft or aortic stump. In the preoperative abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan there was a periaortic air shadow in four out of five patients. There was no surgical mortality or graft infection observed during a mean follow-up period of 40 months (range, 24-68 months). Therefore, the treatment results of an AEF can be improved using intravenous contrast-enhanced abdominal CT for rapid diagnosis and selection of an appropriate surgical procedure based on the surgical findings and underlying cause.
Aorta; Intestinal Fistula; Aortic Aneurysm
Infective abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is relatively rare, but a case which is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B is very rare. We experienced one IAAA case due to H. influenzae type B. The patient was 69-year-old man presenting with severe abdominal and back pain and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), as inflammatory marker. The patient was found to have saccular aneurysm infrarenal aorta on computed tomography scanning. First, we started to treat him with antibiotic agent and second, we operated him at day 8 after admission with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. Revascularization was made in situ reconstruction. As the result of culture with aneurysm wall, we found that the cause of this aneurysm was the infection of H. influenzae type B. As far as we know, this bacterium is scarcely reported as the cause of infective aortic aneurysms. We reported this IAAA case with the review of the English literature.
abdominal aortic aneurysm; infection; mycotic aneurysm; polytetrafluoroethylene; C-reactive protein; in situ reconstruction; false aneurysm
Acute type A aortic dissection is a dreaded differential diagnosis of acute chest pain. Long-term outcome mainly depends on pre-existing comorbidities and post-operative complications. We present a patient with aortic graft dehiscence and subsequent severe aortic regurgitation due to fungal graft infection 8 months after repair of acute type A aortic dissection. Redo aortic surgery had to be delayed for 28 days due to intracerebral haemorrhage caused by septic embolism and clipping of a mycotic left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Surgery revealed a circumferentially detached graft at the site of the proximal anastomosis thereby forming a massive pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent successful aortic root replacement using a Freestyle porcine root bioprosthesis (25 mm), followed by re-anastomosis of the coronary arteries and partial replacement of the ascending aorta with a 28 mm Dacron graft. The patient was discharged on day 67 in stable cardiac condition with persistent neurological deficits. This case highlights the challenging management of patients with aortic graft infection and neurological dysfunction after redissection of the ascending aorta who require redo cardiac surgery.
Acute type A aortic dissection; graft dehiscence; neurological dysfunction; redo surgery
We describe a 54-year-old man who had an ascending aortic prosthetic graft and a porcine aortic valve prosthesis that were infected by Candida albicans. This infection led to the formation of a dissecting false aneurysm of the remaining transverse and entire descending thoracic aorta, and the man was admitted to our hospital for surgical treatment in February of 1991. Staged in situ graft replacement was performed using Borst's "elephant trunk" repair for the proximal aortic reconstruction and an open distal anastomosis technique for the distal repair. Candida albicans in the residual prosthetic graft was identified, and therapy with high-dose liposomal amphotericin B was initiated. The use of liposomal amphotericin B reduces the incidence of adverse effects and allows administration of higher doses than those possible with conventional amphotericin B therapy. Lifelong antifungal therapy is recommended for patients with C. albicans infection of prosthetic aortic grafts.
We present a case of 58-year-old woman with underlying diabetes mellitus, hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis, and total hysterectomy for uterine myoma 11 moths ago, who was diagnosed ruptured aortic arch mycotic pseudoaneurysm after a certain period of survey for her unknown fever cause. After emergent surgery with prosthetic graft interposition, all her blood cultures and tissue cultures revealed pathogen with Bacteroides fragilis. Although mycotic aneurysms have been well described in literatures, an aneurysm infected solely with Bacteroides fragilis is unusual, with only eight similar cases in the literature. Here we reported the only female case with her specific clinical and management course and summarized all reported cases of mycotic aneurysm caused by Bacteroides fragilis to clarify their conditions and treatments, alert the difficulty in diagnosis, and importance of highly suspicious.
Patient: Male, 74
Final Diagnosis: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
Symptoms: Palpable abdominal mass
Clinical Procedure: Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair
Coronary artery disease is common in elderly patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Here we report a case of the combination of surgical repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm and off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery.
A 74-year-old man who presented at our clinic with chest pain was diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. His medical history included right coronary artery stenting. Physical examination revealed a pulsatile abdominal mass on the left side and palpable peripheral pulses. Computed tomography scans showed an infrarenal abdominal aneurysm with a 61-mm enlargement. Coronary angiography revealed 80% stenosis in the stent within the right coronary artery and 20% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. The patient underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimal invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with right gastroepiploic artery were performed simultaneously in a single surgery.
We report this case to emphasize the safety and effectiveness of transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. This combined approach shortens hospital stay and decreases cost.
abdominal aortic aneurysm; coronary artery bypass; beating heart
Infective spondylitis occurring concomitantly with mycotic aneurysm is rare. A retrospective record review was conducted in all cases of mycotic aneurysm from January 1995 to December 2004, occurring in a primary care and tertiary referral center. Spontaneous infective spondylitis and mycotic aneurysm were found in six cases (10.3% of 58 mycotic aneurysm patients). Neurological deficit (50% vs. 0; P < 0.001) is the significant clinical manifestation in patients with spontaneous infective spondylitis and mycotic aneurysm. The presence of psoas abscess on computed tomography (83.3% vs. 0; P < 0.001) and endplate destruction on radiography (50% vs. 0; P < 0.001) are predominated in patients with spontaneous infective spondylitis and mycotic aneurysm. Of these six patients, four with Salmonella infection received surgical intervention and all survived. Another two patients (one with Streptococcus pyogenes, another with Staphylococcus aureus) received conservative therapy and subsequently died from rupture of aneurysm or septic shock. Paravertebral soft tissue swelling, presence of psoas abscess and/or unclear soft tissue plane between the aorta and vertebral body in relation to mycotic aneurysm may indicate a concomitant infection in the spine. In contrast, if prevertebral mass is found in the survey of spine infection, coexisting mycotic aneurysm should be considered.
Infective spondylitis; Mycotic aneurysm; Psoas abscess
Aortic pathology progression and/or procedure related complications following endovascular repair should always be considered mostly in older patients. We herein describe a hybrid procedure for treatment of rapidly expanding thoracoabdominal aneurysm following endovascular treatment of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an older patient.
A 82-year-old man at 18 months after endovascular surgery for a contained rupture of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm revealed a type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm with significant increase of the aortic diameters at superior mesenteric and renal artery levels. A hybrid approach consisting of preventive visceral vessel revascularization and endovascular repair of entire abdominal aorta was performed. Under general anaesthesia and by xyphopubic laparotomy, the infrarenal aneurysmatic aorta and common iliac arteries were replaced by a bifurcated woven prosthetic graf. From each of the prosthetic branches two reverse 14x7 mm bifurcated PTFE prosthetic grafts were anastomized to both renal arteries and to the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, respectively. Vessel ischemia was restricted to the time required for anastomosis. Three 10 cm Gore endovascular stent-grafts for a total length of 15 cm, were used. The overlapping of the stent-grafts was carried out from the bottom upwards, starting from the aorto-iliac prosthetic body up to the healthy segment of thoracic aorta, 40 mm from the previous stent-grafts.
The patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day.
This technique offers the advantage of a less invasive treatment, reducing the risk of paraplegia, visceral ischaemia and pulmonary complications, mostly in older patients.
Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause endocarditis and vascular infections that result in severe morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a C. burnetii-infected abdominal aorta and its management in a patient with a previous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.
A 62-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital three months after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with a bifurcated stent graft. He had increasing abdominal complaints and general malaise. A computed tomography scan of his abdomen revealed several para-aneurysmal abscesses. Surgery was performed via midline laparotomy. The entire abdominal wall of his aneurysmal sac, including the abscesses, was removed. The vascular endoprosthesis showed no macroscopic signs of infection. The decision was made to leave the endograft in place because of the severe cardiopulmonary comorbidities, thereby avoiding suprarenal clamping and explantation of this device with venous reconstruction. The proximal and distal parts of the endograft were secured to the aortic wall and common iliac artery walls, respectively, to avoid future migration. Polymerase chain reaction for C. burnetii was positive in all specimens of aortic tissue. Specific antibiotic therapy was initiated. Our patient was discharged in good clinical condition after six days.
In our patient, the infection was limited to the abdominal aneurysm wall, which was removed, leaving the endograft in place. Vascular surgeons should be familiar with this bailout procedure in high-risk patients.
The treatment of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms remains a significant surgical challenge associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the following case report, we describe our successful management of a patient with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using two cryopreserved superficial femoral artery allografts (available from the UK NHS tissue bank) to create a Y-shaped allograft to permit immediate aortic reconstruction after surgical debridement. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a reconstruction has been reported in the literature.
Arterial infection; Vascular allograft; Cryopreservation
A 46-year-old man was admitted for surgery on a ruptured mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Emergency repair was performed, during which certain anomalies were noted. First, the bifurcation of the aorta was posterior to the left common iliac vein. Second there were no internal iliac arteries. Also, there were prominent lumbar arteries compensating for the absent internal iliac arteries bilaterally. This, we consider, is the first reported case of congenitally absent bilateral internal iliac arteries.
Bilateral congenital absence of internal iliac arteries
Intravesical BCG-instillation for bladder cancer is considered safe but is not without risk. While most side-effects are localised and self-limiting, the development of secondary vascular pathology is a rare but significant complication.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 77-year-old male presented with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated aorto-enteric fistula 18 months after receiving intravesical BCG-instillations for early stage transitional cell carcinoma.
Response rates to intravesical BCG for early stage transitional cell carcinoma are high. The procedure produces a localised inflammatory response in the bladder but the exact mechanism of action is unclear. The treatment is generally well tolerated but BCG-sepsis and secondary vascular complications have been documented.
Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm with associated aorto-enteric fistula secondary to BCG is very rare. Few examples have been documented internationally and the extent of corresponding research and associated management proposals is limited.
Surgical options include in situ repair with prosthetic graft, debridement with extra-anatomical bypass and, occasionally, endovascular stent grafting. Recommended medical therapy for systemic BCG infection is Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol.
Current screening methods must be updated with clarification regarding duration of anti-tuberculous therapy and impact of concomitant anti-tuberculous medication on the therapeutic action of intravesical BCG. Long-term outcomes for patients post graft repair for mycotic aneurysm are unknown and more research is required regarding the susceptibility of vascular grafts to mycobacterial infection.
Recognition of the risks associated with BCG-instillations, even in immunocompetent subjects, is paramount and must be considered even several months or years after receiving the therapy.
BCG; Aortic aneurysm; Aorto-enteric fistula; Bladder carcinoma