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1.  Management of the Infected Aortoiliac Aneurysms 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2012;5(3):334-341.
Purpose: We have reviewed ruptured and nonruptured infected aortoiliac aneurysms to study the clinical presentation, management and eventual outcome of patients managed with in situ prostheses, axillofemoral prostheses grafts and endovascular reconstruction.
Design: A retrospective chart review of 16 cases treated at a single institution.
Methods: From January 2007 to March 2008, a total of 93 patients with aortoiliac aneurysms underwent surgical repair at our institution. Among these, 16 patients (17.2%) were shown to be infected aneurysms of the infrarenal (n = 6), juxtarenal (n = 2), and pararenal aorta (n = 1); the others were 5 common, 1 external, and 1 internal iliac arteries. Fourteen patients were male and 2 were female with the mean age of 66 years (range, 45–79). In all cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal computed tomography and empirical parenteral antibiotics were administered at least 1 week, unless in patients need emergency operations. At the time of an operation, all were saccular and were classified as primary infected aortoiliac aneurysms. Thirteen patients had surgical debridement with in situ graft interposition and omental wrapping, 2 underwent aneurysm exclusion and extra-anatomic (axillo-femoral) bypass, 1 underwent aneurysmectomy of left external iliac artery and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft interposition, and 1 underwent endovascular exclusion. The parenteral antibiotics were continued in the postoperative period for 4–6 weeks. Chronic renal disease was present in 37.5% (6/16), with diabetes mellitus present in 31.25% (5/16). The most common pathogen was Salmonella sp. (n = 6) and E. coli (n = 5). Thirty-seven percent (6/16) of the patients presented late, with a 37.5% (6/16) incidence of ruptured (4 contained, 2 free ruptured) that needed emergency surgery.
Results: Disease-specific mortality was 31.25% (5/16). The 30-day mortality rate of ruptured cases is high 67% (4/6), because patients present late in the course of the disease. One patient who underwent aneurysm exclusion and extra-anatomic (axillo-femoral) bypass died 6 months later from burst aortic stump. Salmonella and E. coli are the most common pathogens.
Conclusions: Early diagnosis followed by surgical intervention with proper antibiotic coverage provides the best results. Mortality rate was still high in patients with sepsis and rupture. An in situ graft interposition and omental wrapping is a safe option for revascularization of infected aneurysms of the iliac arteries and infrarenal aorta.
PMCID: PMC3595853  PMID: 23555533
infected aortoiliac aneurysms; open repair; endovascular repair
2.  In Situ Reconstruction with Cryopreserved Arterial Allografts for Management of Mycotic Aneurysms or Aortic Prosthetic Graft Infections 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  2006;33(1):14-18.
We designed this study to evaluate a multi-institutional experience regarding the efficacy of cryopreserved aortic allografts in the treatment of infected aortic prosthetic grafts or mycotic aneurysms. We reviewed clinical data of all patients from 4 institutions who underwent in situ aortic reconstruction with cryopreserved allografts for either infected aortic prosthetic graft or mycotic aneurysms from during a 6-year period. Relevant clinical variables and treatment outcomes were analyzed.
A total of 42 patients (37 men; overall mean age 63 ± 13 years, range 41–74 years) were identified during this study period. Treatment indications included 34 primary aortic graft infections (81%), 6 mycotic aneurysms (22%), and 2 aortoenteric erosions (5%). Transabdominal and thoracoabdominal approaches were used in 38 (90%) and 4 patients (10%), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly identified organism (n=27, 64%). Although there was no intraoperative death, the 30-day operative mortality was 17% (n=7). There were 21 (50%) nonfatal complications, including local wound infection (n=8), lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (n=5), amputation (n=6), and renal failure requiring hemodialysis (n=2). The average length of hospital stay was 16.4 ± 7 days. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 months, reoperation for allograft revision was necessary in 1 patient due to graft thrombosis (6%). The overall treatment mortality rate was 21% (n=9).
In situ aortic reconstruction with cryopreserved allografts is an acceptable treatment method in patients with infected aortic prosthetic graft or mycotic aneurysms. Our study showed that mid-term graft-related complications such as reinfection or aneurysmal degeneration were uncommon.
PMCID: PMC1413601  PMID: 16572862
Aneurysm, infected/surgery; bacterial infections/complications/surgery; arteries/transplantation; blood vessel prosthesis/adverse effects; cryopreservation; prosthesis-related infections/ surgery; staphylococcal infections/surgery; surgical wound infection/surgery; reoperation; transplantation, homologous
3.  Tuberculous Aneurysm of the Abdominal Aorta: Endovascular Repair Using Stent Grafts in Two Cases 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2000;1(4):215-218.
Tuberculous aneurysm of the aorta is exceedingly rare. To date, the standard therapy for mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta has been surgery involving in-situ graft placement or extra-anatomic bypass surgery followed by effective anti-tuberculous medication. Only recently has the use of a stent graft in the treatment of tuberculous aortic aneurysm been described in the literature. We report two cases in which a tuberculous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta was successfully repaired using endovascular stent grafts. One case involved is a 42-year-old woman with a large suprarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and a right psoas abscess, and the other, a 41-year-old man in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptured during surgical drainage of a psoas abscess.
PMCID: PMC2718204  PMID: 11752958
Aorta, disease; Aorta, aneurysm; Aorta, grafts and prostheses
4.  Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm 
The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required.
The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in comparison to open surgical repair (OSR).
Clinical Need
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized, abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm or 50% of the aortic diameter at the diaphragm. (1) A true AAA involves all 3 layers of the vessel wall. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. (61) Heller et al. (44) analyzed information from a national hospital database in the United States. They found no significant change in the incidence rate of elective AAA repair or ruptured AAA presented to the nation’s hospitals. The investigators concluded that technologic and treatment advances over the past 19 years have not affected the outcomes of patients with AAAs, and the ability to identify and to treat patients with AAAs has not improved.
Classification of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
At least 90% of the AAAs are affected by atherosclerosis, and most of these aneurysms are below the level of the renal arteries.(1)
An abdominal aortic aneurysm may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. An AAA may be classified according to their sizes:(7)
Small aneurysms: less than 5 cm in diameter.
Medium aneurysms: 5-7cm.
Large aneurysms: more than 7 cm in diameter.
Small aneurysms account for approximately 50% of all clinically recognized aneurysms.(7)
Aortic aneurysms may be classified according to their gross appearance as follows (1):
Fusiform aneurysms affect the entire circumference of a vessel, resulting in a diffusely dilated lesion
Saccular aneurysms involve only a portion of the circumference, resulting in an outpouching (protrusion) in the vessel wall.
Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 1% and 5.4%. (61) The prevalence is related to age and vascular risk factors. It is more common in men and in those with a positive family history.
In Canada, Abdominal aortic aneurysms are the 10th leading cause of death in men 65 years of age or older. (60) Naylor (60) reported that the rate of AAA repair in Ontario has increased from 38 per 100,000 population in 1981/1982 to 54 per 100,000 population in 1991/1992. For the period of 1989/90 to 1991/92, the rate of AAA repair in Ontarians age 45 years and over was 53 per 100,000. (60) In the United States, about 200,000 new cases are diagnosed each year, and 50,000 to 60,000 surgical AAA repairs are performed. (2) Ruptured AAAs are responsible for about 15,000 deaths in the United States annually. One in 10 men older than 80 years has some aneurysmal change in his aorta. (2)
Symptoms of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
AAAs usually do not produce symptoms. However, as they expand, they may become painful. Compression or erosion of adjacent tissue by aneurysms also may cause symptoms. The formation of mural thrombi, a type of blood clots, within the aneurysm may predispose people to peripheral embolization, where blood vessels become blocked. Occasionally, an aneurysm may leak into the vessel wall and the periadventitial area, causing pain and local tenderness. More often, acute rupture occurs without any prior warning, causing acute pain and hypotension. This complication is always life-threatening and requires an emergency operation.
Diagnosis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
An AAA is usually detected on routine examination as a palpable, pulsatile, and non-tender mass. (1)
Abdominal radiography may show the calcified outline of the aneurysms; however, about 25% of aneurysms are not calcified and cannot be visualized by plain x-ray. (1) An abdominal ultrasound provides more accurate detection, can delineate the traverse and longitudinal dimensions of the aneurysm, and is useful for serial documentation of aneurysm size. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance have also been used for follow-up of aortic aneurysms. These technologies, particularly contrast-enhanced computer tomography, provide higher resolution than ultrasound.
Abdominal aortography remains the gold standard to evaluate patients with aneurysms for surgery. This technique helps document the extent of the aneurysms, especially their upper and lower limits. It also helps show the extent of associated athereosclerotic vascular disease. However, the procedure carries a small risk of complications, such as bleeding, allergic reactions, and atheroembolism. (1)
Prognosis of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
The risk of rupture of an untreated AAA is a continuous function of aneurysm size as represented by the maximal diameter of the AAA. The annual rupture rate is near zero for aneurysms less than 4 cm in diameter. The risk is about 1% per year for aneurysms 4 to 4.9 cm, 11% per year for aneurysms 5 to 5.9 cm, and 25% per year or more for aneurysms greater than 6 cm. (7)
The 1-year mortality rate of patients with AAAs who do not undergo surgical treatment is about 25% if the aneurysms are 4 to 6 cm in diameter. This increases to 50% for aneurysms exceeding 6 cm. Other major causes of mortality for people with AAAs include coronary heart disease and stroke.
Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
Treatment of an aneurysm is indicated under any one of the following conditions:
The AAA is greater than 6 cm in diameter.
The patient is symptomatic.
The AAA is rapidly expanding irrespective of the absolute diameter.
Open surgical repair of AAA is still the gold standard. It is a major operation involving the excision of dilated area and placement of a sutured woven graft. The surgery may be performed under emergent situation following the rupture of an AAA, or it may be performed electively.
Elective OSR is generally considered appropriate for healthy patients with aneurysms 5 to 6 cm in diameter. (7) Coronary artery disease is the major underlying illness contributing to morbidity and mortality in OSR. Other medical comorbidities, such as chronic renal failure, chronic lung disease, and liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension, may double or triple the usual risk of OSR.
Serial noninvasive follow-up of small aneurysms (less than 5 cm) is an alternative to immediate surgery.
Endovascular repair of AAA is the third treatment option and is the topic of this review.
PMCID: PMC3387737  PMID: 23074438
5.  Aorto-enteric fistula development secondary to mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm following intravesical bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) treatment for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder 
Intravesical BCG-instillation for bladder cancer is considered safe but is not without risk. While most side-effects are localised and self-limiting, the development of secondary vascular pathology is a rare but significant complication.
A 77-year-old male presented with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated aorto-enteric fistula 18 months after receiving intravesical BCG-instillations for early stage transitional cell carcinoma.
Response rates to intravesical BCG for early stage transitional cell carcinoma are high. The procedure produces a localised inflammatory response in the bladder but the exact mechanism of action is unclear. The treatment is generally well tolerated but BCG-sepsis and secondary vascular complications have been documented.
Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm with associated aorto-enteric fistula secondary to BCG is very rare. Few examples have been documented internationally and the extent of corresponding research and associated management proposals is limited.
Surgical options include in situ repair with prosthetic graft, debridement with extra-anatomical bypass and, occasionally, endovascular stent grafting. Recommended medical therapy for systemic BCG infection is Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol.
Current screening methods must be updated with clarification regarding duration of anti-tuberculous therapy and impact of concomitant anti-tuberculous medication on the therapeutic action of intravesical BCG. Long-term outcomes for patients post graft repair for mycotic aneurysm are unknown and more research is required regarding the susceptibility of vascular grafts to mycobacterial infection.
Recognition of the risks associated with BCG-instillations, even in immunocompetent subjects, is paramount and must be considered even several months or years after receiving the therapy.
PMCID: PMC3537938  PMID: 23127864
BCG; Aortic aneurysm; Aorto-enteric fistula; Bladder carcinoma
6.  Mycotic Abdominal Aneurysm Caused by Campylobacter Fetus: A Case Report for Surgical Management 
Annals of Vascular Diseases  2011;4(1):56-59.
We report a rare case of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with Campylobacter fetus. A 72-year-old male admitted to the hospital because of pain in the right lower quadrant with pyrexia. The enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) examination showed abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) measuring 50 mm in maximum diameter and a high-density area of soft tissue density from the right lateral wall to the anterior wall of the aorta. However, since the patient showed no significant signs of defervescence after antibiotics administration, so we performed emergency surgery on the patient based on the diagnosis of impending rupture of mycotic AAA. The aneurysm was resected in situ reconstruction using a bifurcated albumin-coated knitted Dacron graft was performed. The cultures of blood and aneurysmal wall grew Campylobacter fetus, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate surgical management in this case, and the patient is making satisfactory progress. This is the fifth report of mycotic AAA characterizing culture positive for Campylobacter fetus in blood and tissue culture of the aortic aneurysm wall.
PMCID: PMC3595778  PMID: 23555431
mycotic abdominal aneurysm; Campylobacter fetus; vascular surgery
7.  Aneurysmal degeneration and type Ib endoleak with proximal aneurysm rupture: A case report, review of literature and technical suggestions 
Despite the reduction in mortality incidences of AAA in proportion to increased use of EVAR, the natural history of aneurysms with the presence of an endoleak post EVAR remains unclear. With a cumulative AAA rupture incidence of 2% at six years post EVAR, the lack of an immediate endoleak is not an indicator of success.
Case report
We present a case of an 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with generalised abdominal pain and hypotension. Four years earlier he had underwent an EVAR for a 6 cm infra-renal AAA. The computed tomography angiogram (CTA) illustrated aneurysmal dilatation of the left common iliac artery with extensive retroperitoneal haemorrhage. The patient was transferred to the operating room for an endovascular repair but due to significant episodes of haemodynamic instability, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed. To our surprise, there was a left-sided infra-renal anterolateral rupture of the aneurysm sac. The stent was explanted with difficulty from its fixed proximal aortic section down to left-sided common iliac artery. The fixed bare portion of the stent in the proximal aorta and in the right common iliac artery was left in-situ and the rest was integrated to a trouser graft with an end-to-end technique.
On detection of an endoleak, the aim should focus on their endovascular management, as open conversions are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Conclusion: If open conversion is indicated, all technical aspects of the repair including partial stent extraction should be considered for best outcome.
PMCID: PMC4268475  PMID: 25568785
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA); Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR); Endoleak; Technical suggestion; Explantation of endograft
8.  Successful emergency endovascular treatment of juxtarenal and infrarental mycotic aortic aneurysms in patients with small diameter aortae using Cook® Zenith ESLE Stentgrafts  
Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysm is an alternative to open repair if the patho-anatomy is suitable. The aortic size above and below the mycotic aneurysm may be small.
A retrospective review was made of prospectively collected departmental computerised database.
Three oriental patients with juxta- and infra-renal mycotic aortic aneurysms with a small aortic diameter of 17 mm to 18 mm underwent successful emergency endovascular treatment using Cook® Zenith ESLE stentgrafts. These are ancillary devices aimed at iliac extensions usually.
This is to our knowledge the first case series of Cook® Zenith ESLE iliac component endografts for the treatment of aortic mycotic aneurysms with small aortae, and short- and mid-term results are encouraging.
PMCID: PMC4129797  PMID: 25215054
Endovascular; Mycotic; Small aorta; Oversizing; Cook®; Zenith ESLE Stentgrafts
9.  Open reconstruction of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms 
Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery  2012;1(3):373-380.
Technical details of our strategy for reconstructing the thoracoabdominal aorta are presented. Between October 1999 and June 2012, 152 patients underwent surgery for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (Crawford classification type I =21, type II =43, type III =73, type IV =15). Mean age was 64.6±13.9 years. Sixty-three (41.4%) patients had aortic dissection, including acute type B dissection in 2 (1.2%) and ruptured aneurysms in 17 (11.2%). Eight (5.3%) patients had mycotic aneurysms, and 3 (2.0%) had aortitis. Emergent or urgent surgery was performed in 25 (16.4%) patients. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance (MR) angiography detected the Adamkiewicz artery in 103 (67.8%) patients. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage (CSFD) was performed in 115 (75.7%) patients and intraoperative motor evoked potentials were recorded in 97 (63.8%). One hundred and seven (70.4%) patients had reconstruction of the intercostal arteries from T7 to L2, 35 of which were reconstructed with the aortic patch technique and 72 with branched grafts. The mean number of reconstructed intercostal arteries was 3.1±2.5 pairs. Mild hypothermic partial cardiopulmonary bypass at 32-34 °C was used in 105 (69.1%) patients, left heart bypass was used in 4 (2.6%), and deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass below 20 °C was used in 42 (27.6%). Thirty-day mortality was 9 (5.9%), and hospital mortality was 20 (13.2%). Independent risk factors for hospital mortality were emergency surgery (OR 13.4, P=0.003) and aortic cross clamping over 2 hours (OR 5.7, P=0.04). Postoperative spinal cord ischemia occurred in 16 (10.5%, 8 patients with paraplegia and 8 with paraparesis). Risk factors for developing spinal cord ischemic complications were prior surgery involving either the descending thoracic or the abdominal aorta (OR 3.75, P=0.05), diabetes mellitus (OR 5.49, P=0.03), and post-bypass hypotension <80 mmHg (OR 1.06, P=0.03). Postoperative survival at 5 years was 83.6±4.5%; 5-year survival was 47.5±8.6% in patients with spinal cord ischemia and 88.9±10.4% in those without spinal cord ischemia.
PMCID: PMC3741768  PMID: 23977523
Thoracoabdominal aorta; spinal cord ischemia; intercostal artery reconstruction; postoperative paraplegia
10.  Combined transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass with right gastroepiploic artery and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair 
Patient: Male, 74
Final Diagnosis: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
Symptoms: Palpable abdominal mass
Medication: —
Clinical Procedure: Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair
Specialty: Surgery
Rare disease
Coronary artery disease is common in elderly patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Here we report a case of the combination of surgical repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm and off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery.
Case Report:
A 74-year-old man who presented at our clinic with chest pain was diagnosed with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. His medical history included right coronary artery stenting. Physical examination revealed a pulsatile abdominal mass on the left side and palpable peripheral pulses. Computed tomography scans showed an infrarenal abdominal aneurysm with a 61-mm enlargement. Coronary angiography revealed 80% stenosis in the stent within the right coronary artery and 20% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. The patient underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting and abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimal invasive coronary artery bypass grafting with right gastroepiploic artery were performed simultaneously in a single surgery.
We report this case to emphasize the safety and effectiveness of transdiaphragmatic off-pump and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. This combined approach shortens hospital stay and decreases cost.
PMCID: PMC3757910  PMID: 23997852
abdominal aortic aneurysm; coronary artery bypass; beating heart
11.  Aortoesophageal Fistula after Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair of a Mycotic Thoracic Aneurysm 
Mycotic aneurysms constitute a small proportion of aortic aneurysms. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysms has been applied with good short-term and midterm results. However, the uncommon aortoenteric fistula formation remains a potentially fatal complication when repairing such infective aneurysms. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with thoracic and abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysms, which were successfully treated with endografting. However, the patient presented 3 months later with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to erosion of the thoracic graft into the oesophagus. The patient was treated conservatively due to the high risk of surgical repair. There is currently little exposure to the management of mycotic aortic aneurysms. If suspected, imaging of the entire vasculature will aid initial diagnosis and highlight the extent of the disease process, allowing for efficient management. Aortic endografting for mycotic thoracic aneurysms is a high-risk procedure yet is still an appropriate intervention. Aortoenteric fistulae pose a rare but severe complication of aortic endografting in this setting.
PMCID: PMC3167181  PMID: 21904681
12.  Large tender abdominal aortic aneurysm presented with concomitant acute appendicitis: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:107.
The management of concurrently occurring abdominal aortic aneurysm and another intra-abdominal pathology is controversial and represents a difficult management problem for the surgeon. Most surgeons are reluctant to perform a second non vascular procedure at the time of the aneurysm repair because of the risk of graft infection. Some evidence suggests that the one-stage elective surgical treatment in selected patients with concomitant abdominal aortic aneurysm and other pathologies; especially Gastro-Intestinal malignancies, is safe with superior cost effectiveness. However, there is a major dilemma in the management patients with large aneurysm which require an urgent repair and presented with concomitant pathologies that carry a high risk of sepsis. In this case report, we describe an unusual presentation of a large aneurysm with concomitant Acute Appendicitis where both needed an urgent surgical intervention. To our best knowledge, there has been no similar case report published in literature.
Case report
A 66 years old Caucasian male presented with a dual pathology of large abdominal aortic aneurysm and acute appendicitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by Computerized Tomography scan of his abdomen. He underwent a 2-stage operation; open Appendicectomy followed by open repair of his aneurysm to avoid the risk of graft infection. He had an uneventful recovery period with a full return to normal life.
The incidence of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and coexistent intra-abdominal surgical pathology is increasing, and the surgical strategy for those patients remains controversial. There are not enough studies that looked directly into the management of large abdominal aortic aneurysm which require an urgent repair and presented with concomitant pathologies that carry a high risk of sepsis. In such situations, simultaneous operations should be avoided because of the risk of prosthetic graft infection and priority should be given to the symptomatic or most life threatening condition. The second pathology should be dealt with as soon as possible; preferably within the same admission. More studies are needed to look into this issue; however, this would be rather difficult because of the uncommon and complex nature of such presentations.
PMCID: PMC2640347  PMID: 19183456
13.  Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm 
Executive Summary
To conduct an assessment on endovascular repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA).
Clinical Need
Aneurysm is the most common condition of the thoracic aorta requiring surgery. Aortic aneurysm is defined as a localized dilatation of the aorta. Most aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. However, TAA tends to enlarge progressively and compress surrounding structures causing symptoms such as chest or back pain, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, stridor (a harsh, high-pitched breath sound), and hoarseness. Significant aortic regurgitation causes symptoms of congestive heart failure. Embolization of the thrombus to the distal arterial circulation may occur and cause related symptoms. The aneurysm may eventually rupture and create a life-threatening condition.
The overall incidence rate of TAA is about 10 per 100,000 person-years. The descending aorta is involved in about 30% to 40% of these cases.
The prognosis of large untreated TAAs is poor, with a 3-year survival rate as low as 25%. Intervention is strongly recommended for any symptomatic TAA or any TAA that exceeds twice the diameter of a normal aorta or is 6 cm or larger. Open surgical treatment of TAA involves left thoracotomy and aortic graft replacement. Surgical treatment has been found to improve survival when compared with medical therapy. However, despite dramatic advances in surgical techniques for performing such complex operations, operative mortality from centres of excellence are between 8% and 20% for elective cases, and up to 50% in patients requiring emergency operations. In addition, survivors of open surgical repair of TAAs may suffer from severe complications. Postoperative or postprocedural complications of descending TAA repair include paraplegia, myocardial infarction, stroke, respiratory failure, renal failure, and intestinal ischemia.
The Technology
Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) using a stent graft, a procedure called endovascular stent-graft (ESG) placement, is a new alternative to the traditional surgical approach. It is less invasive, and initial results from several studies suggest that it may reduce mortality and morbidity associated with the repair of descending TAAs.
The goal in endovascular repair is to exclude the aneurysm from the systemic circulation and prevent it from rupturing, which is life-threatening. The endovascular placement of a stent graft eliminates the systemic pressure acting on the weakened wall of the aneurysm that may lead to the rupture. However, ESG placement has some specific complications, including endovascular leak (endoleak), graft migration, stent fracture, and mechanical damage to the access artery and aortic wall.
The Talent stent graft (manufactured by Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN) is licensed in Canada for the treatment of patients with TAA (Class 4; licence 36552). The design of this device has evolved since its clinical introduction. The current version has a more flexible delivery catheter than did the original system. The prosthesis is composed of nitinol stents between thin layers of polyester graft material. Each stent is secured with oversewn sutures to prevent migration.
Review Strategy
To compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ESG placement in the treatment of TAAs with a conventional surgical approach
To summarize the safety profile and effectiveness of ESG placement in the treatment of descending TAAs
Measures of Effectiveness
Primary Outcome
Mortality rates (30-day and longer term)
Secondary Outcomes
Technical success rate of introducing a stent graft and exclusion of the aneurysm sac from systemic circulation
Rate of reintervention (through surgical or endovascular approach)
Measures of Safety
Complications were categorized into 2 classes:
Those specific to the ESG procedure, including rates of aneurysm rupture, endoleak, graft migration, stent fracture, and kinking; and
Those due to the intervention, either surgical or endovascular. These include paraplegia, stroke, cardiovascular events, respiratory failure, real insufficiency, and intestinal ischemia.
Inclusion Criteria
Studies comparing the clinical outcomes of ESG treatment with surgical approaches
Studies reporting on the safety and effectiveness of the ESG procedure for the treatment of descending TAAs
Exclusion Criteria
Studies investigating the clinical effectiveness of ESG placement for other conditions such as aortic dissection, aortic ulcer, and traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta
Studies investigating the aneurysms of the ascending and the arch of the aorta
Studies using custom-made grafts
Literature Search
The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched The International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for health technology assessments. It also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Cochrane CENTRAL from January 1, 2000 to July 11, 2005 for studies on ESG procedures. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies.
One health technology assessment from the United Kingdom was identified. This systematic review included all pathologies of the thoracic aorta; therefore, it did not match the inclusion criteria. The search yielded 435 citations; of these, 9 studies met inclusion criteria.
Summary of Findings
The results of a comparative study found that in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between ESG placement and surgery patients (2 [4.8%] for ESG vs. 6 [11.3%] for surgery).
Pooled data from case series with a mean follow-up ranging from 12 to 38 months showed a 30-day mortality and late mortality rate of 3.9% and 5.5%, respectively. These rates are lower than are those reported in the literature for surgical repair of TAA.
Case series showed that the most common cause of early death in patients undergoing endovascular repair is aortic rupture, and the most common causes of late death are cardiac events and aortoesophageal or aortobronchial fistula.
Technical Success Rate
Technical success rates reported by case series are 55% to 100% (100% and 94.4% in 2 studies with all elective cases, 89% in a study with 5% emergent cases, and 55% in a study with 42% emergent cases).
Surgical Reintervention
In the comparative study, 3 (7.1%) patients in the ESG group and 14 (26.5%) patients in the surgery group required surgical reintervention. In the ESG group, the reasons for surgical intervention were postoperative bleeding at the access site, paraplegia, and type 1 endoleak. In the surgical group, the reasons for surgery were duodenal perforation, persistent thoracic duct leakage, false aneurysm, and 11 cases of postoperative bleeding.
Pooled data from case series show that 9 (2.6%) patients required surgical intervention. The reasons for surgical intervention were endoleak (3 cases), aneurysm enlargement and suspected infection (1 case), aortic dissection (1 case), pseudoaneurysm of common femoral artery (1 case), evacuation of hematoma (1 case), graft migration (1 case), and injury to the access site (1 case).
Endovascular Revision
In the comparative study, 3 (7.1%) patients required endovascular revision due to persistent endoleak.
Pooled data from case series show that 19 (5.3%) patients required endovascular revision due to persistent endoleak.
Graft Migration
Two case series reported graft migration. In one study, 3 proximal and 4 component migrations were noted at 2-year follow-up (total of 5%). Another study reported 1 (3.7%) case of graft migration. Overall, the incidence of graft migration was 2.6%.
Aortic Rupture
In the comparative study, aortic rupture due to bare stent occurred in 1 case (2%). The pooled incidence of aortic rupture or dissection reported by case series was 1.4%.
Postprocedural Complications
In the comparative study, there were no statistically significant differences between the ESG and surgery groups in postprocedural complications, except for pneumonia. The rate of pneumonia was 9% for those who received an ESG and 28% for those who had surgery (P = .02). There were no cases of paraplegia in either group. The rate of other complications for ESG and surgery including stroke, cardiac, respiratory, and intestinal ischemia were all 5.1% for ESG placement and 10% for surgery. The rate for mild renal failure was 16% in the ESG group and 30% in the surgery group. The rate for severe renal failure was 11% for ESG placement and 10% for surgery.
Pooled data from case series show the following postprocedural complication rates in the ESG placement group: paraplegia (2.2%), stroke (3.9%), cardiac (2.9%), respiratory (8.7%), renal failure (2.8%), and intestinal ischemia (1%).
Time-Related Outcomes
The results of the comparative study show statistically significant differences between the ESG and surgery group for mean operative time (ESG, 2.7 hours; surgery, 5 hours), mean duration of intensive care unit stay (ESG, 11 days; surgery, 14 days), and mean length of hospital stay (ESG, 10 days; surgery, 30 days).
The mean duration of intensive care unit stay and hospital stay derived from case series is 1.6 and 7.8 days, respectively.
Ontario-Based Economic Analysis
In Ontario, the annual treatment figures for fiscal year 2004 include 17 cases of descending TAA repair procedures (source: Provincial Health Planning Database). Fourteen of these have been identified as “not ruptured” with a mean hospital length of stay of 9.23 days, and 3 cases have been identified as “ruptured,” with a mean hospital length of stay of 28 days. However, because one Canadian Classification of Health Interventions code was used for both procedures, it is not possible to determine how many were repaired with an EVAR procedure or with an open surgical procedure.
Hospitalization Costs
The current fiscal year forecast of in-hospital direct treatment costs for all in-province procedures of repair of descending TAAs is about $560,000 (Cdn). The forecast in-hospital total cost per year for in-province procedures is about $720,000 (Cdn). These costs include the device cost when the procedure is EVAR (source: Ontario Case Costing Initiative).
Professional (Ontario Health Insurance Plan) Costs
Professional costs per treated patient were calculated and include 2 preoperative thoracic surgery or EVAR consultations.
The professional costs of an EVAR include the fees paid to the surgeons, anesthetist, and surgical assistant (source: fee service codes). The procedure was calculated to take about 150 minutes.
The professional costs of an open surgical repair include the fees of the surgeon, anesthetist, and surgical assistant. Open surgical repair was estimated to take about 300 minutes.
Services provided by professionals in intensive care units were also taken into consideration, as were the costs of 2 postoperative consultations that the patients receive on average once they are discharged from the hospital. Therefore, total Ontario Health Insurance Plan costs per treated patient treated with EVAR are on average $2,956 (ruptured or not ruptured), as opposed to $5,824 for open surgical repair and $6,157 for open surgical repair when the aneurysm is ruptured.
Endovascular stent graft placement is a less invasive procedure for repair of TAA than is open surgical repair.
There is no high-quality evidence with long-term follow-up data to support the use of EVAR as the first choice of treatment for patients with TAA that are suitable candidates for surgical intervention.
However, short- and medium-term outcomes of ESG placement reported by several studies are satisfactory and comparable to surgical intervention; therefore, for patients at high risk of surgery, it is a practical option to consider. Short- and medium-term results show that the benefit of ESG placement over the surgical approach is a lower 30-day mortality and paraplegia rate; and shorter operative time, ICU stay, and hospital stay.
PMCID: PMC3382300  PMID: 23074469
14.  Surgical management of mitral valve infective endocarditis with annular abscess and calcification in the setting of a leaking mycotic infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report 
We present the case of a previously well seventy-four year old male caucasian grazier who presented with mild back pain and was subsequently found to have a large posterior mitral valve leaflet perivalvular abscess associated with mitral annulus calcification and a mycotic infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) of Staphylococcal origin. He underwent a right axillofemoral bypass with oversewn aorta and a right to left femoral crossover graft, and a subsequent mitral valve repair with decalcification/debridement of the annulus and extensive posterior leaflet reconstruction with pericardium patch. Despite multiple sequelae and an extended intensive care and hospital stay, the patient was discharged home after six months.
PMCID: PMC4181699  PMID: 25238713
Mitral valve endocarditis; Mitral annulus abscess; Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm
15.  A novel measurement technique for the design of fenestrated stent grafts: Comparison with three-dimensional aorta models 
Stent graft placement is an acceptable treatment option for aortic disease, particularly for abdominal aortic aneurysm. At present, the use of stent grafts is expanding beyond current indications for use. Fenestrated stent grafts are used in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms whose aortic anatomy is unsuitable for repair using standard devices. The success of fenestrated stent graft placement is largely dependent on planning, including obtaining measurements and designing the stent.
To demonstrate a measurement technique that may be used for the design of fenestrated stent grafts to repair endovascular aneurysms, and to compare these measurements, obtained using archived two-dimensional patient data, with measurements obtained using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer-assisted design model.
Fenestrated stent grafts were designed and fabricated based on computed tomographic angiography images. 3-D models were constructed using modelling software and rapid prototyping technology incorporated with fused deposition modelling. The stent grafts were trunk-type, with four holes for the visceral branches (celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery, right renal artery and left renal artery). Computed tomography scans of 10 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms were reviewed. Axial, multiplanar reconstruction and curved multiplanar reconstruction images were used to measure 11 parameters. Sizing of the fenestrated aortic stent grafts was performed independently by an experienced interventional radiologist, and the results were compared with the same measurements calculated using the 3-D aorta model (generated using Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System software [Materialise NV, Belgium]). Data were reported as the mean of the measurements. Measurements were evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs).
A total of 10 fenestrated stent grafts were fabricated. The proximal landing section above the celiac axis (one point of the wall being defined as the standard point) was 3 cm, and the distal flared section was 3 cm below the lowest renal artery. Ten computer-assisted design aorta models were successfully constructed. Measurements of the aortic diameter showed high agreement between those obtained using the archived patient computer system stent graft and those obtained using the 3-D aorta model. The CCC for variability was 0.9974. The distance from the standard point to the branch vessels also demonstrated good agreement. The CCC for variability was 0.9999.
A direct measurement technique using a standard point was simple to perform and was easily applied to the fabrication process. Preparation time will likely be shortened and the versatility of stent grafts will be improved using this method. It will be possible to produce standardized fenestrated stent grafts once patients’ measurements are recorded and analyzed.
A fenestrated stent graft design technique using measurements of distance from a standard point generally showed a high level of agreement with a 3-D aorta model.
PMCID: PMC3716489  PMID: 24294038
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Fenestration; Stent graft
16.  Endograft-preserving therapy of a patient with Coxiella burnetii-infected abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report 
Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause endocarditis and vascular infections that result in severe morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a C. burnetii-infected abdominal aorta and its management in a patient with a previous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.
Case presentation
A 62-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital three months after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with a bifurcated stent graft. He had increasing abdominal complaints and general malaise. A computed tomography scan of his abdomen revealed several para-aneurysmal abscesses. Surgery was performed via midline laparotomy. The entire abdominal wall of his aneurysmal sac, including the abscesses, was removed. The vascular endoprosthesis showed no macroscopic signs of infection. The decision was made to leave the endograft in place because of the severe cardiopulmonary comorbidities, thereby avoiding suprarenal clamping and explantation of this device with venous reconstruction. The proximal and distal parts of the endograft were secured to the aortic wall and common iliac artery walls, respectively, to avoid future migration. Polymerase chain reaction for C. burnetii was positive in all specimens of aortic tissue. Specific antibiotic therapy was initiated. Our patient was discharged in good clinical condition after six days.
In our patient, the infection was limited to the abdominal aneurysm wall, which was removed, leaving the endograft in place. Vascular surgeons should be familiar with this bailout procedure in high-risk patients.
PMCID: PMC3250966  PMID: 22145758
17.  External aortic wrap for repair of type 1 endoleak☆ 
Type 1 endoleak is a rare complication after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) with a reported frequency up to 2.88%. It is a major risk factor for aneurysmal enlargement and rupture.
We present a case of a 68 year old gentleman who was found to have a proximal type 1 endoleak with loss of graft wall apposition on routine surveillance imaging post-EVAR. An initial attempt at endovascular repair was unsuccessful. Given the patient's multiple medical co-morbidities, which precluded the possibility of conventional graft explantation and open repair, we performed a novel surgical technique which did not require aortic cross-clamping. A double-layered Dacron wrap was secured around the infra-renal aorta with Prolene sutures, effectively hoisting the posterior bulge to allow wall to graft apposition and excluding the endoleak. Post-operative CT angiogram showed resolution of the endoleak and a stable sac size.
Several anatomical factors need to be considered when this technique is proposed including aortic neck angulation, position of lumbar arteries and peri-aortic venous anatomy. While an external wrap technique has been investigated sporadically for vascular aneurysms, to our knowledge there is only one similar case in the literature.
Provided certain anatomical features are present, an external aortic wrap is a useful and successful option to manage type 1 endoleak in high-risk patients who are unsuitable for aortic clamping.
PMCID: PMC4189073  PMID: 25217878
Endoleak; EVAR; AAA; Dacron graft
18.  Treatment of Acute Visceral Aortic Pathology with Fenestrated-Branched Endovascular Repair in High Surgical Risk Patients 
Journal of vascular surgery  2013;58(1):56-65.e1.
The safety and feasibility of fenestrated/branched endovascular repair of acute visceral aortic disease in high risk patients is unknown. The purpose of this report is to describe our experience with surgeon-modified endografts(sm-EVAR) for the urgent or emergent treatment of pathology involving the branched segment of the aorta in patients deemed to have prohibitively high medical and/or anatomic risk for open repair.
A retrospective review was performed on all patients treated with sm-EVAR for acute indications. Planning was based on 3D-CTA reconstructions and graft configurations included various combinations of branch, fenestration, or scallop modifications.
Sixteen patients [mean age(±SD)68±10 years; 88% male] deemed high risk for open repair underwent urgent or emergent repair using sm-EVAR. Indications included: degenerative suprarenal or thoracoabdominal aneurysm (6), presumed or known mycotic aneurysm(4), anastomotic pseudoaneurysm (3), false lumen rupture of type B dissection(2), and penetrating aortic ulceration(1). Nine (56%) had previous aortic surgery and all patients were either ASA class IV(N=9) or IV-E(N=7). A total of 40 visceral vessels (celiac=10, SMA=10, RRA=10, LRA=10) were revascularized with a combination of fenestrations (33), directional graft branches (6), and graft scallops (1). Technical success was 94% (N=15/16), with one open conversion. Median contrast use was 126mL (range 41–245) and fluoroscopy time was 70 minutes(range 18–200). Endoleaks were identified intra-operatively in 4 patients [type II(N=3); IV(N=1)] but none have required remediation. Mean LOS was 12±15 days (median 5.5; range 3–59).
Single complications occurred in 5(31%) patients: brachial sheath hematoma (1), stroke(1), ileus(1), respiratory failure(1), and renal failure(1). An additional patient experienced multiple complications including spinal cord ischemia(1) and multi-organ failure resulting in death(N=1;in-hospital mortality 6.3%). The majority of patients were discharged to home (63%;N=10) or short term rehabilitation units (25%;N=4) while one patient required admission to a long-term acute care (LTAC) setting. There were no re-interventions at a median follow-up of 6.2(range 1–16.1) months. Postoperative CTA was available for all patients and demonstrated 100% branch vessel patency, with 1 type III endoleak pending intervention. There were two late deaths at 1.4 and 13.4 months due to non-aortic related pathology.
Urgent or emergent treatment of acute pathology involving the visceral aortic segment with fenestrated/branched endograft repair is feasible and safe in selected high-risk patients; however the durability of these repairs is yet to be determined.
PMCID: PMC4183351  PMID: 23706619
19.  Complete graft dehiscence 8 months after repair of acute type A aortic dissection 
Acute type A aortic dissection is a dreaded differential diagnosis of acute chest pain. Long-term outcome mainly depends on pre-existing comorbidities and post-operative complications. We present a patient with aortic graft dehiscence and subsequent severe aortic regurgitation due to fungal graft infection 8 months after repair of acute type A aortic dissection. Redo aortic surgery had to be delayed for 28 days due to intracerebral haemorrhage caused by septic embolism and clipping of a mycotic left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Surgery revealed a circumferentially detached graft at the site of the proximal anastomosis thereby forming a massive pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent successful aortic root replacement using a Freestyle porcine root bioprosthesis (25 mm), followed by re-anastomosis of the coronary arteries and partial replacement of the ascending aorta with a 28 mm Dacron graft. The patient was discharged on day 67 in stable cardiac condition with persistent neurological deficits. This case highlights the challenging management of patients with aortic graft infection and neurological dysfunction after redissection of the ascending aorta who require redo cardiac surgery.
PMCID: PMC3760577  PMID: 24062936
Acute type A aortic dissection; graft dehiscence; neurological dysfunction; redo surgery
20.  In situ aortic thrombosis secondary to intra-abdominal abscess 
Abdominal aortic mural thrombus is uncommon in the absence of aneurysm or atherosclerosis.
Case Report:
We report the case of a 46-year-old man who presented to our institution with perforated appendicitis for which he initially declined surgery. Four days after admission he ultimately consented to appendectomy and abdominal washout. Follow-up imaging to evaluate for intra-abdominal abscess revealed mural thrombus of the infra-renal abdominal aorta extending into the left iliac artery. This thrombus was not present on the admission CT scan. The patient had no clinical signs of limb ischemia. Conservative treatment with therapeutic anticoagulation resulted in resolution of the thrombus.
While portal, mesenteric, and major retroperitoneal venous thrombosis are well associated with major intra-abdominal infection and inflammatory bowel disease, aorto-iliac arterial thrombus formation in the absence of associated aneurysm, atherosclerosis or embolic source is exceedingly rare. We are unaware of other reports of in-situ aorto-iliac arterial thrombus formation secondary to perforated appendicitis.
PMCID: PMC3616123  PMID: 23569514
aorta; thrombosis; abdominal abscess
21.  Fenestrated Endovascular Grafts for the Repair of Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysms 
Executive Summary
Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) allows the exclusion of the dilated aneurismal segment of the aorta from the systematic circulation. The procedure requires, however, that the endograft extends to the healthy parts of the aorta above and below the aneurysm, yet the neck of a juxtarenal aortic aneurysm (JRA) is too short for a standard endovascular repair. Fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (f—EVAR) provides a solution to overcome this problem by enabling the continuation of blood flow to the renal and visceral arteries through holes or ‘fenestrations’ in the graft. These fenestrations are designed to match the ostial diameter of the renal and visceral arteries.
There are three varieties fenestration, small, large, and scallop, and their location needs to be customized to fit the anatomy of the patient. If the device is not properly designed, if the alignment is inaccurate, or if the catheterization of the visceral arteries is not possible, the procedure may fail. In such cases, conversion to open surgery may become the only option as fenestrated endografts are not retrievable.
It is recommended that a stent be placed within each small fenestration to the target artery to prevent shuttering of the artery or occlusion. Many authors have noted an increased risk of vessel occlusion in unstented fenestrations and scallops.
Once placed in a patient, life-long follow-up at regular intervals is necessary to ensure the graft remains in its intended location, and that the components have adequate overlap. Should the need arise, routine follow-up allows the performance of timely and appropriate intervention through detection of events that could impact the long-term outcomes.
Alternative Technology
The technique of fenestrated endovascular grafting is still in evolution and few studies have been with published mid-term outcome data. As the technique become more common in vascular surgery practices, it will be important to determine if it can provide better outcomes than open surgical repair (OSR).
In an OSR approach, aortic clamping above one or both renal arteries, or above the visceral arteries, is required. The higher the level of aortic clamping, the greater the risk of cardiac stress and renal or visceral ischemia. During suprarenal or supraceliac aortic clamping, strain-induced myocardial ischemia may also occur due to concomitant rise in cardiac afterload and a decrease in cardiac output. Reports indicate that 6% of patients undergoing surgical repair develop myocardial infarction. The ideal level of clamp location remains controversial with conflicting views having been reported.
A search of electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment [INAHTA] database was undertaken to identify evidence published from January 1, 2004 to December 19, 2008. The search was limited to English-language articles and human studies. The automatic search alerts were received and reviewed up to March 23, 2009.
The literature search and automatic search update identified 320 citations, of which 13 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. One comparative study presented at an international seminar, five single-arm studies on f—EVAR, and 7 studies on OSR (one prospective and six retrospective) were considered for this analysis.
To grade the strength of the body of evidence, the grading system formulated by the GRADE working group and adopted by MAS, was applied. The GRADE system classifies evidence quality as high (Grade A), moderate (Grade B), or low (Grade C) according to four key elements: study design, study quality, consistency across studies, and directness.
A summary of the characteristics of the f—EVAR and OSR studies found through the literature search is shown in Table ES-1.
Patient Characteristics: f–EVAR Studies versus OSR Studies
JRA, Juxtarenal aortic aneurysm; SRA, Suprarenal aortic aneurysm; TAA, Thoracic aortic aneurysm
Mortality Outcomes
The pooled estimate for 30-day mortality was 1.8% among the f—EVAR studies and 3.1% among the OSR studies that reported data for the repair of JRA separately. The pooled estimate for late mortality was 12.8% among the f—EVAR studies and 23.7% among the OSR studies that reported data for JRA separately.
Visceral Artery Events Reported in f—EVAR Studies
Renal Events during f-EVAR
A total of three main renal arteries and two accessory renal arteries became occluded during the procedure. These were all due to technical issues, except one accessory renal artery in which the artery was intentionally covered. One patient required open surgery following the procedure.
Renal Events During the follow-up
A total of 12 renal arteries (12 patients) were found to be occluded during follow-up. In two patients, the same side accessory renal artery was also occluded. Four (1.5%) patients lost one kidney and five (2.3%) patients underwent dialysis, three (1.4%) of which became permanent.
A total of 16 cases of renal artery stenosis (16 patients) occurred during follow-up. Eight of these were treated and eight were observed. Segmental renal infarcts were found in six patients but renal function was not impaired.
Mesenteric Events during f-EVAR
Three mesenteric events occurred during the f—EVAR procedures resulting in two deaths. One patient developed bowel ischemia due to embolization of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA); this patient died 13 days after the procedure from multiorgan failure. One patient died eights days after the procedure from mesenteric ischemia and bowel perforation. The third SMA event occurred during surgery with subsequent occlusion in early follow-up.
Mesenteric Events during Follow-up
During follow-up, five (1.8%) SMA occlusions/partial occlusions and one SMA stenosis were noted. Three of the five patients with SMA occlusion/partial occlusion remained asymptomatic and no further intervention was necessary. One patient underwent SMA bypass surgery and in two patients, the problem solved by SMA stenting. A summary of the outcomes reported in the f—EVAR and OSR studies is shown in Table ES-2.
Summary of Outcomes: Fenestrated Endovascular Graft Versus Open Surgical Repair for Treatment of Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysm
Short- and medium-term results (up to 2 years) of f—EVAR for the repair of JRA showed that outcomes in f—EVAR series compare favourably with the figures for the OSR series; however, uncertainty remains regarding the long-term results. The following observations are based on low quality evidence.
F—EVAR has lower 30-day mortality than OSR (1.8% vs. 3.1%) and a lower late-mortality over the period of time that patients have been followed (12.8% vs. 23.7%).
There is a potential for the loss of target vessels during or after f—EVAR procedures. Loss of a target vessel may lead to loss of its respective end organ. The risk associated with this technique is mainly due to branch vessel ischemia or occlusion (primarily among the renal arteries and SMA). Ischemia or occlusion of these arteries can occur during surgery due to technical failure and/or embolization or it may occur during follow-up due to graft complications such as graft migration, component separation, or arterial thrombosis. The risk of kidney loss in this series of f—EVAR studies was 1.5% and the risk of mesenteric ischemia was 3.3%. In the OSR studies, the risk of developing renal insufficiency was 14.4% and the risk of mesenteric ischemia was 2.9%.
F—EVAR has a lower rate of postoperative cardiac and pulmonary complications.
Endoleak occurs in 22.5% of patients undergoing f—EVAR (all types) and about 8% of these require treatment. Most of the interventions performed to treat such endoleaks conducted using a minimally invasive approach.
Due to the complexity of the technique, patients must be appropriately selected for f—EVAR, the procedure performed by highly experienced operators, and in centers with advanced, high-resolution imaging systems to minimize the risk of complications.
Graft fenestrations have to be custom designed for each patient to fit and match the anatomy of their visceral arteries. Planning and sizing thus requires scrutiny of the target vessels with a high degree precision. This is important not only to prevent end organ ischemia and infarction, but to avoid prolonging procedures and subsequent adverse outcomes.
Assuming the average cost range of FEVAR procedure is $24,395-$30,070 as per hospital data and assuming the maximum number of annual cases in Ontario is 116, the average estimated cost impact range to the province for FEVAR procedures is $2.83M-$3.49M annually.
PMCID: PMC3377528  PMID: 23074534
22.  Proximal clamping levels in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. 
Texas Heart Institute Journal  1999;26(4):264-268.
In the surgical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm, the single proximal cross-clamp can be placed at 3 alternative aortic levels: infrarenal, hiatal, and thoracic. We performed this retrospective study to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the 3 main aortic clamping locations. Eighty patients presented at our institution with abdominal aortic aneurysms from March 1993 through May 1998. Fifty of these patients had intact aneurysms and underwent elective surgery, and 30 had ruptured aneurysms that necessitated emergency surgery. Proximal aortic clamping was applied at the infrarenal level in 24 patients (22 from the intact aneurysm group, 2 from the ruptured group), at the hiatal level in 34 patients (22 intact, 12 ruptured), and at the thoracic level (descending aorta) via a limited left lateral thoracotomy in 22 patients (6 intact, 16 ruptured). Early mortality rates (within 30 days) were 4% (2 of 50 patients) among patients with intact aneurysms and 40% (12 of 30 patients) among those with ruptured aneurysms. In the 2 patients from the intact aneurysm group, proximal aortic clamps were applied at the hiatal level. In the ruptured aneurysm group, proximal aortic clamps were placed at the thoracic level in 10 patients, the infrarenal level in 1, and the hiatal level in 1. According to our study, the clinical status of the patient and the degree of operative urgency--as determined by the extent of the aneurysm--generally dictate the proximal clamp location. Patients who present with aneurysmal rupture or hypovolemic shock benefit from thoracic clamping, because it restores the blood pressure and allows time to replace the volume deficit. Infrarenal placement is advantageous in patients with intact aneurysms if there is sufficient space for the clamp between the renal arteries and the aortic aneurysm. In patients with juxtarenal aneurysms, hiatal clamping enables safe and easy anastomosis to the healthy aorta. Clamping at this level also helps prevent late anastomotic aneurysm formation, which is frequently encountered after inadvertent anastomosis of the graft to a diseased portion of the aorta. Further studies are needed in order to confirm these results.
PMCID: PMC325661  PMID: 10653253
23.  Ruptured Common Femoral Artery Aneurysm or Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm? 
Case Reports in Surgery  2013;2013:306987.
We encountered a patient with a large retroperitoneal hematoma due to rupture of a common femoral artery aneurysm. A 77-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with left groin pain and shock. Computed tomography demonstrated a large retroperitoneal hematoma involving the left iliofemoral segment with extravasation of contrast into the left groin from a ruptured left common femoral artery aneurysm. The patient also had an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Reconstruction of the common femoral artery with a graft was performed successfully. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and subsequently underwent Y-graft replacement of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.
PMCID: PMC3872241  PMID: 24386587
24.  Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta due to Listeria monocytogenes 
Infected abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) can present insidiously with non-specific symptoms or they may present as ruptured AAA in the classical manner.
We report two cases of mycotic AAA with Listeria monocytogenes. One patient presented with a ruptured aneurysm, while the other patient had a symptomatic non-ruptured presentation with computer tomography (CT) angiogram demonstrating peri-aortic inflammatory change of a rapidly expanding aneurysm. Both patients were treated with excision of the infected tissue and inlay prosthetic surgical repair as well as long term antibiotics.
Arterial aneurysms caused by L. monocytogenes are rare. Risk factors include immunosuppression, infective endocarditis, intravenous drug use and septicaemia. Listeria infections should be discussed with the Health Protection Agency and local microbiologists due to their ubiquity.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm due to L. monocytogenes is best managed via surgical resection in combination with long term antimicrobial therapy. The role of endovascular exclusion is unclear.
PMCID: PMC3679443  PMID: 23711639
Mycotic; Aneurysm; Listeria; Monocytogenes; Aortic
25.  Mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta caused by Escherichia coli 
An 81-year old woman with high fever and a history of hospital admission because of pyelonephritis 3 months previously was transferred to our hospital. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a mycotic pseudoaneurysm in the ascending aorta and a massive pericardial effusion. We resected the ascending aorta and the proximal part of the brachiocephalic artery and performed in situ revascularization with a prosthetic vascular graft. Bacterial examination proved that the causative micro-organism was Escherichia coli. The prosthetic graft was wrapped with a pedicled omentum following completion of the aortic reconstruction. Her postoperative course was uneventful. She was discharged from the hospital 1 month postoperatively.
PMCID: PMC3523620  PMID: 23065748
Aneurysm (aorta/aortic); Infection; Pericardium; Prosthesis

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