Tuberculous aneurysm of the aorta is exceedingly rare. To date, the standard therapy for mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta has been surgery involving in-situ graft placement or extra-anatomic bypass surgery followed by effective anti-tuberculous medication. Only recently has the use of a stent graft in the treatment of tuberculous aortic aneurysm been described in the literature. We report two cases in which a tuberculous aneurysm of the abdominal aorta was successfully repaired using endovascular stent grafts. One case involved is a 42-year-old woman with a large suprarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and a right psoas abscess, and the other, a 41-year-old man in whom an abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptured during surgical drainage of a psoas abscess.
Aorta, disease; Aorta, aneurysm; Aorta, grafts and prostheses
Mycotic aneurysms constitute a small proportion of aortic aneurysms. Endovascular repair of mycotic aneurysms has been applied with good short-term and midterm results. However, the uncommon aortoenteric fistula formation remains a potentially fatal complication when repairing such infective aneurysms. We present the case of an 80-year-old woman with thoracic and abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysms, which were successfully treated with endografting. However, the patient presented 3 months later with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to erosion of the thoracic graft into the oesophagus. The patient was treated conservatively due to the high risk of surgical repair. There is currently little exposure to the management of mycotic aortic aneurysms. If suspected, imaging of the entire vasculature will aid initial diagnosis and highlight the extent of the disease process, allowing for efficient management. Aortic endografting for mycotic thoracic aneurysms is a high-risk procedure yet is still an appropriate intervention. Aortoenteric fistulae pose a rare but severe complication of aortic endografting in this setting.
We designed this study to evaluate a multi-institutional experience regarding the efficacy of cryopreserved aortic allografts in the treatment of infected aortic prosthetic grafts or mycotic aneurysms. We reviewed clinical data of all patients from 4 institutions who underwent in situ aortic reconstruction with cryopreserved allografts for either infected aortic prosthetic graft or mycotic aneurysms from during a 6-year period. Relevant clinical variables and treatment outcomes were analyzed.
A total of 42 patients (37 men; overall mean age 63 ± 13 years, range 41–74 years) were identified during this study period. Treatment indications included 34 primary aortic graft infections (81%), 6 mycotic aneurysms (22%), and 2 aortoenteric erosions (5%). Transabdominal and thoracoabdominal approaches were used in 38 (90%) and 4 patients (10%), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly identified organism (n=27, 64%). Although there was no intraoperative death, the 30-day operative mortality was 17% (n=7). There were 21 (50%) nonfatal complications, including local wound infection (n=8), lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (n=5), amputation (n=6), and renal failure requiring hemodialysis (n=2). The average length of hospital stay was 16.4 ± 7 days. During a mean follow-up period of 12.5 months, reoperation for allograft revision was necessary in 1 patient due to graft thrombosis (6%). The overall treatment mortality rate was 21% (n=9).
In situ aortic reconstruction with cryopreserved allografts is an acceptable treatment method in patients with infected aortic prosthetic graft or mycotic aneurysms. Our study showed that mid-term graft-related complications such as reinfection or aneurysmal degeneration were uncommon.
Aneurysm, infected/surgery; bacterial infections/complications/surgery; arteries/transplantation; blood vessel prosthesis/adverse effects; cryopreservation; prosthesis-related infections/ surgery; staphylococcal infections/surgery; surgical wound infection/surgery; reoperation; transplantation, homologous
Aortic pathology progression and/or procedure related complications following endovascular repair should always be considered mostly in older patients. We herein describe a hybrid procedure for treatment of rapidly expanding thoracoabdominal aneurysm following endovascular treatment of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in an older patient.
A 82-year-old man at 18 months after endovascular surgery for a contained rupture of descending thoracic aortic aneurysm revealed a type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm with significant increase of the aortic diameters at superior mesenteric and renal artery levels. A hybrid approach consisting of preventive visceral vessel revascularization and endovascular repair of entire abdominal aorta was performed. Under general anaesthesia and by xyphopubic laparotomy, the infrarenal aneurysmatic aorta and common iliac arteries were replaced by a bifurcated woven prosthetic graf. From each of the prosthetic branches two reverse 14x7 mm bifurcated PTFE prosthetic grafts were anastomized to both renal arteries and to the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, respectively. Vessel ischemia was restricted to the time required for anastomosis. Three 10 cm Gore endovascular stent-grafts for a total length of 15 cm, were used. The overlapping of the stent-grafts was carried out from the bottom upwards, starting from the aorto-iliac prosthetic body up to the healthy segment of thoracic aorta, 40 mm from the previous stent-grafts.
The patient was discharged on the 9th postoperative day.
This technique offers the advantage of a less invasive treatment, reducing the risk of paraplegia, visceral ischaemia and pulmonary complications, mostly in older patients.
We describe a 54-year-old man who had an ascending aortic prosthetic graft and a porcine aortic valve prosthesis that were infected by Candida albicans. This infection led to the formation of a dissecting false aneurysm of the remaining transverse and entire descending thoracic aorta, and the man was admitted to our hospital for surgical treatment in February of 1991. Staged in situ graft replacement was performed using Borst's "elephant trunk" repair for the proximal aortic reconstruction and an open distal anastomosis technique for the distal repair. Candida albicans in the residual prosthetic graft was identified, and therapy with high-dose liposomal amphotericin B was initiated. The use of liposomal amphotericin B reduces the incidence of adverse effects and allows administration of higher doses than those possible with conventional amphotericin B therapy. Lifelong antifungal therapy is recommended for patients with C. albicans infection of prosthetic aortic grafts.
Cases of true mycotic popliteal artery aneurysm are rare. Presentation is variable but invasive and non-invasive investigations collectively facilitate diagnosis and guide operative procedures. Definitive treatment generally utilizes surgical intervention with excision and reconstruction using autologous vein graft. Prolonged targeted antibiotic therapy is an important adjuvant.
We describe the clinical presentation, radiological investigations and strategies on the management of a 47-year-old Caucasian Irish man who presented with a mycotic aneurysm of the popliteal artery due to thromboembolisation from Streptococus pneumoniae endocarditis.
Cases of true mycotic popliteal artery aneurysms are rare. To the best of our knowledge this is the first documented case of a popliteal artery mycotic aneurysm developing secondary to Streptococus pneumoniae highlighting the changing profile of causative microorganisms.
A 46-year-old man was admitted for surgery on a ruptured mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. Emergency repair was performed, during which certain anomalies were noted. First, the bifurcation of the aorta was posterior to the left common iliac vein. Second there were no internal iliac arteries. Also, there were prominent lumbar arteries compensating for the absent internal iliac arteries bilaterally. This, we consider, is the first reported case of congenitally absent bilateral internal iliac arteries.
Bilateral congenital absence of internal iliac arteries
Purpose: To assess the feasibility of endovascular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair using a standard off-the-shelf multi-branched stent-graft.
Methods: The aortic anatomy of 66 patients (45 men; mean age 74 years, range 57–87) referred for endovascular repair of TAAA was measured using 3-dimensional reconstructed images from computed tomographic angiograms. In particular, the orientation and longitudinal position of the orifice of each celiac artery, right renal artery, and left renal artery were measured relative to the location of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) orifice. Based on prior experience, branch insertion with a standard endograft was considered feasible under the following conditions: (1) no more than 4 indispensable (target) arteries to the abdominal viscera, (2) the celiac artery and SMA were 6 to 10 mm in diameter, (3) the renal arteries were 4 to 8 mm in diameter, (4) all target arteries were accessible from a transbrachial approach, (5) the distance between each cuff and the corresponding arterial orifice was ≤50 mm, and (6) the line between the cuff and the orifice deviated by ≤45° from the long axis of the aorta.
Results: Seven (11%) of 66 patients violated conditions 1 through 4: 2 had target arteries that were either too wide or too narrow, 2 had >4 indispensable visceral or renal branches, and 3 patients had inaccessible upward directed renal artery branches. Three of the remaining 59 patients had renal arteries outside the boundaries defined by conditions 5 and 6 when the hypothetical stent-graft was positioned with its SMA cuff 25 mm proximal to the corresponding SMA orifice. However, if the stent-graft were deployed in a more caudal location, only 1 of these 3 renal arteries would have been out of range. Therefore, 58 (88%) of 66 patients met all the eligibility criteria for repair using the off-the-shelf stent-graft.
Conclusion: A standardized, off-the-shelf, multi-branched stent-graft is applicable in 88% of cases of TAAA that would otherwise have been treated using customized stent-grafts. The use of a pre-made stent-graft has the potential to eliminate long manufacturing delays and expand the scope of endovascular repair of TAAA.
thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm; pararenal aortic aneurysm; endovascular aneurysm repair; branched stent-graft
This case report describes a useful and unusual route for insertion of an intraaortic balloon in 63-year-old man who was operated upon for calcific aortic stenosis, coronary atherosclerosis involving the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries, and a large abdominal aortic aneurysm. Aortic valve replacement was accomplished with a porcine heterograft prosthesis. Bypasses to the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries were constructed with reversed saphenous vein grafts, and the abdominal aneurysm was resected and repaired with a bifurcated woven Dacron vascular graft. An electively placed intraaortic balloon was inserted through the right limb of the aortic graft prosthesis and used to assist the patient during the immediate postoperative period. Uneventful recovery ensued.
We report the case of a 69-year-old man who presented with a symptomatic mycotic aneurysm of the aortic arch. Diagnosis was confirmed by positron emission tomography and by blood cultures positive for Salmonella species. A complete resection of the aortic arch process was performed via left thoracotomy using a cryopreserved aortic homograft and normothermic left heart bypass. The left-sided cerebral vessels were clamped, and adequacy of collateral left brain flow and oxygenation was confirmed by neurophysiologic monitoring. Using this less-invasive operative strategy, we avoided the risks inherent to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and the use of prosthetic materials.
Aneurysm, infected/pathology/surgery; aorta, thoracic/surgery; aortic aneurysm, thoracic/complications/surgery; cardiac surgical procedures; monitoring, intraoperative/methods; spectroscopy, nearinfrared; ultrasonography, Doppler, transcranial
Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, may cause endocarditis and vascular infections that result in severe morbidity and mortality. We report a case of a C. burnetii-infected abdominal aorta and its management in a patient with a previous endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.
A 62-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital three months after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with a bifurcated stent graft. He had increasing abdominal complaints and general malaise. A computed tomography scan of his abdomen revealed several para-aneurysmal abscesses. Surgery was performed via midline laparotomy. The entire abdominal wall of his aneurysmal sac, including the abscesses, was removed. The vascular endoprosthesis showed no macroscopic signs of infection. The decision was made to leave the endograft in place because of the severe cardiopulmonary comorbidities, thereby avoiding suprarenal clamping and explantation of this device with venous reconstruction. The proximal and distal parts of the endograft were secured to the aortic wall and common iliac artery walls, respectively, to avoid future migration. Polymerase chain reaction for C. burnetii was positive in all specimens of aortic tissue. Specific antibiotic therapy was initiated. Our patient was discharged in good clinical condition after six days.
In our patient, the infection was limited to the abdominal aneurysm wall, which was removed, leaving the endograft in place. Vascular surgeons should be familiar with this bailout procedure in high-risk patients.
Endovascular stent graft repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has undergone rapid developments since it was introduced in the early 1990s. Two main types of aortic stent grafts have been developed and are currently being used in clinical practice to deal with patients with complicated or unsuitable aneurysm necks, namely, suprarenal and fenestrated stent grafts. Helical computed tomography angiography has been widely recognized as the method of choice for both pre-operative planning and post-operative follow-up of endovascular repair (EVAR). In addition to 2D axial images, a number of 2D and 3D reconstructions are generated to provide additional information about imaging of the stent grafts in relation to the aortic aneurysm diameter and extent, encroachment of stent wires to the renal artery ostium and position of the fenestrated vessel stents. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of applications of EVAR of AAA and diagnostic applications of 2D and 3D image visualizations in the assessment of treatment outcomes of EVAR. Interference of stent wires with renal blood flow from the hemodynamic point of view will also be discussed, and future directions explored.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Stent graft; Computed tomography; Image visualization; Three-dimensional reconstruction; Follow-up
We report the successful removal of a mycotic false aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. The aneurysm developed after a sepsis secondary to Canadida albicans. General signs of infection were absent at the time of surgery, although the aortic wall was still infected. A Dacron graft was inserted after resection of the entire aortic wall, and irrigation of the left pleura with amphotericin B was started postoperatively. The patient recovered fully and is in good condition one year after the operation. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1986; 13: 459-462)
Mycotic false aneurysm; Candida albicans
Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness.
Intravesical BCG-instillation for bladder cancer is considered safe but is not without risk. While most side-effects are localised and self-limiting, the development of secondary vascular pathology is a rare but significant complication.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 77-year-old male presented with a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm and associated aorto-enteric fistula 18 months after receiving intravesical BCG-instillations for early stage transitional cell carcinoma.
Response rates to intravesical BCG for early stage transitional cell carcinoma are high. The procedure produces a localised inflammatory response in the bladder but the exact mechanism of action is unclear. The treatment is generally well tolerated but BCG-sepsis and secondary vascular complications have been documented.
Mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm with associated aorto-enteric fistula secondary to BCG is very rare. Few examples have been documented internationally and the extent of corresponding research and associated management proposals is limited.
Surgical options include in situ repair with prosthetic graft, debridement with extra-anatomical bypass and, occasionally, endovascular stent grafting. Recommended medical therapy for systemic BCG infection is Isoniazid, Rifampicin and Ethambutol.
Current screening methods must be updated with clarification regarding duration of anti-tuberculous therapy and impact of concomitant anti-tuberculous medication on the therapeutic action of intravesical BCG. Long-term outcomes for patients post graft repair for mycotic aneurysm are unknown and more research is required regarding the susceptibility of vascular grafts to mycobacterial infection.
Recognition of the risks associated with BCG-instillations, even in immunocompetent subjects, is paramount and must be considered even several months or years after receiving the therapy.
BCG; Aortic aneurysm; Aorto-enteric fistula; Bladder carcinoma
Spinal “stroke” is an uncommon cause of paraplegia. Spinal cord infarction from unruptured aortic aneurysm is rare. When encountered it poses diagnostic challenge to the clinician due to its rarity, which may lead to incorrect or delayed diagnosis. We report a case of 62-year-old man presenting to casualty as caudaequina syndrome due to spinal cord infarction secondary to emboli from an infra renal abdominal aortic aneurysm. To the authors knowledge this is first case of its kind and has not been reported in literature. Patient had improvement in proximal motor function following repair of the aneurysm, although he remained doubly incontinent in six months follow up.
The potential complications of an abdominal aortic aneurysm include rupture, compression of surrounding structures, thrombo-embolic events and fistula. The most common site of arterio-venous fistula is the inferior vena cava. Fistula involving a renal vein is particularly uncommon.
This report describes a 54-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted to the emergency department with fatigue, severe dyspnea and bilateral lower limb edema. In the first instance this anamnesis suggested possible heart failure. In fact, our patient presented with multi-organ system failure due to a fistula between an infra-renal aortic aneurysm and an aberrant retro-aortic renal vein.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of a woman with a fistula between an infra-renal aortic aneurysm and an aberrant retro-aortic left renal vein. Aorto-venous fistulas may be asymptomatic or may present with symptoms characteristic of arterio-venous shunting and/or aneurysm rupture. This type of fistula is a rare cause of heart failure. Clinical examination and imaging are essential for detection.
An 82-year-old man underwent an endovascular procedure with a commercially available endovascular graft for an anastomotic juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. The anastomotic aneurysm, which showed no sign of infection, developed 4 years after implantation of an aortic end-to-end graft for an infrarenal aortic aneurysm.
The aneurysm was diagnosed during routine ultrasonographic follow-up; there was no apparent infection of the graft. Aortography confirmed the diagnosis and also revealed a small pseudoaneurysm at the level of the distal aortic anastomosis. Endovascular surgery was performed in the operating room with the guidance of C-arm fluoroscopy and intravascular ultrasound. Two Vanguard™ Straight Endovascular Aortic Graft Cuffs (26 × 50 mm and 24 × 50 mm) were implanted, successfully excluding both the anastomotic juxtarenal aortic aneurysm and the distal pseudoaneurysm. The renal arteries were preserved and no early or late endoleaks were observed.
The patient was discharged 2 days after the procedure. Sixteen months later, he was alive and well, with no endovascular leakage, no enlargement of the aortic aneurysms, and no sign of infection.
In our opinion, this experience shows that commercially available endovascular grafts may be used successfully to treat anastomotic aortic aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms.
Anastomosis, surgical/adverse effects; aortic aneurysm, abdominal/surgery; blood vessel prosthesis; postoperative complications/surgery; reoperation; vascular surgical procedures/methods
A 71-year-old patient was admitted for synchronous aneurysms of the aortic arch, brachiocephalic trunk, and juxtarenal abdominal aorta involving the iliac arteries. The patient first underwent open surgical repair of the juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm by means of aorto-bifemoral bypass. Three months later, he underwent off-pump surgical repair of the aneurysm of the brachiocephalic trunk and bypass grafting from the ascending aorta to the brachiocephalic trunk and the left common carotid artery, followed by successful exclusion of the aneurysm of the aortic arch by deployment of a Zenith TX1 custom-made endograft, inserted through a limb of the aorto-bifemoral graft.
Combined endovascular and open surgical treatment is an appealing new alternative to open surgical repair for complex aortic diseases. Debranching of the aortic arch enables endovascular grafting in this area, thereby avoiding cardiopulmonary bypass and circulatory arrest. Staged and simultaneous procedures should be considered for the treatment of complex aortic diseases even in poor-risk patients; however, due to the investigative characteristics of these procedures, patient selection and postoperative follow-up should be carried out with utmost attention.
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal/surgery; aortic aneurysm, thoracic/surgery; aortic diseases/therapy; blood vessel prosthesis implantation/methods; brachiocephalic trunk; carotid arteries; stents; vascular surgical procedures/methods
A 75-year old man presented with signs and symptoms of acute abdomen and a clinical picture of hypovolemic shock. An emergency CT scan revealed a ruptured para-anastomotic left common iliac artery aneurysm. The patient had undergone an elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair operation and placement of an aortoiliac bifurcated graft 10 years before. Para-anastomotic aneurysms had developed in all 3 (aortic and the 2 iliac) anastomosis. As the patient was highrisk, a combined endovascular/surgical approach was undertaken. The patient was discharged 4 days later.
This article discusses the applicability of endovascular procedures in emergency settings to high-risk patients.
Endovascular procedures; high-risk patients; ruptured aneurysm repair; EVAR.
A five-year-old child with nephrotic syndrome developed a mycotic saccular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) involving the visceral segment within a four month period following pneumococcal bacteremia and presumed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Due to continued aneurysm growth and progression to end-stage renal disease, TAAA repair was performed followed by cadaveric kidney transplantation. This is the first known instance of mycotic aortic aneurysm formation as a consequence of SPB and the first report of TAAA repair in preparation for kidney transplantation in a child.
A gram-negative, rod-shaped microorganism was detected in a 69-year-old man suffering from chronic back pain but otherwise exhibiting no signs of infection. The bacterium could not be identified using any routine diagnostic modality. A research use only application utilizing PCR and Mass Spectrometry* was performed on nucleic acid extracted from the tissue sample. These studies resulted in the implication of Bartonella quintana as the underlying cause of the infection. B. quintana is not a well-known cause of an abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysm. This article will discuss the B. quintana infection, its diagnosis and treatment, and reinforce the potential of B. quintana as a possible etiology in mycotic aneurysms that show no apparent indications of infection. It will also explore the potential use of polymerase chain reaction detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ ESI-MS) to help identify B. quintana in a situation where other conventional methods prove non-informative.
Infective spondylitis occurring concomitantly with mycotic aneurysm is rare. A retrospective record review was conducted in all cases of mycotic aneurysm from January 1995 to December 2004, occurring in a primary care and tertiary referral center. Spontaneous infective spondylitis and mycotic aneurysm were found in six cases (10.3% of 58 mycotic aneurysm patients). Neurological deficit (50% vs. 0; P < 0.001) is the significant clinical manifestation in patients with spontaneous infective spondylitis and mycotic aneurysm. The presence of psoas abscess on computed tomography (83.3% vs. 0; P < 0.001) and endplate destruction on radiography (50% vs. 0; P < 0.001) are predominated in patients with spontaneous infective spondylitis and mycotic aneurysm. Of these six patients, four with Salmonella infection received surgical intervention and all survived. Another two patients (one with Streptococcus pyogenes, another with Staphylococcus aureus) received conservative therapy and subsequently died from rupture of aneurysm or septic shock. Paravertebral soft tissue swelling, presence of psoas abscess and/or unclear soft tissue plane between the aorta and vertebral body in relation to mycotic aneurysm may indicate a concomitant infection in the spine. In contrast, if prevertebral mass is found in the survey of spine infection, coexisting mycotic aneurysm should be considered.
Infective spondylitis; Mycotic aneurysm; Psoas abscess
Giant ascending aortic aneurysm formation following aortic valve replacement is rare. A 28-year-old man who underwent aortic valve replacement with a prosthetic valve for aortic regurgitation secondary to congenital bicuspid aortic valve about 10 years ago was diagnosed with a giant ascending aortic aneurysm about 16 cm in diameter in follow-up. The aneurysm was resected leaving the functional old mechanical prosthesis in place and implanted a 34-mm Hemashield woven graft, associated with the left and right coronary artery button implantation. Histological findings of the aortic aneurysm wall showed cystic medial necrosis. The postoperative course was uneventful and postoperative examination demonstrated good surgical results.
Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are predisposed to cardiovascular events and often experience continual expansion of their aneurysm. Cardiovascular events and expansion rates are positively correlated with aneurysm size. AAA is usually associated with intraluminal thrombus, which has previously been implicated in AAA pathogenesis.
The aims of this study were to prospectively assess the association of infra-renal abdominal aortic thrombus volume with cardiovascular events and AAA growth.
98 patients with AAAs underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA). The volume of infra-renal aorta thrombus was measured by a previously validated technique. Patients were followed prospectively for a median of 3 (inter-quartile range 2.0–3.6) years and cardiovascular events (non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, amputation and cardiovascular death) recorded. 39 of the original patients underwent repeat CTA a median of 1.5 (inter-quartile range, 1.1–3.3) years after entry to the study. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-proportional analysis were used to examine the association of aortic thrombus with cardiovascular events and average weighted AAA growth.
A total of 28 cardiovascular event occurred during follow-up. The incidence of cardiovascular events was 23.4 and 49.2% for patients with small (
In this small cohort infra-renal aortic thrombus volume was associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events and AAA progression. These results need to be confirmed and mechanisms underlying the associations clarified in large further studies.
Results 1-25 (172181)