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1.  Testosterone replacement therapy among elderly males: the Testim Registry in the US (TRiUS) 
Testosterone levels naturally decline with age in men, often resulting in testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism). However, few studies have examined hypogonadal characteristics and treatment in older (≥65 years) men.
To compare data at baseline and after 12 months of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in hypogonadal men ≥65 vs <65 years old. Data for participants 65–74 vs ≥75 years old were also compared.
Data were from TRiUS (Testim Registry in the United States), which enrolled 849 hypogonadal men treated with Testim® 1% (50–100 mg testosterone gel/day) for the first time. Anthropometric, laboratory, and clinical measures were taken at baseline and 12 months, including primary outcomes of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Comparisons of parameters were made using Fisher’s exact test or analysis of variance. Nonparametric Spearman’s ρ and first-order partial correlation coefficients adjusted for the effect of age were used to examine bivariate correlations among parameters.
Of the registry participants at baseline with available age information, 16% (133/845) were ≥65 years old. They were similar to men <65 years old in the duration of hypogonad-ism prior to enrollment (∼1 year), TT and FT levels at baseline, TT and FT levels at 12-month follow-up, and in reported compliance with treatment. Older patients were more likely to receive lower doses of TRT. PSA levels did not statistically differ between groups after 12 months of TRT (2.18 ± 2.18 ng/mL for ≥65 vs 1.14 ± 0.84 ng/mL for <65 years old, P = 0.1). Baseline values for the >75-year-old subcohort were not significantly different from subcohorts aged 65–74 years and <65 years.
Hypogonadal men ≥65 years old showed significant benefit from TRT over 12 months, similar to that found for hypogonadal men <65 years old. TRT was well tolerated in older patients, successfully increased testosterone level regardless of age, and did not significantly increase PSA levels in older men.
PMCID: PMC3430096  PMID: 22956867
male hypogonadism; elderly; testosterone replacement therapy; testosterone gel; TRiUS registry; Testim
2.  Testosterone Replacement in Hypogonadal Men With Type 2 Diabetes and/or Metabolic Syndrome (the TIMES2 Study) 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(4):828-837.
This study evaluated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk factors, and symptoms in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome (MetS).
The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a novel transdermal 2% testosterone gel was evaluated over 12 months in 220 hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes and/or MetS in a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The primary outcome was mean change from baseline in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Secondary outcomes were measures of body composition, glycemic control, lipids, and sexual function. Efficacy results focused primarily on months 0−6 (phase 1; no changes in medication allowed). Medication changes were allowed in phase 2 (months 6−12).
TRT reduced HOMA-IR in the overall population by 15.2% at 6 months (P = 0.018) and 16.4% at 12 months (P = 0.006). In type 2 diabetic patients, glycemic control was significantly better in the TRT group than the placebo group at month 9 (HbA1c: treatment difference, −0.446%; P = 0.035). Improvements in total and LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein a (Lpa), body composition, libido, and sexual function occurred in selected patient groups. There were no significant differences between groups in the frequencies of adverse events (AEs) or serious AEs. The majority of AEs (>95%) were mild or moderate.
Over a 6-month period, transdermal TRT was associated with beneficial effects on insulin resistance, total and LDL-cholesterol, Lpa, and sexual health in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes and/or MetS.
PMCID: PMC3064036  PMID: 21386088
3.  Hormonal Modulation in Aging Patients with Erectile Dysfunction and Metabolic Syndrome 
Erectile dysfunction (ED), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and hypogonadism are closely related, often coexisting in the aging male. Obesity was shown to raise the risk of ED and hypogonadism, as well as other endocrinological disturbances with impact on erectile function. We selected 179 patients referred for ED to our andrology unit, aiming to evaluate gonadotropins and estradiol interplay in context of ED, MetS, and hypogonadism. Patients were stratified into groups in accordance with the presence (or not) of MetS and/or hypogonadism. Noticeable differences in total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels were found between patients with and without MetS. Men with MetS evidenced lower TT circulating levels with an increasing number of MetS parameters, for which hypertriglyceridemia and waist circumference strongly contributed. Regarding the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, patients with hypogonadism did not exhibit raised LH levels. Interestingly, among those with higher LH levels, estradiol values were also increased. Possible explanations for this unexpected profile of estradiol may be the age-related adiposity, other estrogen-raising pathways, or even unknown mechanisms. Estradiol is possibly a molecule with further interactions beyond the currently described. Our results further enlighten this still unclear multidisciplinary and complex subject, raising new investigational opportunities.
PMCID: PMC3888699  PMID: 24459467
4.  Testosterone replacement therapy for late-onset hypogonadism: current trends in Korea 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2011;13(4):563-568.
Testosterone levels in men older than 40 years can decrease at a rate of 1%–2% per year, and reports show that more than 50% of 80-year-old men have testosterone levels consistent with hypogonadism. Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advancing age and characterized by typical symptoms of serum testosterone deficiency. In recent decades, the concept of LOH in ageing men has become familiar in European countries and the United States. It is also a topic of interest and debate throughout Korea. However, most of the data regarding advantages or disadvantages of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) as treatment for LOH have been primarily obtained from studies on Western populations; therefore, studies of the effects of TRT in Asian men, who may have different serum testosterone compared to Western men, are needed. TRT is commonly prescribed in Korea, despite the paucity of studies on the effects of TRT in Asian populations. Data from various TRT studies based on Korean have shown its efficacy in increasing serum testosterone levels and improving subjective symptoms as assessed by questionnaires. Currently, patches and short-acting intramuscular injections are displaced by gels and long-acting formulations. However, to prevent overdiagnosis and overtreatment, indication for TRT should include both low testosterone levels and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism.
PMCID: PMC3739611  PMID: 21572448
androgens; androgenic agents; late-onset hypogonadism; testosterone replacement therapy
5.  Androgen Receptor Gene CAG Repeat Polymorphism Regulates the Metabolic Effects of Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Male Postsurgical Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 
Aim. To evaluate the independent role of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism on metabolic effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in male postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition frequently associated with hypopituitarism and in which the TRT-related metabolic effects are combined with those deriving from concomitant administration of metabolically active pituitary-function replacement therapies. Methods. 15 men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were evaluated before and after TRT. Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), pituitary-dependent hormones, and AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism were considered. Results. Testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and estradiol were the only hormones, which varied significantly between the two phases. All CVRFs significantly improved after TRT. The number of CAG triplets was positively and significantly correlated with all the variations (Δ-) of CVRFs (except for a significant negative correlation with Δ-high-density lipoprotein); the opposite occurred between the latter and Δ-testosterone. No correlation between Δ-IGF-1 or estradiol and Δ-CVRFs was found. At multiple linear regression, after correction for Δ-testosterone, nearly all the associations between the number of CAG triplets and Δ-CVRFs were confirmed. Conclusions. In male postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, shorter AR gene CAG tract length seems to yield greater metabolic improvement after TRT, independently of the effects of concomitant pituitary-function replacement therapies.
PMCID: PMC3876679  PMID: 24454369
6.  Metabolic effects of testosterone replacement therapy on hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials 
Asian Journal of Andrology  2013;16(1):146-152.
This systematic review was aimed at assessing the metabolic effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A literature search was performed using the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PubMed. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers retrieved articles and evaluated the study quality using an appropriate scoring method. Outcomes including glucose metabolism, lipid parameters, body fat and blood pressure were pooled using a random effects model and tested for heterogeneity. We used the Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.2 software for statistical analysis. Five RCTs including 351 participants with a mean follow-up time of 6.5-months were identified that strictly met our eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis of the extractable data showed that testosterone reduced fasting plasma glucose levels (mean difference (MD): −1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) (−1.88, −0.31)), fasting serum insulin levels (MD: −2.73; 95% CI (−3.62, −1.84)), HbA1c % (MD: −0.87; 95% CI (−1.32, −0.42)) and triglyceride levels (MD: −0.35; 95% CI (−0.62, −0.07)). The testosterone and control groups demonstrated no significant difference for other outcomes. In conclusion, we found that TRT can improve glycemic control and decrease triglyceride levels of hypogonadal men with T2DM. Considering the limited number of participants and the confounding factors in our systematic review; additional large, well-designed RCTs are needed to address the metabolic effects of TRT and its long-term influence on hypogonadal men with T2DM.
PMCID: PMC3901874  PMID: 24369149
humans; hypogonadism; male; testosterone; type 2 diabetes mellitus
7.  Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy 
Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young male adults. There are a variety of testosterone formulations available for treatment of hypogonadism. Data from many small studies indicate that testosterone therapy offers several potential benefits to older hypogonadal men. A large multicenter NIH supported double blind, placebo controlled study is ongoing, and this study should greatly enhance the information available on efficacy and side effects of treatment. While safety data is available across many age groups, there are still unresolved concerns associated with testosterone therapy. We have reviewed the diagnostic methods as well as benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in aging men.
PMCID: PMC3312212  PMID: 22505891
8.  Effect of Testosterone Replacement Treatment in Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome Patients with Metabolic Syndrome 
Korean Journal of Urology  2011;52(8):566-571.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of testosterone replacement treatment (TRT) in testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) patients with metabolic syndrome.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the data of 200 men who were diagnosed with TDS and were undergoing TRT between August 2006 and August 2009. The 200 patients were divided into two groups (group 1: 71 patients with metabolic syndrome, group 2: 129 patients without metabolic syndrome) depending on metabolic syndrome, which was diagnosed according to the NCEP III criteria for Asians. Age, BMI (body mass index), waist circumference, serologic tests, AMS (the Aging Males' Symptoms scale), and IIEF (International Index of Erectile Function) were measured.
In group 1, waist circumference and fasting glucose were significantly decreased; hemoglobin and total testosterone were increased; and the somatovegetative scale score of the AMS, the total AMS score, the erectile function score of the IIEF, the overall satisfaction score of the IIEF, and the total IIEF score were significantly improved after TRT. On the other hand, in group 2, waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, LDL, and fasting glucose were significantly decreased; hemoglobin and total testosterone were increased; and the 2 subscale scores of the AMS (psychologic and somatovegetative), the total AMS score, all subscale scores of the IIEF, and the total IIEF score were significantly improved after TRT.
Overall, the patients who had TDS with metabolic syndrome showed less improvement in AMS, IIEF, and serum variables. Therefore, the correction of metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension, should be considered during TRT.
PMCID: PMC3162224  PMID: 21927705
Hormone replacement therapy; Metabolic syndrome X; Testosterone
9.  The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review 
Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.
PMCID: PMC2701485  PMID: 19707253
hypogonadism; testosterone replacement therapy; erectile dysfunction; osteoporosis; cardiovascular disease
10.  Lower levels sex hormone-binding globulin independently associated with metabolic syndrome in pre-elderly and elderly men in China 
To examine the relationship between sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in pre-elderly and elderly men in China.
A cross-sectional study was done among 437 men, aged 45 to 94 years old. Early morning fasting sera were assayed for total testosterone (TT), SHBG and other biochemical markers. Free testosterone (FT) was calculated.
The SHBG level of the MetS group was significantly lower than those without MetS 35.70 (25.18, 47.10) nmol/L vs. 41.90 (31.80, 55.20) nmol/L; P < 0.001). As the number of MetS components increases, SHBG and TT levels became lower. SHBG correlated with age, as did TT and most of metabolic components. Body mass index (BMI), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and TT remained independently associated with SHBG by multivariate regression analysis. In a logistic regression taking MetS as the dependent variable, SHBG (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.975−0.994, P = 0.018) and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (95%CI: 1.535−2.647, P < 0.001) were included in the final model.
Lower SHBG is independently associated with MetS among pre-elderly and elderly men. SHBG may be an independent predictor of MetS, but the mechanism of how SHBG is involved in MetS requires further studied.
PMCID: PMC3627720  PMID: 23610571
Sex hormone–binding globulin; Metabolic Syndrome; Testosterone; Males
11.  Testosterone and the metabolic syndrome 
Metabolic syndrome and testosterone deficiency in men are closely Linked. Epidemiological studies have shown that Low testosterone Levels are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and an adverse Lipid profile in men. Conversely in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes have a high prevalence of hypogonadism. Metabolic syndrome and Low testosterone status are both independently associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Observational and experimental data suggest that physiological replacement of testosterone produces improvement in insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidae-mia and sexual dysfunction along with improved quality of Life. However, there are no Long-term interventional studies to assess the effect of testosterone replacement on mortality in men with Low testosterone Levels. This article reviews the observational and interventional clinical data in relation to testosterone and metabolic syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3474619  PMID: 23148165
diabetes; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; obesity; testosterone deficiency
12.  Morning free and total testosterone in HIV-infected men: implications for the assessment of hypogonadism 
Hypogonadism is common among HIV-infected men, even among men receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective in this study was to determine the prevalence of biochemical hypogonadism among HIV-infected men compared with HIV-uninfected controls. We also examined the use of free testosterone (FT) and total testosterone (TT) measurements in the assessment of biochemical hypogonadism in HIV-infected and –uninfected men.
This was a cross-sectional analysis from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). TT levels were measured from archived serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. FT was calculated from TT and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (measured by radioimmunoassay) using the Vermeulen equation. Biochemical hypogonadism was defined as having low TT, low FT, or both.
Of 945 men in the MACS Cardiovascular Substudy, T assays were not performed in 89 because of insufficient/no stored serum (n = 18) or use of T replacement therapy (TRT) (n = 71). 530 men had morning (AM) T measurements; 364 (68.7%) were HIV-infected. The prevalence of biochemical hypogonadism was similar in HIV-infected (34/364 = 9.3%) and HIV-uninfected (12/166 = 7.2%) men. Prevalence of hypogonadism, when men on TRT (n = 71) were included in the group of hypogonadal men, was higher in HIV-infected (104/434 = 24.0%) compared with HIV-uninfected (13/167 = 7.8%) men (p < 0.0001). Of 34 HIV-infected men with biochemical hypogonadism not on TRT, 11 (32.4%) had normal TT, but low FT. Of 12 HIV-uninfected men with biochemical hypogonadism not on TRT, none were in this category (p = 0.04) – all had low TT.
The prevalence of biochemical hypogonadism in our sample of HIV-infected men was approximately 10%, with a substantial proportion of these men having a normal TT, but low FT. The measurement of AM FT, rather than TT, in the assessment of hypogonadism in HIV-infected men will likely increase diagnostic sensitivity and should be recommended.
PMCID: PMC3900935  PMID: 24450960
Testosterone; Sex hormone binding globulin; HIV; Hypogonadism
13.  Testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men results in sustained and clinically meaningful weight loss 
Clinical Obesity  2013;3(3-4):73-83.
What is already known about this subject
Hypogonadism is associated with increased fat mass and reduced muscle mass, which contributes to obesity and health risks, such as cardiovascular disease.Testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men improves muscle mass and reduces fat mass; however, many of these studies are of short duration.Thus, the long-term effects of testosterone on body anthropometry are not known.
What this study adds
Long-term testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men, up to 5 years duration, produced marked and significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference and body mass index.
Hypogonadism contributes to reduced muscle mass and increased adiposity. Testosterone treatment ameliorates loss of muscle mass and reduces fat accumulation associated with hypogonadism. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of normalizing testosterone (T) levels in hypogonadal men on anthropometric parameters. Open-label, single-center, cumulative, prospective registry study of 261 men (32–84 years, mean 59.5 ± 8.4 years, with T levels ≤12 nmol L−1 [mean: 7.7 ± 2.1]). Among the 261 men on T treatment, we followed up on 260 men for at least 2 years, 237 for 3 years, 195 for 4 years and 163 for at least 5 years. Subjects received parenteral T undecanoate 1000 mg every 12 weeks after an initial interval of 6 weeks. Body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline and yearly after treatment with T. BW decreased from 100.1 ± 14.0 kg to 92.5 ± 11.2 kg and WC was reduced from 107.7 ± 10.0 cm to 99.0 ± 9.1 cm. BMI declined from 31.7 ± 4.4 m kg−2 to 29.4 ± 3.4 m kg−2. All parameters examined were statistically significant vs. baseline and vs. the previous year over 5 years, indicating a continuous weight loss (WL) over the full observation period. The mean per cent WL was 3.2 ± 0.3% after 1 year, 5.6 ± 0.3%, after 2 years, 7.5 ± 0.3% after 3 years, 9.1 ± 0.3% after 4 years and 10.5 ± 0.4% after 5 years. The data obtained from this uncontrolled, observational, registry study suggest that raising serum T to normal physiological levels in hypogonadal men produces consistent loss in BW, WC and BMI. These marked improvements were progressive over the 5 years of the study.
PMCID: PMC3799011  PMID: 24163704
Testosterone; obesity; waist circumference; weight loss
14.  Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency 
Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL), can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT. EL exerts proandrogenic effects that enhance testosterone level, as well as stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis. This will maintain bone remodelling activity and reduce bone loss. Phytochemical components of EL may also prevent osteoporosis via its antioxidative property. Hence, EL has the potential as a complementary treatment for male osteoporosis.
PMCID: PMC3403331  PMID: 22844328
15.  The Role of Testosterone in the Etiology and Treatment of Obesity, the Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 
Journal of Obesity  2010;2011:471584.
Obesity has become a major health problem. Testosterone plays a significant role in obesity, glucose homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors predisposing to diabetes mellitus type 2, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The main components of the syndrome are visceral obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, raised blood pressure and dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and a proinflammatory and thrombogenic state. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies have reported a direct correlation between plasma testosterone and insulin sensitivity, and low testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, dramatically illustrated by androgen deprivation in men with prostate carcinoma. Lower total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) predict a higher incidence of the metabolic syndrome. Administration of testosterone to hypogonadal men reverses part of the unfavorable risk profile for the development of diabetes and atherosclerosis.
PMCID: PMC2931403  PMID: 20847893
16.  Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men 
Age  2011;34(1):145-156.
The indication for testosterone therapy in aging hypogonadal men without hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone therapy on insulin sensitivity, substrate metabolism, body composition, and lipids in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels using a predefined cutoff level for bioavailable testosterone. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of testosterone treatment (gel) was done on 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone <7.3 nmol/l and a waist circumference >94 cm. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd) and substrate oxidation were assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps combined with indirect calorimetry. Lean body mass (LBM) and total fat mass (TFM) were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and serum total testosterone was measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Bioavailable testosterone was calculated. Coefficients (b) represent the placebo-controlled mean effect of intervention. LBM (b = 1.9 kg, p = 0.003) increased while HDL–cholesterol (b = −0.12 mmol/l, p = 0.043) and TFM decreased (b = −1.2 kg, p = 0.038) in the testosterone group compared to placebo. Basal lipid oxidation (b = 5.65 mg/min/m2, p = 0.045) increased and basal glucose oxidation (b = −9.71 mg/min/m2, p = 0.046) decreased in response to testosterone therapy even when corrected for changes in LBM. No significant changes in insulin-stimulated Rd was observed (b = −0.01mg/min/m2, p = 0.92). Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels; however, our data did not support an effect of testosterone on whole-body insulin sensitivity using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique.
PMCID: PMC3260358  PMID: 21347608
Testosterone therapy; Insulin sensitivity; Substrate oxidation; Aging men
17.  Hypogonadism, ADAM, and hormone replacement 
Male hypogonadism, or testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), results from a failure of the testes to produce adequate androgen. Patients have low circulating testosterone in combination with clinical symptoms such as fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and body composition changes. The cause may be primary (genetic anomaly, Klinefelter’s syndrome) or secondary (defect in hypothalamus or pituitary), but often presents with the same symptomatology. In the older patient, androgen deficiency of the aging male (ADAM) is an important cause of secondary hypogonadism because testosterone levels decline progressively after age 40. Hypogonadal patients have alterations not only in sexual function and body composition, but also in cognition and metabolism. Regardless of etiology, hypogonadal patients who are both symptomatic and who have clinically significant alterations in laboratory values are candidates for treatment. The goal of hormone replacement therapy in these men is to restore hormone levels to the normal range and to alleviate symptoms suggestive of hormone deficiency. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways, although most commonly testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is employed.
PMCID: PMC3126089  PMID: 21789087
androgen deficiency; hypogonadism; testosterone deficiency syndrome; testosterone replacement
18.  Risks of testosterone replacement therapy in men 
Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is a widely used treatment for men with symptomatic hypogonadism. The benefits seen with TRT, such as increased libido and energy level, beneficial effects on bone density, strength and muscle as well as cardioprotective effects, have been well-documented. TRT is contraindicated in men with untreated prostate and breast cancer. Men on TRT should be monitored for side-effects such as polycythemia, peripheral edema, cardiac and hepatic dysfunction.
PMCID: PMC3897047  PMID: 24497673
Hypogonadism; side-effects; testosterone replacement therapy
19.  A 6-month observational study of energy, sexual desire, and body proportions in hypogonadal men treated with a testosterone 1% gel 
The Aging Male  2013;17(1):1-11.
Aims and Methods
This was a 6-month, open label, multinational, observational study in hypogonadal men treated with daily titrated dose of 50, 75, or 100 mg 1% testosterone gel (AndroGel®) in community practice. Primary outcome was effect of treatment on hypogonadal symptoms and quality of life as assessed by Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) scale. Secondary objectives included erectile dysfunction (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]), fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI]), and surrogates for body composition (waist circumference, body mass index [BMI]).
Seven hundred and ninety-nine of the 1053 men enrolled had follow-up data at 6 months, 81.2% had ≥1 testosterone value in the normal range during the study. Substantial and significant improvements were observed in mean AMS score (−29%), IIEF score (+115.7%), and MFI scores (−21.5%). Further beneficial effects were significant decreases in mean BMI (−0.8 kg/m2) and waist circumference (−3.3 cm). Younger age quartiles showed greater improvements in AMS, MFI, BMI, and waist circumference than older quartiles. IIEF scores, however, did not differ significantly by age category.
Substantial improvements in hypogonadal symptoms, quality of life, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and libido/sexual desire were observed. Adverse drug reactions were experienced by 7.5% of the safety population over the 6-month study period.
PMCID: PMC3956632  PMID: 24274081
Body composition; erectile dysfunction; fatigue; hypogonadism; quality of life; testosterone replacement therapy
20.  Association of hormonal dysregulation with metabolic syndrome in older women: data from the InCHIANTI study 
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Conditions associated with hyperandrogenism are often associated with glucose intolerance and other features of MetS in young women. As the prevalence of MetS increases with age and is probably multifactorial, it is reasonable to hypothesize that age-related changes in androgens and other hormones might contribute to the development of MetS in older persons. However, this hypothesis has never been tested in older women. We hypothesized that high levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol and low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I would be associated with MetS in a representative cohort of older Italian women independently of confounders (including inflammatory markers). After exclusion of participants on hormone replacement therapy and those with a history of bilateral oophorectomy, 512 women (≥65 yr) had complete data on testosterone, cortisol, DHEA-S, SHBG, fasting insulin, total and free IGF-I, IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP). MetS was defined according to ATP-III criteria. Insulin resistance was calculated according to HOMA. MetS was found in 145 women (28.3%). Participants with vs. those without MetS had higher age-adjusted levels of bioavailable testosterone (P < 0.001), IL-6 (P < 0.001), CRP (P < 0.001), and HOMA (P < 0.001) and lower levels of SHBG (P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, participants with decreased SHBG had an increased risk of MetS (P < 0.0001) vs. those with low SHBG. In a further model including all hormones and confounders, log SHBG was the only independent factor associated with MetS (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.91, P = 0.027). In older women, SHBG is negatively associated with MetS independently of confounders, including inflammatory markers and insulin resistance. Further studies are needed to support the notion that raising SHBG is a potential therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of MetS.
PMCID: PMC2645662  PMID: 16968811
sex hormone-binding globulin; hormonal dysregulation; insulin-like growth factor I; androgens
21.  A practical guide to male hypogonadism in the primary care setting 
There is a high prevalence of hypogonadism in the older adult male population and the proportion of older men in the population is projected to rise in the future. As hypogonadism increases with age and is significantly associated with various comorbidities such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome, the physician is increasingly likely to have to treat hypogonadism in the clinic. The main symptoms of hypogonadism are reduced libido/erectile dysfunction, reduced muscle mass and strength, increased adiposity, osteoporosis/low bone mass, depressed mood and fatigue. Diagnosis of the condition requires the presence of low serum testosterone levels and the presence of hypogonadal symptoms. There are a number of formulations available for testosterone therapy including intramuscular injections, transdermal patches, transdermal gels, buccal patches and subcutaneous pellets. These are efficacious in establishing eugonadal testosterone levels in the blood and relieving symptoms. Restoration of testosterone levels to the normal range improves libido, sexual function, and mood; reduces fat body mass; increases lean body mass; and improves bone mineral density. Testosterone treatment is contraindicated in subjects with prostate cancer or benign prostate hyperplasia and risks of treatment are perceived to be high by many physicians. These risks, however, are often exaggerated and should not outweigh the benefits of testosterone treatment.
PMCID: PMC2948422  PMID: 20518947
22.  International web survey shows high prevalence of symptomatic testosterone deficiency in men 
The Aging Male  2010;14(1):10-15.
Though the clinical significance of testosterone deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent, its prevalence in the general population remains unrecognised. A large web-based survey was undertaken over 3 years to study the scale of this missed diagnosis.
An online questionnaire giving the symptoms characterising testosterone deficiency syndrome (Aging Male Symptoms – AMS – scale) was set up on three web sites, together with questions about possible contributory factors. Results. Of over 10,000 men, mainly from the UK and USA, who responded, 80% had moderate or severe scores likely to benefit from testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). The average age was 52, but with many in their 40s when the diagnosis of ‘late onset hypogonadism’ is not generally considered. Other possible contributory factors to the high testosterone deficiency scores reported were obesity (29%), alcohol (17.3%), testicular problems such as mumps orchitis (11.4%), prostate problems (5.6%), urinary infection (5.2%) and diabetes 5.7%.
In this self-selected large international sample of men, there was a very high prevalence of scores which if clinically relevant would warrant a therapeutic trial of testosterone treatment. This study suggests that there are large numbers of men in the community whose testosterone deficiency is neither being diagnosed nor treated.
PMCID: PMC3038589  PMID: 20828244
AMS questionnaire; web survey; testosterone deficiency; diagnosis; treatment; diabetes; alcohol; vasectomy
23.  Risks and Benefits of Late Onset Hypogonadism Treatment: An Expert Opinion 
The World Journal of Men's Health  2013;31(2):103-125.
Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a syndromic condition that has a well-recognized association with sexual and reproductive failure. LOH is frequently associated with chronic conditions including cardiovascular diseases (CVD), obesity, osteoporosis, HIV infection, renal failure, and obstructive pulmonary diseases. Despite this evidence, in patients with these conditions, LOH is still only rarely investigated and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) rarely considered. In this paper, we critically reviewed the available evidence on LOH treatment focusing on possible risks and benefits. Medical therapy of LOH should be individualized depending on the etiology of the disease and the patient's expectations. The fear of prostate cancer and the risk of erythrocytosis probably represent the main limitations of TRT in aging men. However, TRT in healthy older men in near physiological doses does not appear to incur serious adverse events, although regular monitoring of prostate-specific antigen and hematocrit levels is required. Available evidence also suggests that TRT might ameliorate central obesity and glycometabolic control in patients with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In addition, TRT has been associated with an increase in bone mineral density in men with osteoporosis, with an improvement in lean body mass in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus infection or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as with peripheral oxygenation in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Despite this evidence, however, it should be recognized that the results of these trials were heterogeneous and limited by small sample sizes. Hence, further research is required regarding the long-term benefits and adverse effects of TRT in LOH.
PMCID: PMC3770846  PMID: 24044106
Testosterone; Hypogonadism; Prostate; Diabetes mellitus; Erectile dysfunction
24.  Testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men alters the HDL proteome but not HDL cholesterol efflux capacity[S] 
Journal of Lipid Research  2012;53(7):1376-1383.
The effects of androgens on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in men remain unclear. To better characterize the relationship between androgens and HDL, we investigated the effects of testosterone replacement on HDL protein composition and serum HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in hypogonadal men. Twenty-three older hypogonadal men (ages 51–83, baseline testosterone < 280 ng/dl) were administered replacement testosterone therapy (1% transdermal gel) with or without the 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride. At baseline and after three months of treatment, we determined fasting lipid concentrations, HDL protein composition, and the cholesterol efflux capacity of serum HDL. Testosterone replacement did not affect HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations but conferred significant increases in HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and fibrinogen α chain (FGA) (P = 0.022 and P = 0.023, respectively) and a decrease in apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) (P = 0.016). Exogenous testosterone did not affect the cholesterol efflux capacity of serum HDL. No differences were observed between men who received testosterone alone and those who also received dutasteride. Testosterone replacement in older hypogonadal men alters the protein composition of HDL but does not significantly change serum HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. These effects appear independent of testosterone conversion to dihydrotestosterone. Further research is needed to determine how changes in HDL protein content affect CVD risk in men.
PMCID: PMC3371249  PMID: 22504910
cardiovascular disease; lipoproteins; lipids; atherosclerosis; androgens
25.  The prevalence of hypogonadism in diabetic men in Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Isfahan, Iran 
Low testosterone, with or without symptoms, reported in diabetic men in some studies. We investigated the prevalence of hypogonadism in Iranian type 2 diabetic men.
Materials and Methods:
Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations were measured in 247 diabetic men >30 years who had symptoms of androgen deficiency, according to ADAMs questionnaire. The correlation between some parameters and total, free and bioavailable testosterone levels was determined using Pearson correlation coefficient. Free and bioavailable testosterone were calculated by electronic calculator. Four patients were excluded because of high testosterone level, due to unreported androgen use. Overt hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone ≤8 nmol/l or calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT)≤2.5 nmol/l and borderline hypogonadism was considered as TT 8-12 nmol/l or cBT 2.5-4nmol/l.
The mean and SD of age was 59 (9.3) years. The mean TT, calculated free testosterone (cFT), and cBT and SHBG levels were 4.81 (1.7) nmol/l, 0.11 (0.06) nmol/l, 2.42 (1.17) nmol/l and 36.15 (18.3) nmol/l, respectively. According to TT and cBT, overt hypogonadism observed in 7.4% and 61.6% of men, respectively, and the prevalence of borderline hypogonadism was 9.9% and 36%, respectively. cFT ≤0.16 nmol/l found in 227 diabetic men (96%). Hypogonadism (TT ≤12 nmol/l) was not correlated with obesity, smoking, age,duration of diabetes, blood pressure, and HbA1c.
Hypogonadism is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes men.
PMCID: PMC3685773  PMID: 23798917
Hypogonadism; male; Iran; prevalence; Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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