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1.  Caesarean Myomectomy 
Objectives:
Caesarean myomectomy has traditionally been discouraged due to fears of intractable haemorrhage and increased postoperative morbidity. However, a number of authors have recently shown that myomectomy during Caesarean section does not increase the risk of haemorrhage or postoperative morbidity.
Methods:
We present a series of 8 cases from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, where myomectomy was performed during Caesarean section for large lower segment fibroids. Seven were anterior lower segment fibroids, while one was a posterior lower uterine fibroid which interfered with closure of the uterine incision. The antenatal course, perioperative management, and postoperative morbidity are discussed.
Results:
The average age of the women was 28.7 years and mean gestational age at delivery was 36.75 weeks. Regarding intra-operative blood loss, 1 patient lost 900 ml, 5 patients lost 1–1.5 litres, 2 lost 1.5–2 L, and 1 patient with a 10 x 12 cm fibroid lost 3.2 L. Despite the majority being large myomas (7 of the 8 patients had myomas >5 cm in size) and 50% being intramural, no hysterectomy was required. Stepwise devascularisation was necessary in one case and preoperative placement of uterine balloon catheters was necessary in another. The size of the fibroids was confirmed by histopathology. Myomectomy added 15 minutes to the operating time and 1 day to the hospital stay, but there was no significant postoperative morbidity. Neonatal outcome was good in all patients.
Conclusion:
In selected patients, myomectomy during Caesarean section is a safe and effective procedure at tertiary centres with experienced surgeons.
PMCID: PMC3327566  PMID: 22548138
Caesarean section; Myomectomy; Fibroids; Pregnancy; Haemorrhage; Oman
2.  Management of Cervical Fibroid during the Reproductive Period 
This is a case report of a 29-year-old lady who presented with excessive vaginal discharge and sessile cervical fibroid arising from the vaginal portion of the cervix. She was not suitable for uterine artery embolization as she has never previously been pregnant before. She was encouraged to get pregnant and to avoid surgical excision which can lead to hysterectomy. Shortly after, she became pregnant. She had many admissions during pregnancy due to bleeding from the fibroid, and in one occasion she had blood transfusions. The fibroid increased in size to become larger than the head of the baby. An emergency caesarean section was performed at 37 weeks when she attended in labour before the date of her elective caesarean section. She was managed conservatively following delivery in the hope that the fibroid becomes smaller making surgery easier. The fibroid degenerated and reduced in size. Vaginal myomectomy was carried out. The patient is now pregnant for the second time and had a cervical suture at 20 weeks gestation. In this educational case report we discuss the different management options of cervical fibroids and review the literature of other similar cases and their outcome.
doi:10.1155/2013/984030
PMCID: PMC3787639  PMID: 24109537
3.  The Impact of Uterine Leiomyomas on Reproductive Outcomes 
Minerva ginecologica  2010;62(3):225-236.
Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) are a common benign disease of the uterus with a prevalence of 8–18%. Prevalence rates vary with race, and fibroids are most common in African American women. Uterine leiomyomas can also be present during pregnancy, which may occur more frequently than previously suspected, with prevalence rates reported of up to 10%. Recent evidence has emerged to clarify the relationship of uterine fibroids on fertility and obstetrical outcomes. In this paper we review evidence that uterine fibroids, specifically submucosal and intramural myomas, negatively impact fertility and are associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes such as: pain, preterm labor, placental abruption, malpresentation, postpartum hemorrhage, and cesarean section. Myomectomy performed for submucosal and intramural fibroids significantly improves fertility outcome, and current evidence suggests myomectomy is the treatment of choice in women desiring to conceive. For women that do not desire surgery, medical management of myomas is also available. Treatment with GnRH agonists may be considered, however newer medications with fewer side effects give practitioners and patients more options. Progesterone antagonists, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors have all shown promise as effective therapies. Non-pharmacologic treatments such as uterine artery embolization and MRI-guided ultrasound have also emerged as effective treatments for uterine fibroids. With such a wide range of new and emerging treatment options, patients and providers will be even more likely to find an appropriate and effective treatment method for management of fibroids.
PMCID: PMC4120295  PMID: 20595947
4.  Uterine Rupture by Intended Mode of Delivery in the UK: A National Case-Control Study 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(3):e1001184.
A case-control study using UK data estimates the risk of uterine rupture in subsequent deliveries amongst women who have had a previous caesarean section.
Background
Recent reports of the risk of morbidity due to uterine rupture are thought to have contributed in some countries to a decrease in the number of women attempting a vaginal birth after caesarean section. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of true uterine rupture in the UK and to investigate and quantify the associated risk factors and outcomes, on the basis of intended mode of delivery.
Methods and Findings
A UK national case-control study was undertaken between April 2009 and April 2010. The participants comprised 159 women with uterine rupture and 448 control women with a previous caesarean delivery. The estimated incidence of uterine rupture was 0.2 per 1,000 maternities overall; 2.1 and 0.3 per 1,000 maternities in women with a previous caesarean delivery planning vaginal or elective caesarean delivery, respectively. Amongst women with a previous caesarean delivery, odds of rupture were also increased in women who had ≥ two previous caesarean deliveries (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.02, 95% CI 1.16–7.85) and <12 months since their last caesarean delivery (aOR 3.12, 95% CI 1.62–6.02). A higher risk of rupture with labour induction and oxytocin use was apparent (aOR 3.92, 95% CI 1.00–15.33). Two women with uterine rupture died (case fatality 1.3%, 95% CI 0.2–4.5%). There were 18 perinatal deaths associated with uterine rupture among 145 infants (perinatal mortality 124 per 1,000 total births, 95% CI 75–189).
Conclusions
Although uterine rupture is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, even amongst women with a previous caesarean section planning a vaginal delivery, it is a rare occurrence. For women with a previous caesarean section, risk of uterine rupture increases with number of previous caesarean deliveries, a short interval since the last caesarean section, and labour induction and/or augmentation. These factors should be considered when counselling and managing the labour of women with a previous caesarean section.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Uterine rupture is a serious complication of pregnancy in which the wall of the uterus (womb) tears during pregnancy or early labor. Signs and symptoms of uterine rupture include fetal heart rate abnormalities, abdominal pain, and vaginal bleeding. If uterine rupture happens during labor, the woman must have an immediate caesarean section (surgical delivery of her baby) to save both her life and that of her baby. The woman's womb and nearby organs can be damaged at rupture or removed during surgery and she may need a blood transfusion because of severe bleeding. Moreover, her baby may develop respiratory distress syndrome and other life-threatening complications. In high income countries, uterine rupture most commonly occurs in women who have delivered a previous pregnancy by caesarean section. In a caesarean section, the baby is delivered through a cut made through the abdominal wall and the uterine wall. The stretching that occurs during pregnancy or the strong contractions of labor can tear the scar left by this cut, resulting in uterine rupture.
Why Was This Study Done?
Women who have had a caesarean delivery are generally encouraged to try to deliver subsequent babies vaginally. However, recent reports of an increased risk of complications (morbidity) and death (mortality) due to uterine rupture are thought to reduce women's willingness to attempt vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) in some countries. In the UK, for example, where one in four babies is delivered by caesarean section, a previous caesarean delivery is one of commonest reasons for a repeat section. Obstetricians (doctors who care for women during child birth) need to know as much as possible about the incidence of uterine rupture and about the risk factors for it so that they can advise women who have had a previous caesarean section about their delivery options. In this national case-control study (a study that compares the characteristics of people with and without a specific condition), the researchers estimate the incidence of uterine rupture in the UK by intended mode of delivery and investigate and quantify the risk factors for and outcomes of uterine rupture.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers used the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS) to identify all the women in the UK who had a uterine rupture over a 13-month period (159 women, 139 of whom had had a previous caesarean delivery). Controls for the study were women who had not had a uterine rupture but who had previously delivered by caesarean section. Overall, the incidence of uterine rupture was 0.2 per 1,000 maternities. In women with a previous caesarean delivery, 2.1 and 0.3 per 1,000 maternities ended in uterine rupture in women planning vaginal delivery and caesarean delivery, respectively. Amongst women who had had a previous caesarean delivery, the risk of uterine rupture was greater among those who had had two or more previous caesarean deliveries or a caesarean delivery less than 12 months previously, or whose labor was induced. Two women died following uterine rupture (a case fatality of 1.3%) and 18 babies died around the time of birth (a perinatal mortality rate of 124 per 1,000 live births; the UK perinatal mortality rate is 7.5 per 1,000 live births). 15 of the women who had a uterine rupture had their womb removed, 10 had other organs damaged, and nearly half had other complications; 19 of the surviving babies had health problems.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that, in the UK, although uterine rupture is associated with significant mortality and morbidity, it is a rare occurrence even among women who have had a previous caesarean delivery and are planning a vaginal delivery. They also indicate that, for women who have previously had a caesarean section, the risk of rupture increases with the number of previous caesarean deliveries, with a short interval since the last caesarean section, and with labor induction. Although the researchers may not have identified all the women who had a uterine rupture during the study period or may have identified only the worst cases, these findings provide valuable information about the factors that obstetricians need to consider when advising women who have previously had a caesarean section and when managing their labor.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001184.
This study is linked to a PLoS Medicine Research Article by Caroline Crowther and a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Catherine Spong
Wikipedia has a page on uterine rupture (note: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has information sheets for patients on caesarean sections and on vaginal birth after caesarean delivery
The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in the UK has information for women on birth after previous caesarean
Childbirth Connection, a US-based not-for-profit organization, provides information about caesarean sections and about vaginal birth after caesarean
The National Childbirth Trust, a UK charity, provides information for parents on all aspects of pregnancy and birth, including caesarean sections and vaginal birth after caesarean delivery
The UK charity Healthtalkonline has personal stories from women making decisions about birth after a caesarean section
A personal story of uterine rupture during an attempted VBAC is available
The UK Obstetric Surveillance System studies rare disorders of pregnancy in the UK
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001184
PMCID: PMC3302846  PMID: 22427745
5.  Laparotomic Myomectomy in the 16th Week of Pregnancy: A Case Report 
Myomectomy is rarely performed during an ongoing pregnancy because of fear of miscarriage and the risk of an uncontrolled haemorrhage necessitating a hysterectomy. In cases where myomectomy is undertaken, most are performed at the time of cesarean section or with a laparoscopic approach. We report a case of a successful laparotomic myomectomy in the 16th week of pregnancy. A 35-year-old primigravida was admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain and hydronephrosis (serum creatinine 1.6 mg/dL). Imaging revealed a large implant myoma compressing the bladder, ureters, rectus, and gestational chamber and causing hydronephrosis. Laparotomic myomectomy was successfully performed and pregnancy continued uneventfully until the 38th week when a cesarean section was performed. Surgical management of myomas during pregnancy is worth evaluating in well-selected and highly symptomatic cases.
doi:10.1155/2014/154347
PMCID: PMC3970342  PMID: 24716028
6.  The safety of cesarean myomectomy in women with large myomas 
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science  2014;57(5):367-372.
Objective
To evaluate the safety of cesarean myomectomy in large myomas sized >5 cm.
Methods
One hundred sixty-five pregnant women with myomas who delivered via cesarean section were identified. Ninety-six women had cesarean section without myomectomy, and 65 women underwent cesarean myomectomy. We compared the maternal characteristics, neonatal weight, myoma types, and operative outcomes between two groups. We further analyzed cesarean myomectomy group according to myoma size. The large myoma was defined as myoma >5 cm in size. The maternal characteristics, neonatal weight, and myoma types were compared between two groups. We also compared the operative outcomes such as preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin, operative time, and hospitalized days between two groups.
Results
There were no significant differences in the maternal characteristics, myoma types, neonatal weight and operative outcomes between cesarean section without myomectomy and cesarean myomectomy. The subgroup analysis according to myoma size (>5 cm or not) in cesarean myomectomy group revealed that there were no significant differences in the mean hemoglobin change (1.2 vs. 1.3 mg/dL, P=0.6), operative time (90.5 vs. 93.1 minutes, P=0.46), and the length of hospital stay (4.7 vs. 5.2 days, P=0.15) between two groups. The comparison of maternal characteristics, neonatal weight, and myoma types between two groups also showed no statistical significance.
Conclusion
Cesarean myomectomy in patients with large myomas is a safe and effective procedure.
doi:10.5468/ogs.2014.57.5.367
PMCID: PMC4175596  PMID: 25264526
Cesarean myomectomy; Large myoma; Safety
7.  The Utility of Caesarean Myomectomy as a Safe Procedure: A Retrospective Analysis of 21 Cases with Review of Literature 
Background: Myomectomy at the time of caesarean delivery has been discouraged because of the risk of intractable haemorrhage and increased postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study is to determine the safety and feasibility of caesarean myomectomy.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective case control study done between June 2012 to May 2013 in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Karnataka, India which included 21 pregnant women with uterine fibroids who underwent myomectomy during caesarean section and were compared with 42 matched controls without uterine fibroids who had caesarean section alone during the same period. Primary outcome measures studied were incidence of haemorrhage and need for blood transfusion. Secondary outcome measures were duration of operation, length of hospital stay, postpartum fever and wound infection. Statistical analysis is done using IBMSPSS 20.0 software and students t-test. For calculation of incidence of haemorrhage Fisher’s exact test is used.
Results: Mean age of the 21 cases was 31.81yrs and 47.62% were primigravida. Total 37 fibroids were removed. Subserosal were 30 cases(81.08%) while 1(2.07%) was submucous. 21(56.76%)fibroids were situated in fundal region and 3(8.11%) were in lower segment. Mean change in the haemoglobin from preoperative to postoperative period in the cases was 1.3gm/dl(±1.155mg/dl) and control was 1.05% (±.854mg/dl). Two of the cases(9.52%) required blood transfusion compared to none in control. None in either group required hysterectomy. Mean duration of surgery was 68.57min (±15.012min)and 51.55min (±9.595min) for controls which is statistically significant.
Conclusion: This study shows that myomectomy during caesarean section is a safe procedure and is not associated with major intraoperative and postoperative complications.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/8630.4795
PMCID: PMC4225937  PMID: 25386485
Caesarean section; Haemorrhage; Myomectomy; Myoma
8.  Maternal Clinical Diagnoses and Hospital Variation in the Risk of Cesarean Delivery: Analyses of a National US Hospital Discharge Database 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(10):e1001745.
Katy Kozhimannil and colleagues use a national database to examine the extent to which variability in cesarean section rates across the US from 2009–2010 was attributable to individual women's clinical diagnoses.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
Cesarean delivery is the most common inpatient surgery in the United States, where 1.3 million cesarean sections occur annually, and rates vary widely by hospital. Identifying sources of variation in cesarean use is crucial to improving the consistency and quality of obstetric care. We used hospital discharge records to examine the extent to which variability in the likelihood of cesarean section across US hospitals was attributable to individual women's clinical diagnoses.
Methods and Findings
Using data from the 2009 and 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project—a 20% sample of US hospitals—we analyzed data for 1,475,457 births in 1,373 hospitals. We fitted multilevel logistic regression models (patients nested in hospitals). The outcome was cesarean (versus vaginal) delivery. Covariates included diagnosis of diabetes in pregnancy, hypertension in pregnancy, hemorrhage during pregnancy or placental complications, fetal distress, and fetal disproportion or obstructed labor; maternal age, race/ethnicity, and insurance status; and hospital size and location/teaching status.
The cesarean section prevalence was 22.0% (95% confidence interval 22.0% to 22.1%) among women with no prior cesareans. In unadjusted models, the between-hospital variation in the individual risk of primary cesarean section was 0.14 (95% credible interval 0.12 to 0.15). The difference in the probability of having a cesarean delivery between hospitals was 25 percentage points. Hospital variability did not decrease after adjusting for patient diagnoses, socio-demographics, and hospital characteristics (0.16 [95% credible interval 0.14 to 0.18]). A limitation is that these data, while nationally representative, did not contain information on parity or gestational age.
Conclusions
Variability across hospitals in the individual risk of cesarean section is not decreased by accounting for differences in maternal diagnoses. These findings highlight the need for more comprehensive or linked data including parity and gestational age as well as examination of other factors—such as hospital policies, practices, and culture—in determining cesarean section use.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
In an ideal world, all babies would be delivered safely and naturally through their mother's vagina. However, increasing numbers of babies are being delivered by cesarean section, a surgical operation in which the baby is delivered through a cut made in the mother's abdomen and womb. In the US, a third of all babies (about 1.3 million babies in 2011) are delivered this way. A cesarean section is usually performed when a vaginal birth would endanger the life of the mother or her unborn child because, for example, the baby is in the wrong position or the labor is not progressing normally. Some cesarean sections are performed as emergency procedures, but others are planned in advance when the need for the operation becomes clear during pregnancy. Although cesarean sections can save lives, women who deliver this way have higher rates of infection, pain, and complications in future pregnancies than women who deliver vaginally, and their babies can have breathing problems.
Why Was This Study Done?
Currently, cesarean section rates vary widely from country to country and from hospital to hospital within countries. Careful assessment of the risks and benefits of cesarean delivery in individual patients can help to ensure that cesarean sections are used only when necessary, but changes to clinical and policy guidelines are also needed to ensure that cesarean delivery is neither overused nor underused. To guide these changes, we need to know whether cesarean section rates vary among hospitals because of case-mix differences (some hospitals may have high rates because they admit many women with complicated pregnancies, for example) or because of differences in modifiable nonclinical factors such as hospital policies and practices. In this retrospective multilevel analysis, the researchers examine whether the current wide variation in cesarean section rates across US hospitals is attributable to differences in maternal clinical diagnoses and patient characteristics or to hospital-level differences in the use of cesarean delivery.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
For their study, the researchers used hospital discharge data on nearly 1.5 million births in 1,373 hospitals collected by the 2009 and 2010 US Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, which captures administrative data (for example, length of stay in hospital and clinical complications) from a representative sample of 20% of US hospitals. To assess the chances of cesarean delivery based on hospital and patient characteristics, researchers fitted these data to multilevel logistic regression statistical models. Among women with no prior cesarean deliveries, the (primary) cesarean section rate was 22%, whereas among the whole study population, it was 33% (women who have one cesarean delivery often have a cesarean section for subsequent deliveries). In unadjusted models that compared cesarean section rates between hospitals without considering patient characteristics, the between-hospital variance for primary cesarean section rate was 0.14. Put another way, the likelihood of an individual having a first cesarean delivery varied between 11% and 36% across the hospitals considered. After adjustment for maternal clinical diagnoses, maternal age and other socio-demographic factors, and hospital characteristics such as size, the between-hospital variance for the primary cesarean section rate was 0.16.
What Do These Findings Mean?
The finding that the between-hospital variance for primary cesarean section rate did not decrease after adjusting for maternal characteristics (and other findings presented by the researchers) suggests that differences in case mix or pregnancy complexity may not drive the wide variability in cesarean section rates across US hospitals. However, the lack of information in the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample database on parity (the number of babies a woman has had) or gestational age (the length of time the baby has spent developing inside its mother) limits the strength of this conclusion. Both parity and gestational age strongly predict a woman's risk of a cesarean delivery. Thus, unmeasured differences in the parity of women admitted to different hospitals and/or the gestational age of their babies may be driving some of the variability in cesarean section rates across US hospitals. The lack of hospital-level information on obstetric care policies in the database also means that the many possible administrative explanations for variations across hospitals cannot be assessed. These findings therefore highlight the need for more comprehensive patient data to be collected (including information on parity and gestational age) and on hospital policies, practices, and culture before the variation in cesarean section rate across US hospitals can be fully understood and the use of cesarean delivery can be optimized.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001745.
This study is further discussed in a PLOS Medicine Perspective by Gordon C. S. Smith
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists provides a fact sheet for patients on cesarean birth
The American College of Nurse-Midwives provides a fact sheet for pregnant women on preventing cesarean birth
The US-based Childbirth Connection Project of the non-profit National Partnership for Women and Families has a booklet called “What Every Woman Should Know about Cesarean Section”
The US-based non-profit Nemours Foundation provides detailed information about cesarean sections (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information for patients about delivery by cesarean section
MedlinePlus provides links to additional resources about cesarean section (in English and Spanish)
The UK non-profit organization Healthtalkonline provides personal stories about women's experiences of cesarean delivery
Information about the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample database is available
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001745
PMCID: PMC4205118  PMID: 25333943
9.  Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata associated with endometriosis: A case report and review of the literature 
Oncology Letters  2014;9(2):717-720.
Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD) is a specific type of leiomyomatosis with an unclear pathogenesis that is rarely diagnosed by clinical evaluation. To date, <200 cases have been reported. The majority of the patients have a medical history of laparoscopic myomectomy for uterine fibroids. The use of laparoscopic power morcellation may be a contributor to the development of LPD, therefore, the specific surgical approach used in laparoscopic myomectomy should be carefully considered, and protective measures should be taken to prevent myoma fragments spreading if laparoscopic power morcellation is used. The present study reviewed and analyzed the medical history, diagnostic process and treatment strategy of a case of LPD to improve our understanding of the disease. In this report, the case of a 34 year-old female who underwent laparoscopic myomectomy to remove a uterine fibroid is presented. During the surgery, a myoma was resected using morcellators. Three years after surgery, exploratory laparotomy was performed due to uterine fibroid recurrence. During surgery, myoma was identified at the uterine bladder peritoneal reflection, where several unequally sized leiomyoma tubercles were identified on the uterine surface. Subsequently, myomectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology diagnosed leiomyoma. Two years later, gynecological ultrasound revealed a mass in the abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy was subsequently performed. During surgery, compact myoma tubercle-like cysts were identified on the surface of the intestine and mesentery, and an endometriotic cyst was identified on the left ovary. As the myomas were too compact to remove completely, the majority of leiomyoma on the intestine and mesentery was resected. The endometriotic cyst on the left ovary was also resected. Considering the patient’s medical history, observations during surgery and pathological results, the final diagnosis was LPD. Following surgery, the patient was treated with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, triptorelin acetate (3.5 mg, once every four weeks), for three months and followed-up every six months. In October 2014, a gynecological sonography examination revealed no abnormalities and at the time of writing, the patient remains alive and well.
doi:10.3892/ol.2014.2741
PMCID: PMC4301522  PMID: 25621042
leiomyomatosis; peritonealis disseminata; laparoscope; hysteromyomectomy; uterine fibroid; laparoscopic power morcellators
10.  Cesarean Section and Rate of Subsequent Stillbirth, Miscarriage, and Ectopic Pregnancy: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study 
PLoS Medicine  2014;11(7):e1001670.
Louise Kenny and colleagues conduct a population-based cohort study in Denmark to assess the likelihood of stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following cesarean section compared to women who gave birth by vaginal delivery.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Background
With cesarean section rates increasing worldwide, clarity regarding negative effects is essential. This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication.
Methods and Findings
We performed a population-based cohort study using Danish national registry data linking various registers. The cohort included primiparous women with a live birth between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2010 (n = 832,996), with follow-up until the next event (stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy) or censoring by live birth, death, emigration, or study end. Cox regression models for all types of cesarean sections, sub-group analyses by type of cesarean, and competing risks analyses for the causes of stillbirth were performed. An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28) was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI) of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH) of 3,333 women. Analyses by type of cesarean section showed similarly increased rates for emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01, 1.31) and elective cesarean (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91, 1.35), although not statistically significant in the latter case. An increased rate of ectopic pregnancy was found among women with primary cesarean overall (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.15) and by type (emergency cesarean, HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15, and elective cesarean, HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03, 1.21), yielding an ARI of 0.1% and a NNH of 1,000 women for ectopic pregnancy. No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85). Limitations include incomplete data on maternal body mass index, maternal smoking, fertility treatment, causes of stillbirth, and maternally requested cesarean section, as well as lack of data on antepartum/intrapartum stillbirth and gestational age for stillbirth and miscarriage.
Conclusions
This study found that cesarean section is associated with a small increased rate of subsequent stillbirth and ectopic pregnancy. Underlying medical conditions, however, and confounding by indication for the primary cesarean delivery account for at least part of this increased rate. These findings will assist women and health-care providers to reach more informed decisions regarding mode of delivery.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Globally, increasing numbers of babies are being delivered by cesarean section (a surgical operation in which the baby is delivered through a cut made in the mother's abdomen and womb) instead of naturally through their mother's vagina. In England in 2010, for example, nearly 25% of all babies were delivered by cesarean section (also called C-section) compared to only 2% in the 1950s; in China and some parts of South America cesarean rates are now between 40% and 50%. A cesarean section is usually performed when a vaginal birth would endanger the life of the mother or her unborn child because, for example, the baby is in the wrong position. Some cesareans are performed as emergency procedures, but others are planned in advance when the need for the operation becomes clear during pregnancy (an elective cesarean). Some planned cesarean sections are also undertaken because the mother has requested a cesarean delivery in the absence of any medical reasons for such a delivery.
Why Was This Study Done?
Cesarean sections save lives but do they have any negative impacts on the outcome of subsequent pregnancies? With so many cesarean sections being undertaken, it is important to be sure that the procedure does not increase the rates of subsequent miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy. Miscarriage—the loss of a fetus (developing baby) that is unable to survive independently—is the commonest complication of early pregnancy, affecting about one in five women who know they are pregnant. Stillbirth is fetal death after about 20–24 weeks of pregnancy; the exact definition of stillbirth varies between countries. About four million stillbirths occur each year worldwide. Ectopic pregnancy—development of the fetus outside the womb—occurs in 1%–2% of all pregnancies. In this population-based cohort study, the researchers investigate the rates of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following a cesarean section among women living in Denmark. A population-based cohort study determines the baseline characteristics of the individuals in a population, and then follows the population over time to see whether specific characteristics are associated with specific outcomes.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers obtained data for 832,996 women from Danish national registers about their first live birth (including whether they had a cesarean) then followed the women (again using the registers) until they had a stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy, or a second live birth. The researchers used these data and statistical models to estimate the risk of stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following a cesarean compared to a spontaneous vaginal delivery after controlling for the possibility that the cesarean was performed because of an indication that might increase the risk of a subsequent event (confounding). Women who had had a cesarean had a 14% increased risk of a stillbirth in their next pregnancy compared to women who had had a vaginal delivery, corresponding to an absolute risk increase of 0.03%. In other words, 3,333 women would need to have a cesarean to result in one extra stillbirth in subsequent pregnancy (a “number needed to harm” of 3,333). Compared to vaginal delivery, having a cesarean increased the risk of a subsequent ectopic pregnancy by 9% (an absolute risk increase of 0.1% and a number needed to harm of 1,000) but did not increase the rate of subsequent miscarriages.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that, among women living in Denmark, cesarean section is associated with a slightly increased rate of subsequent stillbirth and ectopic pregnancy. Part of this increase can be accounted for by underlying medical conditions and by confounding by the indication for the primary cesarean section. The accuracy of these findings may be affected by limitations in the study such as incomplete data on some factors (for example, the smoking history of the mother) that might have affected the risk of stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy, and by misclassification or underreporting of the study outcomes. Given the global increase in cesarean rates, these findings suggest that cesarean delivery is not associated with an increased rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, or ectopic pregnancy, an important finding for both expectant mothers and health-care professionals that nonetheless needs to be confirmed in further large-scale studies. Finally, these findings highlight the need for women to consider all their options thoroughly before requesting a cesarean section on non-medical grounds.
Additional Information
Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001670.
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists provides patient fact sheets on cesarean birth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy
The US-based non-profit Nemours Foundation provides information about cesarean sections, miscarriage and stillbirth, and ectopic pregnancy (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices website provides information for patients about cesarean section, miscarriage, stillbirth, and ectopic pregnancy
MedlinePlus provides links to additional resources about cesarean section, miscarriage, stillbirth, and ectopic pregnancy (in English and Spanish)
The UK non-profit organization Healthtalkonline provides personal stories about cesarean delivery, miscarriage, and stillbirth
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001670
PMCID: PMC4077571  PMID: 24983970
11.  A Case Report on A Myomectomy which was Done During A Caesarean Section 
Uterine myomas are being observed in pregnancy more frequently now than in the past, because many women are delaying child bearing till their late thirties, which is the time for the greatest risk of the myoma growth. Traditionally, obstetricians are trained to avoid myomectomies during caesarean sections as severe haemorrhages can occur, which may often necessitate hysterectomies. Pedunculated fibroids which can be easily removed are an exception. Here, we are reporting one case of a myomectomy which was done during a caesarean section.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2013/5400.2895
PMCID: PMC3644458  PMID: 23730660
Leiomyoma; Myomectomy; Pregnancy
12.  Successful myomectomy during pregnancy : A case report 
Background
The medical literature has reported an increase in myomectomy during caesarean section in the past decade. However, myomectomy performed during pregnancy remains a rarity. The management of uterine fibroids during pregnancy is usually expectant and surgical removal is generally delayed until after delivery. We present a case of a large, symptomatic uterine fibroid diagnosed during pregnancy which was successfully managed by antepartum myomectomy.
Case presentation
A 30 year old woman presented with a one year history of abdominal swelling, amenorrhea and severe epigastric discomfort of 19 weeks duration. The abdomen was grossly distended and tense. A sonographic diagnosis of ovarian tumor in pregnancy was made. Laparotomy revealed a 32 cm degenerating subserosal uterine fibroid co-existing with an intrauterine pregnancy. Myomectomy was successfully performed. The subsequent antenatal period was uneventful with a spontaneous vaginal delivery of a female baby at 38 weeks.
Conclusion
This report supports other studies and case series that have demonstrated the safety of myomectomy during pregnancy in selected circumstances.
doi:10.1186/1742-4755-2-6
PMCID: PMC1198256  PMID: 16105174
13.  Predisposing Factors for Fibroids and Outcome of Laparoscopic Myomectomy in Infertility 
Introduction:
Fibroids are very common tumors affecting women for centuries, however surprising that no significant data is still available as to what could be the cause of fibroid? What could be the predisposing or risk factors? Does it has any impact on fertility? Outcomes of Laparoscopic myomectomy in infertility?
Setting:
Advanced Tertiary Gynecologic endoscopic unit.
Aims and Objectives:
1) What are the predisposing factors to develop fibroids? 2) Do fibroids lead to infertility? 3) What are the indications for removal of fibroids in infertility? 4) Is laparoscopic surgery better than open surgery? 5) Is the risk of rupture uterus more after laparoscopic myomectomy? 6) What is the success in terms of pregnancy rate after myomectomy? 7) What are the chances of abortions with or without myomectomy?
Materials and Methods:
A retrospective research study was carried out on 2540 women at the National Institute of Laser and Endoscopic Surgery and Aakar IVF Centre, Mumbai, a referral centre in India. This study was done over a period of 14 years. Women varied in age from 23 to 51 years and infertility of at least more than three years. The woman had fibroids from one to seventeen in number and two centimeters to eighteen centimeters in size which were either submucous, intramural, serosal, cervical or broad ligament. The women requiring hysteroscopic myoma resection were excluded in this study and Laparoscopic myomectomy done in woman other than infertility are also excluded from the study.
Results:
During the course of our study we found that the diet, weight, hypertension, habits had a bearing on incidence of fibroid. In one of the most promising research fact we found that fibroids itself produce prolactin and due to three times high level of aromatase had higher level of estradiol locally compared to normal myometrium. This was detrimental to fertility. A mild elevation of blood levels of prolactin usually in the range of 40 – 60 ng/ml was noticed in nearly 42% of the cases. Fibroids with infertility as a major complaint along with excessive vaginal bleeding in 33%, pain abdomen and dysmenorhea 10%, pressure symptoms in 3%, accidental finding of a large mass in 5% were the major indications for laparoscopic myomectomy. The pregnancy rate after removal of fibroids with active fertility treatment was 42 % and in donor oocyte IVF was 50%, abortion rate was 5%, 64% LSCS, 31% vaginal deliveries. There was no scar rupture in all pregnancies post laparoscopic myomectomy.
Conclusion:
Presence of fibroids in first degree female relative, predominantly red meat eating women, excess weight and high Blood pressure increased incidence of fibroids. Pregnancies & oral contraceptives decreased chances of fibroids. In infertile patient fibroids of significant size, multiple, had high local prolactin & aromatase level affecting fertility. Laparoscopic removal of fibroids increased pregnancy rate to 37.2% & 50% in donor oocyte IVF.
doi:10.4103/0974-1216.51910
PMCID: PMC3304256  PMID: 22442511
Fibroids; infertility; predisposing factors; laparoscopic myomectomy
14.  Planned Vaginal Birth or Elective Repeat Caesarean: Patient Preference Restricted Cohort with Nested Randomised Trial 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(3):e1001192.
A study conducted in Australia provides new data on the outcomes for mother and baby associated with either planned vaginal birth, or elective repeat caesarean section following a previous caesarean section.
Background
Uncertainty exists about benefits and harms of a planned vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) compared with elective repeat caesarean (ERC). We conducted a prospective restricted cohort study consisting of a patient preference cohort study, and a small nested randomised trial to compare benefits and risks of a planned ERC with planned VBAC.
Methods and findings
2,345 women with one prior caesarean, eligible for VBAC at term, were recruited from 14 Australian maternity hospitals. Women were assigned by patient preference (n = 2,323) or randomisation (n = 22) to planned VBAC (1,225 patient preference, 12 randomised) or planned ERC (1,098 patient preference, ten randomised). The primary outcome was risk of fetal death or death of liveborn infant before discharge or serious infant outcome. Data were analysed for the 2,345 women (100%) and infants enrolled.
The risk of fetal death or liveborn infant death prior to discharge or serious infant outcome was significantly lower for infants born in the planned ERC group compared with infants in the planned VBAC group (0.9% versus 2.4%; relative risk [RR] 0.39; 95% CI 0.19–0.80; number needed to treat to benefit 66; 95% CI 40–200). Fewer women in the planned ERC group compared with women in the planned VBAC had a major haemorrhage (blood loss ≥1,500 ml and/or blood transfusion), (0.8% [9/1,108] versus 2.3% [29/1,237]; RR 0.37; 95% CI 0.17–0.80).
Conclusions
Among women with one prior caesarean, planned ERC compared with planned VBAC was associated with a lower risk of fetal and infant death or serious infant outcome. The risk of major maternal haemorrhage was reduced with no increase in maternal or perinatal complications to time of hospital discharge. Women, clinicians, and policy makers can use this information to develop health advice and make decisions about care for women who have had a previous caesarean.
Trial registration
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN53974531
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Rates of caesarean section are rising around the world, particularly in high- and middle-income countries, where most women have a choice of how their baby is delivered. Historically, the obstetrician in charge of the woman's care made the decision on whether to perform an elective (planned) caesarean section based on medical criteria. For women who have had a previous caesarean section, typically, their options for mode of childbirth are either a trial of vaginal birth or an elective repeat caesarean section. The proportion of women attempting a vaginal birth after a previous caesarean section has been declining in many countries partly due to the variable chance of achieving a successful vaginal birth (reported between 56% and 80%) and partly because of negative reports of the risk of complications, both to the mother and the baby, of a having a vaginal delivery following a caesarean section. Consequently, the rates of repeat caesarean section have risen sharply, for example, currently 83% in Australia and almost 90% in the US.
Why Was This Study Done?
Both elective repeat caesarean section and subsequent vaginal delivery after a previous caesarean section have clinical risks and benefits. Most obviously, having a surgical procedure puts the woman having the repeat caesarean section at risk of surgical complications, especially if performed under a general anesthetic, and her baby may be at risk of respiratory complications. However, subsequent vaginal delivery following a previous caesarean section may put the mother at risk of bleeding severely enough to need a blood transfusion (more than 1,500 ml blood loss) and she may also be at increased risk of rupturing her uterus; and her baby may have an increased risk of dying or of becoming brain damaged due to lack of oxygen.
However, to date there have been no randomized controlled trials of elective repeat caesarean section versus vaginal delivery following a previous caesarean section to compare the health outcomes of mother and baby and a recent systematic review could draw no conclusions. So the researchers conducted this prospective cohort study based on patient preference (with a few women agreeing to be randomized to mode of delivery), to compare the health outcomes for mother and baby for elective repeat caesarean section versus vaginal delivery in women following a previous caesarean section.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
Between 2002 and 2007, the researchers recruited 2,345 suitable women (that is, women who had one previous caesarean section, were currently 37 weeks pregnant with a single baby, and who were clinically able to have a vaginal delivery) from 14 maternity hospitals throughout Australia. A few women (22) agreed to be randomized to either mode of delivery but most women chose her preferred option. Then, depending on the woman's preferences for mode of birth, participating obstetricians either scheduled a date for an elective caesarean section (1,098 women) or assessed on-going suitability for the woman to have a planned vaginal delivery (1,225 women). However only 535 (43.2%) women who chose to have a vaginal birth were able to deliver this way because of failure to progress in labor or fetal distress: 334 of these women (27.0%) had to have an elective caesarean section and 368 women had to have an emergency caesarean section.
Although no women died, women who had a planned caesarean section experienced less severe bleeding than women who delivered vaginally. There were no infant deaths in those born by elective caesarean section but two unexplained stillbirths in the planned vaginal delivery group. There was also a reduced risk of nonfatal serious outcome before discharge from hospital for infants delivered by in the elective caesarean section. The researchers calculated that one infant death or near death would be prevented for every 66 elective caesarean sections performed in women who had a previous caesarean section.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that in women who had delivered by a previous caesarean section delivering their next baby by planned caesarean section was associated with less infant death and better health outcomes for the mother before she was discharged from the hospital compared to women who had a subsequent vaginal delivery. This information can be used by women, clinicians, and policy makers in helping to make decisions about the mode of subsequent deliveries and best care for women who have had a previous caesarean section.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001192.
This study is linked to a PLoS Medicine Research Article by Fitzpatrick and colleagues and a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Catherine Spong
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has information sheets for patients on caesarean sections and on vaginal birth after caesarean delivery
Childbirth Connection, a US-based not-for-profit organization, provides information about caesarean sections and about vaginal birth after caesarean
The National Childbirth Trust, a UK charity, provides information for parents on all aspects of pregnancy and birth, including caesarean sections and vaginal birth after caesarean delivery
The UK charity Healthtalkonline has personal stories from women making decisions about birth after a caesarean section
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001192
PMCID: PMC3302845  PMID: 22427749
15.  Myomectomy during Caesarean Birth in Fibroid-Endemic, Low-Resource Settings 
If myomectomy during caesarean delivery becomes a widespread practice, it could potentially eliminate multiple surgeries for both indications. However, many surgeons have been reluctant to adopt this policy without conclusive evidence demonstrating its safety. This study reviews the publications on caesarean myomectomy especially from the African Continent with respect to duration of surgery, blood loss, length of hospital stay, and blood transfusions. Judging from the lack of large studies on caesarean myomectomy, the proportion of surgeons who attempt the procedure is largely low because of concerns about its safety. However, most of the authors suggested that the complications and morbidity following caesarean myomectomy do not significantly differ from those occurring during caesarean section alone, while fertility is apparently not compromised by this treatment. With careful patient selection, adequate experience, and efficient haemostatic measures, the procedure does not appear as hazardous as was once thought. This piece of information is relevant for counseling women who request for the simultaneous removal of previously diagnosed fibroids during caesarean section. Staff and facilities for safe management of haemorrhage are a requisite for the procedure. Large randomized trials are needed to guide decisions as to the best clinical practice regarding myomectomy during caesarean delivery.
doi:10.1155/2013/520834
PMCID: PMC3848339  PMID: 24348568
16.  Incidence of Cesarean Section at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Hospital in Travnik During 2012 
Materia Socio-Medica  2014;26(1):53-54.
Introduction:
Caesarean section is obstetrical surgery by which through incision of the abdominal wall and the lower uterine segment performs extraction of the fetus in the advanced stages of pregnancy and childbirth ends by abdominal myomectomy. Because of its significance it is one of the most important surgical procedures performed in gynecology and obstetrics.
Material and methods:
The goal of this study is to show the incidence of cesarean section in the Public Hospital in Travnik during 2012, and the most frequent indications for surgical completion of delivery. During 2012 at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Cantonal Hospital Travnik there was 927 deliveries.
Results:
Of the total number of births, in 115 (12.41%) of cases a caesarean section was performed, while in 812 (87.59%) delivery was completed vaginally. Descriptive analysis reveals that 55 (5.93%) women had repeated cesarean section after a previous cesarean section, while in 60 (6.47%) cases in 2012 for the first time underwent cesarean section. As the most common indications in 7.33% of the women was reported cefalopelvinea disproportion and breech presentation. At 6.67% of the women caesarean section was performed due to asphyxia and 4% due to preeclampsia. The incidence of other indications such as abruption, placenta previa, multiple pregnancy and other was less than 3%.
Conclusion:
On the basis of the data we conclude that in the maternity hospital Travnik vaginal birth is most common. However, although the percentage of cesarean sections was much lower than in the regional maternity hospitals, we cannot ignore that the rate of caesarean sections is slowly increasing and requires that obstetricians in their practice make professional triage when setting indications for cesarean section so that a trend of surgically completed births should not reach epidemic proportions.
doi:10.5455/msm.2014.26.53-54
PMCID: PMC3990401  PMID: 24757404
vaginal delivery; cesarean section; Cantonal Hospital Travnik
17.  Successful pregnancy outcome after laparoscopic-assisted excision of a bizarre leiomyoma: a case report 
Introduction
Bizarre leiomyoma is a rare leiomyoma variant that requires a precise histopathological evaluation. Especially when diagnosed in a younger woman, this tumor leads to challenging treatment issues involving fertility preservation. Owing to the low incidence of bizarre leiomyoma, there is insufficient evidence to support myomectomy alone as an appropriate management option. Also, the impact of bizarre leiomyoma on fertility is not well known.
Case presentation
A 30-year-old Japanese woman who had never given birth was referred to us because of a uterine tumor with an unusual diagnostic image and was treated by a gasless laparoscopic-assisted excision with a wound retractor. Owing to an unclear margin between her uterine tumor and myometrium, a concomitant excision of adjacent myometrial tissue was required to achieve the maximum resection of her tumor. The histopathological diagnosis was bizarre leiomyoma. Seven months later, she conceived spontaneously and her pregnancy course was uneventful. At 37 weeks of gestation, an elective cesarean section was performed. Although a slight omental adhesion was noted at the postexcisional scar, her uterine wall structure was well preserved and a recurrence of bizarre leiomyoma was not noted.
Conclusions
A laparoscopic-assisted excision of bizarre leiomyoma is a feasible and minimally invasive conservative measure for a woman who wishes to preserve fertility.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-344
PMCID: PMC3199851  PMID: 21812974
18.  Risk of Uterine Rupture and Placenta Accreta With Prior Uterine Surgery Outside of the Lower Segment 
Obstetrics and gynecology  2012;120(6):1332-1337.
Objective
Women with a prior myomectomy or prior classical cesarean delivery are often delivered early by cesarean due to concern for uterine rupture. Although theoretically at increased risk for placenta accreta, this risk has not been well quantified. Our objective was to estimate and compare the risks of uterine rupture and placenta accreta in women with prior uterine surgery.
Methods
Women with prior myomectomy or prior classical cesarean delivery were compared to women with a prior low transverse cesarean to estimate rates of both uterine rupture and placenta accreta.
Results
One hundred seventy-six women with a prior myomectomy, 455 with a prior classical cesarean delivery, and 13,273 women with a prior low transverse cesarean were evaluated. Mean gestational age at delivery differed by group (p<0.001), prior myomectomy (37.3 weeks), prior classical cesarean delivery (35.8 weeks), and low transverse cesarean (38.6 weeks). The frequency of uterine rupture in the prior myomectomy group was 0% (95% CI 0-1.98%). The frequency of uterine rupture in the low transverse cesarean group (0.41%) was not statistically different from the risk in the prior myomectomy group (p>0.99) or in the prior classical cesarean delivery group (0.88%, p=0.13). Placenta accreta occurred in 0% (95% CI 0-1.98%) of prior myomectomy compared with 0.19% in the low transverse cesarean group (p>0.99) and 0.88% in the prior classical cesarean delivery group (p=0.01 relative to low transverse cesarean). The adjusted OR for the prior classical cesarean delivery group (relative to low transverse cesarean) was 3.23 (1.11-9.39) for uterine rupture and 2.09 (0.69-6.33) for accreta. The frequency of accreta for those with previa was 11.1% for the prior classical cesarean delivery and 13.6% for low transverse cesarean groups (p>0.99=1.0).
Conclusion
A prior myomectomy is not associated with higher risks of either uterine rupture or placenta accreta. The absolute risks of uterine rupture and accreta after prior myomectomy are low.
PMCID: PMC3545277  PMID: 23168757
19.  The evaluation of myomectomies performed during cesarean section in our clinic 
Background:
We evaluated the data of patients who had applied myomectomy during cesarean section operation in our clinic between April, 2008 and December, 2010. Objective: I0 n this period, 3689 cesarean sections were done in our clinic, we analyzed their data retrospectively and determined 27 myomectomy cases during cesarean section operation. The age of the patients, the numbers of pregnancy, parities, the rates of abortus, indications of cesarean, pregnancy weeks, residential areas of myoms detected during the cesarean and their size, were recorded. Furthermore, pre-operative and post-operative hemoglobin (Hb) values, differences between hemoglobin values, whether there was bleeding or not, the need of blood transfusion if it occurred, the duration of operation and hospitaization and the pathological diagnoses of myomectomy materials, were examined.
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective study of myomectomies.
Results:
The mean age of patients was 29.6±5.9 (19-42) and mean gestational age was 39.2±1.0(37-42) weeks. The mean size of the fibroids was 5.94±6.29 cm3 (0.96-26.50 cm3). Subserous myoms were the most frequently seen ones (24 of 27 patients=89%) with fundal, corporal localizations in most of the instances. T0 he pre-operative and post-operative values of Hb were 11.8±1.52 (8.6-10.5) and 10.3±2.6 (6.9-13.3) g/dl respectively and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Blood transfusion was not necessary in any patient. The mean duration of the operation was found to be 40.7±13.9 (13-60) minutes.
Conclusion:
Myomectomies can be performed safely during cesarean section by experienced obstetricians and gynecologists, and myomectomy performed for fibroids in appropriate localizations does not increase post-operative bleeding or maternal morbidity or mortality.
doi:10.4103/0300-1652.86135
PMCID: PMC3213751  PMID: 22083246
Cesarean section; myomectomy; pregnancy
20.  Laparoscopic myomectomy of a subserous pedunculated fibroid at 14 weeks of pregnancy: a case report 
Introduction
Uterine leiomyomas are seen in 1.6% to 4% of pregnancies. With the increasing age of obstetric patients, more cases are being encountered during pregnancy.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 31-year-old Caucasian woman with acute recurrent abdominal pain due to a subserous fundic myoma, measuring 48 × 52 × 63 mm, with an implantation base of 22 × 18 mm, which was successfully treated by laparoscopy at 14 weeks of pregnancy. At a gestational age of week 40, the patient spontaneously delivered a healthy 3216 g girl baby.
Conclusion
As far as we know, this is the first reported case of laparoscopic myomectomy this early during a pregnancy. Our experience together with an analysis of cases reported in the literature suggests that myomectomy during pregnancy may be considered safe, but only in the hands of experienced laparoscopic surgeons. There are a few reports in the literature about laparoscopic myomectomy during the first half of pregnancy that demonstrate its feasibility in selected cases. Some technical tools could improve the procedure with a minimum of risk for the ongoing pregnancy.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-545
PMCID: PMC3225401  PMID: 22054171
21.  Myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study 
Background
Myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery is traditionally discouraged because of the risk of hemorrhage. A retrospective cohort study was performed to determine whether myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery leads to an increased incidence of intrapartum and short-term postpartum complications.
Methods
A computer search of medical records from May 1991 to April 2001 identified a total of 111 women who underwent myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery and 257 women with documented fibroids during the index pregnancy who underwent cesarean delivery alone. Charts were reviewed for the following outcome variables: change in hematocrit from preoperative to postoperative period, length of operation, length of postpartum stay, incidence of postpartum fever, and incidence of hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was defined as a change in hematocrit of 10 points or the need for intraoperative blood transfusion.
Results
The incidence of hemorrhage in the study group was 12.6% as compared with 12.8% in the control group (p = 0.95). There was also no statistically significant increase in the incidence of postpartum fever, operating time, and length of postpartum stay. No patient in either group required hysterectomy or embolization. Size of fibroid did not appear to affect the incidence of hemorrhage. After stratifying the procedures by type of fibroid removed, intramural myomectomy was found to be associated with a 21.2% incidence of hemorrhage compared with 12.8% in the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). This study had 80% power to detect a two-fold increase in the overall incidence of hemorrhage.
Conclusion
In selected patients, myomectomy during cesarean delivery does not appear to result in an increased risk of intrapartum or short-term postpartum morbidity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2393-4-14
PMCID: PMC487902  PMID: 15257757
22.  First trimester myomectomy as an alternative to termination of pregnancy in a woman with a symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: a case report 
Introduction
Performing a myomectomy during pregnancy is extremely rare due to the risk of pregnancy loss, hemorrhage and hysterectomy. Favorable outcomes have been demonstrated with select second trimester gravid myomectomies. Literature documenting first trimester surgical management of myomas during pregnancy is scant. Patients with symptomatic myomas failing conservative management in the first trimester may be counseled to abort the pregnancy and then undergo myomectomy. Reports focusing on myomectomy in the first trimester are needed to permit more thorough options counseling for patients failing conservative management in the first trimester.
Case presentation
A 30-year-old Caucasian primagravid (G1P0) was referred for termination of her pregnancy at 10 weeks due to a 14 cm myoma causing severe pain, constipation and urine retention. Her referring physician planned an interval myomectomy following the abortion. Instead, our patient underwent myomectomy at 11 weeks. Two leiomyomas were successfully removed; she delivered a healthy infant at term.
Conclusion
Patients in the first trimester should not be counseled that termination followed by myomectomy is the best option for symptomatic myomas, failing conservative treatment. Management should be individualized after taking into account the patient's symptoms, gestational age and the location of the myomas in relation to the placenta. Any field providing women's health services will be impacted by the ability to offer more thorough options counseling for women with refractory myomas in the first trimester.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-5-571
PMCID: PMC3251549  PMID: 22152600
23.  A Five-year Survey of Caesarean Delivery at a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital 
Background:
The rising global rate in caesarean delivery has been a source of concern to obstetricians worldwide. In spite of remarkable improvement in the safety of anaesthesia and surgical techniques, caesarean section has higher risks of maternal death when compared with normal vaginal delivery. Thus, the current emphasis is to limit the rising rate of caesarean section to as much as possible.
Objective:
To determine the rate of caesarean section, pregnancy out-come, major indications and complications of caesarean section.
Methods:
A five year (January 1st 2005 to December 31st 2009) retrospective analysis of clinical data from the ward admissions and discharge books, patients’ folders and the operating theatre record books at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla, Enugu.
Results:
Out of the 3,554 deliveries during the study period, 980 cases were by caesarean section, giving a rate of 27.6%. Most cases 918 (93.7%) were by emergency caesarean sections, with elective procedure accounting only for 6.3% of the cases. The age range of the women was between 16-48yrs. Four hundred and seven (41.5%) were primigravidae, 503(51.4%) were between para one and para four, while 70 (7.1%) were grand-multipara. The rate of caesarean section was higher amongst the booked patients, 563 (57.5%) than the unbooked patients 355 (36.2%). Two previous caesarean section was the commonest indication for caesarean section 211(21.5%), followed by cephalopelvic disproportion 198 (20.2%), and foetal distress188 (19.2%). A total of 1009 babies were delivered through caesarean section by the 980 women; 955 cases of singleton gestations and 25 cases of multiple gestations (21 twins and 4 triplets). Majority of the babies 918 (91%) were delivered by emergency procedure. More than half of the babies 582(57.7%) had birth asphyxia and there were 39 (3.9%) perinatal deaths. All the cases of perinatal deaths and 549 (94.3%) of birth asphyxia were following emergency procedure. Anaemia was the commonest postpartum morbidity and the maternal case fatality rate was 0.7%.
Conclusion:
There is now a further rise in rate of caesarean section after a slight drop that followed the initial high 1.5fold rise from previous studies. The perinatal outcome is poor especially following emergency caesarean section. Reducing primary caesarean section rate and more encouragement of vaginal delivery after one previous caesarean section may reduce the prevalence of two previous caesarean sections which is the leading indication for caesarean section in the hospital.
PMCID: PMC3507098  PMID: 23209958
Caesarean section; survey; tertiary hospital: Nigeria
24.  Surgical Management of Neurovascular Bundle in Uterine Fibroid Pseudocapsule 
The authors propose that intracapsular myomectomy be recommended to maximize the potential for future fertility and to minimize the risk of labor dystocia or uterine rupture during pregnancy or labor.
The uterine fibroid pseudocapsule is a fibro-neurovascular structure surrounding a leiomyoma, separating it from normal peripheral myometrium. The fibroid pseudocapsule is composed of a neurovascular network rich in neurofibers similar to the neurovascular bundle surrounding a prostate. The nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy has several intriguing parallels to myomectomy. It may serve either as a useful model in modern fibroid surgical removal, or it may accelerate our understanding of the role of the fibrovascular bundle and neurotransmitters in the healing and restoration of reproductive potential after intracapsular myomectomy. Surgical innovations, such as laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy applied to the intracapsular technique with magnification of the fibroid pseudocapsule surrounding a leiomyoma, originated from the radical prostatectomy method that highlighted a careful dissection of the neurovascular bundle to preserve sexual functioning after prostatectomy. Gentle uterine leiomyoma detachment from the pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle has allowed a reduction in uterine bleeding and uterine musculature trauma with sparing of the pseudocapsule neuropeptide fibers. This technique has had a favorable impact on functionality in reproduction and has improved fertility outcomes. Further research should determine the role of the myoma pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle in the formation, growth, and pathophysiological consequences of fibroids, including pain, infertility, and reproductive outcomes.
doi:10.4293/108680812X13291597716302
PMCID: PMC3407432  PMID: 22906340
Fibroid pseudocapsule; Uterine leiomyoma; Myoma pseudocapsule; Myomectomy; Prostatectomy; Neurovascular bundle; Laparoscopy; Uterine rupture; Fertility; Sterility; Reproduction; Labor; Neurotransmitters; Neuropeptides; Intraoperative complications; Postoperative compliance; Surgical outcome
25.  Multidisciplinary Prospective Study of Mother-to-Child Chikungunya Virus Infections on the Island of La Réunion 
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(3):e60.
Background
An outbreak of chikungunya virus affected over one-third of the population of La Réunion Island between March 2005 and December 2006. In June 2005, we identified the first case of mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission at the Groupe Hospitalier Sud-Réunion level-3 maternity department. The goal of this prospective study was to characterize the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and radiological features and outcomes of all the cases of vertically transmitted chikungunya infections recorded at our institution during this outbreak.
Methods and Findings
Over 22 mo, 7,504 women delivered 7,629 viable neonates; 678 (9.0%) of these parturient women were infected (positive RT-PCR or IgM serology) during antepartum, and 61 (0.8%) in pre- or intrapartum. With the exception of three early fetal deaths, vertical transmission was exclusively observed in near-term deliveries (median duration of gestation: 38 wk, range 35–40 wk) in the context of intrapartum viremia (19 cases of vertical transmission out of 39 women with intrapartum viremia, prevalence rate 0.25%, vertical transmission rate 48.7%). Cesarean section had no protective effect on transmission. All infected neonates were asymptomatic at birth, and median onset of neonatal disease was 4 d (range 3–7 d). Pain, prostration, and fever were present in 100% of cases and thrombocytopenia in 89%. Severe illness was observed in ten cases (52.6%) and mainly consisted of encephalopathy (n = 9; 90%). These nine children had pathologic MRI findings (brain swelling, n = 9; cerebral hemorrhages, n = 2), and four evolved towards persistent disabilities.
Conclusions
Mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission is frequent in the context of intrapartum maternal viremia, and often leads to severe neonatal infection. Chikungunya represents a substantial risk for neonates born to viremic parturients that should be taken into account by clinicians and public health authorities in the event of a chikungunya outbreak.
In a prospective study on the island of La Réunion, Marc Lecuit and colleagues find frequent transmission of Chikungunya virus by viremic mothers giving birth during an outbreak, resulting in serious infant illness.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Chikungunya virus, an emerging infectious agent that is transmitted by day-biting mosquitoes, was first isolated from a patient in Tanzania in the early 1950s. Since then, major outbreaks of chikungunya fever have occurred throughout sub-Saharan Africa and in Southeast Asia, India, and the Western Pacific, usually at intervals of about 7–8 years. The virus causes fever, rash, severe joint and muscle pains, and sometimes arthritis (joint inflammation). These symptoms develop within 3–7 days of being bitten by an infected mosquito. Most people recover fully within a few weeks, but joint pain can sometimes continue for years. There is no treatment for chikungunya fever, but the symptoms can be eased with anti-inflammatory drugs. Preventative measures include covering arms and legs and using insecticides to avoid insect bites and depriving the mosquitoes of their breeding sites by draining standing water from man-made containers near human dwellings.
Why Was This Study Done?
In 2005, chikungunya fever appeared for the first time on several islands in the Indian Ocean. On La Réunion Island, the disease affected 300,000 people—more than one-third of the population—between March 2005 and December 2006. In June 2005, clinicians identified the first case of mother-to-child chikungunya virus transmission (vertical transmission). Public-health officials and clinicians need to know more about how often vertical transmission occurs and its clinical implications to help them prepare for future chikungunya fever outbreaks. In this study, the researchers identify and characterize all the cases of vertical chikungunya virus transmission that occurred at the largest hospital on La Réunion Island during the 2005–6 outbreak.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers enrolled all 7,504 women who gave birth at the hospital during the outbreak and their 7,629 children into their study. They then used “RT-PCR” (which detects the genome of virus particles during an active infection) and “IgM serology” (which looks for an immune response to recent infection) to determine which women had been infected with chikungunya virus during their pregnancy. 678 of the new mothers had been infected sometime between conception and a week before delivery, 22 mothers had been infected between 7 and 3 days before delivery, and 39 had been infected 2 days either side of delivery (the “intrapartum” period). Except for three early fetal deaths that were associated with chikungunya virus infections, vertical transmission was seen only in babies born to mothers infected with the virus intrapartum. 19 of the babies born to these women were infected with the virus—a vertical transmission rate of nearly 50%. The women who transmitted the virus to their offspring had more virus in their placenta than those who did not transmit the infection. Delivery by emergency cesarean section did not prevent transmission. All the infected babies were born healthy but developed fever, weakness, and pain within 3–7 days. In many of them, the number of platelets (clot-forming particles) in their blood also dropped dramatically. Ten babies became seriously ill—nine of them developed brain swelling; two had bleeding into their brain. Four children had lasting disabilities at the end of the study.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings show that mother-to-child transmission of chikungunya virus occurs frequently when women are infected with the virus at the time of delivery and that newborn children infected by this route can become very ill. Although these results do not find that cesarean section reduces infection rates, 90% of cesarean sections involving infected infants were performed urgently, rather than planned. The study also provides no information about whether delaying delivery, provided that no fetal distress is observed, until the mother's viral load has decreased might be beneficial. More studies are needed to provide a complete description of both the short-term and long-term effects of chikungunya virus infection in newborn babies, but it is clear that clinicians should monitor babies exposed to chikungunya virus during delivery for a week after their birth. Most importantly, clinicians and public-health officials will need to take account of the threat that the chikungunya virus poses to newborn children whenever and wherever it emerges.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050060.
Read the related PLoS Medicine 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050068
The World Health Organization provides information about chikungunya fever and a brief description of the recent chikungunya outbreak in the Indian Ocean (in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, and Russian)
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has a fact sheet on chikungunya fever
The UK Health Protection Agency also provides information about chikungunya virus, including news on recent outbreaks
The French Institut de Veille Sanitaire (Institute for Public Health Surveillance) has a Web page on chikungunya (in French)
The Institut Pasteur has a Web page on chikungunya research (in French and English)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050060
PMCID: PMC2267812  PMID: 18351797

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