Uterine leiomyomas are seen in 1.6% to 4% of pregnancies. With the increasing age of obstetric patients, more cases are being encountered during pregnancy.
We report the case of a 31-year-old Caucasian woman with acute recurrent abdominal pain due to a subserous fundic myoma, measuring 48 × 52 × 63 mm, with an implantation base of 22 × 18 mm, which was successfully treated by laparoscopy at 14 weeks of pregnancy. At a gestational age of week 40, the patient spontaneously delivered a healthy 3216 g girl baby.
As far as we know, this is the first reported case of laparoscopic myomectomy this early during a pregnancy. Our experience together with an analysis of cases reported in the literature suggests that myomectomy during pregnancy may be considered safe, but only in the hands of experienced laparoscopic surgeons. There are a few reports in the literature about laparoscopic myomectomy during the first half of pregnancy that demonstrate its feasibility in selected cases. Some technical tools could improve the procedure with a minimum of risk for the ongoing pregnancy.
This is a case report of a 29-year-old lady who presented with excessive vaginal discharge and sessile cervical fibroid arising from the vaginal portion of the cervix. She was not suitable for uterine artery embolization as she has never previously been pregnant before. She was encouraged to get pregnant and to avoid surgical excision which can lead to hysterectomy. Shortly after, she became pregnant. She had many admissions during pregnancy due to bleeding from the fibroid, and in one occasion she had blood transfusions. The fibroid increased in size to become larger than the head of the baby. An emergency caesarean section was performed at 37 weeks when she attended in labour before the date of her elective caesarean section. She was managed conservatively following delivery in the hope that the fibroid becomes smaller making surgery easier. The fibroid degenerated and reduced in size. Vaginal myomectomy was carried out. The patient is now pregnant for the second time and had a cervical suture at 20 weeks gestation. In this educational case report we discuss the different management options of cervical fibroids and review the literature of other similar cases and their outcome.
We report an interesting case of parasitic fibroid which developed from a morcellation remnant following laparoscopic myomectomy. The patient presented with incidental finding of pelvic mass in 2005. She underwent laparoscopic myomectomy for a myoma extending from the Pouch of Douglas to both sides of broad ligament. She subsequently presented with abdominal pain 3 years later in 2008. She underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy with removal of broad ligament fibroids. During her hysterectomy, a right lumbar mass attached to the omentum was detected, which was excised laparoscopically. Histopathology of the mass confirmed it to be consistent with leiomyoma. This mass could probably be a morcellation remnant that has grown to this size taking blood supply from the omentum. We report this case to emphasize that all tissue pieces that are morcellated should be diligently removed. Even small bits displaced into the upper abdomen can result in parasitic fibroids. Thus, it can be concluded that parasitic myomas can arise from morcellated remnants and grow depending on the blood supply.
Laparoscopic myomectomy; parasitic fibroid; retained fragment after morcellation
Caesarean myomectomy has traditionally been discouraged due to fears of intractable haemorrhage and increased postoperative morbidity. However, a number of authors have recently shown that myomectomy during Caesarean section does not increase the risk of haemorrhage or postoperative morbidity.
We present a series of 8 cases from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, where myomectomy was performed during Caesarean section for large lower segment fibroids. Seven were anterior lower segment fibroids, while one was a posterior lower uterine fibroid which interfered with closure of the uterine incision. The antenatal course, perioperative management, and postoperative morbidity are discussed.
The average age of the women was 28.7 years and mean gestational age at delivery was 36.75 weeks. Regarding intra-operative blood loss, 1 patient lost 900 ml, 5 patients lost 1–1.5 litres, 2 lost 1.5–2 L, and 1 patient with a 10 x 12 cm fibroid lost 3.2 L. Despite the majority being large myomas (7 of the 8 patients had myomas >5 cm in size) and 50% being intramural, no hysterectomy was required. Stepwise devascularisation was necessary in one case and preoperative placement of uterine balloon catheters was necessary in another. The size of the fibroids was confirmed by histopathology. Myomectomy added 15 minutes to the operating time and 1 day to the hospital stay, but there was no significant postoperative morbidity. Neonatal outcome was good in all patients.
In selected patients, myomectomy during Caesarean section is a safe and effective procedure at tertiary centres with experienced surgeons.
Caesarean section; Myomectomy; Fibroids; Pregnancy; Haemorrhage; Oman
The authors propose that intracapsular myomectomy be recommended to maximize the potential for future fertility and to minimize the risk of labor dystocia or uterine rupture during pregnancy or labor.
The uterine fibroid pseudocapsule is a fibro-neurovascular structure surrounding a leiomyoma, separating it from normal peripheral myometrium. The fibroid pseudocapsule is composed of a neurovascular network rich in neurofibers similar to the neurovascular bundle surrounding a prostate. The nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy has several intriguing parallels to myomectomy. It may serve either as a useful model in modern fibroid surgical removal, or it may accelerate our understanding of the role of the fibrovascular bundle and neurotransmitters in the healing and restoration of reproductive potential after intracapsular myomectomy. Surgical innovations, such as laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy applied to the intracapsular technique with magnification of the fibroid pseudocapsule surrounding a leiomyoma, originated from the radical prostatectomy method that highlighted a careful dissection of the neurovascular bundle to preserve sexual functioning after prostatectomy. Gentle uterine leiomyoma detachment from the pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle has allowed a reduction in uterine bleeding and uterine musculature trauma with sparing of the pseudocapsule neuropeptide fibers. This technique has had a favorable impact on functionality in reproduction and has improved fertility outcomes. Further research should determine the role of the myoma pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle in the formation, growth, and pathophysiological consequences of fibroids, including pain, infertility, and reproductive outcomes.
Fibroid pseudocapsule; Uterine leiomyoma; Myoma pseudocapsule; Myomectomy; Prostatectomy; Neurovascular bundle; Laparoscopy; Uterine rupture; Fertility; Sterility; Reproduction; Labor; Neurotransmitters; Neuropeptides; Intraoperative complications; Postoperative compliance; Surgical outcome
Uterine leiomyomas are present in 30-70% of women of reproductive age. In addition to causing menstrual disorders and pain, uterine fibroids negatively affect fertility and pregnancy outcome for patients pursuing assisted reproduction. The two questions that have to be addressed are: which fibroids should be treated, and how they should be treated? Submucosal fibroids are associated with a 70% reduction in delivery rate. Intramural fibroids had a lesser effect and reduced the delivery rate approximately 30%. In contrast, studies on subserosal fibroids did not negatively impact fertility. Furthermore, both submucosal and intramural fibroids were associated with an increased risk of spontaneous miscarriage. Myomectomy is considered the treatment of choice to alleviate these detrimental effects. Further research is needed before alternative treatments can be recommended.
Fibroids; infertility; ART; implantation rate; pregnancy rate; myomectomy
In the absence of a recurring indication for caesarean section vaginal delivery in subsequent pregnancy is a “trial of scar,” with potentially serious implications for mother and baby. Labour under caudal analgesia was carefully supervised for 75 women with a surgically scarred uterus—due to lower segment section in 72, abdominal hysterotomy in one, and transcavity myomectomy in two. Every caesarean scar was assessed digitally during labour and every uterus was examined after delivery. Caudal analgesia provided a painless labour and delivery and made scar assessment easy. Controlled intravenous Syntocinon infusion was given to 25 patients. One scar dehiscence occurred early in labour and one in the second stage. Seventy mothers had 71 vaginal deliveries with one pair of twins and one breech. There was one stillbirth and no neonatal death. There were five repeat sections.
Uterine myomas are being observed in pregnancy more frequently now than in the past, because many women are delaying child bearing till their late thirties, which is the time for the greatest risk of the myoma growth. Traditionally, obstetricians are trained to avoid myomectomies during caesarean sections as severe haemorrhages can occur, which may often necessitate hysterectomies. Pedunculated fibroids which can be easily removed are an exception. Here, we are reporting one case of a myomectomy which was done during a caesarean section.
Leiomyoma; Myomectomy; Pregnancy
The medical literature has reported an increase in myomectomy during caesarean section in the past decade. However, myomectomy performed during pregnancy remains a rarity. The management of uterine fibroids during pregnancy is usually expectant and surgical removal is generally delayed until after delivery. We present a case of a large, symptomatic uterine fibroid diagnosed during pregnancy which was successfully managed by antepartum myomectomy.
A 30 year old woman presented with a one year history of abdominal swelling, amenorrhea and severe epigastric discomfort of 19 weeks duration. The abdomen was grossly distended and tense. A sonographic diagnosis of ovarian tumor in pregnancy was made. Laparotomy revealed a 32 cm degenerating subserosal uterine fibroid co-existing with an intrauterine pregnancy. Myomectomy was successfully performed. The subsequent antenatal period was uneventful with a spontaneous vaginal delivery of a female baby at 38 weeks.
This report supports other studies and case series that have demonstrated the safety of myomectomy during pregnancy in selected circumstances.
A 23-year-old primigravida was referred to our clinic for evaluation of high blood pressure (BP) in her 16th week of gestation. She had an operation to repair congenital aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus 8 years ago. On physical examination the blood pressure in upper extremity was 155/95 and in lower extremity was 90/55 mmHg, and heart rate was 93 beats/min. Transthoracic echocardiography showed narrowing of the descending aorta, the diameter of the aortic arch was 10.60 mm and an echocardiographic gradient was 96 mmHg. During the pregnancy (from 16 weeks to 38 weeks) BP was regulated with metoprolol. Cesarean section delivery was applied at 38 weeks of gestation. There was no complication in postpartum period. Spinal anesthesia application was used for caesarean section intervention and healthy female baby was delivered with the APGAR scores of 10/10. Herein the diagnosis of aortic coarctation is reviewed and the management when found during pregnancy is discussed.
Myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery is traditionally discouraged because of the risk of hemorrhage. A retrospective cohort study was performed to determine whether myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery leads to an increased incidence of intrapartum and short-term postpartum complications.
A computer search of medical records from May 1991 to April 2001 identified a total of 111 women who underwent myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery and 257 women with documented fibroids during the index pregnancy who underwent cesarean delivery alone. Charts were reviewed for the following outcome variables: change in hematocrit from preoperative to postoperative period, length of operation, length of postpartum stay, incidence of postpartum fever, and incidence of hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was defined as a change in hematocrit of 10 points or the need for intraoperative blood transfusion.
The incidence of hemorrhage in the study group was 12.6% as compared with 12.8% in the control group (p = 0.95). There was also no statistically significant increase in the incidence of postpartum fever, operating time, and length of postpartum stay. No patient in either group required hysterectomy or embolization. Size of fibroid did not appear to affect the incidence of hemorrhage. After stratifying the procedures by type of fibroid removed, intramural myomectomy was found to be associated with a 21.2% incidence of hemorrhage compared with 12.8% in the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). This study had 80% power to detect a two-fold increase in the overall incidence of hemorrhage.
In selected patients, myomectomy during cesarean delivery does not appear to result in an increased risk of intrapartum or short-term postpartum morbidity.
Elective caesarean section rates have risen over the last decade worldwide. The increase in this rate is not associated with clear benefit for the baby or mother but proportionally associated with increased morbidity for both. Neonatal adverse outcomes in infants born before 39 weeks of gestation are increased and increase progressively as gestational age at birth declines
To compare neonatal outcomes of elective caesarean section performed at or beyond completed 37 weeks of gestation with ≥ 38 weeks of gestation.
Material and Method:
This is a prospective observational study. During the period from July 2010 through April 2011 a total 134 neonates delivered by elective Cesareans at term and were divided into two groups, those who were born (early term) before 38 weeks of gestation (37+0 – 37+6) and those who were born (late term) at or greater than 38 weeks of gestation. We analyzed the following variables sex, number of maternal parities, mode of anesthesia, Apgar score at first and fifth minute, respiratory complications, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, feeding difficulties and admission to neonatal intensive care unit.
During the period of the study 890 live births whether delivered by Cesarean section or normal vaginal delivery. Of these only 134 neonates fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included. About 50% of them were delivered before 38 weeks of gestation. We performed our analysis on those 134 neonates and we found a significant risk in the early Cesareans group in comparison to later group for development of respiratory complications (P=0.0001), hypothermia (P=0.0001) and feeding difficulty (P=0.0001).
Significant reduction in the neonatal morbidities if the time of elective Cesareans is at completed 38 weeks or beyond 38 weeks of gestation. Further larger studies are needed to analyze the factors responsible for our new date regarding the hypothermia and feeding difficulty in neonates born electively by Cesareans before 38 completed weeks of gestation.
Elective caesarean section; neonatal morbidities; neonatal outcome
Studies on twin pregnancy are uniquely important to Africa and particularly Nigeria where the highest incidence in the world exists. This study was designed to determine the trend, rate, and obstetric outcomes of twin deliveries in the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada. This was a retrospective study of twin deliveries in the hospital over a period of 10 years. During the study period, there were 349 twin births out of 10,739 deliveries, giving an overall twining rate of 32.5 per 1,000 deliveries. Preterm delivery occurred in 39.7% cases and was, therefore, the most common complication. Mode of delivery was vaginal in 72.7% while 27.3% were delivered by caesarean section. Emergency caesarean section for delivery of both the babies was carried out in 22.3% while elective caesarean section for both the babies accounted for 1.0 %. Combined vaginal and abdominal delivery occurred in 4.0% of deliveries. The stillbirth rate was 102 per 1,000 births. There were 24 (8.0%) and 37 (12.3%) stillbirths among the first and the second baby respectively. The mean foetal weight was 2.395±0.63 kg while the female-to-male ratio was 1:1.1. The rate of twin deliveries in our centre is high. Successful vaginal delivery of twins is high when the mothers are booked and the presentations of the twins are favourable. The use of antenatal care services and good intrapartum management will help improve outcome in twin pregnancies.
Delivery, obstetric; Pregnancy, twin; Nigeria
In a selected group of 103 babies referred with neonatal conjunctivitis Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from 11 and Chlamydia trachomatis from 33. Concurrent infection was present in three. On toddler sibling developed chlamydial conjunctivitis. After treatment C. trachomatis was re-isolated from six babies during the follow-up period. The discharge started one to three days after delivery in only three babies with gonococcal conjunctivitis and at five to eight days in eight babies. One baby was delivered by caesarean section. N. gonorrhoeae was isolated from four asymptomatic fathers, all of whom had urethritis. The mean onset of discharge in the 33 babies from whom Chlamydia was isolated was 7-1 days. One baby was delivered by caesarean section. Chlamydial conjunctivitis was associated with a high incidence of prematurity and of postpartum infection in the mother. Ten fathers of Chlamydia-positive babies were examined. C. tachomatis was isolated from four, all of whom were asymptomatic but had low-grade urethritis. These findings confirm the pathogenic role of C. trachomatis in the cervix and indicate the importance to the family of an adequate microbiological investigation of neonatal conjunctivitis.
To review evidence supporting the use of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) as an alternative to hysterectomy and myomectomy for managing uterine fibroids.
QUALITY OF EVIDENCE
MEDLINE was searched using the MeSH terms embolization, therapeutic; leiomyoma; treatment outcome; pregnancy; and clinical trials. Most published studies on use of UFE for management of uterine fibroids provide level II evidence.
For 71% to 92% of patients, UFE is effective at alleviating fibroid-related symptoms. After UFE, fibroids are reduced in size by 42% to 83%. Patients’ satisfaction with the procedure is high (>90%), and UFE is safe and has a low rate of major complications (1.25%). When compared with hysterectomy, UFE is associated with fewer major complications, shorterhospital stays, and faster recovery. Although successful pregnancy following UFE is possible, there is insufficient evidence to advocate use of UFE over myomectomy for management of uterine fibroids in women wishing to preserve fertility.
For treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids, UFE is a safe and effective nonsurgical alternative to hysterectomy and myomectomy.
Uterine leiomyomas are one of the most common benign smooth muscle tumors in women, with a prevalence of 20 to 40% in women over the age of 35 years. Although many women are asymptomatic, problems such as bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility may necessitate treatment. Laparoscopic myomectomy is one of the treatment options for myomas. The major concern of myomectomy either by open method or by laparoscopy is the bleeding encountered during the procedure. Most studies have aimed at ways of reducing blood loss during myomectomy. There are various ways in which bleeding during laparoscopic myomectomy can be reduced, the most reliable of which is ligation of the uterine vessels bilaterally. In this review we propose to discuss the benefits and possible disadvantages of ligating the uterine arteries bilaterally before performing laparoscopic myomectomy.
Laparoscopic myomectomy; fibroids; myomectomy; uterine artery ligation; uterine artery embolisation; uterine devascularisation
We evaluated the data of patients who had applied myomectomy during cesarean section operation in our clinic between April, 2008 and December, 2010. Objective: I0 n this period, 3689 cesarean sections were done in our clinic, we analyzed their data retrospectively and determined 27 myomectomy cases during cesarean section operation. The age of the patients, the numbers of pregnancy, parities, the rates of abortus, indications of cesarean, pregnancy weeks, residential areas of myoms detected during the cesarean and their size, were recorded. Furthermore, pre-operative and post-operative hemoglobin (Hb) values, differences between hemoglobin values, whether there was bleeding or not, the need of blood transfusion if it occurred, the duration of operation and hospitaization and the pathological diagnoses of myomectomy materials, were examined.
Materials and Methods:
Retrospective study of myomectomies.
The mean age of patients was 29.6±5.9 (19-42) and mean gestational age was 39.2±1.0(37-42) weeks. The mean size of the fibroids was 5.94±6.29 cm3 (0.96-26.50 cm3). Subserous myoms were the most frequently seen ones (24 of 27 patients=89%) with fundal, corporal localizations in most of the instances. T0 he pre-operative and post-operative values of Hb were 11.8±1.52 (8.6-10.5) and 10.3±2.6 (6.9-13.3) g/dl respectively and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Blood transfusion was not necessary in any patient. The mean duration of the operation was found to be 40.7±13.9 (13-60) minutes.
Myomectomies can be performed safely during cesarean section by experienced obstetricians and gynecologists, and myomectomy performed for fibroids in appropriate localizations does not increase post-operative bleeding or maternal morbidity or mortality.
Cesarean section; myomectomy; pregnancy
In a study of 52,266 live singleton deliveries in a total population male babies were delivered at earlier gestations than female. This difference was not due to induction or elective caesarean section. Female babies were more likely to present and be delivered by the breech. When the presentation was cephalic, male babies were much more likely to be delivered by forceps or caesarean section and female babies to deliver spontaneously.
OBJECTIVE--To audit the subsequent obstetric management of women who had had one previous baby delivered by caesarean section. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of a regional obstetric database. SETTING--Data derived from the 17 obstetric units in North West Thames region. SUBJECTS--1059 women who delivered a singleton fetus of at least 37 weeks' gestation with a cephalic presentation in 1988 who had a history of one previous caesarean section and no other deliveries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mode of delivery, postnatal morbidity, and duration of hospital stay. RESULTS--395 (37%) women were delivered by elective repeat caesarean section and 664 (63%) were allowed a trial of labour. Maternal height and birth weight of the previous infant differed significantly between those who were and those who were not allowed to labour. 471 (71%) of those allowed to labour achieved a vaginal delivery. In individual units there was no significant correlation between the proportion of patients allowed to labour and the rate of the successful trial of labour. There was a trend towards greater success rates in units that allowed a longer duration of labour (p less than 0.05) and units with greater use of oxytocin for augmentation of labour (not significant). Both elective and intrapartum caesarean section was associated with a significantly higher rate of postnatal infection than vaginal delivery (14.7% and 16.0% v 3.4%). CONCLUSIONS--In patients with a history of caesarean section there is no evidence that the likelihood of successful vaginal delivery after trial of labour is modified by the proportion of such patients allowed the option of attempted vaginal delivery. Until selection criteria of adequate prognostic value can be identified a more liberal approach to allowing women a trial of labour seems justified.
We conducted this retrospective case-control study to identify possible risk factors of delivery through caesarean section in the Far North Region of Cameroon. Data was collected retrospectively from delivery room registers at the Provincial Hospital, Maroua, Cameroon from 01/01/2003 to 31/12/2004. The overall 125 eligible caesarean deliveries were compared with 244 women who delivered vaginally during the study period. The odds ratio as well as the 95% confidence interval was used to measure the relationship between maternal characteristic and risk of delivery by caesarean section. We found that the marital status is similar in the two study populations. Risk factors associated with cesarean section were: maternal age less than 17 years (OR 3.55, 95%CI: 1.46–8.64), maternal age over 39 years (OR 3.55, 95% CI: 1.17–10.75), nulliparity (OR 2.72, 95% CI: 1.59–4.66), grand multiparty (OR 3.43, 95% CI: 1.79–6.57), and macrosomia (OR 4.82, 95% CI: 1.49–16.44). There was a weak association with absent or poor. Caesarean delivery is associated with extreme ages of reproductive life, macrosomia, nulliparous and grand multiparous status. We strongly recommend that these factors be taken into consideration to strengthen the mother and child health programs in Cameroon and countries with similar socioeconomic profiles.
Laparoscopic myomectomy using pneumoperitoneum for large myomas (≥8 cm) is hindered by several factors, such as the increased operative time, the risk of perioperative bleeding, and the risk of conversion to laparotomy. With the introduction of isobaric laparoscopy using abdominal wall lifting, this procedure can be performed using conventional surgical instruments introduced through small abdominal incisions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility, and safety of isobaric laparoscopic myomectomy for very large myomas ≥10 cm using a subcutaneous abdominal wall-lifting device.
A series of 24 consecutive patients with at least 1 symptomatic myoma ≥10 cm underwent a gasless laparoscopic myomectomy with the Laparotenser device. Conventional long laparotomy instruments were used.
Gasless laparoscopic myomectomy was successful in all 24 consecutive patients. The size of the dominant myoma varied from 10 cm to 20 cm. The median operating time was 93 minutes. The median postoperative drop in hemoglobin was 2.8 g/dL. No surgical complications occurred. The median hospital stay was 2.8 days.
Gasless laparoscopic myomectomy is feasible, reproducible, and safe for removing very large myomas. Therefore, it can represent an excellent option for the minimally invasive removal of very large myomas.
Very large myomas; Isobaric gasless laparoscopy; Myomectomy; Subcutaneous abdominal wall lifting device
Vaginal myomectomy is an uncommon but advantageous approach for large interstitial uterine fibroids. Myomectomy is performed via laparotomy and laparoscopy; however, in selected cases, vaginal myomectomy has been proven to be a safe and an effective surgical procedure. We report the case of a 38-year-old para one woman with complaints of chronic lower abdominal pain. Preoperative workup revealed a thirteen-centimeter interstitial uterine myoma in the anterior wall. Successful myomectomy was performed via the vaginal route. We will share the preoperative images, operative technique, and postoperative images.
Objective To test whether steroids reduce respiratory distress in babies born by elective caesarean section at term.
Design Multicentre pragmatic randomised trial.
Setting 10 maternity units.
Participants 998 consenting women randomised at decision to deliver by elective caesarean section; 503 randomised to treatment group.
Interventions The treatment group received two intramuscular doses of 12 mg betamethasone in the 48 hours before delivery. The control group received treatment as usual.
Outcome measures The primary outcome was admission to special care baby unit with respiratory distress. Secondary outcomes were severity of respiratory distress and level of care in response.
Results Sex, birth weight, and gestation were not different between the two groups. Of the 35 babies admitted to special baby units with respiratory distress, 24 were in the control group and 11 in the intervention group (P = 0.02). The incidence of admission with respiratory distress was 0.051 in the control group and 0.024 in the treatment group (relative risk 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 0.93). The incidence of transient tachypnoea of the newborn was 0.040 in the control group and 0.021 in the treatment group (0.54, 0.26 to 1.12). The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 0.011 in the control group and 0.002 in the treatment group (0.21, 0.03 to 1.32).
Conclusions Antenatal betamethasone and delaying delivery until 39 weeks both reduce admissions to special care baby units with respiratory distress after elective caesarean section at term.
In the management of women with fibroid disease, GnRH agonists (GnRHa) are frequently used to reduce volume and vascularity before myomectomy, apparently to render the operation easier and reduce operative blood loss, and to enable a transverse supra-pubic incision instead of a midline vertical one. They induce amenorrhoea and thus aid in the correction of pre-operative anaemia. Other gynaecologists use GnRHa to shrink sub mucous fibroids greater than 5 cm in diameter to facilitate access and reduce blood loss and operating time at transcervical resection. GnRHa are also occasionally used as a temporizing measure in women with symptomatic fibroids within the climacteric. We argue against the use of GnRHa in the management of fibroid disease because they are not cost effective, render myomectomy more difficult to apply because they destroy tissue planes, the more difficult enucleation in fact increasing rather than reducing peri-operative blood loss and operating time. When used before myomectomy, they increase the risk of ‘recurrence’ because they obscure smaller fibroids that ‘recur’ when the effects of the GnRHa wear off, and are associated with side effects in situations where they confer no benefits, or where alternative cheaper drugs with fewer side effects are available.
GnRH agonists; Fibroids; Pre-operative; Myomectomy
Objective To investigate the association between elective caesarean sections and neonatal respiratory morbidity and the importance of timing of elective caesarean sections.
Design Cohort study with prospectively collected data from the Aarhus birth cohort, Denmark.
Setting Obstetric department and neonatal department of a university hospital in Denmark.
Participants All liveborn babies without malformations, with gestational ages between 37 and 41 weeks, and delivered between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2006 (34 458 babies).
Main outcome measures Respiratory morbidity (transitory tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) and serious respiratory morbidity (oxygen therapy for more than two days, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, or need for mechanical ventilation).
Results 2687 infants were delivered by elective caesarean section. Compared with newborns intended for vaginal delivery, an increased risk of respiratory morbidity was found for infants delivered by elective caesarean section at 37 weeks’ gestation (odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 2.4 to 6.5), 38 weeks’ gestation (3.0, 2.1 to 4.3), and 39 weeks’ gestation (1.9, 1.2 to 3.0). The increased risks of serious respiratory morbidity showed the same pattern but with higher odds ratios: a fivefold increase was found at 37 weeks (5.0, 1.6 to16.0). These results remained essentially unchanged after exclusion of pregnancies complicated by diabetes, pre-eclampsia, and intrauterine growth retardation, or by breech presentation.
Conclusion Compared with newborns delivered vaginally or by emergency caesarean sections, those delivered by elective caesarean section around term have an increased risk of overall and serious respiratory morbidity. The relative risk increased with decreasing gestational age.