The objective was primarily to describe short term intra-individual variation in serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules (sCAMs: E-selectin, P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1(sICAM-1) and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1(sVCAM-1)) in healthy subjects. Secondly, sCAMs were correlated to brachial artery flow mediated vasodilation (FMD).
Forty healthy subjects aged 24–66 years had sCAMs measured twice with 4 week intervals and short-term intra-individual variation was estimated as variation in the paired measurements after correcting for the analytical precision of the used method. At baseline, brachial FMD was measured.
No difference was observed in mean sCAMs in the whole study group. Estimated intra-subject variations in sCAMs were 7.6–11.3%. In a regression analysis, significant negative association was found between sE-selectin and FMD after controlling for possible confounders (p < 0.04) while no significant correlation could be demonstrated between the other sCAMs and FMD.
In conclusion, short term intra-individual variations in sCAMs were 7.6–11.3% in healthy subjects. We also found a significant negative association between sE-selectin and FMD, indicating an possible association between inflammation and dysfunction of the vascular endothelium; however further studies are required to confirm this preliminary finding.
variation; healthy subjects; cellular adhesion molecules; flow mediated dilation
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children may be at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. We compared levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction among HIV-infected children with and without hyperlipidemia to HIV-exposed, uninfected children (HEU) enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS), and determined factors associated with these biomarkers.
Prospective cohort study
Biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1)); coagulant dysfunction (fibrinogen and P-selectin); endothelial dysfunction (soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM), and E-selectin); and metabolic dysfunction (adiponectin) were measured in 226 HIV-infected and 140 HEU children. Anthropometry, body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin, HIV disease severity, and antiretroviral therapy were recorded.
The median ages were 12.3 y (HIV-infected) and 10.1 y (HEU). Body mass index (BMI) Z-scores, waist and hip circumference, and percent body fat were lower among HIV-infected. Total and non-HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children had higher MCP-1, fibrinogen, sICAM, and sVCAM levels. In multivariable analyses in the HIV-infected children alone, BMI z-score was associated with higher CRP and fibrinogen, but lower MCP-1 and sVCAM. Unfavorable lipid profiles were positively associated with IL6, MCP1, fibrinogen, and P- and E-selectin, whereas increased HIV viral load was associated with markers of inflammation (MCP1 and CRP) and endothelial dysfunction (sICAM and sVCAM).
HIV-infected children have higher levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction than do HEU children. Risk factors associated with higher biomarkers include unfavorable lipid levels and active HIV replication.
Children; HIV/AIDS; vascular dysfunction; cardiovascular risk factors; biomarkers
We compared biomarkers of vascular dysfunction among HIV-infected children to a demographically-similar group of uninfected children and determined factors associated with these biomarkers.
Methods and Results
We measured several biomarkers of vascular dysfunction: C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein -1 (MCP1) [inflammation]; fibrinogen and P-selectin [coagulant dysfunction]; soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM), and E-selectin [endothelial dysfunction]; and leptin [metabolic dysfunction]. Anthropometry, body composition, CD4%, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Mean age was 14.8y [106 HIV-infected children] and 12.3y [55 control children]. Sex and body mass index Z-scores were similar. Infected children had higher sICAM, sVCAM, MCP1, IL-6, and fibrinogen levels. E-selectin (p=0.07), and CRP (p=0.08) trended to be greater in the HIV group, yet leptin, and P-selectin were similar. In multivariable analyses in the HIV-infected children alone, each 1-standard-deviation increase in waist:hip ratio was associated with increases in sICAM (17%), MCP1 (19%), IL6 (18%), and CRP (59%). CD4% was inversely associated with sVCAM, MCP1, IL6, fibrinogen, and CRP.
HIV-infected children have higher levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction than healthy children. Risk factors associated with these biomarkers include higher waist:hip ratios and HIV disease severity.
Children; HIV/AIDS; vascular dysfunction; cardiovascular risk factors; biomarkers
Although magnesium may favorably affect metabolic outcomes, few studies have investigated the role of magnesium intake in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in humans.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Among 3,713 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes at baseline, we measured plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), turnor necrosis factor-α receptor 2 (TNF-α-R2), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and E-selectin. Magnesium intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.
After adjustment for age, ethnicity, clinical center, time of blood draw, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, energy intake, BMI, and diabetes status, magnesium intake was inversely associated with hs-CRP (P for linear trend = 0.003), IL-6 (P < 0.0001), TNF-α-R2 (P = 0.0006), and sVCAM-1 (P = 0.06). Similar findings remained after further adjustment for dietary fiber, fruit, vegetables, folate, and saturated and trans fat intake. Multivariable-adjusted geometric means across increasing quintiles of magnesium intake were 3.08, 2.63, 2.31, 2.53, and 2.16 mg/l for hs-CRP (P = 0.005); 2.91, 2.63, 2.45, 2.27, and 2.26 pg/ml for IL-6 (P = 0.0005); and 707, 681, 673, 671, and 656 ng/ml for sVCAM-1 (P = 0.04). An increase of 100 mg/day magnesium was inversely associated with hs-CRP (−0.23 mg/l ± 0.07; P = 0.002), IL-6 (−0.14 ± 0.05 pg/ml; P = 0.004), TNF-α-R2 (−0.04 ± 0.02 pg/ml; P = 0.06), and sVCAM-1 (−0.04 ± 0.02 ng/ml; P = 0.07). No significant ethnic differences were observed.
High magnesium intake is associated with lower concentrations of certain markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal women.
Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be a central pathogenic feature in preeclampsia on the basis of elevated adhesion molecules. The aim of the present study was to compare the levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin (sE-selectin) in sera of normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. We studied the serum levels of sVCAM-1, sICAM-1 and sE-selectin in normal pregnant women (n=63), mild preeclampsia (n=33) and severe preeclampsia (n=82). Concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules were determined with enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Serum concentrations of sVCAM-1 were significantly higher in both mild (p=0.004) and severe preeclampsia (p=0.000) than normal pregnancy. There were also significant differences in sVCAM-1 levels between mild and severe preeclampsia (p=0.002). sICAM-1 levels of severe preeclampsia were statistically different from those of normal pregnancy (p=0.038). Levels of sE-selectin were elevated in both mild (p=0.011) and severe preeclampsia (p=0.000) compared to normal pregnancy, but no statistical difference between the mild and severe preeclampsia (p=0.345). These results suggest that all three soluble adhesion molecules are increased in severe preeclampsia, and sVCAM-1 among them may be useful in predicting the severity of preeclampsia.
Pre-Eclampsia; Cell Adhesion Molecules; Vasurlar Cell Adhesion Molecule-1, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, E-Selectin
We earlier provided evidence that oral consumption of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth in nude mice. To ascertain convincing evidence of chemopreventive effects of PFE against PCa, its efficacy requires to be evaluated in animal models that closely emulate human disease. Here, we provide evidence of remarkable tumor growth inhibitory effects of PFE using the TRAMP model. Mice received 0.1 and 0.2% PFE, equivalent to 250 and 500 ml of pomegranate juice, in drinking water, starting at 6 weeks and examined at 12, 20 and 34 weeks of age. In water-fed group, 100% mice developed palpable tumors by 20 weeks compared with only 30 and 20% in the 0.1 and 0.2% PFE-supplemented groups, respectively. At 34 weeks, palpable tumors were observed in 70 of 0.1% and only 50 of 0.2% PFE-supplemented mice. Compared with median survival of 43 weeks in water-fed mice, 0.1 and 0.2% PFE-supplemented mice exhibited median life expectancy of 73 and 92 weeks, respectively. Compared with respective water-fed groups, none of the mice in PFE-supplemented groups exhibited metastases to any of the distant organs at 20 weeks and only 20% mice exhibited metastasis at 34 weeks of age. Many of the PFE-supplemented animals had multiple foci of well-differentiated carcinoma but no evidence of poorly differentiated carcinoma. PFE supplementation resulted in simultaneous and significant inhibition of IGF-I/Akt/mTOR pathways in the prostate tissues and tumors. We suggest that pomegranate juice be evaluated in clinical trials in patients at high risk for developing PCa.
To determine whether short-term antioxidant supplementation affects insulin sensitivity, endothelial adhesion molecule levels, and oxidative stress in overweight young adults.
Methods and Procedures
A randomized, double-blind, controlled study tested the effects of antioxidants (AOX) on measures of insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA and QUICKI), endothelial adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin), adiponectin and oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides, PEROX) in overweight and normal weight individuals (N=48, 18-30 years). Participants received either AOX (vitamin E 800IU, vitamin C 500mg, β-carotene 10mg) or placebo (PLC) for 8 weeks.
HOMA values were initially higher in the overweight subjects and were lowered with AOX by week 8 (15% reduction, p=0.02). Adiponectin increased in both AOX groups. sICAM-1 and sE-selectin decreased in overweight AOX treated groups by 6% and 13%, respectively (p<0.05). Plasma PEROX were reduced by 0.31 and 0.70 nmol/ml in the normal weight and overweight AOX treated groups, respectively, by week 8 (p<0.05).
AOX supplementation moderately lowers HOMA and endothelial adhesion molecule levels in overweight young adults. A potential mechanism to explain this finding is the reduction in oxidative stress by AOX. Long term studies are needed to determine whether AOX are effective in suppressing diabetes or vascular activation over time.
obesity; antioxidant; inflammation; adiponectin
This study investigated the hypothesis that long-term orange juice consumption (≥ 12 months) was associated with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adult men and women with normal and moderately high cholesterol blood levels.
The sample consisted of 103 men (18–66 y) and 26 women (18–65 y); all were employees of an orange juice factory with daily access to free orange juice. The results showed that 41% of the individuals consumed 2 cups (480 mL) of orange juice per day for at least twelve months, while 59% of the volunteers are non-consumers of orange juice.
Orange juice consumers with normal serum lipid levels had significantly lower total cholesterol (−11%, p <0.001), LDL-cholesterol (−18%, p < 0.001), apolipoprotein B (apo B) (−12%, p < 0.01) and LDL/HDL ratio (−12%, p < 0.04) in comparison to non-consumers, as did the consumers with moderate hypercholesterolemia: lower total cholesterol (−5%, p <0.02), LDL-cholesterol (−12%, p <0.03), apolipoprotein B (−12%, p <0.01) and LDL/HDL ratio (−16%, p <0.05) in comparison the non-consumers counterparts. Serum levels of homocysteine, HDL- cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-1, body composition and the dietary intake of food energy and macronutrients did not differ among orange juice consumers and non-consumers, but vitamin C and folate intake was higher in orange juice consumers.
Long-term orange juice consumers had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and LDL/HDL ratio and an improvement of folate and vitamin C in their diet.
Orange juice; LDL-cholesterol; Apo B; Homocysteine; Humans; Suco de laranja LDL-colesterol; Apo B; Homocisteína; Humanos
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is frequently seen in ischemic settings like acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation (STEMI). Endothelial dysfunction (ED) represents inflammation and the loss of all protective features of the endothelium. We aimed to examine the association between VT and ED in patients with STEMI.
The study included 90 subjects (30 with VT and acute STEMI, 30 with STEMI without VT, and 30 controls). Sera of all subjects were tested on ED markers by enzyme immunoassay: sICAM-1 (intracellular adhesive molecule-1), sVCAM-1 (vascular adhesive molecule-1), P- and E-selectins, and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor). In addition, CRP (C-reactive protein) was detected.
Significantly increased values of low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, leukocytes, creatinine, and the number of cigarettes smoked were observed among patients with VT+STEMI in comparison to controls. The levels of E-selectin were significantly lower in the VT+STEMI group than in the other groups, while the levels of VCAM-1 were significantly higher in the groups with STEMI and VT+STEMI compared to the controls. Lower levels of VEGF were recorded in STEMI and VT+STEMI groups compared to the control group. A significant correlation between CRP and VCAM-1 in patients with VT +STEMI was demonstrated.
We showed that ED may have a role in the immunopathogenesis of VT in patients with STEMI. The role of sE-selectin and correlation of sVCAM-1 with CRP as possible ED predictive markers in patients with VT+STEMI should be further investigated in a large cohort of patients.
ventricular tachycardia; acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation; endothelial dysfunction; adhesion molecules
We examined the association of biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in persons from Inner Mongolia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,536 people aged 20 years and older from Inner Mongolia, China. Overnight fasting blood samples were obtained to measure plasma concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), sE-selectin, angiotensin II, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood glucose. Waist circumference and blood pressure were measured by trained staff. MetS was defined according to the modified ATP III definition for Asians. Elevated level of the biomarker was defined as values in the upper tertile of the distribution. Participants were categorized into one of four groups based on the presence or absence of metabolic and glycemic abnormalities: 1) free of prediabetes, diabetes and MetS (reference group), 2) prediabetes or diabetes only, 3) MetS without prediabetes or diabetes, and 4) MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes. The multivariable models are adjusted for age, gender, smoking, drinking, family history of hypertension, and body mass index.
Among study participants, 18.5% had prediabetes, 3.6% had diabetes, and 27.4% of the entire study population had 3 or more components of the MetS. Elevated hsCRP was associated with an increased odds of prediabetes or diabetes only, MetS without prediabetes or diabetes, and MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes with multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2.3 (1.7-3.1), 3.0 (2.4-3.8), and 5.8 (4.5-7.5), respectively. Elevated sICAM-1 was associated with increased odds (95% CI) of prediabetes or diabetes only (2.1, 1.6-2.9) and MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes (4.2, 3.2-5.3) but was not associated with MetS alone. Elevated sE-selectin was associated with a modestly increased risk of MetS (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.2). Elevated levels of Angiotensin II were not associated with the MetS plus prediabetes or diabetes in this study.
Diabetes and the MetS are common in the Inner Mongolia population. The biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with increased risk for diabetes and MetS in this population. These results are consistent with results from other populations.
metabolic syndrome; diabetes; inflammation; endothelial dysfunction; C-reactive protein; intercellular adhesion molecule-1; E-selectin
A cluster of metabolic abnormalities termed metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative internal milieu. We examined whether the association of MetS with subclinical atherosclerosis is explained by biomarkers of endothelial damage and oxidative stress.
MESA is a population based study of 45-84 year old individuals of four US ethnicities without clinical cardiovascular disease. A random sample of 997 MESA participants had data on the following biomarkers: von Willebrand Factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1), CD40 ligand, soluble thrombomodulin, E-selectin, and oxidized LDL (oxLDL). We examined whether the associations of MetS with B-mode ultrasound-defined common and internal carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) measured using computerized tomography were explained by the biomarkers using multiple regression methods.
MetS was associated with higher levels of each of the biomarkers (p<0.001, CD40L suggestive association p=0.004), with greater IMT (p<0.001), and with greater extent of CAC in those in whom CAC was detectable (p=0.01). The association of MetS with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis remained unchanged after adjustment for the biomarkers. After adjusting for MetS, oxLDL was suggestively associated with greater prevalence of detectable CAC (p=0.005) and thicker internal carotid IMT (p=0.002), while sICAM-1was significantly associated with greater prevalence of detectable CAC (p=0.001).
The association of MetS with subclinical atherosclerosis was independent of its association with biomarkers of endothelial damage and oxidative stress, suggesting that metabolic abnormalities and oxidative endothelial damage may lead to atherosclerotic disease through distinct mechanisms.
Metabolic syndrome; biomarkers; coronary artery atherosclerosis; carotid arteries
To investigate the effect of an exercise intervention on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and circulating endothelial biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)
Sedentary adults (n=140), aged 40–65, with T2DM and untreated pre- or Stage I hypertension or treated hypertension were randomized to a 6-month, supervised, exercise program (3×week) or a sedentary control. Assessments included BMI, body and visceral fat, blood pressure, lipids, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity (QUICKI), fitness, FMD, E-selectin, P-selectin, intracellular and vascular cellular adhesion molecules (ICAM, VCAM), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Intervention effects were compared by t-tests. Pearson’s correlations were calculated between changes in cardiovascular risk factors and endothelial outcomes.
Exercisers significantly improved BMI (−0.6 kg/m2), body fat % (−1.4%), HbA1c (−0.5%), and fitness (2.9 mL/kg·min) vs. controls (p<0.05). However, there were no differences between groups in changes in FMD, E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM, VCAM, or tPA. Among exercisers, changes in cardiovascular risk factors correlated with several biomarkers. Decreased P-selectin correlated with decreased BMI (r=0.29, p=0.04) and increased HDL cholesterol (r=−0.36, p=0.01). Decreased ICAM correlated with decreased triglycerides and HbA1c (r=0.30, p=0.04; r=0.31, p=0.03) and increased QUICKI (r=−0.28, p=0.05). Decreased tPA correlated with decreased total body and visceral fat (r=0.28, p=0.05; r=0.38, p=0.008) and increased QUICKI (r=−0.38, p=0.007).
While exercise resulted in improved fitness, body composition, and glycemic control, there were no changes in FMD or circulating endothelial biomarkers. The associations of changes in cardiovascular risk factors and endothelial biomarkers suggest that improvement in risk factors could mediate the exercise-induced improvements in endothelial function seen in prior studies.
Endothelial function; adhesion molecules; exercise; type 2 diabetes; vasodilation
Relationship of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected patients remains controversial. We evaluated endothelial function and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients with and without HCV.
Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and circulating levels of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) were measured in HCV/HIV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected patients. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT).
63 (31%) HCV/HIV-coinfected and 138 (69%) HIV-monoinfected patients were included. Median soluble vascular CAM-1 (sVCAM-1) and intercellular CAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels were significantly higher in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (P < 0.001 for both cases). Median (interquartile range) FMD was 6.21% (2.86-9.62) in HCV/HIV-coinfected and 5.54% (2.13-9.13) in HIV-monoinfected patients (P = 0.37). Adjustment for variables associated with HCV and FMD disclosed similar results. FMD correlated inversely with cIMT and age. Carotid IMT did not differ between HCV/HIV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected patients in unadjusted (0.61 [0.55-0.65] mm vs 0.60 [0.53-0.72] mm; P = 0.39) or adjusted analyses.
HCV infection was associated with higher levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, but no evidence of increased subclinical atherosclerosis was found when endothelial function was evaluated through FMD, or when assessing the cIMT.
Pomegranate has been shown to prolong PSA doubling time in early prostate cancer, but no data from a placebo controlled trial has been published yet. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the impact of pomegranate juice in patients with prostate cancer.
We conducted a phase IIb, double blinded, randomized placebo controlled trial in patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer. Only patients with a PSA value ≥ 5ng/ml were included. The subjects consumed 500 ml of pomegranate juice or 500 ml of placebo beverage every day for a 4 week period. Thereafter, all patients received 250 ml of the pomegranate juice daily for another 4 weeks. PSA values were taken at baseline, day 14, 28 and on day 56. The primary endpoint was the detection of a significant difference in PSA serum levels between the groups after one month of treatment. Pain scores and adherence to intervention were recorded using patient diaries.
102 patients were enrolled. The majority of patients had castration resistant prostate cancer (68%). 98 received either pomegranate juice or placebo between October 2008 and May 2011. Adherence to protocol was good, with 94 patients (96%) completing the first period and 87 patients (89%) completing both periods. No grade 3 or higher toxicities occurred within the study. No differences were detected between the two groups with regard to PSA kinetics and pain scores.
Consumption of pomegranate juice as an adjunct intervention in men with advanced prostate cancer does not result in significant PSA declines compared to placebo.
Pomegranate juice; PSA; prostate cancer; nutraceutical; ellagig acids; polyphenols.
Endothelial dysfunction is key to the development of atherosclerosis. Preterm delivery foreshadows later maternal cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is not known if endothelial dysfunction also occurs. We prospectively measured circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in pregnant women with preterm or term delivery.
We conducted a case-control study nested within a large prospective epidemiological study of young, generally healthy pregnant women. Women who delivered preterm (<37 completed weeks gestation, n = 240) and controls who delivered at term (n = 439) were included. Pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia were analyzed separately. Circulating endothelial dysfunction biomarkers included soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin).
Elevated levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were positively associated with preterm delivery independent of usual risk factors. At entry (∼16 wks), the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–2.74) for the highest quartile of sICAM-1 versus the lowest quartile and for sVCAM-1 the AOR was 2.17 (95% CI 1.36–3.46). When analysis was limited to cases with a spontaneous preterm delivery, the results were unchanged. Similar results were obtained for the 3rd trimester (∼30 wks). Elevated sE-selectin was increased only in preterm delivery complicated by preeclampsia; risk was increased at entry (AOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.22–4.40) and in the 3rd trimester (AOR 3.37, 95% CI 1.78–6.39).
Impaired endothelial function as indicated by increased levels of soluble molecules commonly secreted by endothelial cells is a pathogenic precursor to CVD that is also present in women with preterm delivery. Our findings underscore the need for follow-up studies to determine if improving endothelial function prevents later CVD risk in women.
Although the etiopathology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is not clear there is increasing evidence that dysfunction in the immune system affects many children with ASD. Findings of immune dysfunction in ASD include increases in inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and microglial activity in brain tissue and CSF, as well as abnormal peripheral immune cell function.
Adhesion molecules, such as platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), P-Selectin, and L-Selectin, function to facilitate leukocyte transendothelial migration. We assessed concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules, sPECAM-1, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sP-Selectin, and sL-Selectin in the plasma of 49 participants with ASD, and 31 typically developing controls of the same age, all of whom were enrolled as part of the Autism Phenome Project (APP). Behavioral assessment, the levels of soluble adhesion molecules, head circumference and MRI measurements of brain volume were compared in the same subjects.
Levels of sPECAM-1 and sP-Selectin were significantly reduced in the ASD group compared to typically developing controls (p < 0.02). Soluble PECAM-1 levels were negatively associated with repetitive behavior and abnormal brain growth in children with ASD (p=0.03).
As adhesion molecules modulate the permeability and signaling at the blood brain barrier as well as leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, current data suggests a role for these molecules in the complex pathophysiology of ASD.
Autism; PECAM-1; P-Selectin; CD31; CD62-P; Adhesion
The study investigated markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in HIV infected patients after 12 years of successful combination antiretroviral treatment (cART).
Inflammation and endothelial activation were assessed by measuring levels of immunoglobulins, β2-microglobulin, interleukin (IL) 8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), sE-Selectin, and sP-Selectin.
HIV infected patients had higher levels of β2-microglobulin, IL-8, TNFα, and sICAM-1 than uninfected controls, and HIV infected patients lacked correlation between platelet counts and sP-Selectin levels found in uninfected controls.
Discrete signs of systemic and vascular inflammation persist even after very long term cART.
To investigate the association of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 with ICAM1 721G>A and VCAM1 1238G>C polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) clinical activity, sixty RA patients and 60 healthy non-related subjects (HS) matched for age and sex were recruited. Soluble adhesion molecules were determined by ELISA technique. Rheumatoid factor (RF), C reactive protein (CRP) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured by routine methods. Disability and clinical activity was measured with Spanish-HAQ-DI and DAS28 scores, respectively. The ICAM1 and VCAM1 polymorphism were identified using the PCR-RFLP procedure. Inter-group comparison showed increased levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in RA patients (284 and 481 ng/mL) versus HS (132 and 280 ng/mL); in the RA group, significant correlations between sVCAM-1 and RF (r = 0.402), ESR (r = 0.426), Spanish-HAQ-DI (r = 0.276), and DAS28 (r = 0.342) were found, whereas sICAM-1 only correlated with RF (r = 0.445). In RA patients, a significant association with the 721A allele of ICAM1 polymorphism (p = 0.04), was found. In addition, the allele impact (G/A + A/A) of this polymorphism was confirmed, (p = 0.038, OR = 2.3, C.I. 1.1–5.0). sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 serum levels reflected the clinical status in RA, independently of the ICAM1 and VCAM1 polymorphism. However, the ICAM1 721A allele could be a genetic marker to RA susceptibility.
Rheumatoid arthritis; polymorphism; soluble adhesion molecules; ICAM-1; VCAM-1
The traditional approach for identifying subjects at risk from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is to determine the extent of clustering of biological risk factors adjusted for lifestyle. Recently, markers of endothelial dysfunction and low grade inflammation, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), soluble intercellular adhesion molecules (sICAM), and soluble vascular adhesion molecules (sVCAM), have been included in the detection for high risk individuals. However, the relationship of these novel biomarkers with CVD risk in adolescents remains unclear. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to establish the association of hsCRP, sICAM, and sVCAM with CVD risk in an adolescent population.
Data from the Young Hearts 2000 cross-sectional cohort study, carried out in 1999–2001, were used. From a total of 2,017 male and female participants, 95 obese subjects were identified and matched according to age, sex, and cigarette smoking, with 95 overweight and 95 normal-weight adolescents. Clustered CVD risk was computed using a sum of Z-scores of biological risk factors. The relationship was described using multiple linear regression analyses.
hsCRP, sICAM, and sVCAM showed significant associations with CVD risk. hsCRP and sICAM had a positive relation with CVD risk, whereas sVCAM showed an inverse relationship. In this study, lifestyle factors showed no relation with CVD risk.
The results fit the hypothesized role of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in CVD risk in asymptomatic adolescents. The inverse relationship of VCAM, however, is hard to explain and indicates the complex mechanisms underlying CVD. Further research is needed to draw firm conclusions on the biomarkers used.
Cardiovascular diseases; Adolescence; hsCRP; sICAM; sVCAM
In order to assess the effects of juice feedings during acute diarrhea a double-blind, randomized study was performed in 90 children, mean age of 10 ± 4.28 months. Thirty patients with acute diarrhea were fed twice-daily 15 ml/kg of Apple Juice (AJ), 30 received White Grape Juice (WGJ), and 30 were given colored and flavored water (WA) as part of their age appropriate dietary intake. The duration and severity of diarrhea were the main endpoint variables of the study performed in a metabolic unit. The patients were similar among the 3 groups, had diarrhea for 50–64 hours prior to admission, and were dehydrated when admitted to the unit for study. Half of the patients in each group were well nourished and the others had mild to moderate degrees of malnutrition. Rotavirus infection was the agent causing the illness in 63% of the patients. The infants fed juice ingested 14–17% more calories than those given WA, (those receiving AJ and WGJ ingested 95 and 98 Calories/Kg/d respectively) whereas those receiving WA consumed 81 cal/kg/d). The increased energy intake was not at the expense of other foods or milk formula. The mean body weight gain was greater among patients receiving WGJ (+ 50.7 gm) as compared with the patients in the AJ group (+ 18.3 gm) or the patients fed WA (- 0.7 gm) (p = 0.08). The duration of the illness was longer in the infants fed juice as compared with those given WA (p = 0.006), the mean +/- SD duration in hours was 49.4 ± 32.6, 47.5 ± 38.9 and 26.5 ± 27.4 in patients fed AJ, WGJ and WA respectively. All patients improved while ingesting juice and none of them developed persistent diarrhea; most recovered within 50 hours of the beginning of treatment and less than one fourth had diarrhea longer than 96 hours in the unit. The fecal losses were also increased among the juice fed patients (p = 0.001); the mean ± SD fecal excretion in g/kg/h was 3.94 ± 2.35, 3.59 ± 2.35, and 2.19 ± 1.63 in AJ, WGJ and WA respectively. The stool output was highest during the first day of treatment among all the patients, though those fed AJ had the highest volume of fecal losses and those who received WA had the lowest stool excretion. After the first day of treatment the differences in fecal excretion were not significant. The ability to tolerate carbohydrates during the illness and immediately after recovery was similar among the 3 groups of patients. Intake of juices with different fructose/glucose ratios and osmolarities resulted in more fecal losses and more prolonged diarrhea as compared with water feedings, but the patients given juice ingested more calories and gained more weight, particularly among those being fed the juice with equimolar concentrations of fructose and glucose.
We evaluated the effects of grape consumption on inflammation and oxidation in the presence or absence of dyslipidemias in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men with MetS (n = 24), 11 with high triglycerides and low HDL and 13 with no dyslipidemia were recruited and randomly allocated to consume daily either 46 g of lyophilized grape powder (GRAPE), equivalent to 252 g fresh grapes, or placebo with an identical macronutrient composition and caloric value as GRAPE for four weeks. After a three-week washout, participants followed the alternate treatment. We measured changes between placebo and GRAPE periods in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers both in circulation and in gene expression. Changes in plasma adiponectin (p < 0.05), interleukin (IL)-10 (p < 0.005) and in mRNA expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p < 0.25) were increased in the GRAPE compared to the placebo period only in those individuals without dyslipidemia. Additionally, plasma IL-10 was negatively correlated with NOX2 expression, a marker of oxidative stress (r = −0.55, p < 0.01), while iNOS expression was positively correlated with the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (r = 0.642, p < 0.01), a key anti-oxidative enzyme. Grape consumption displayed anti-oxidative and increased anti-inflammatory markers in the absence of the inflammatory milieu associated with dyslipidemias.
metabolic syndrome; dyslipidemia; grape polyphenols; IL-10; iNOS
Krachtvoer is a Dutch healthy diet programme for prevocational schools, developed in 2001 and revised for a broader target group in 2007, based on the findings of an evaluation of the first version. The goal of this study was to report on the short- and longer-term total and subgroup effects of the revised programme on students’ fruit, fruit juice, breakfast, and snack consumption.
Schools were randomized to the experimental condition, teaching the Krachtvoer programme, or to the control condition teaching the regular nutrition lessons. Self-reported consumption of fruit, fruit juice, breakfast and snacks was measured at baseline directly before programme implementation, one to four weeks after finishing programme implementation, and after six months. Mixed linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted.
In total 1117 students of 13 experimental schools and 758 students of 11 control schools participated in the study. Short- and longer-term favourable intervention effects were found on fruit consumption (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.15 servings at both posttests). Regarding fruit juice consumption, only short-term favourable effects were revealed (mean difference between experimental and control group 0.05 glasses). Intervention effects on breakfast intakes were limited. No changes in snack frequency were reported, but students made healthier snack choices as a result of the programme. Some favourable as well as unfavourable effects occurred in subgroups of students.
The effects on fruit consumption and snack choices justify the current nationwide dissemination of the programme. Achieving changes in breakfast consumption may, however, require other strategies.
School programme; Nutrition; Dietary effects
Platelet activity and platelet-endothelial cell interactions are important in
the acute development of thrombosis, as well as in the pathogenesis of
cardiovascular disease. An increasing number of foods have been reported to
have platelet-inhibitory actions, and research with a number of flavanol-rich foods,
including, grape juice, cocoa and chocolate, suggests that these foods may provide
some protection against thrombosis. In the present report, we review a series of in
vivo studies on the effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and chocolate on platelet activation
and platelet-dependent primary hemostasis. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa
inhibited several measures of platelet activity including, epinephrine- and
ADP-induced glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa and P-Selectin expression, platelet
microparticle formation, and epinephrine-collagen and ADP-collagen induced
primary hemostasis. The epinephrine-induced inhibitory effects on GP IIb/IIIa and
primary hemostasis were similar to, though less robust than those associated with
the use of low dose (81 mg) aspirin. These data, coupled with information from
other studies, support the concept that flavanols present in
cocoa and chocolate can modulate platelet function through a multitude of
Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice is a popular herbal dietary supplement globally used for preventive or therapeutic purposes in a variety of ailments, claiming to exhibit hepatoprotective properties as well. Herein we present the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed acute liver injury associated with noni juice consumption on a long-term (9 months) anticonvulsant therapy. Clinical presentation and liver biopsy were consistent with severe, predominantly hepatocellular type of injury. Both agents were stopped and corticosteroids were initiated. Five months later the patient had fully recovered. Although in the literature the hepatotoxicity of noni juice remains speculative, sporadic but emerging cases of noni juice-associated liver injury address the need to clarify and investigate potential harmful effects associated with this supplement.
Drug-induced liver injury; Herb-induced liver injury; Noni juice; Phenobarbital
Very rapid progression of disease with a median survival of 6-9 months is a common feature of metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma. Nevertheless, substantial variability of survival suggests that metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma can be divided into several biological subgroups. Pretreatment serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules and various clinical parameters in cutaneous metastatic malignant melanoma were evaluated to determine their prognostic value. In this study pretreatment serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (sE-selectin) and multiple clinical factors were assessed in relation to overall survival of 97 consecutive patients with metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma seen at our institution between May 1990 and April 1996. For statistical analysis, both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models were used. Elevated pretreatment serum levels of sVCAM-1 (P < 0.005) and of lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.002) were rendered statistically independent and were significantly associated with unfavourable outcome. Patients were assigned to one of three risk categories (low, intermediate and high) according to a cumulative risk score defined as the function of the sum of these two variables. There were significant differences in overall survival (P < 0.0001) between low- (n = 53, 5-year survival probability of 23.3%), intermediate- (n = 29, 5-year survival probability of 9.9%) and high-risk (n = 15) patients. Elevated pretreatment serum levels of sVCAM-1 and of lactate dehydrogenase correlate with poor outcome in metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma. These data support risk stratification for future therapeutic trials and identify factors that need to be validated in prospective studies and may potentially influence decision-making in palliative management of patients with disseminated cutaneous malignant melanoma.