Elaborate processes act at the DNA replication fork to minimize the generation of chromatid discontinuity when lesions are encountered. To prevent collapse of stalled replication forks, mutagenic translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases are recruited temporarily to bypass DNA lesions. When a replication-associated (one-ended) double strand break occurs, homologous recombination repair (HRR) can restore chromatid continuity in what has traditionally been regarded as an “error-free” process. Our previous mutagenesis studies show an important role for HRR in preventing deletions and rearrangements that would otherwise result from error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) after fork breakage. An analogous, but distinct, role in minimizing mutations is attributed to the proteins defective in the cancer predisposition disease Fanconi anemia (FA). Cells from FA patients and model systems show an increased proportion of gene-disrupting deletions at the hprt locus as well as decreased mutation rates in the hprt assay, suggesting a role for the FANC proteins in promoting TLS, HRR, and possibly also NHEJ. It remains unclear whether HRR, like the FANC pathway, impacts the rate of base substitution mutagenesis. Therefore, we measured, in isogenic rad51d and fancg CHO mutants, mutation rates at the Na+/K+–ATPase α-subunit (ATP1A1) locus using ouabain resistance, which specifically detects base substitution mutations. Surprisingly, we found that the spontaneous mutation rate was reduced ~2.5-fold in rad51d knockout cells, an even greater extent than observed in fancg cells, when compared with parental and isogenic gene-complemented control lines. A ~2-fold reduction in induced mutations in rad51d cells was seen after treatment with the DNA alkylating agent ethylnitrosurea while a lesser reduction occurred in fancg cells. Should the model ATP1A1 locus be representative of the genome, we conclude that at least 50% of base substitution mutations in this mammalian system arise through error-prone polymerase(s) acting during HRR-mediated restart of broken replication forks.
Fanconi anemia; homologous recombination; translesion synthesis; CHO cells; ouabain resistance
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a member of a distinctive group of single-celled parasitic eukaryotes called microsporidia, which are closely related to fungi. Some of these organisms, including E. cuniculi, also have uniquely small genomes that are within the prokaryotic range. Thus, E. cuniculi has undergone a massive genome reduction which has resulted in a loss of genes from diverse biological pathways, including those that act in DNA repair.
DNA repair is essential to any living cell. A loss of these mechanisms invariably results in accumulation of mutations and/or cell death. Six major pathways of DNA repair in eukaryotes include: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR), mismatch repair (MMR), nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER) and methyltransferase repair. DNA polymerases are also critical players in DNA repair processes.
Given the close relationship between microsporidia and fungi, the repair mechanisms present in E. cuniculi were compared to those of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ascertain how the process of genome reduction has affected the DNA repair pathways.
E. cuniculi lacks 16 (plus another 6 potential absences) of the 56 DNA repair genes sought via BLASTP and PSI-BLAST searches. Six of 14 DNA polymerases or polymerase subunits are also absent in E. cuniculi. All of these genes are relatively well conserved within eukaryotes. The absence of genes is not distributed equally among the different repair pathways; some pathways lack only one protein, while there is a striking absence of many proteins that are components of both double strand break repair pathways. All specialized repair polymerases are also absent.
Given the large number of DNA repair genes that are absent from the double strand break repair pathways, E. cuniculi is a prime candidate for the study of double strand break repair with minimal machinery. Strikingly, all of the double strand break repair genes that have been retained by E. cuniculi participate in other biological pathways.
DNA is one of the prime molecules, and its stability is of utmost importance for proper functioning and existence of all living systems. Genotoxic chemicals and radiations exert adverse effects on genome stability. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) (mainly UV-B: 280–315 nm) is one of the powerful agents that can alter the normal state of life by inducing a variety of mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions such as cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PPs), and their Dewar valence isomers as well as DNA strand breaks by interfering the genome integrity. To counteract these lesions, organisms have developed a number of highly conserved repair mechanisms such as photoreactivation, base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mismatch repair (MMR). Additionally, double-strand break repair (by homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining), SOS response, cell-cycle checkpoints, and programmed cell death (apoptosis) are also operative in various organisms with the expense of specific gene products. This review deals with UV-induced alterations in DNA and its maintenance by various repair mechanisms.
The DNA double-strand break (DSB) is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR) is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR) and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of γ-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs) and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR), showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ]) in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.
Living organisms are constantly threatened by environmental DNA-damaging agents, including UV and ionizing radiation (IR). Repair of various forms of DNA damage caused by IR is normally thought to follow lesion-specific repair pathways with distinct enzymatic machinery. DNA double strand break is one of the most serious kinds of damage induced by IR, which is repaired through double strand break (DSB) repair mechanisms, including homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). However, recent studies have presented increasing evidence that various DNA repair pathways are not separated, but well interlinked. It has been suggested that non-DSB repair mechanisms, such as Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER), Mismatch Repair (MMR) and cell cycle regulation, are highly involved in DSB repairs. These findings revealed previously unrecognized roles of various non-DSB repair genes and indicated that a successful DSB repair requires both DSB repair mechanisms and non-DSB repair systems. One of our recent studies found that suppressed expression of non-DSB repair genes, such as XPA, RPA and MLH1, influenced the yield of IR induced micronuclei formation and/or chromosome aberrations, suggesting that these genes are highly involved in DSB repair and DSB-related cell cycle arrest, which reveals new roles for these gene products in the DNA repair network. In this review, we summarize current progress on the function of non-DSB repair-related proteins, especially those that participate in NER and MMR pathways, and their influence on DSB repair. In addition, we present our developing view that the DSB repair mechanisms are more complex and are regulated by not only the well known HR/NHEJ pathways, but also a systematically coordinated cellular network.
Ionizing radiation (IR); DNA damage; DSB repair; NER; MMR and cell cycle.
The DNA of all organisms is constantly damaged by exogenous and endogenous agents. Base excision repair (BER) is important for the removal of several non-bulky lesions from the DNA, however not much is known about the contributions of other DNA repair pathways to the processing of non-bulky lesions. Here we utilized a luciferase reporter system to assess the contributions of transcription-coupled repair (TCR), BER and nucleotide excision repair (NER) to the repair of two non-bulky lesions, 8-oxoguanine (8OG) and uracil (U), in vivo under non-growth conditions. We demonstrate that both TCR and NER are utilized by Escherichia coli to repair 8OG and U. Additionally, the relative level of recognition of these lesions by BER and NER suggests that TCR can utilize components of either pathway for lesion removal, depending upon their availability. These findings indicate a dynamic flexibility of DNA repair pathways in the removal of non-bulky DNA lesions in prokaryotes, and reveal their respective contributions to the repair of 8OG and U in vivo.
uracil; 8-oxoguanine; TCR; NER
REPAIRtoire is the first comprehensive database resource for systems biology of DNA damage and repair. The database collects and organizes the following types of information: (i) DNA damage linked to environmental mutagenic and cytotoxic agents, (ii) pathways comprising individual processes and enzymatic reactions involved in the removal of damage, (iii) proteins participating in DNA repair and (iv) diseases correlated with mutations in genes encoding DNA repair proteins. REPAIRtoire provides also links to publications and external databases. REPAIRtoire contains information about eight main DNA damage checkpoint, repair and tolerance pathways: DNA damage signaling, direct reversal repair, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, homologous recombination repair, nonhomologous end-joining and translesion synthesis. The pathway/protein dataset is currently limited to three model organisms: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens. The DNA repair and tolerance pathways are represented as graphs and in tabular form with descriptions of each repair step and corresponding proteins, and individual entries are cross-referenced to supporting literature and primary databases. REPAIRtoire can be queried by the name of pathway, protein, enzymatic complex, damage and disease. In addition, a tool for drawing custom DNA–protein complexes is available online. REPAIRtoire is freely available and can be accessed at http://repairtoire.genesilico.pl/.
In eukaryotes, DNA is compacted into a complex structure known as chromatin. The unravelling of DNA is a crucial step in DNA repair, replication, transcription and recombination as this allows access to DNA for these processes. Failure to package DNA into the nucleosome, the individual unit of chromatin, can lead to genomic instability, driving a cell into apoptosis, senescence, or cellular proliferation. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage causes destabilisation of chromatin integrity. UV irradiation induces DNA damage such as photolesions and subjects the chromatin to substantial rearrangements, causing the arrest of transcription forks and cell cycle arrest. Highly conserved processes known as nucleotide and base excision repair (NER and BER) then begin to repair these lesions. However, if DNA repair fails, the cell may be forced into apoptosis. The modification of various histones as well as nucleosome remodelling via ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes are required not only to repair these UV-induced DNA lesions, but also for apoptosis signalling. Histone modifications and nucleosome remodelling in response to UV also lead to the recruitment of various repair and pro-apoptotic proteins. Thus, the way in which a cell responds to UV irradiation via these modifications is important in determining its fate. Failure of these DNA damage response steps can lead to cellular proliferation and oncogenic development, causing skin cancer, hence these chromatin changes are critical for a proper response to UV-induced injury.
chromatin; UV; apoptosis; repair; histone; SWI/SNF
The alteration of tumorigenic pathways leading to cancer is a degenerative disease process typically involving inactivation of tumor suppressor proteins and hyperactivation of oncogenes. One such oncogenic protein product is the murine double-minute 2, or Mdm2. While, Mdm2 has been primarily associated as the negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein there are many p53-independent roles demonstrated for this oncogene. DNA damage and chemotherapeutic agents are known to activate Mdm2 and DNA repair pathways. There are five primary DNA repair pathways involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity: Nucleotide excision repair (NER), Base excision repair (BER), Mismatch repair (MMR), Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). In this review, we will briefly describe these pathways and also delineate the functional interaction of Mdm2 with multiple DNA repair proteins. We will illustrate the importance of these interactions with Mdm2 and discuss how this is important for tumor progression, cellular proliferation in cancer.
base excision repair; cancer; homologous recombination; mismatch repair; murine double minute-2; non-homologous end joining; nucleotide excision repair
The DNA damage response (DDR) is a complex signaling network that leads to damage repair while modulating numerous cellular processes. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), a highly cytotoxic DNA lesion, activate this system most vigorously. The DSB response network is orchestrated by the ATM protein kinase, which phosphorylates key players in its various branches. Proteasome-mediated protein degradation plays an important role in the proteome dynamics following DNA damage induction. Here, we identify the nuclear proteasome activator PA28γ (REGγ; PSME3) as a novel DDR player. PA28γ depletion leads to cellular radiomimetic sensitivity and a marked delay in DSB repair. Specifically, PA28γ deficiency abrogates the balance between the two major DSB repair pathways—nonhomologous end-joining and homologous recombination repair. Furthermore, PA28γ is found to be an ATM target, being recruited to the DNA damage sites and required for rapid accumulation of proteasomes at these sites. Our data reveal a novel ATM-PA28γ-proteasome axis of the DDR that is required for timely coordination of DSB repair.
genomic stability; DNA repair; double-strand breaks; ATM; proteasome; PA28γ (PSME3)
Nucleotide excision repair and translesion DNA synthesis are two processes that operate at arrested replication forks to reduce the frequency of recombination and promote cell survival following UV-induced DNA damage. While nucleotide excision repair is generally considered to be error free, translesion synthesis can result in mutations, making it important to identify the order and conditions that determine when each process is recruited to the arrested fork. We show here that at early times following UV irradiation, the recovery of DNA synthesis occurs through nucleotide excision repair of the lesion. In the absence of repair or when the repair capacity of the cell has been exceeded, translesion synthesis by polymerase V (Pol V) allows DNA synthesis to resume and is required to protect the arrested replication fork from degradation. Pol II and Pol IV do not contribute detectably to survival, mutagenesis, or restoration of DNA synthesis, suggesting that, in vivo, these polymerases are not functionally redundant with Pol V at UV-induced lesions. We discuss a model in which cells first use DNA repair to process replication-arresting UV lesions before resorting to mutagenic pathways such as translesion DNA synthesis to bypass these impediments to replication progression.
DNA is a precious molecule. It encodes vital information about cellular content and function. There are only two copies of each chromosome in the cell, and once the sequence is lost no replacement is possible. The irreplaceable nature of the DNA sets it apart from other cellular molecules, and makes it a critical target for age-related deterioration. To prevent DNA damage cells have evolved elaborate DNA repair machinery. Paradoxically, DNA repair can itself be subject to age-related changes and deterioration. In this review we will discuss the changes in efficiency of mismatch repair (MMR), base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER) and double-strand break (DSB) repair systems during aging, and potential changes in DSB repair pathway usage that occur with age. Mutations in DNA repair genes and premature aging phenotypes they cause have been reviewed extensively elsewhere, therefore the focus of this review is on the comparison of DNA repair mechanisms in young versus old.
The ability of cells to respond and repair DNA damage is fundamental for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Ex vivo culturing of surgery-derived human tissues has provided a significant advancement to assess DNA damage response (DDR) in the context of normal cytoarchitecture in a non-proliferating tissue. Here, we assess the dependency of prostate epithelium DDR on ATM and DNA-PKcs, the major kinases responsible for damage detection and repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), respectively. DNA damage was caused by ionizing radiation (IR) and cytotoxic drugs, cultured tissues were treated with ATM and DNA-PK inhibitors, and DDR was assessed by phosphorylation of ATM and its targets H2AX and KAP1, a heterochromatin binding protein. Phosphorylation of H2AX and KAP1 was fast, transient and fully dependent on ATM, but these responses were moderate in luminal cells. In contrast, DNA-PKcs was phosphorylated in both luminal and basal cells, suggesting that DNA-PK-dependent repair was also activated in the luminal cells despite the diminished H2AX and KAP1 responses. These results indicate that prostate epithelial cell types have constitutively dissimilar responses to DNA damage. We correlate the altered damage response to the differential chromatin state of the cells. These findings are relevant in understanding how the epithelium senses and responds to DNA damage.
DNA damage; prostate; γH2AX; ATM; DNA-PK
The relative toxicity and mutagenicity of Me-lex, which selectively generates 3-methyladenine (3-MeA), is dependent on the nature of the DNA repair background. Base Excision Repair (BER) defective S. cerevisiae strains mag1 and apn1apn2 were both significantly more sensitive to Me-lex toxicity, but only the latter is significantly more prone to Me-lex induced mutagenesis. To examine the contribution of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases in the bypass of Me-lex-induced lesions, the REV3 and REV1 genes were independently deleted in the parental yeast strain and in different DNA repair deficient derivatives: the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) deficient rad14, and the BER deficient mag1 or apn1apn2 strains. The strains contained an integrated ADE2 reporter gene under control of the transcription factor p53. A centromeric yeast expression vector containing the wild-type p53 cDNA was treated in vitro with increasing concentrations of Me-lex and transformed into the different yeast strains. The toxicity of Me-lex induced lesions was evaluated based on the plasmid transformation efficiency compared to the untreated vector, while Me-lex mutagenicity was assessed using the p53 reporter assay. In the present study, we demonstrate that disruption of Polζ (through deletion of its catalytic subunit coded by REV3) or Rev1 (by REV1 deletion) increased Me-lex lethality and decreased Me-lex mutagenicity in both the NER defective (rad14) and BER defective (mag1; apn1apn2) strains. Therefore, Polζ and Rev1 contribute to resistance of the lethal effects of Me-lex induced lesions (3-MeA and derived AP sites) by bypassing lesions and fixing some mutations.
Me-lex; N3-methyladenine; translesion synthesis; p53; yeast
Repair of double-stranded breaks (DSBs) is vital to maintaining genomic stability. In mammalian cells, DSBs are resolved in one of the following complex repair pathways: nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR), or the inclusive DNA damage response (DDR). These repair pathways rely on factors that utilize reversible phosphorylation of proteins as molecular switches to regulate DNA repair. Many of these molecular switches overlap and play key roles in multiple pathways. For example, the NHEJ pathway and the DDR both utilize DNA-PK phosphorylation, whereas the HR pathway mediates repair with phosphorylation of RPA2, BRCA1, and BRCA2. Also, the DDR pathway utilizes the kinases ATM and ATR, as well as the phosphorylation of H2AX and MDC1. Together, these molecular switches regulate repair of DSBs by aiding in DSB recognition, pathway initiation, recruitment of repair factors, and the maintenance of repair mechanisms.
Pterygium is an ultraviolet (UV) related disease. UV radiation can produce DNA damage, which is repaired by the DNA repair systems. Among the DNA repair systems, the base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) systems are the major ones involved in repairing UV-induced DNA damage; X-ray repair cross complementary 1 (XRCC1) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) are two BER genes, and xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) and xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) are two NER genes. Polymorphisms of these genes are associated with the differences in their repair DNA damage capacity, and they modulate the susceptibility to cancer. Because the polymorphism of hOGG1 was reported to be associated with pterygium, it is logical to assume the correlation between XRCC1, XPA, and XPD polymorphisms and pterygium formation.
One hundred and twenty-seven pterygium patients and 103 volunteers without pterygium were enrolled in this study. Polymerase chain reaction based analysis was used to resolve the XRCC1 codon 107, 194, 280, and 399; XPA A23G; XPA codon 228; and XPD codon 751 polymorphisms.
There were significant differences in the frequency of genotypes and alleles of XRCC1 codon 194 and 399 polymorphisms between the groups. In codon 194, individuals who carried at least 1 Trp allele had a decreased risk of developing pterygium compared to those who carried the Arg/Arg wild-type genotype (odds ratio [OR]=0.58; 95% CI: 0.34–0.98). In codon 399, individuals who carried at least 1 Gln allele had a threefold increased risk of developing pterygium compared to those who carried the Arg/Arg wild-type genotype (OR=3.06; 95% CI: 1.78–5.26). There were no significant differences in the frequency of the genotypes and alleles of XRCC1 codon 107 and 280, XPA A23G, and XPD codon 751 polymorphisms between the groups. The XPA codon 228 polymorphism was not detected in any of the cases or controls.
The XRCC1 codon 194 polymorphism causes a decreased risk of developing pterygium, but the codon 399 polymorphism increases the risk. There is no correlation between pterygium and XRCC1 codon 107 and 280, XPA A23G, and XPD codon 751 polymorphisms.
We have previously reported several lines of evidence that support a role for cellular DNA repair systems in completion of the retroviral DNA integration process. Failure to repair an intermediate in the process of integrating viral DNA into host DNA appears to trigger growth arrest or death of a large percentage of infected cells. Cellular proteins involved in the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway (DNA-PKCS) and the damage-signaling kinases (ATM and ATR) have been implicated in this process. However, some studies have suggested that NHEJ proteins may not be required for the completion of lentiviral DNA integration. Here we provide additional evidence that NHEJ proteins are required for stable transduction by human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1)-based vectors. Our analyses with two different reporters show that the number of stably transduced DNA-PKCS-deficient scid fibroblasts was reduced by 80 to 90% compared to the number of control cells. Furthermore, transduction efficiency can be restored to wild-type levels in scid cells that are complemented with a functional DNA-PKCS gene. The efficiency of stable transduction by an HIV-1-based vector is also reduced upon infection of Xrcc4 and ligase IV-deficient cells, implying a role for these components of the NHEJ repair pathway. Finally, we show that cells deficient in ligase IV are killed by infection with an integrase-competent but not an integrase-deficient HIV-1 vector. Results presented in this study lend further support to a general role for the NHEJ DNA repair pathway in completion of the retroviral DNA integration process.
Base excision repair (BER) is a critical pathway in cellular defense against endogenous or exogenous DNA damage. This elaborate multistep process is initiated by DNA glycosylases that excise the damaged base, and continues through the concerted action of additional proteins that finally restore DNA to the unmodified state. BER has been subject to detailed biochemical analysis in bacteria, yeast and animals, mainly through in vitro reproduction of the entire repair reaction in cell-free extracts. However, an understanding of this repair pathway in plants has consistently lagged behind. We report the extension of BER biochemical analysis to plants, using Arabidopsis cell extracts to monitor repair of DNA base damage in vitro. We have used this system to demonstrate that Arabidopsis cell extracts contain the enzymatic machinery required to completely repair ubiquitous DNA lesions, such as uracil and abasic (AP) sites. Our results reveal that AP sites generated after uracil excision are processed both by AP endonucleases and AP lyases, generating either 5′- or 3′-blocked ends, respectively. We have also found that gap filling and ligation may proceed either through insertion of just one nucleotide (short-patch BER) or several nucleotides (long-patch BER). This experimental system should prove useful in the biochemical and genetic dissection of BER in plants, and contribute to provide a broader picture of the evolution and biological relevance of DNA repair pathways.
abasic sites; Arabidopsis; DNA polymerase; DNA repair; uracil
Double-strand DNA breaks are common events in eukaryotic cells, and there are two major pathways for repairing them: homologous recombination and nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ). The diverse causes of DSBs result in a diverse chemistry of DNA ends that must be repaired. Across NHEJ evolution, the enzymes of the NHEJ pathway exhibit a remarkable degree of structural tolerance in the range of DNA end substrate configurations upon which they can act. In vertebrate cells, the nuclease, polymerases and ligase of NHEJ are the most mechanistically flexible and multifunctional enzymes in each of their classes. Unlike repair pathways for more defined lesions, NHEJ repair enzymes act iteratively, act in any order, and can function independently of one another at each of the two DNA ends being joined. NHEJ is critical not only for the repair of pathologic DSBs as in chromosomal translocations, but also for the repair of physiologic DSBs created during V(D)J recombination and class switch recombination. Therefore, patients lacking normal NHEJ are not only sensitive to ionizing radiation, but also severely immunodeficient.
Ku; DNA-PKcs; Artemis; XRCC4; DNA ligase IV
The human MOF gene encodes a protein that specifically acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac). Here we show that reduced levels of H4K16ac correlate with a defective DNA damage response (DDR) and double-strand break (DSB) repair to ionizing radiation (IR). The defect, however, is not due to altered expression of proteins involved in DDR. Abrogation of IR-induced DDR by MOF depletion is inhibited by blocking H4K16ac deacetylation. MOF was found to be associated with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), a protein involved in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. ATM-dependent IR-induced phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs was also abrogated in MOF-depleted cells. Our data indicate that MOF depletion greatly decreased DNA double-strand break repair by both NHEJ and homologous recombination (HR). In addition, MOF activity was associated with general chromatin upon DNA damage and colocalized with the synaptonemal complex in male meiocytes. We propose that MOF, through H4K16ac (histone code), has a critical role at multiple stages in the cellular DNA damage response and DSB repair.
By temporarily deferring the repair of DNA lesions encountered during replication, the bypass of DNA damage is critical to the ability of cells to withstand genomic insults. Damage bypass can be achieved either by recombinational mechanisms that are generally accurate or by a process called translesion synthesis. Translesion synthesis involves replacing the stalled replicative polymerase with one of a number of specialized DNA polymerases whose active sites are able to tolerate a distorted or damaged DNA template. While this property allows the translesion polymerases to synthesize across damaged bases, it does so with the trade-off of an increased mutation rate. The deployment of these enzymes must therefore be carefully regulated. In addition to their important role in general DNA damage tolerance and mutagenesis, the translesion polymerases play a crucial role in converting the products of activation induced deaminase-catalysed cytidine deamination to mutations during immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation. In this paper, we specifically consider the control of translesion synthesis in the context of the timing of lesion bypass relative to replication fork progression and arrest at sites of DNA damage. We then examine how recent observations concerning the control of translesion synthesis might help refine our view of the mechanisms of immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation.
translesion synthesis; immunoglobulin hypermutation; DNA polymerases; post-replication repair; mismatch repair
It is a commonly held view that oxidatively-induced DNA lesions are repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway, whereas DNA lesions induced by UV light and other “bulky” chemical adducts are repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. While this distinction is generally accurate, the 8,5’ cyclopurine deoxynucleosides represent an important exception, in that they are formed in DNA by the hydroxyl radical, but are specifically repaired by NER, not by BER. They are also strong blocks to nucleases and polymerases, including RNA polymerase II in human cells. In this review, I will discuss the evidence that these lesions are in part responsible for the neurodegeneration that occurs in some XP patients, and what additional evidence would be necessary to prove such a role. I will also consider other DNA lesions that might be involved in XP neurologic disease. Finally, I will also discuss how our recent studies of these lesions have generated novel insights into the process of transcriptional mutagenesis in human cells, as well as the value of studying these lesions not only for a better understanding of NER, but also for other aspects of human health and disease.
Nitric oxide (NO) induces deamination of guanine, yielding xanthine and oxanine (Oxa). Furthermore, Oxa reacts with polyamines and DNA binding proteins to form cross-link adducts. Thus, it is of interest how these lesions are processed by DNA repair enzymes in view of the genotoxic mechanism of NO. In the present study, we have examined the repair capacity for Oxa and Oxa–spermine cross-link adducts (Oxa–Sp) of enzymes involved in base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) to delineate the repair mechanism of nitrosative damage to guanine. Oligonucleotide substrates containing Oxa and Oxa–Sp were incubated with purified BER and NER enzymes or cell-free extracts (CFEs), and the damage-excising or DNA-incising activity was compared with that for control (physiological) substrates. The Oxa-excising activities of Escherichia coli and human DNA glycosylases and HeLa CFEs were 0.2–9% relative to control substrates, implying poor processing of Oxa by BER. In contrast, DNA containing Oxa–Sp was incised efficiently by UvrABC nuclease and SOS-induced E.coli CFEs, suggesting a role of NER in ameliorating genotoxic effects associated with nitrosative stress. Analyses of the activity of CFEs from NER-proficient and NER-deficient human cells on Oxa–Sp DNA confirmed further the involvement of NER in the repair of nitrosative DNA damage.
Major genomic surveillance mechanisms regulated in response to DNA damage exist at the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints. It is presumed that these delays provide time for the repair of damaged DNA. Cells have developed multiple DNA repair pathways to protect themselves from different types of DNA damage. Oxidative DNA damage is processed by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Little is known about the BER of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage and putative heterogeneity of BER in the cell cycle context. We measured the activities of three BER enzymes throughout the cell cycle to investigate the cell cycle-specific repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. We further examined BER activities in G2 arrested human cells after exposure to ionizing radiation.
Using an in vitro incision assay involving radiolabeled oligonucleotides with specific DNA lesions, we examined the activities of several BER enzymes in the whole cell extracts prepared from synchronized human HeLa cells irradiated in G1 and G2 phase of the cell cycle. The activities of human endonuclease III (hNTH1), a glycosylase/lyase that removes several damaged bases from DNA including dihydrouracil (DHU), 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) that recognizes 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxoG) lesion and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (hAPE1) that acts on abasic sites including synthetic analog furan were examined.
Overall the repair activities of hNTH1 and hAPE1 were higher in the G1 compared to G2 phase of the cell cycle. The percent cleavages of oligonucleotide substrate with furan were greater than substrate with DHU in both G1 and G2 phases. The irradiation of cells enhanced the cleavage of substrates with furan and DHU only in G1 phase. The activity of hOGG1 was much lower and did not vary within the cell cycle. These results demonstrate the cell cycle phase dependence on the BER of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. Interestingly no evidence of enhanced BER activities was found in irradiated cells arrested in G2 phase.
The main source of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during normal cellular metabolism. The main mtDNA lesions generated by ROS are base modifications, such as the ubiquitous 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesion; however, base loss and strand breaks may also occur. Many human diseases are associated with mtDNA mutations and thus maintaining mtDNA integrity is critical. All of these lesions are repaired primarily by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. It is now known that mammalian mitochondria have BER, which, similarly to nuclear BER, is catalyzed by DNA glycosylases, AP endonuclease, DNA polymerase (POLγ in mitochondria), and DNA ligase. This article outlines procedures for measuring oxidative damage formation and BER in mitochondria, including isolation of mitochondria from tissues and cells, protocols for measuring BER enzyme activities, gene-specific repair assays, chromatographic techniques, as well as current optimizations for detecting 8-oxoG lesions in cells by immunofluorescence. Throughout the assay descriptions we will include methodological considerations that may help optimize the assays in terms of resolution and repeatability.
Mitochondria; Base excision repair; Incision activity; Reactive oxygen species