NADPH oxidase (Nox) family enzymes are one of the main sources of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been shown to function as second messenger molecules. To date, seven members of this family have been reported, including Nox1-5 and Duox1 and -2. With the exception of Nox2, the regulation of the Nox enzymes is still poorly understood. Nox1 is highly expressed in the colon, and it requires two cytosolic regulators, NoxO1 and NoxA1, as well as the binding of Rac1 GTPase, for its activity. In this study, we investigate the role of the tyrosine kinase c-Src in the regulation of ROS formation by Nox1. We show that c-Src induces Nox1-mediated ROS generation in the HT29 human colon carcinoma cell line through a Rac-dependent mechanism. Treatment of HT29 cells with the Src inhibitor PP2, expression of a kinase-inactive form of c-Src, and c-Src depletion by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduce both ROS generation and the levels of active Rac1. This is associated with decreased Src-mediated phosphorylation and activation of the Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav2. Consistent with this, Vav2 siRNA that specifically reduces endogenous Vav2 protein is able to dramatically decrease Nox1-dependent ROS generation and abolish c-Src-induced Nox1 activity. Together, these results establish c-Src as an important regulator of Nox1 activity, and they may provide insight into the mechanisms of tumor formation in colon cancers.
NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in angiotensin II-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Several Nox isoforms are expressed in the vessel wall, among which Nox2 is especially abundant in the endothelium. Endothelial Nox2 levels rise during hypertension but little is known about the cell-specific role of endothelial Nox2 in vivo. To address this question, we generated transgenic mice with endothelial-specific overexpression of Nox2 (Tg) and studied the effects on endothelial function and blood pressure. Tg had an about twofold increase in endothelial Nox2 levels which was accompanied by an increase in p22phox levels but no change in levels of other Nox isoforms or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Basal NADPH oxidase activity, endothelial function and blood pressure were unaltered in Tg compared to wild-type littermates. Angiotensin II caused a greater increase in ROS production in Tg compared to wild-type aorta and attenuated acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation. Both low and high dose chronic angiotensin II infusion increased telemetric ambulatory blood pressure more in Tg compared to wild-type, but with different patterns of BP change and aortic remodeling depending upon the dose of angiotensin II dose. These results indicate that an increase in endothelial Nox2 levels contributes to angiotensin II-induced endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling and hypertension.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00395-011-0179-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Endothelium; Vascular tone; NADPH oxidase; Hypertension; Reactive oxygen species
Cisplatin produces hearing loss in cancer patients. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea leads to lipid peroxidation, death of outer hair cells (OHCs), and hearing loss. The cochlea expresses a unique isoform of NADPH oxidase, NOX3, which serves as the primary source of ROS generation in the cochlea. Inhibition of NOX3 could offer a unique protective target against cisplatin ototoxicity. Here, we document that knockdown of NOX3 using short interfering (si) RNA abrogated cisplatin ototoxicity, as evidenced by protection of OHCs from damage and reduced threshold shifts in auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Transtympanic NOX3 siRNA reduced the expression of NOX3 in OHCs, spiral ganglion (SG) cells, and stria vascularis (SV) in the rat. NOX3 siRNA also reduced the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), biomarkers of cochlear damage. Also, transtympanic NOX3 siRNA reduced the expression of Bax, abolished the decrease in expression of Bcl2, and reduced apoptosis induced by cisplatin in the cochlea. These data suggest that NOX3 regulates stress-related genes in the cochlea, such as TRPV1 and KIM-1, and initiates apoptosis in the cochlea. This appears to be the first study of the efficacy of transtympanic delivery of siRNA attenuating cisplatin ototoxicity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 589–598.
Numerous studies have shown both the detrimental and beneficial effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals, plants, and fungi. These organisms utilize controlled generation of ROS for signaling, pathogenicity, and development. Here, we show that ROS are essential for the pathogenic development of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an economically important fungal pathogen with a broad host range. Based on the organism's completed genome sequence, we identified two S. sclerotiorum NADPH oxidases (SsNox1 and SsNox2), which presumably are involved in ROS generation. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to examine the function of SsNox1 and SsNox2. Silencing of SsNox1 expression indicated a central role for this enzyme in both virulence and pathogenic (sclerotial) development, while inactivation of the SsNox2 gene resulted in limited sclerotial development, but the organism remained fully pathogenic. ΔSsnox1 strains had reduced ROS levels, were unable to develop sclerotia, and unexpectedly correlated with significantly reduced oxalate production. These results are in accordance with previous observations indicating that fungal NADPH oxidases are required for pathogenic development and are consistent with the importance of ROS regulation in the successful pathogenesis of S. sclerotiorum.
The mechanisms that determine localized formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidases (Nox) in nonphagocytic cells are unknown. We show that the c-Src substrate proteins Tks4 and Tks5 are functional members of a p47phox-related organizer superfamily. Tks proteins selectively support Nox1 and Nox3 (vs. Nox2 and Nox4) activity in reconstituted cellular systems, and interact with the NoxA1 activator protein through an SH3-mediated interaction. Endogenous Tks4 is required for Rac GTPase-dependent ROS production by DLD1 colon cancer cells. Tks4 recruits Nox1 to invadopodia that form in DLD1 cells in a Tks- and Nox-dependent fashion. We propose that Tks organizers represent novel members of an organizer superfamily that link Nox to localized ROS formation.
Cancer cells utilize complex mechanisms to remodel their bioenergetic properties. We exploited the intrinsic genomic stability of xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) to understand the interrelationships between genomic instability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and metabolic alterations during neoplastic transformation. We showed that knockdown of XPC (XPCKD) in normal human keratinocytes results in metabolism remodeling through NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) activation, which in turn leads to increased ROS levels. While enforcing antioxidant defenses by overexpressing catalase, CuZnSOD, or MnSOD could not block the metabolism remodeling, impaired NOX-1 activation abrogates both alteration in ROS levels and modifications of energy metabolism. As NOX-1 activation is observed in human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), the blockade of NOX-1 could be a target for the prevention and the treatment of skin cancers.
Genomic stability; Warburg effect; Metabolism; ROS; XPC; NADPH oxidase; antioxidant enzymes
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) serve signaling functions in the vasculature, and hypoxia has been associated with increased ROS production. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is an ROS-producing enzyme that is highly expressed in the endothelium, yet its specific role is unknown. We sought to determine the role of Nox4 in the endothelial response to hypoxia.
Methods and Results
Hypoxia induced Nox4 expression both in vitro and in vivo and overexpression of Nox4 was sufficient to promote endothelial proliferation, migration, and tube formation. To determine the in vivo relevance of our observations, we generated transgenic mice with endothelial-specific Nox4 overexpression using the VE-cadherin promoter (VECad-Nox4 mice). In vivo, the VECad-Nox4 mice had accelerated recovery from hind limb ischemia and enhanced aortic capillary sprouting. Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is involved in endothelial angiogenic responses and eNOS is activated by ROS, we probed the effect of Nox4 on eNOS. In cultured ECs overexpressing Nox4 we observed a significant increase in eNOS protein expression and activity. To causally address the link between eNOS and Nox4 we crossed our transgenic Nox4 mice with eNOS-/- mice. Aorta from these mice did not demonstrate enhanced aortic sprouting and VECad-Nox4 mice on the eNOS-/- background did not demonstrate enhanced recovery from hind limb ischemia.
Collectively, we demonstrate that augmented endothelial Nox4 expression promotes angiogenesis and recovery from hypoxia in an eNOS-dependent manner.
NADPH oxidase 4; Reactive Oxygen Species; Endothelium; Angiogenesis; Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase
Nox family NADPH oxidases serve a variety of functions requiring reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, including antimicrobial defense, biosynthetic processes, oxygen sensing and redox-based cellular signaling. We explored targeting, assembly, and activation of several Nox family oxidases, since ROS production appears to be regulated both spatially and temporally. Nox1 and Nox3 are similar to the phagocytic (Nox2-based) oxidase, functioning as superoxide-generating multi-component enzymes. Factors regulating their activities include cytosolic activator and organizer proteins and GTP-Rac. Their regulation varies, with the following rank order: Nox2>Nox1>Nox3. Determinants of subcellular targeting include: 1) formation of Nox-p22phox heterodimeric complexes allowing plasma membrane translocation, 2) phospholipids-binding specificities of PX domain-containing organizer proteins (p47phox or Nox organizer 1 (Noxo1)), and 3) variably splicing of Noxo1 PX domains directing them to nuclear or plasma membranes. Dual oxidases (Duox1 and Duox2) are targeted by different mechanisms. Plasma membrane targeting results in H2O2 release, not superoxide, to support extracellular peroxidases. Human Duox1 and Duox2 have no demonstrable peroxidase activity, despite their extensive homology with heme peroxidases. The dual oxidases were reconstituted by Duox activator 2 (Duoxa2) or two Duoxa1 variants, which dictate maturation, subcellular localization, and the type of ROS generated by forming stable complexes with Duox.
Nox family NADPH oxidases serve a variety of functions requiring reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, including antimicrobial defense, biosynthetic processes, oxygen sensing, and redox-based cellular signaling. We explored targeting, assembly, and activation of several Nox family oxidases, since ROS production appears to be regulated both spatially and temporally. Nox1 and Nox3 are similar to the phagocytic (Nox2-based) oxidase, functioning as multicomponent superoxide-generating enzymes. Factors regulating their activities include cytosolic activator and organizer proteins and GTP-Rac. Their regulation varies, with the following rank order: Nox2 > Nox1 > Nox3. Determinants of subcellular targeting include: (a) formation of Nox-p22phox heterodimeric complexes allowing plasma membrane translocation, (b) phospholipids-binding specificities of PX domain-containing organizer proteins (p47phox or Nox organizer 1 (Noxo1 and p40phox), and (c) variably splicing of Noxo1 PX domains directing them to nuclear or plasma membranes. Dual oxidases (Duox1 and Duox2) are targeted by different mechanisms. Plasma membrane targeting results in H2O2 release, not superoxide, to support extracellular peroxidases. Human Duox1 and Duox2 have no demonstrable peroxidase activity, despite their extensive homology with heme peroxidases. The dual oxidases were reconstituted by Duox activator 2 (Duoxa2) or two Duoxa1 variants, which dictate maturation, subcellular localization, and the type of ROS generated by forming stable complexes with Duox. Antioxid Redox Signal. 11, 2607–2619.
Regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is primarily accomplished by NADPH oxidases (Nox). Nox1 to Nox4 form a membrane-associated heterodimer with p22phox, creating the docking site for assembly of the activated oxidase. Signaling specificity is achieved by interaction with a complex network of cytosolic components. Nox4, an oxidase linked to cardiovascular disease, carcinogenesis, and pulmonary fibrosis, deviates from this model by displaying constitutive H2O2 production without requiring known regulators. Extensive Nox4/Nox2 chimera screening was initiated to pinpoint structural motifs essential for ROS generation and Nox subcellular localization. In summary, a matching B loop was crucial for catalytic activity of both Nox enzymes. Substitution of the carboxyl terminus was sufficient for converting Nox4 into a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-inducible phenotype, while Nox2-based chimeras never gained constitutive activity. Changing the Nox2 but not the Nox4 amino terminus abolished ROS generation. The unique heterodimerization of a functional Nox4/p22phox Y121H complex was dependent on the D loop. Nox4, Nox2, and functional Nox chimeras translocated to the plasma membrane. Cell surface localization of Nox4 or PMA-inducible Nox4 did not correlate with O2− generation. In contrast, Nox4 released H2O2 and promoted cell migration. Our work provides insights into Nox structure, regulation, and ROS output that will aid inhibitor design.
In recent years, reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from the vascular isoforms of NADPH oxidase, Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4, have been implicated in many cardiovascular pathologies. As a result, the selective inhibition of these isoforms is an area of intense current investigation. In the present study, we postulated that Nox2ds, a peptidic inhibitor that mimics a sequence in the cytosolic B loop of Nox2, would inhibit ROS production by Nox2-, but not by Nox1- and Nox4-oxidase systems. To test our hypothesis, the inhibitory activity of Nox2ds was assessed in cell-free assays using reconstituted systems expressing the Nox2-, canonical or hybrid Nox1-, or Nox4-oxidase. Our findings demonstrate that Nox2ds, but not its scrambled control, potently inhibited superoxide (O2•−) production in the Nox2 cell-free system, as assessed by the cytochrome c assay. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) confirmed that Nox2ds inhibits O2•− production by Nox2 oxidase. In contrast, Nox2ds did not inhibit ROS production in either Nox1 or Nox4 oxidase. These findings demonstrate that Nox2ds is a selective inhibitor of Nox2 oxidase and support its utility to elucidate the role of Nox2 in organ pathophysiology and its potential as a therapeutic agent.
NADPH oxidase; reactive oxygen species; superoxide; Nox inhibitor; cardiovascular disease
The family of NADPH oxidase (NOX) genes produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) pivotal for both cell signalling and host defense. To investigate whether NOX and NOX accessory gene expression might be a factor common to specific human tumour types, this study measured the expression levels of NOX genes 1–5, dual oxidase 1 and 2, as well as those of NOX accessory genes NoxO1, NoxA1, p47phox, p67phox and p22phox in human cancer cell lines and in tumour and adjacent normal tissue pairs by quantitative, real-time RT-PCR. The results demonstrate tumour-specific patterns of NOX gene expression that will inform further studies of the role of NOX activity in tumour cell invasion, growth factor response and proliferative potential.
NADPH oxidase (NOX); reactive oxygen species (ROS); human cancer; human tumour cell lines; hydrogen peroxide
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a major role in endothelial signaling and function. Of the several potential sources of ROS in the vasculature, the endothelial NADPH Oxidase (Nox) family of proteins, Nox1, Nox2, Nox4 and Nox5, are major contributors of ROS. Excess generation of ROS contributes to the development and progression of vascular disease. While hyperoxia stimulates ROS production through Nox proteins, hypoxia appears to involve mitochondrial electron transport in the generation of superoxide. ROS generated from Nox proteins and mitochondria are important for oxygen sensing mechanisms. Physiological concentrations of ROS function as signaling molecule in the endothelium; however, excess ROS production leads to pathological disorders like inflammation, atherosclerosis, and lung injury. Regulation of Nox proteins is unclear; however, antioxidants, MAP Kinases, STATs, and Nrf2 regulate Nox under normal physiological and pathological conditions. Studies related to redox regulation of Nox should provide a better understanding of ROS and its role in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases.
NADPH Oxidase; ROS; Endothelium; Redox; Nox proteins
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Initially ROS-producing NADPH oxidase (NOX) proteins were thought to be present in phagocytes. However, recent studies have demonstrated that NOX proteins are expressed in many other cell types and tissues. NOX family members' expression and function seems to vary from tissue to tissue. We determined the expression of the NOX family of proteins (NOX1-5) in normal breast tissue and breast tumors. Our study revealed that normal breast tissues express NOX1, 4 and 5 genes. Similar pattern of expression was revealed in a breast epithelial cell line. We found that NOX4 was overexpressed in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and primary breast tumors. NOX4 was also overexpressed in ovarian tumors. Overexpression of NOX4 in normal breast epithelial cells resulted in cellular senescence, resistance to apoptosis, and tumorigenic transformation. Overexpression of NOX4 in already transformed breast tumor cells also showed increased tumorigenicity. Strong evidence suggests that regulation of these processes occurs through NOX4 generation of ROS in the mitochondria. We demonstrate that the NOX4 protein contains a 73 amino acid long mitochondrial localization signal at the N-terminus that is capable of transporting a passenger protein GFP into the mitochondria. Treatment of NOX4 overexpressing cells with catalase resulted in decreased tumorigenic characteristics. Together, this study provides evidence for an oncogenic function for NOX4 protein localized to mitochondria and suggests that NOX4 is a novel source of ROS produced in the mitochondria. This study also identifies a possible treatment of NOX4-induced breast cancer by antioxidant treatment.
NADPH oxidase 4; breast cancer; oncogenesis; catalase
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells contribute to the development and progression of vascular diseases. We have recently shown that hyperoxia enhances NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression, which regulates lung endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Regulation of NOX4 is poorly understood in the vasculature. The objective of this study is to identify transcriptional factor(s) involved in regulation of endothelial NOX4. We found that hyperoxia induced NOX4 expression was markedly reduced in Nrf2-/- mice, compared to Nrf2+/+ mice. Exposure of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs) to hyperoxia stimulated NRF2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased NOX4 expression. Knock down of NRF2 expression using a siRNA approach attenuated basal NOX4 expression; however, it enhanced superoxide/ROS generation under both normoxia and hyperoxia. In silico analysis revealed presence of at least three consensus sequences for the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of NOX4. In transient transfections, hyperoxia stimulated NOX4promoter activity in HLMVECs, and deletion of -438 to -458 and -619 to -636 sequences markedly reduced hyperoxia-stimulated NOX4 promoter activation. ChIP analysis revealed an enhanced recruitment of NRF2 to endogenous NOX4 promoter spanning these two AREs following hyperoxic insult. Collectively, these results demonstrate, for the first time, a novel role of NRF2 in regulating hyperoxia-induced NOX4 transcription via AREs in lung endothelium.
Phagocytic cell NADPH oxidase (NOX) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of innate immunity. Unfortunately, ischemia can also induce this pathway and inflict damage on native cells. Here we show that NOX–mediated damage can be inhibited by suppression of the voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1. Hv1 is required for full NOX activity since it compensates for loss of NOX–exported charge. We show that Hv1 is required for NOX–dependent ROS generation in brain microglia in situ and in vivo. Mouse and human brain microglia, but not neurons or astrocytes, express large Hv1-mediated currents. Mice lacking Hv1 were protected from NOX–mediated neuronal death and brain damage 24 hours after stroke. These results demonstrate that Hv1–dependent ROS production is responsible for a significant fraction of brain damage at early time points after ischemic stroke and provide a rationale for Hv1 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
NADPH oxidases are a family of enzymes that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). The NOX1 (NADPH oxidase 1) and NOX2 oxidases are the major sources of ROS in the artery wall in conditions such as hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes and ageing, and so they are important contributors to the oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation that underlies arterial remodelling and atherogenesis. In this Review, we advance the concept that compared to the use of conventional antioxidants, inhibiting NOX1 and NOX2 oxidases is a superior approach for combating oxidative stress. We briefly describe some common and emerging putative NADPH oxidase inhibitors. In addition, we highlight the crucial role of the NADPH oxidase regulatory subunit, p47phox, in the activity of vascular NOX1 and NOX2 oxidases, and suggest how a better understanding of its specific molecular interactions may enable the development of novel isoform-selective drugs to prevent or treat cardiovascular diseases.
One major route of intoxication by Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) spores is via their ingestion and subsequent uptake by the intestinal epithelium. Anthrax edema toxin (ETx) is an adenylate cyclase that causes the persistant elevation of cAMP in intoxicated cells. The NADPH oxidase of phagocytic leukocytes, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) for the purpose of host defense, has been shown to be inhibited by ETx through unidentified mechanism(s). Non-phagocyte NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox1, Nox3-5, Duox1, and 2) also generate ROS as components of the host innate immune response to bacteria in epithelial tissues. We show that ETx effectively inhibits ROS formation by Nox1 in HT-29 colon epithelial cells. This inhibition requires the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the Nox1 regulatory component, NoxA1 and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3ζ. Inhibition of Nox1-mediated ROS formation in the gut epithelium may be a mechanism used by B. anthracis to circumvent the innate immune response.
Anthrax; edema toxin; NADPH oxidase; reactive oxygen species; colon epithelium; innate immunity; phosphorylation; cAMP-dependent protein kinase; protein kinase A; 14-3-3 proteins
NADPH-oxidases (Nox) and the related Dual oxidases (Duox) play varied biological and pathological roles via regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Members of the Nox/Duox family have been identified in a wide variety of organisms, including mammals, nematodes, fruit fly, green plants, fungi, and slime molds; however, little is known about the molecular evolutionary history of these enzymes.
We assembled and analyzed the deduced amino acid sequences of 101 Nox/Duox orthologs from 25 species, including vertebrates, urochordates, echinoderms, insects, nematodes, fungi, slime mold amoeba, alga and plants. In contrast to ROS defense enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase that are present in prokaryotes, ROS-generating Nox/Duox orthologs only appeared later in evolution. Molecular taxonomy revealed seven distinct subfamilies of Noxes and Duoxes. The calcium-regulated orthologs representing 4 subfamilies diverged early and are the most widely distributed in biology. Subunit-regulated Noxes represent a second major subdivision, and appeared first in fungi and amoeba. Nox5 was lost in rodents, and Nox3, which functions in the inner ear in gravity perception, emerged the most recently, corresponding to full-time adaptation of vertebrates to land. The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus possesses the earliest Nox2 co-ortholog of vertebrate Nox1, 2, and 3, while Nox4 first appeared somewhat later in urochordates. Comparison of evolutionary substitution rates demonstrates that Nox2, the regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox, and Duox are more stringently conserved in vertebrates than other Noxes and Nox regulatory subunits. Amino acid sequence comparisons identified key catalytic or regulatory regions, as 68 residues were highly conserved among all Nox/Duox orthologs, and 14 of these were identical with those mutated in Nox2 in variants of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. In addition to canonical motifs, the B-loop, TM6-FAD, VXGPFG-motif, and extreme C-terminal regions were identified as important for Nox activity, as verified by mutational analysis. The presence of these non-canonical, but highly conserved regions suggests that all Nox/Duox may possess a common biological function remained in a long history of Nox/Duox evolution.
This report provides the first comprehensive analysis of the evolution and conserved functions of Nox and Duox family members, including identification of conserved amino acid residues. These results provide a guide for future structure-function studies and for understanding the evolution of biological functions of these enzymes.
Previous studies identified NADPH oxidases (Nox) and mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I as major cellular sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediating systemic and cellular responses to intermittent hypoxia (IH). In the present study, we investigated potential interactions between Nox and the mitochondrial complex I and assessed the contribution of mitochondrial ROS in IH-evoked elevation in blood pressure. IH treatment led to stimulus-dependent activation of Nox and inhibition of complex I activity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC)12 cells. After re-oxygenation, Nox activity returned to baseline values within 3 h, whereas the complex I activity remained downregulated even after 24 h. IH-induced complex I inhibition was prevented by Nox inhibitors, Nox2 but not Nox 4 siRNA, in cell cultures and was absent in gp91phox-/Y (Nox2 knock-out; KO) mice. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we show that ROS generated by Nox activation mobilizes Ca2+ flux from the cytosol to mitochondria, leading to S-glutathionylation of 75- and 50-kDa proteins of the complex I and inhibition of complex I activity, which results in elevated mitochondrial ROS. Systemic administration of mito-tempol prevented the sustained but not the acute elevations of blood pressure in IH-treated rats, suggesting that mitochondrial-derived ROS contribute to sustained elevation of blood pressure. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 533–542.
IGF-I–stimulated sarcoma viral oncogene (Src) activation during hyperglycemia is required for propagating downstream signaling. The aim of the current study was to determine the mechanism by which hyperglycemia enhances IGF-I–stimulated Src activation and the role of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) and protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) in mediating this response in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Nox4 expression was analyzed in VSMCs exposed to hyperglycemia. The role of Nox4-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in IGF-I–stimulated Src activation was investigated via knockdown of Nox4. Different isoforms of PKC were screened to investigate their role in hyperglycemia-induced Nox4. The oxidation of Src was shown to be a prerequisite for its activation in response to IGF-I during hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia induced Nox4, but not Nox1, and p22 phagocyte oxidase (p22phox) expression and IGF-I stimulated Nox4/p22phox complex formation, leading to increased ROS generation. Knockdown of Nox4 prevented ROS generation and impaired the oxidation and activation of Src in response to IGF-I, whereas knockdown of Nox1 had no effect. PKCζ was shown to mediate the hyperglycemia-induced increase in Nox4 expression. The key observations in cultured VSMCs were confirmed in the diabetic mice. Nox4-derived ROS is responsible for the enhancing effect of hyperglycemia on IGF-I–stimulated Src activation, which in turn amplifies IGF-I–linked downstream signaling and biological actions.
The catalytic subunit, gp91phox (a.k.a., Nox2) of the NADPH-oxidase of mammalian phagocytes is activated by microbes and immune mediators to produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which participate in microbial killing. Homologs of gp91phox, the Nox and Duox enzymes, were recently described in a range of organisms, including plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates such as Drosophila melanogaster. While their enzymology and cell biology is being extensively studied in many laboratories, little is known about in vivo functions of Noxes. Here, we establish and use an inducible system for RNAi to discover functions of dNox, an ortholog of human Nox5 in Drosophila. We report here that depletion of dNox in musculature causes retention of mature eggs within ovaries, leading to female sterility. In dNox-depleted ovaries and ovaries treated with a Nox inhibitor, muscular contractions induced by the neuropeptide proctolin are markedly inhibited. This functional defect results from a requirement for dNox for the proctolin-induced calcium flux in Drosophila ovaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate a novel biological role for Nox-generated ROS in mediating agonist-induced calcium flux and smooth muscle contraction.
Rationale: Hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury has been used for many years as a model of oxidative stress mimicking clinical acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Excess quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for oxidative stress–induced lung injury. ROS are produced by mitochondrial chain transport, but also by NADPH oxidase (NOX) family members. Although NOX1 and NOX2 are expressed in the lungs, their precise function has not been determined until now.
Objectives: To determine whether NOX1 and NOX2 contribute in vivo to hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury.
Methods: Wild-type and NOX1- and NOX2-deficient mice, as well as primary lung epithelial and endothelial cells, were exposed to room air or 100% O2 for 72 hours.
Measurements and Main Results: Lung injury was significantly prevented in NOX1-deficient mice, but not in NOX2-deficient mice. Hyperoxia-dependent ROS production was strongly reduced in lung sections, in isolated epithelial type II cells, and lung endothelial cells from NOX1-deficient mice. Concomitantly, lung cell death in situ and in primary cells was markedly decreased in NOX1-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, hyperoxia led to phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK), two mitogen-activated protein kinases involved in cell death signaling, and to caspase-3 activation. In NOX1-deficient mice, JNK phosphorylation was blunted, and ERK phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation were decreased.
Conclusions: NOX1 is an important contributor to ROS production and cell death of the alveolocapillary barrier during hyperoxia and is an upstream actor in oxidative stress–induced acute lung injury involving JNK and ERK pathways in mice.
NADPH oxidase; reactive oxygen species; hyperoxia; apoptosis; mitogen-activated protein kinases
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the NADPH oxidase system have been shown to be necessary for the invadopodia formation and function. We show here that the abolishment of Src-mediated phosphorylation of NoxA1 and Tks4 blocks their binding, decreases Nox1-dependent ROS generation, and inhibits the invadopodia formation and ECM degradation.
The NADPH oxidase family, consisting of Nox1-5 and Duox1-2, catalyzes the regulated formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Highly expressed in the colon, Nox1 needs the organizer subunit NoxO1 and the activator subunit NoxA1 for its activity. The tyrosine kinase c-Src is necessary for the formation of invadopodia, phosphotyrosine-rich structures which degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many Src substrates are invadopodia components, including the novel Nox1 organizer Tks4 and Tks5 proteins. Nox1-dependent ROS generation is necessary for the maintenance of functional invadopodia in human colon cancer cells. However, the signals and the molecular machinery involved in the redox-dependent regulation of invadopodia formation remain unclear. Here, we show that the interaction of NoxA1 and Tks proteins is dependent on Src activity. Interestingly, the abolishment of Src-mediated phosphorylation of Tyr110 on NoxA1 and of Tyr508 on Tks4 blocks their binding and decreases Nox1-dependent ROS generation. The contemporary presence of Tks4 and NoxA1 unphosphorylable mutants blocks SrcYF-induced invadopodia formation and ECM degradation, while the overexpression of Tks4 and NoxA1 phosphomimetic mutants rescues this phenotype. Taken together, these results elucidate the role of c-Src activity on the formation of invadopodia and may provide insight into the mechanisms of tumor formation in colon cancers.
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Although overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested to play a major role in its carcinogenicity, the mechanisms of Cr(VI)-induced ROS production remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of NADPH oxidase (NOX), one of the major sources of cellular ROS, in Cr(VI)-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. We found that short-term exposure to Cr(VI) (2μM) resulted in a rapid increase in ROS generation in Beas-2B cells, and concomitantly increased NOX activity and expression of NOX members (NOX1–3 and NOX5) and subunits (p22phox, p47phox, p40phox, and p67phox). Cr(VI) also induced phosphorylation of p47phox and membrane translocation of p47phox and p67phox, further confirming NOX activation. Knockdown of p47phox with a short hairpin RNA attenuated the ROS production induced by Cr(VI). Chronic exposure (up to 3 months) to low doses of Cr(VI) (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5μM) also promoted ROS generation and the expression of NOX subunits, such as p47phox and p67phox, but inhibited the expression of main antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Chronic Cr(VI) exposure resulted in transformation of Beas-2B cells, increasing cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth in soft agar, and forming aggressive tumors in nude mice. Stable knockdown of p47phox or overexpression of SOD1, SOD2, or catalase (CAT) eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Our results suggest that NOX plays an important role in Cr(VI)-induced ROS generation and carcinogenesis.
hexavalent chromium; NADPH oxidase; ROS generation; carcinogenesis