The mechanisms that determine localized formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidases (Nox) in nonphagocytic cells are unknown. We show that the c-Src substrate proteins Tks4 and Tks5 are functional members of a p47phox-related organizer superfamily. Tks proteins selectively support Nox1 and Nox3 (vs. Nox2 and Nox4) activity in reconstituted cellular systems, and interact with the NoxA1 activator protein through an SH3-mediated interaction. Endogenous Tks4 is required for Rac GTPase-dependent ROS production by DLD1 colon cancer cells. Tks4 recruits Nox1 to invadopodia that form in DLD1 cells in a Tks- and Nox-dependent fashion. We propose that Tks organizers represent novel members of an organizer superfamily that link Nox to localized ROS formation.
In recent years, reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from the vascular isoforms of NADPH oxidase, Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4, have been implicated in many cardiovascular pathologies. As a result, the selective inhibition of these isoforms is an area of intense current investigation. In the present study, we postulated that Nox2ds, a peptidic inhibitor that mimics a sequence in the cytosolic B loop of Nox2, would inhibit ROS production by Nox2-, but not by Nox1- and Nox4-oxidase systems. To test our hypothesis, the inhibitory activity of Nox2ds was assessed in cell-free assays using reconstituted systems expressing the Nox2-, canonical or hybrid Nox1-, or Nox4-oxidase. Our findings demonstrate that Nox2ds, but not its scrambled control, potently inhibited superoxide (O2•−) production in the Nox2 cell-free system, as assessed by the cytochrome c assay. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) confirmed that Nox2ds inhibits O2•− production by Nox2 oxidase. In contrast, Nox2ds did not inhibit ROS production in either Nox1 or Nox4 oxidase. These findings demonstrate that Nox2ds is a selective inhibitor of Nox2 oxidase and support its utility to elucidate the role of Nox2 in organ pathophysiology and its potential as a therapeutic agent.
NADPH oxidase; reactive oxygen species; superoxide; Nox inhibitor; cardiovascular disease
NADPH oxidase (Nox) family enzymes are one of the main sources of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been shown to function as second messenger molecules. To date, seven members of this family have been reported, including Nox1-5 and Duox1 and -2. With the exception of Nox2, the regulation of the Nox enzymes is still poorly understood. Nox1 is highly expressed in the colon, and it requires two cytosolic regulators, NoxO1 and NoxA1, as well as the binding of Rac1 GTPase, for its activity. In this study, we investigate the role of the tyrosine kinase c-Src in the regulation of ROS formation by Nox1. We show that c-Src induces Nox1-mediated ROS generation in the HT29 human colon carcinoma cell line through a Rac-dependent mechanism. Treatment of HT29 cells with the Src inhibitor PP2, expression of a kinase-inactive form of c-Src, and c-Src depletion by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduce both ROS generation and the levels of active Rac1. This is associated with decreased Src-mediated phosphorylation and activation of the Rac1-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav2. Consistent with this, Vav2 siRNA that specifically reduces endogenous Vav2 protein is able to dramatically decrease Nox1-dependent ROS generation and abolish c-Src-induced Nox1 activity. Together, these results establish c-Src as an important regulator of Nox1 activity, and they may provide insight into the mechanisms of tumor formation in colon cancers.
The family of NADPH oxidase (NOX) genes produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) pivotal for both cell signalling and host defense. To investigate whether NOX and NOX accessory gene expression might be a factor common to specific human tumour types, this study measured the expression levels of NOX genes 1–5, dual oxidase 1 and 2, as well as those of NOX accessory genes NoxO1, NoxA1, p47phox, p67phox and p22phox in human cancer cell lines and in tumour and adjacent normal tissue pairs by quantitative, real-time RT-PCR. The results demonstrate tumour-specific patterns of NOX gene expression that will inform further studies of the role of NOX activity in tumour cell invasion, growth factor response and proliferative potential.
NADPH oxidase (NOX); reactive oxygen species (ROS); human cancer; human tumour cell lines; hydrogen peroxide
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Initially ROS-producing NADPH oxidase (NOX) proteins were thought to be present in phagocytes. However, recent studies have demonstrated that NOX proteins are expressed in many other cell types and tissues. NOX family members' expression and function seems to vary from tissue to tissue. We determined the expression of the NOX family of proteins (NOX1-5) in normal breast tissue and breast tumors. Our study revealed that normal breast tissues express NOX1, 4 and 5 genes. Similar pattern of expression was revealed in a breast epithelial cell line. We found that NOX4 was overexpressed in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and primary breast tumors. NOX4 was also overexpressed in ovarian tumors. Overexpression of NOX4 in normal breast epithelial cells resulted in cellular senescence, resistance to apoptosis, and tumorigenic transformation. Overexpression of NOX4 in already transformed breast tumor cells also showed increased tumorigenicity. Strong evidence suggests that regulation of these processes occurs through NOX4 generation of ROS in the mitochondria. We demonstrate that the NOX4 protein contains a 73 amino acid long mitochondrial localization signal at the N-terminus that is capable of transporting a passenger protein GFP into the mitochondria. Treatment of NOX4 overexpressing cells with catalase resulted in decreased tumorigenic characteristics. Together, this study provides evidence for an oncogenic function for NOX4 protein localized to mitochondria and suggests that NOX4 is a novel source of ROS produced in the mitochondria. This study also identifies a possible treatment of NOX4-induced breast cancer by antioxidant treatment.
NADPH oxidase 4; breast cancer; oncogenesis; catalase
Cisplatin produces hearing loss in cancer patients. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea leads to lipid peroxidation, death of outer hair cells (OHCs), and hearing loss. The cochlea expresses a unique isoform of NADPH oxidase, NOX3, which serves as the primary source of ROS generation in the cochlea. Inhibition of NOX3 could offer a unique protective target against cisplatin ototoxicity. Here, we document that knockdown of NOX3 using short interfering (si) RNA abrogated cisplatin ototoxicity, as evidenced by protection of OHCs from damage and reduced threshold shifts in auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Transtympanic NOX3 siRNA reduced the expression of NOX3 in OHCs, spiral ganglion (SG) cells, and stria vascularis (SV) in the rat. NOX3 siRNA also reduced the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), biomarkers of cochlear damage. Also, transtympanic NOX3 siRNA reduced the expression of Bax, abolished the decrease in expression of Bcl2, and reduced apoptosis induced by cisplatin in the cochlea. These data suggest that NOX3 regulates stress-related genes in the cochlea, such as TRPV1 and KIM-1, and initiates apoptosis in the cochlea. This appears to be the first study of the efficacy of transtympanic delivery of siRNA attenuating cisplatin ototoxicity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 589–598.
NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be involved in angiotensin II-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Several Nox isoforms are expressed in the vessel wall, among which Nox2 is especially abundant in the endothelium. Endothelial Nox2 levels rise during hypertension but little is known about the cell-specific role of endothelial Nox2 in vivo. To address this question, we generated transgenic mice with endothelial-specific overexpression of Nox2 (Tg) and studied the effects on endothelial function and blood pressure. Tg had an about twofold increase in endothelial Nox2 levels which was accompanied by an increase in p22phox levels but no change in levels of other Nox isoforms or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Basal NADPH oxidase activity, endothelial function and blood pressure were unaltered in Tg compared to wild-type littermates. Angiotensin II caused a greater increase in ROS production in Tg compared to wild-type aorta and attenuated acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation. Both low and high dose chronic angiotensin II infusion increased telemetric ambulatory blood pressure more in Tg compared to wild-type, but with different patterns of BP change and aortic remodeling depending upon the dose of angiotensin II dose. These results indicate that an increase in endothelial Nox2 levels contributes to angiotensin II-induced endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling and hypertension.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00395-011-0179-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Endothelium; Vascular tone; NADPH oxidase; Hypertension; Reactive oxygen species
Numerous studies have shown both the detrimental and beneficial effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals, plants, and fungi. These organisms utilize controlled generation of ROS for signaling, pathogenicity, and development. Here, we show that ROS are essential for the pathogenic development of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an economically important fungal pathogen with a broad host range. Based on the organism's completed genome sequence, we identified two S. sclerotiorum NADPH oxidases (SsNox1 and SsNox2), which presumably are involved in ROS generation. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to examine the function of SsNox1 and SsNox2. Silencing of SsNox1 expression indicated a central role for this enzyme in both virulence and pathogenic (sclerotial) development, while inactivation of the SsNox2 gene resulted in limited sclerotial development, but the organism remained fully pathogenic. ΔSsnox1 strains had reduced ROS levels, were unable to develop sclerotia, and unexpectedly correlated with significantly reduced oxalate production. These results are in accordance with previous observations indicating that fungal NADPH oxidases are required for pathogenic development and are consistent with the importance of ROS regulation in the successful pathogenesis of S. sclerotiorum.
Cancer cells utilize complex mechanisms to remodel their bioenergetic properties. We exploited the intrinsic genomic stability of xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) to understand the interrelationships between genomic instability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and metabolic alterations during neoplastic transformation. We showed that knockdown of XPC (XPCKD) in normal human keratinocytes results in metabolism remodeling through NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) activation, which in turn leads to increased ROS levels. While enforcing antioxidant defenses by overexpressing catalase, CuZnSOD, or MnSOD could not block the metabolism remodeling, impaired NOX-1 activation abrogates both alteration in ROS levels and modifications of energy metabolism. As NOX-1 activation is observed in human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), the blockade of NOX-1 could be a target for the prevention and the treatment of skin cancers.
Genomic stability; Warburg effect; Metabolism; ROS; XPC; NADPH oxidase; antioxidant enzymes
Previous studies identified NADPH oxidases (Nox) and mitochondrial electron transport chain at complex I as major cellular sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediating systemic and cellular responses to intermittent hypoxia (IH). In the present study, we investigated potential interactions between Nox and the mitochondrial complex I and assessed the contribution of mitochondrial ROS in IH-evoked elevation in blood pressure. IH treatment led to stimulus-dependent activation of Nox and inhibition of complex I activity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC)12 cells. After re-oxygenation, Nox activity returned to baseline values within 3 h, whereas the complex I activity remained downregulated even after 24 h. IH-induced complex I inhibition was prevented by Nox inhibitors, Nox2 but not Nox 4 siRNA, in cell cultures and was absent in gp91phox-/Y (Nox2 knock-out; KO) mice. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we show that ROS generated by Nox activation mobilizes Ca2+ flux from the cytosol to mitochondria, leading to S-glutathionylation of 75- and 50-kDa proteins of the complex I and inhibition of complex I activity, which results in elevated mitochondrial ROS. Systemic administration of mito-tempol prevented the sustained but not the acute elevations of blood pressure in IH-treated rats, suggesting that mitochondrial-derived ROS contribute to sustained elevation of blood pressure. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 533–542.
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) serve signaling functions in the vasculature, and hypoxia has been associated with increased ROS production. NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is an ROS-producing enzyme that is highly expressed in the endothelium, yet its specific role is unknown. We sought to determine the role of Nox4 in the endothelial response to hypoxia.
Methods and Results
Hypoxia induced Nox4 expression both in vitro and in vivo and overexpression of Nox4 was sufficient to promote endothelial proliferation, migration, and tube formation. To determine the in vivo relevance of our observations, we generated transgenic mice with endothelial-specific Nox4 overexpression using the VE-cadherin promoter (VECad-Nox4 mice). In vivo, the VECad-Nox4 mice had accelerated recovery from hind limb ischemia and enhanced aortic capillary sprouting. Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is involved in endothelial angiogenic responses and eNOS is activated by ROS, we probed the effect of Nox4 on eNOS. In cultured ECs overexpressing Nox4 we observed a significant increase in eNOS protein expression and activity. To causally address the link between eNOS and Nox4 we crossed our transgenic Nox4 mice with eNOS-/- mice. Aorta from these mice did not demonstrate enhanced aortic sprouting and VECad-Nox4 mice on the eNOS-/- background did not demonstrate enhanced recovery from hind limb ischemia.
Collectively, we demonstrate that augmented endothelial Nox4 expression promotes angiogenesis and recovery from hypoxia in an eNOS-dependent manner.
NADPH oxidase 4; Reactive Oxygen Species; Endothelium; Angiogenesis; Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase
IGF-I–stimulated sarcoma viral oncogene (Src) activation during hyperglycemia is required for propagating downstream signaling. The aim of the current study was to determine the mechanism by which hyperglycemia enhances IGF-I–stimulated Src activation and the role of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) and protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) in mediating this response in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Nox4 expression was analyzed in VSMCs exposed to hyperglycemia. The role of Nox4-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in IGF-I–stimulated Src activation was investigated via knockdown of Nox4. Different isoforms of PKC were screened to investigate their role in hyperglycemia-induced Nox4. The oxidation of Src was shown to be a prerequisite for its activation in response to IGF-I during hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia induced Nox4, but not Nox1, and p22 phagocyte oxidase (p22phox) expression and IGF-I stimulated Nox4/p22phox complex formation, leading to increased ROS generation. Knockdown of Nox4 prevented ROS generation and impaired the oxidation and activation of Src in response to IGF-I, whereas knockdown of Nox1 had no effect. PKCζ was shown to mediate the hyperglycemia-induced increase in Nox4 expression. The key observations in cultured VSMCs were confirmed in the diabetic mice. Nox4-derived ROS is responsible for the enhancing effect of hyperglycemia on IGF-I–stimulated Src activation, which in turn amplifies IGF-I–linked downstream signaling and biological actions.
The catalytic subunit, gp91phox (a.k.a., Nox2) of the NADPH-oxidase of mammalian phagocytes is activated by microbes and immune mediators to produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which participate in microbial killing. Homologs of gp91phox, the Nox and Duox enzymes, were recently described in a range of organisms, including plants, vertebrates, and invertebrates such as Drosophila melanogaster. While their enzymology and cell biology is being extensively studied in many laboratories, little is known about in vivo functions of Noxes. Here, we establish and use an inducible system for RNAi to discover functions of dNox, an ortholog of human Nox5 in Drosophila. We report here that depletion of dNox in musculature causes retention of mature eggs within ovaries, leading to female sterility. In dNox-depleted ovaries and ovaries treated with a Nox inhibitor, muscular contractions induced by the neuropeptide proctolin are markedly inhibited. This functional defect results from a requirement for dNox for the proctolin-induced calcium flux in Drosophila ovaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate a novel biological role for Nox-generated ROS in mediating agonist-induced calcium flux and smooth muscle contraction.
Rationale: Hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury has been used for many years as a model of oxidative stress mimicking clinical acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Excess quantities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for oxidative stress–induced lung injury. ROS are produced by mitochondrial chain transport, but also by NADPH oxidase (NOX) family members. Although NOX1 and NOX2 are expressed in the lungs, their precise function has not been determined until now.
Objectives: To determine whether NOX1 and NOX2 contribute in vivo to hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury.
Methods: Wild-type and NOX1- and NOX2-deficient mice, as well as primary lung epithelial and endothelial cells, were exposed to room air or 100% O2 for 72 hours.
Measurements and Main Results: Lung injury was significantly prevented in NOX1-deficient mice, but not in NOX2-deficient mice. Hyperoxia-dependent ROS production was strongly reduced in lung sections, in isolated epithelial type II cells, and lung endothelial cells from NOX1-deficient mice. Concomitantly, lung cell death in situ and in primary cells was markedly decreased in NOX1-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, hyperoxia led to phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK), two mitogen-activated protein kinases involved in cell death signaling, and to caspase-3 activation. In NOX1-deficient mice, JNK phosphorylation was blunted, and ERK phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation were decreased.
Conclusions: NOX1 is an important contributor to ROS production and cell death of the alveolocapillary barrier during hyperoxia and is an upstream actor in oxidative stress–induced acute lung injury involving JNK and ERK pathways in mice.
NADPH oxidase; reactive oxygen species; hyperoxia; apoptosis; mitogen-activated protein kinases
The NADPH oxidases (Nox) are transmembrane proteins dedicated to producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, by transferring electrons from NAD(P)H to molecular oxygen. Nox2 and Nox4 are expressed in the heart and play an important role in mediating oxidative stress at baseline and under stress. Nox2 is primarily localized on the plasma membrane, whereas Nox4 is found primarily on intracellular membranes, on mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum or the nucleus. Although Nox2 plays an important role in mediating angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, Nox4 mediates cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in response to pressure overload. Expression of Nox4 is upregulated by hypertrophic stimuli, and Nox4 in mitochondria plays an essential role in mediating oxidative stress during pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Upregulation of Nox4 induces oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, including aconitase, thereby causing mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial cell death. On the other hand, Noxs also appear to mediate physiological functions, such as erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. In this review, we discuss the role of Noxs in mediating oxidative stress and both pathological and physiological functions of Noxs in the heart.
oxidative stress; superoxide; hydrogen peroxide; mitochondria; cardiac hypertrophy; apoptosis; heart failure; oxygen sensing
The NADPH oxidase (Nox) family of proteins is comprised of seven members, including Noxes1–5 and the Duoxes 1 and 2. Nox4 is readily distinguished from the other Nox isoforms by its high level of expression in cardiovascular tissues and unique enzymatic properties. Nox4 is constitutively active and the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributed by Nox4 is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level although there is recent evidence for post-translational control. Nox4 emits a different pattern of ROS and its subcellular localizations, tissue distribution and influence over signaling pathways is different from the other Nox enzymes. Previous investigations have revealed that Nox4 is involved in oxygen sensing, vasomotor control, cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, senescence, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Elevated expression of Nox4 has been reported in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and hypertension, cardiac failure and ischemic stroke. However, many important questions remain regarding the functional significance of Nox4 in health and disease, including the role of Nox4 subcellular localization and its downstream targets. The goal of this review is to summarize the recent literature on the genetic and enzymatic regulation, subcellular localization, signaling pathways, and the role of Nox4 in cardiovascular disease states.
Nox4; NADPH oxidase; reactive oxygen species; H2O2; subcellular localization
Nox family NADPH oxidases serve a variety of functions requiring reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, including antimicrobial defense, biosynthetic processes, oxygen sensing and redox-based cellular signaling. We explored targeting, assembly, and activation of several Nox family oxidases, since ROS production appears to be regulated both spatially and temporally. Nox1 and Nox3 are similar to the phagocytic (Nox2-based) oxidase, functioning as superoxide-generating multi-component enzymes. Factors regulating their activities include cytosolic activator and organizer proteins and GTP-Rac. Their regulation varies, with the following rank order: Nox2>Nox1>Nox3. Determinants of subcellular targeting include: 1) formation of Nox-p22phox heterodimeric complexes allowing plasma membrane translocation, 2) phospholipids-binding specificities of PX domain-containing organizer proteins (p47phox or Nox organizer 1 (Noxo1)), and 3) variably splicing of Noxo1 PX domains directing them to nuclear or plasma membranes. Dual oxidases (Duox1 and Duox2) are targeted by different mechanisms. Plasma membrane targeting results in H2O2 release, not superoxide, to support extracellular peroxidases. Human Duox1 and Duox2 have no demonstrable peroxidase activity, despite their extensive homology with heme peroxidases. The dual oxidases were reconstituted by Duox activator 2 (Duoxa2) or two Duoxa1 variants, which dictate maturation, subcellular localization, and the type of ROS generated by forming stable complexes with Duox.
Nox family NADPH oxidases serve a variety of functions requiring reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, including antimicrobial defense, biosynthetic processes, oxygen sensing, and redox-based cellular signaling. We explored targeting, assembly, and activation of several Nox family oxidases, since ROS production appears to be regulated both spatially and temporally. Nox1 and Nox3 are similar to the phagocytic (Nox2-based) oxidase, functioning as multicomponent superoxide-generating enzymes. Factors regulating their activities include cytosolic activator and organizer proteins and GTP-Rac. Their regulation varies, with the following rank order: Nox2 > Nox1 > Nox3. Determinants of subcellular targeting include: (a) formation of Nox-p22phox heterodimeric complexes allowing plasma membrane translocation, (b) phospholipids-binding specificities of PX domain-containing organizer proteins (p47phox or Nox organizer 1 (Noxo1 and p40phox), and (c) variably splicing of Noxo1 PX domains directing them to nuclear or plasma membranes. Dual oxidases (Duox1 and Duox2) are targeted by different mechanisms. Plasma membrane targeting results in H2O2 release, not superoxide, to support extracellular peroxidases. Human Duox1 and Duox2 have no demonstrable peroxidase activity, despite their extensive homology with heme peroxidases. The dual oxidases were reconstituted by Duox activator 2 (Duoxa2) or two Duoxa1 variants, which dictate maturation, subcellular localization, and the type of ROS generated by forming stable complexes with Duox. Antioxid Redox Signal. 11, 2607–2619.
Regulated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is primarily accomplished by NADPH oxidases (Nox). Nox1 to Nox4 form a membrane-associated heterodimer with p22phox, creating the docking site for assembly of the activated oxidase. Signaling specificity is achieved by interaction with a complex network of cytosolic components. Nox4, an oxidase linked to cardiovascular disease, carcinogenesis, and pulmonary fibrosis, deviates from this model by displaying constitutive H2O2 production without requiring known regulators. Extensive Nox4/Nox2 chimera screening was initiated to pinpoint structural motifs essential for ROS generation and Nox subcellular localization. In summary, a matching B loop was crucial for catalytic activity of both Nox enzymes. Substitution of the carboxyl terminus was sufficient for converting Nox4 into a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-inducible phenotype, while Nox2-based chimeras never gained constitutive activity. Changing the Nox2 but not the Nox4 amino terminus abolished ROS generation. The unique heterodimerization of a functional Nox4/p22phox Y121H complex was dependent on the D loop. Nox4, Nox2, and functional Nox chimeras translocated to the plasma membrane. Cell surface localization of Nox4 or PMA-inducible Nox4 did not correlate with O2− generation. In contrast, Nox4 released H2O2 and promoted cell migration. Our work provides insights into Nox structure, regulation, and ROS output that will aid inhibitor design.
Background/Aims: Recent studies indicate the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing homologues of the enzymatic subunit (Nox2) of phagocytic NADPH oxidase in non-phagocytic cells. Interestingly, in these cells, ROS produced by the Nox2 homologue(s) was shown to play a role in various regulatory processes, including cell death, proliferation, and aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether human cardiomyocytes express Nox2.
Methods: The expression of Nox2 was studied in human cardiomyocytes using western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. To analyse the putative expression of Nox2 in human heart disease, cardiac samples from patients who had died subsequent to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were studied.
Results: Both in western blot and immunohistochemical studies, Nox2 expression was found in normal human cardiomyocytes. In patients with AMI, a significant increase in Nox2 expression was found both in viable and in jeopardised cardiomyocytes in the infarcted area. In addition, in the “remote from infarction” area, Nox2 expression was present in cardiomyocytes, but was not increased.
Conclusions: Nox2 or its homologue(s) is expressed in normal and jeopardised human cardiomyocytes. This expression is increased in patients with AMI, suggesting a role for this ROS producing Nox2 homologue(s) in the human heart after AMI.
acute myocardial infarction; Nox2; cardiomyocytes; immunohistochemistry; protein expression
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a major role in endothelial signaling and function. Of the several potential sources of ROS in the vasculature, the endothelial NADPH Oxidase (Nox) family of proteins, Nox1, Nox2, Nox4 and Nox5, are major contributors of ROS. Excess generation of ROS contributes to the development and progression of vascular disease. While hyperoxia stimulates ROS production through Nox proteins, hypoxia appears to involve mitochondrial electron transport in the generation of superoxide. ROS generated from Nox proteins and mitochondria are important for oxygen sensing mechanisms. Physiological concentrations of ROS function as signaling molecule in the endothelium; however, excess ROS production leads to pathological disorders like inflammation, atherosclerosis, and lung injury. Regulation of Nox proteins is unclear; however, antioxidants, MAP Kinases, STATs, and Nrf2 regulate Nox under normal physiological and pathological conditions. Studies related to redox regulation of Nox should provide a better understanding of ROS and its role in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases.
NADPH Oxidase; ROS; Endothelium; Redox; Nox proteins
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells contribute to the development and progression of vascular diseases. We have recently shown that hyperoxia enhances NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression, which regulates lung endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Regulation of NOX4 is poorly understood in the vasculature. The objective of this study is to identify transcriptional factor(s) involved in regulation of endothelial NOX4. We found that hyperoxia induced NOX4 expression was markedly reduced in Nrf2-/- mice, compared to Nrf2+/+ mice. Exposure of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs) to hyperoxia stimulated NRF2 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and increased NOX4 expression. Knock down of NRF2 expression using a siRNA approach attenuated basal NOX4 expression; however, it enhanced superoxide/ROS generation under both normoxia and hyperoxia. In silico analysis revealed presence of at least three consensus sequences for the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of NOX4. In transient transfections, hyperoxia stimulated NOX4promoter activity in HLMVECs, and deletion of -438 to -458 and -619 to -636 sequences markedly reduced hyperoxia-stimulated NOX4 promoter activation. ChIP analysis revealed an enhanced recruitment of NRF2 to endogenous NOX4 promoter spanning these two AREs following hyperoxic insult. Collectively, these results demonstrate, for the first time, a novel role of NRF2 in regulating hyperoxia-induced NOX4 transcription via AREs in lung endothelium.
Endothelial cells (EC) express constitutively two major isoforms (Nox2 and Nox4) of the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, which is a major source of endothelial reactive oxygen species. However, the individual roles of these Noxes in endothelial function remain unclear. We have investigated the role of Nox2 in nutrient deprivation-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In proliferating human dermal microvascular EC, Nox2 mRNA expression was low relative to Nox4 (Nox2:Nox4 ~1:13), but was upregulated 24 h after starvation and increased to 8 ± 3.5-fold at 36 h of starvation. Accompanying the upregulation of Nox2, there was a 2.28±0.18-fold increase in O2•− production, a dramatic induction of p21cip1 and p53, cell cycle arrest, and the onset of apoptosis (all p<0.05). All these changes were inhibited significantly by in vitro deletion of Nox2 expression and in coronary microvascular EC isolated from Nox2 knockout mice. In Nox2 knockout cells, although there was a 3.8±0.5-fold increase in Nox4 mRNA expression after 36 h of starvation (p<0.01), neither O2•− production nor the p21cip1 or p53 expression was increased significantly and only 0.46% of cells were apoptotic. In conclusion, Nox2-derived O2•−, through the modulation of p21cip1 and p53 expression, participates in endothelial cell cycle regulation and apoptosis.
NADPH oxidase; Endothelial cells; Cell cycle; p21cip1; p53; Apoptosis; ROS
The goal of this study was to identify whether heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) regulates the production of superoxide and other reactive oxygen species from the NADPH oxidases (Nox). We found that pharmacological and genetic inhibition of Hsp90 directly reduced Nox5-derived superoxide without secondarily modifying signaling events. Coimmunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies suggest that the C-terminus of Nox5 binds to Hsp90. Long-term Hsp90 inhibition reduced Nox5 expression and provides further evidence that Nox5 is an Hsp90 client protein. Inhibitors of Hsp90 also reduced superoxide from Nox1, Nox2 (neutrophils), and Nox3. However, Nox4, which emits only hydrogen peroxide, was unaffected by Hsp90 inhibitors. Hydrogen peroxide production from the other Nox enzymes was not affected by short-term inhibition of Hsp90, but long-term inhibition reduced production of all reactive oxygen species coincident with loss of enzyme expression. Expression of chimeric Nox enzymes consisting of N-terminal Nox1 or Nox3 and C-terminal Nox4 resulted in only hydrogen peroxide formation that was insensitive to Hsp90 inhibitors. We conclude that Hsp90 binds to the C-terminus of Noxes1–3 and 5 and is necessary for enzyme stability and superoxide production. Hsp90 does not bind to the C-terminus of Nox4 and is not required for hydrogen peroxide formation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 2107–2119.
Increased oxidative stress in the placenta has been associated with preeclampsia (PE), a clinical syndrome involving placental pathology. The enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species in the human placenta are as yet unidentified. We hypothesized that NADPH oxidase is a main source of reactive oxygen species in the placenta and its expression may change in PE. Employing RTPCR, we have amplified a novel NADPH oxidase isoform Nox1 from human choriocarcinoma BeWo cells. Using polyclonal anti-peptide antiserum recognizing unique Nox1 peptide sequences, we identified by immunohistochemistry and cell fractionation that Nox1 protein localizes in the BeWo cell membrane structures. Immunohistochemistry of normal placental tissues showed that Nox1 was localized in syncytiotrophoblasts, in villous vascular endothelium, and in some stromal cells. At the immunohistochemical level Nox1 expression was significantly increased in syncytiotrophoblast and endothelial cells in placentas from patients with preeclampsia as compared to gestational age-matched controls. Western blot analysis of whole placental homogenate confirmed this increase. Our data suggests that increased Nox1 expression is associated with the increased oxidative stress found in these placentas.
Oxidative stress; NADPH oxidase; Placenta; Trophoblast; Preeclampsia