While repair of giant paraesophageal hernia is associated with a high failure rate in the morbidly obese, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and repair of giant paraesophageal hernia in the morbidly obese may be safe and effective.
Repair of large paraesophageal hernias by itself is associated with high failure rates in the morbidly obese. A surgical approach addressing both giant paraesophageal hernia and morbid obesity has, to our knowledge, not been explored in the surgical literature.
A retrospective review of a bariatric surgery database identified patients who underwent simultaneous repair of large type 3 paraesophageal hernias with primary crus closure and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Operative time, intraoperative and 30-day morbidity, weight loss, resolution of comorbid conditions and use of anti-reflux medication were outcome measures. Integrity of crural closure was studied with a barium swallow.
Three patients with a mean body mass index of 46kg/m2 and mean age of 46 years underwent repair of a large paraesophageal hernia, primary crus closure, and RYGB. Mean operative time was 241 minutes and length of stay was 4 days. There was no intraoperative or 30-day morbidity. One patient required endoscopic balloon dilatation of the gastrojejunostomy. At 12 months, all patients were asymptomatic with excellent weight loss and resolution of comorbidities. Contrast studies showed no recurrence of the hiatal hernia.
Simultaneous laparoscopic repair of large paraesophageal hernias in the morbidly obese is safe and effective.
Hiatal hernia; Morbid obesity; Paraesophageal hernia; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hiatal hernia where only a portion of the stomach is in the chest, is associated with a lower mortality rate than open repair.
The literature reports the efficacy of the laparoscopic approach to paraesophageal hiatal hernia repair. However, its adoption as the preferred surgical approach and the risks associated with paraesophageal hiatal hernia repair have not been reviewed in a large database.
The Nationwide Inpatient Sample dataset was queried from 1998 to 2005 for patients who underwent repair of a complicated (the entire stomach moves into the chest cavity) versus uncomplicated (only the upper part of the stomach protrudes into the chest) paraesophageal hiatal hernia via the laparoscopic, open abdominal, or open thoracic approach. A multivariate analysis was performed controlling for demographics and comorbidities while looking for independent risk factors for mortality.
In total, 23,514 patients met the inclusion criteria. By surgical approach, 55% of patients underwent open abdominal, 35% laparoscopic, and 10% open thoracic repairs. Length of stay was significantly reduced for all patients after laparoscopic repair (P < .001). Age ≥60 years and nonwhite ethnicity were associated with significantly higher odds of death. Laparoscopic repair and obesity were associated with lower odds of death in the uncomplicated group.
Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hiatal hernia is associated with a lower mortality in the uncomplicated group. However, older age and Hispanic ethnicity increased the odds of death.
Paraesophageal hiatal hernia repair; Preoperative risk factors; Laparoscopy
Type IV hiatal hernias are characterized by herniation of the stomach along with associated viscera such as the spleen, colon, small bowel, and pancreas through the esophageal hiatus. They are relatively rare, representing only about 5%–7% of all hernias, and can be associated with severe complications. We report a 71-year-old veteran wrestler who presented to our department with a type IV paraesophageal hernia containing a gastric volvulus and treated successfully with emergency operation.
Laparoscopic repair of giant paraesophageal hernia (GPEH) is a complex operation requiring significant laparoscopic expertise. Our objective was to compare our current approach and outcomes with LRGPEH to our previous experience.
A retrospective review of patients undergoing non-emergent LRGPEH, stratified by early and current era (1/1997–6/2003 and 7/2003–6/2008) was performed. Surgeon credentialing required a minimally invasive surgical fellowship and/or careful proctoring prior to independent LRGPEH. We evaluated clinical outcomes, barium esophagram and quality-of-life (QoL).
LRGPEH was performed in 662 patients (median age 70, range 19–92); median percent of herniated stomach 70% (range 30–100%). Over time, use of Collis gastroplasty decreased (86% to 53%) as did crural mesh reinforcement (17% to 12%). Current era patients were 50% more likely to have a Charlson comorbidity index score >3. Common complications included pleural effusion (56/652; 9%) and pneumonia (29/653; 4%). Thirty-day mortality was 1.7% (11/662). Mortality and complication rates were stable over time, despite increasing comorbid disease in the current patient cohort. Post-operative GERD-health-related QoL scores were available for 489 patients (30-month median follow-up) with “Good” to “Excellent” results in 90% (438/489). Radiographic recurrence (15.7%) was not associated with symptom recurrence. Reoperation occurred in 3.2% (21/662).
Over time, we have obtained significant minimally invasive experience and refined our approach to LRGPEH. Perioperative morbidity and mortality remain low, despite increased comorbid disease in the current patient cohort. LRGPEH provided excellent patient satisfaction and symptom improvement, even with small radiographic recurrences. Reoperation rates were comparable to the best open series.
Laparoscopy; hernia; hiatal; outcome assessment (health care); recurrence; gastroesophageal reflux; mesh; surgical
Recurrent paraesophageal hernias in obese patients are technically challenging and have a high recurrence rate. We sought to develop an alternative to the traditional approaches for this problem. This article describes the use of a sleeve gastrectomy in an obese patient with a large recurrent paraesophageal hernia.
A morbidly obese 70-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of chest pain, cough, dysphagia, and dyspnea. She had undergone an open paraesophageal hernia repair 8 years earlier. Diagnostic workup revealed a recurrent large paraesophageal hernia. Laparoscopically, we took down all adhesions, excised the hernia sac, reduced the stomach and distal esophagus into the abdomen, and closed the hiatus. We then resected the greater curvature and fundus of the stomach, leaving the lesser curve in a sleeve configuration. Eighteen months after the operation, the patient's chest pain, cough, dyspnea, and dysphagia were resolved. In addition, she has lost 57 pounds (255 to 198).
A sleeve gastrectomy is a potentially useful alternative to fundoplication or gastropexy, or both of these, in the treatment of obese patients with complex paraesophageal hernias.
Paraesophageal hernia; Gastrectomy; Failed hiatal hernia repair
Bochdalek hernia is one of the most common congenital abnormalities manifested in infants. In the adult is a rarity, with a prevalence of 0.17–6% of all diaphragmatic hernias. Right-sided Bochdalek hernias containing colon are even more rare, with no case described in the literature with ileo-cecal appendix.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
The authors present a case of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia in an adult female of 49 years old, presented with severe respiratory failure. During laparotomy for hernia correction, were found in an intrathoracic position the cecum and ileo-cecal appendix, the right colon and the transverse colon.
Although useful in patient evaluation, clinical history and physical examination are not helpful in making diagnosis because of their nonspecific character. CT scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Most of the times there is no hernial sac. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and it is always indicated even if asymptomatic. In general suture of the defect is possible. Due to patient's weak respiratory function we chose laparotomy by Kocher incision.
Being the first case of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia in the adult with a herniated ileo-cecal appendix, we name it Almeida-Reis hernia.
Bochdalek; Hernia; Diaphragm; Ileo-cecal appendix; Almeida-Reis
Paraesophageal hernia is a severe form of hiatal hernia, characterized by the upward dislocation of the gastric fundus into the thoracic cavity. In this study, the 1999 National Inpatient Sample dataset of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project was analyzed using data mining techniques to explore disorders associated with paraesophageal hernia. The result of this data mining process was compared with a subsequent expert knowledge survey of 97 gastrointestinal tract surgeons. This two-step analysis showed that the results of data mining and expert knowledge are consistent in some factors that are highly associated with paraesophageal hernia: older age, other gastrointestinal tract disorders and obesity, for example. But the data mining approach revealed some other related disorders that were not known to the experts or reported in the literature, for example, hypertension, peritoneal adhesions and gall bladder/bile duct diseases. These findings lay a framework for subsequent hypothesis-driven research.
Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernia is safe and feasible and can provide comparable results for patients with type IV paraesophageal hernia. We report a rare case of mediastinal seroma in an 80-year-old gentleman who had a giant type IV paraesophageal hernia and was eventually admitted to our hospital for elective laparoscopic repair and recovered very well after surgery with resolution of the atelectatic lungs and air-fluid collection in his chest.
Laparoscopy; mediastinal seroma; paraesophageal hernia; repair; type IV
Diaphragmatic hernias occurring during pregnancy are an uncommon event. In very rare occasions, the clinical situation can suddenly worsen due to obstruction, torsion or infarction of the herniated viscera. Here, we describe a challenging case of a post-partum diaphragmatic hiatus hernia complicated by intrathoracic gastric perforation. A 23-year old woman was admitted at our hospital with a syndrome characterized by epigastralgy, dyspnoea and fever. She had previously undergone a laparoscopic antireflux surgery for hiatus hernia (6 years before) and a recent (4 months) unremarkable vaginal delivery. Due to the persistence of a pelvic pain after the delivery, she had been taking pain-killers as a self-administered medication. A CT scan showed a massive left pleural effusion and a complete herniation of the stomach into the left hemithorax. After placing a chest drainage and removing up to 3000 ml of brownish purulent fluid, a repeat CT scan (with water soluble contrast swallow) showed a leak at the level of the stomach. At surgery, we observed a complete intrathoracic herniation through a large diaphragmatic hiatal defect and a small well-defined gastric ulcer. A primary repair of both the stomach and the diaphragm was performed. We take the opportunity presented by this report to briefly discuss the patho-physiological mechanisms underlying this unusual complication.
Gastric ulcer; Diaphragmatic hernia; Pleural empyema
Rare congenital diaphragmatic defects resulting from failure of posterolateral diaphragmatic foramina to fuse may be approached laparoscopically and repaired successfully.
Background and Objectives:
Bochdalek hernias are congenital diaphragmatic defects resulting from the failure of posterolateral diaphragmatic foramina to fuse in utero. Symptomatic Bochdalek hernias in adults are infrequent and may lead to gastrointestinal dysfunction or severe pulmonary disease. We describe our experience with this rare entity.
A retrospective chart review was performed on a single patient for data collection purposes.
The patient is a morbidly obese 53-year-old female who presented with epigastric pain and diffuse abdominal tenderness. Computed tomography scans of the chest and abdomen revealed a small posterior diaphragmatic defect containing gastric fundal diverticulum. Laboratory work and imaging revealed no other findings. Laparoscopic repair of the Bochdalek hernia was done via an abdominal approach and utilized primary closure with an AlloDerm patch apposed to the defect. The patient has had significant clinical improvement and continues to do well at 9 months postoperatively.
Laparoscopic repair of symptomatic adult Bochdalek hernias can be performed successfully and may result in significant clinical improvement.
Bochdalek; Diaphragm; Hernia
Bowel obstruction due to internal hernia is a well-known complication of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRGB). Increasing evidence supports primary closing of the mesenteric defects, but controversy continues about surgical technique of systematic closure. This paper reviews our experience with internal hernia after LRGB and describes a new method of preemptive closure of the mesenteric defects.
Material and Methods
Two thousand four hundred seventy-two consecutive patients undergoing LRGB from September 2005 to June 2010 were entered into our prospective longitudinal database. The mesenteric defects were not closed. Patients entered a 5-year follow-up program, and all who subsequently presented with internal hernia were analyzed. A further 1,630 patients operated on in the last 12 months were subjected to our new technique of closing the defects; data were entered in our own database as well as in the Scandinavian quality registry. Follow-up time for these patients is limited.
In the first group, 117 patients developed an internal hernia (4.7%) at a mean interval after LRGB of 13 (range, 4–43 months). Four patients needed bowel resections because of severe ischemia. There was one death associated with complication of the internal hernia. In the primary closure group, four patients early in the series had reoperations for kinking of the enteroanastomosis. There have been no mesenteric haematomas encountered.
Internal hernia should be ruled out in patients with previous LRGB and abdominal pain. Our technique for primary closing of the mesenteric defects seems to be safe and is so far promising.
Internal hernia; LRGB; Bowel obstruction; Mesenteric defects
Paraesophageal hernias are quite common and sometimes feared due to the risk of incarceration and strangulation of any herniated organ. The hereby reported combination of an incarcerated paraesophageal hernia containing a perforated peptic ulcer is extremely rare.
An elderly man with multiple medical conditions was admitted due to severe upper abdominal pain. The patient was found to have a paraesophageal hernia and underwent a laparotomy. In the hernia, a perforated benign peptic duodenal ulcer was found. The duodenal defect was over-sewn, the hernial defect was closed and the former hernial cavity was drained by a right-sided chest tube. The patient was discharged one month after surgery and was found to do well at follow-up one month after discharge.
This is the first report of a patient surviving the extremely rare and life-threatening combination of a perforated peptic duodenal ulcer in a paraesophageal hernia.
Paraesophageal hiatus hernia is rarely seen in the neonatal period. An intrathoracic gastric volvulus complicating such a hernia is rarer. The upper gastrointestinal tract contrast study is diagnostic. Rapid diagnosis and treatment is essential. It avoids lethal complications as gastric dilatation, gangrene and perforation, which in turn may lead to cardiopulmonary arrest.
Congenital paraesophageal hiatus hernia; gastric volvulus
Lower Spigelian hernia is a very rare entity. The clinical findings are similar to those of inguinal hernias and in many cases may be misdiagnosed. In the literature, only a few references to this entity have been reported in children. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a lower Spigelian hernia in a child who presented with an acute painful scrotum.
We discuss the case of a 6-year-old Greek boy who presented to our emergency department complaining of severe pain in the left inguinal area and scrotum. The acute painful swelling started suddenly, without any obvious cause. The initial diagnosis was incarcerated inguinal hernia which was reduced with difficulty. Five days later, the patient still experienced mild pain during palpation and he was operated on. During the operation, a large lower Spigelian hernia was revealed and reconstructed.
Although Spigelian hernias are rare in children and difficult to diagnose, physicians should be aware of them and include them in the differential diagnosis.
With an incidence of less than 5%, type II paraesophageal hernias are one of the less common types of hiatal hernias. We report a case of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer which, due to a type II hiatus hernia, drained into the mediastinum.
A 61-year old Caucasian man presented with acute abdominal pain. On a conventional x-ray of the chest a large mediastinal air-fluid collection and free intra-abdominal air was seen. Additional computed tomography revealed a large intra-thoracic air-fluid collection with a type II paraesophageal hernia. An emergency upper midline laparotomy was performed and a perforated pre-pyloric gastric ulcer was treated with an omental patch repair. The patient fully recovered after 10 days and continues to do well.
Type II paraesophageal hernia is an uncommon diagnosis. The main risk is gastric volvulus and possible gastric torsion. Intrathoracic perforation of gastric ulcers due to a type II hiatus hernia is extremely rare and can be a diagnostic and treatment challenge.
This study suggests that laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair with acellular dermal matrix Cruroplasty is an effective method of repairing symptomatic paraesophageal hernias with a low perioperative morbidity.
Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair (LPEHR) has been shown to be both safe and efficacious. Compulsory operative steps include reduction of the stomach from the mediastinum, resection of the mediastinal hernia sac, ensuring an appropriate intraabdominal esophageal length, and crural closure. The use of mesh materials in the repair of hiatal hernias remains controversial. Synthetic mesh may reduce hernia recurrences, but may increase postoperative dysphagia and result in esophageal erosion. Human acellular dermal matrix (HADM) may reduce the incidence of hernia recurrence with reduced complications compared with synthetic mesh.
A retrospective review of all cases of laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair using HADM from December 2008 through March 2010 at a single institution was performed evaluating demographic information, BMI, operative times, length of stay, and complications.
Forty-six LPEHRs with HADM were identified. The mean age of patients was 60.3 years (±13.9); BMI 30.3 (±5.3); operative time 182 minutes (±56); and length of stay 2.6 days (±1.9). Nine of 46 (19.6%) patients experienced perioperative complications, including subcutaneous emphysema without pneumothorax (n=2), urinary retention (n=1), COPD exacerbation (n=2), early dysphagia resolving before discharge (n=1), esophageal perforation (n=1), delayed gastric perforation occurring 30 days postoperatively associated with gas bloat syndrome (n=1), and PEG site abscess (n=1). There were 2 clinically recurrent hernias (4.3%). Radiographic recurrences occurred in 2 of 26 patients (7.7%). Six of 46 (13%) patients reported persistent dysphagia.
LPEHR with HADM crural reinforcement is an effective method of repairing symptomatic paraesophageal hernias with low perioperative morbidity. Recurrences occur infrequently with this technique. No mesh-related complications were seen in this series.
Paraesophageal hernia; Hiatal hernia; Laparoscopy; Human acellular dermis
Retrograde flow from the stomach into the oesophagus in infants and children is prevented by the mucosal choke and muscle cuff of the normally located oesophageal vestibule (Chrispin, Friedland, and Wright, 1967). When a hiatal hernia is present the cardinal functional abnormality is the retrograde flow of gastric content into the oesophagus. An analysis of the factors permitting such flow in these patients is presented in this paper. The important anatomical features are (1) the location of the oesophageal vestibule in the thorax, (2) the phreno-oesophageal membrane with its attachment to both the diaphragm and the vestibule, and (3) the size of the hiatus in the diaphragm. When the oesophageal vestibule lies entirely in the thorax its whole length lies in a zone of subatmospheric pressure. The sharp falls of intrathoracic pressure associated with crying are related to opening of the vestibule. Reduction in tension in the muscle cuff following a dry swallow may also result in vestibular opening with retrograde flow. Inefficient secondary stripping waves may fail to empty the refluxed gastric content from the oesophagus, permitting peptic oesophagitis to develop. The increased tendency to open and the increased difficulty in closing the oesophageal vestibule, because of tension in the abnormally located phreno-oesophageal membrane, are considered. The paradox of free retrograde flow with a small hernia and small retrograde flow with a large hernia is resolved. Basic radiological criteria for establishing the diagnosis of hiatal hernia in this age group are given. The objectives of surgery and the means by which they may be achieved are discussed.
Bochdalek hernia is a type of congenital diaphragmatic hernia that typically presents in childhood - the clinical manifestation of symptoms and diagnosis in adults is extremely rare. There are fewer than 20 cases of right-sided Bochdalek hernia reported in adults in the literature.
We review a case of a 38-year-old woman with a right-sided Bochdalek hernia who was experiencing abdominal pain and pleural effusion. The diagnosis of Bochdalek hernia was made by chest X-ray and computed tomography. The right lobe of the liver and flexura hepatica of the colon were herniated into the thorax cavity. The hernia was treated via thoracotomy assisted with laparoscopy and she made an uneventful recovery.
We report a rare case of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia for which our patient was treated successfully. Even though rare, this disorder should be recognised, examined and treated appropriately to avoid complications.
Acute intrathoracic gastric volvulus occurs when the stomach undergoes organoaxial torsion in the chest due to either concomitant enlargement of the hiatus or a diaphragmatic hernia. Iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia can occur after hiatal hernia repair and other surgical procedures, such as nephrectomy, esophagogastrectomy and splenopancreatectomy. We describe a 49-year-old woman who presented to our emergency department with acute moderate epigastric soreness and vomiting. She had undergone extensive gynecologic surgery including splenectomy 1 year before. The chest radiograph obtained in the emergency department demonstrated an elevated gastric air-fluid level in the left lower lung field. An urgent gastroscopy showed twisted structural abnormality of the stomach body. A computed tomography scan demonstrated the distended stomach, located in the left lower hemithorax through a left diaphragmatic defect. Emergent transthoracic repair was performed. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the patient did not experience any pain or difficulty with eating.
Gastric volvulus; Diaphragmatic hernia; Torsion; Emergency
Congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDHs) occur mainly in two locations: the foramen of Morgagni and the more common type involving the foramen of Bochdalek. Hiatal hernia and paraesophageal hernia have also been described as other forms of CDH. Pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypoplasia have been recognized as the two most important factors in the pathophysiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Advances in surgical management include delayed surgical approach that enables preoperative stabilization, introduction of fetal intervention due to improved prenatal diagnosis, the introduction of minimal invasive surgery, in addition to the standard open repair, and the use of improved prosthetic devices for closure.
A hiatal hernia can be classified as one of four types according to the position of the gastroesophageal (GE) junction and the extent of herniated stomach. Type I, or sliding hernias, account for up to 95% of all hiatal hernias and occur when the GE junction migrates into the posterior mediastinum through the hiatus. Type II occurs when the fundus herniates through the hiatus alongside a normally positioned GE junction. Type III is a combination of types I and II hernias with a displaced GE junction as well as stomach protruding through the hiatus. Type IV paraesophageal hernias are the rarest of the hiatal hernias. Usually, colon or small bowel is herniated within the mediastinum along with the stomach. We present a case of a paraesophageal hernia with the mid-body of the pancreas as part of the hernia contents.
Paraesophageal; Hernias; Pancreas
The Belsey Mark IV operation has been used for the management of hiatal hernia for over 40 years, but with the introduction of laparoscopic techniques its role has become questionable. To determine the current role of this procedure we present a contemporary series of patients.
We reviewed fifteen consecutive patients, mean age of 63 years, who underwent a Belsey Mark IV fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux in the presence of a hiatal hernia in our Department from January 2005 to March 2011. Indications for the thoracic approach included paraesophageal hernias, recurrent hiatal hernias and previous upper abdominal surgery.
There was no operative mortality. Immediate postoperative morbidity included 1 case of bleeding, 1 case of pneumonia and 1 case of atrial fibrillation. The mean length of stay was 5.9 days. After a mean follow-up time of 49 months, all patients reported total or partial alleviation of their symptoms. No hernia recurrence was detected during barium swallow examination.
The Belsey approach is a procedure that can be useful as an alternative in selected cases when there are co-morbidities complicating the transabdominal (laparoscopic) approach.
Hiatal hernia; Belsey Mark IV; Thoracic approach
Hydropneumopericardium is a very rare complication of long-standing paraesophageal hernia, occurring as a result of rupture of the intrathoracic gastric volvulus into the pericardium. A chronic paraesophageal hernia that is complicated by gastric volvulus can develop into such surgical emergencies as acute gastric obstruction, strangulation, perforation, and rupture into adjacent structures. Subsequent hydropneumopericardium constitutes an acute emergency that requires immediate surgical treatment and pericardial drainage. Herein, we discuss what we believe to be the 1st reported case of hydropneumopericardium that presented as an acute coronary syndrome in a patient who had a chronic paraesophageal hernia (as a result of rupture of the gastric volvulus into the pericardium). The 80-year-old patient did not survive the condition.
Aged, 80 and over; diagnosis, differential; hernia, paraesophageal; pneumopericardium/complications/diagnosis/etiology/mortality/physiopathology/surgery/therapy; stomach volvulus/complications
Spontaneous rupture of the biliary system is a well documented condition in infants1 but is rare in adults.2 We report the case of a 73-year-old gentleman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms mimicking that of a strangulated right inguinal hernia. At emergency operation the scrotum was found to contain bile. Following radiological imaging and exploratory surgery, a large retroperitoneal biloma was found. We discuss the clinical signs associated with biliscrotum and retroperitoneal biloma and describe our operative management of this patient. We review the previously reported cases of these rare clinical entities. We found that our case exhibited similarities in terms of the age of presentation and presence of distal common bile duct stones. This is, to our knowledge, the only reported case of a patient presenting with biliscrotum secondary to the assumed spontaneous rupture of the common bile duct and development of a retroperitoneal biloma.
A rare case of abdominal trauma, a handlebar hernia, is described, as well as a review of the pertinent literature. A 7-year-old boy presented to our emergency room after sustaining blunt force to the abdomen; he fell on the handlebar of his bicycle. Immediately after the accident, a bulge was noticeable at the point of impact. Handlebar hernia is a diagnosis that is easily missed, which can lead to strangulation and incarceration of the bowel. With this case report, we hope to augment the knowledge on traumatic abdominal wall hernia, hopefully leading to early diagnosis and treatment.
Traumatic abdominal wall hernia; Blunt trauma; Children; Handlebar hernia