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1.  Combined Treatment of Symptomatic Massive Paraesophageal Hernia in the Morbidly Obese 
While repair of giant paraesophageal hernia is associated with a high failure rate in the morbidly obese, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and repair of giant paraesophageal hernia in the morbidly obese may be safe and effective.
Introduction:
Repair of large paraesophageal hernias by itself is associated with high failure rates in the morbidly obese. A surgical approach addressing both giant paraesophageal hernia and morbid obesity has, to our knowledge, not been explored in the surgical literature.
Methods:
A retrospective review of a bariatric surgery database identified patients who underwent simultaneous repair of large type 3 paraesophageal hernias with primary crus closure and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Operative time, intraoperative and 30-day morbidity, weight loss, resolution of comorbid conditions and use of anti-reflux medication were outcome measures. Integrity of crural closure was studied with a barium swallow.
Results:
Three patients with a mean body mass index of 46kg/m2 and mean age of 46 years underwent repair of a large paraesophageal hernia, primary crus closure, and RYGB. Mean operative time was 241 minutes and length of stay was 4 days. There was no intraoperative or 30-day morbidity. One patient required endoscopic balloon dilatation of the gastrojejunostomy. At 12 months, all patients were asymptomatic with excellent weight loss and resolution of comorbidities. Contrast studies showed no recurrence of the hiatal hernia.
Conclusion:
Simultaneous laparoscopic repair of large paraesophageal hernias in the morbidly obese is safe and effective.
doi:10.4293/108680811X13022985132164
PMCID: PMC3148869  PMID: 21902973
Hiatal hernia; Morbid obesity; Paraesophageal hernia; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
2.  Open versus Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair 
Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hiatal hernia where only a portion of the stomach is in the chest, is associated with a lower mortality rate than open repair.
Background:
The literature reports the efficacy of the laparoscopic approach to paraesophageal hiatal hernia repair. However, its adoption as the preferred surgical approach and the risks associated with paraesophageal hiatal hernia repair have not been reviewed in a large database.
Method:
The Nationwide Inpatient Sample dataset was queried from 1998 to 2005 for patients who underwent repair of a complicated (the entire stomach moves into the chest cavity) versus uncomplicated (only the upper part of the stomach protrudes into the chest) paraesophageal hiatal hernia via the laparoscopic, open abdominal, or open thoracic approach. A multivariate analysis was performed controlling for demographics and comorbidities while looking for independent risk factors for mortality.
Results:
In total, 23,514 patients met the inclusion criteria. By surgical approach, 55% of patients underwent open abdominal, 35% laparoscopic, and 10% open thoracic repairs. Length of stay was significantly reduced for all patients after laparoscopic repair (P < .001). Age ≥60 years and nonwhite ethnicity were associated with significantly higher odds of death. Laparoscopic repair and obesity were associated with lower odds of death in the uncomplicated group.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hiatal hernia is associated with a lower mortality in the uncomplicated group. However, older age and Hispanic ethnicity increased the odds of death.
doi:10.4293/108680812X13517013316951
PMCID: PMC3662742  PMID: 23743369
Paraesophageal hiatal hernia repair; Preoperative risk factors; Laparoscopy
3.  Robotic Repair of Giant Paraesophageal Hernias 
This report suggests that robotic repair of giant para-esophageal hernia has a lower recurrence rate than standard laparoscopic methods, but complications and mortality are similar to standard laparoscopic approaches.
Background and Objectives:
Giant paraesophageal hernia accounts for 5% of all hiatal hernias, and it is commonly seen in elderly patients with comorbidities. Some series report complication rates up to 28%, recurrence rates between 10% and 25%, and a mortality rate close to 2%. Recently, the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has shown equivocal benefits when used for elective surgeries, whereas for complex procedures, the benefits appear to be clearer. The purpose of this study is to present our preliminary experience in robotic giant paraesophageal hernia repair.
Methods:
We retrospectively collected data from patients who had a diagnosis of giant paraesophageal hernia and underwent a paraesophageal hernia repair with the da Vinci Surgical System.
Results:
Nineteen patients (12 women [63.1%]) underwent surgery for giant paraesophageal hernia at our center. The mean age was 70.4 ± 13.9 years (range, 40–97 years). The mean American Society of Anesthesiologists score was 2.15. The mean surgical time and hospital length of stay were 184.5 ± 96.2 minutes (range, 96–395 minutes) and 4.3 days (range, 2–22 days), respectively. Nissen fundoplications were performed in 3 cases (15.7%), and 16 patients (84.2%) had mesh placed. Six patients (31.5%) presented with gastric volvulus, and 2 patients had other herniated viscera (colon and duodenum). There were 2 surgery-related complications (10.5%) (1 dysphagia that required dilatation and 1 pleural injury) and 1 conversion to open repair (partial gastric resection). No recurrences or deaths were observed in this series.
Conclusion:
In our experience robotic giant paraesophageal hernia repair is not different from the laparoscopic approach in terms of complications and mortality rate, but it may be associated with lower recurrence rates. However, larger series with longer follow-up are necessary to further substantiate our results.
doi:10.4293/108680813X13654754534594
PMCID: PMC3866061  PMID: 24398199
Paraesophageal; Giant; Robotic; Surgery; Foregut; Hiatal
4.  Adult right-sided Bochdalek hernia with ileo-cecal appendix: Almeida-Reis hernia 
INTRODUCTION
Bochdalek hernia is one of the most common congenital abnormalities manifested in infants. In the adult is a rarity, with a prevalence of 0.17–6% of all diaphragmatic hernias. Right-sided Bochdalek hernias containing colon are even more rare, with no case described in the literature with ileo-cecal appendix.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
The authors present a case of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia in an adult female of 49 years old, presented with severe respiratory failure. During laparotomy for hernia correction, were found in an intrathoracic position the cecum and ileo-cecal appendix, the right colon and the transverse colon.
DISCUSSION
Although useful in patient evaluation, clinical history and physical examination are not helpful in making diagnosis because of their nonspecific character. CT scan is the most accurate exam for making diagnosis. Most of the times there is no hernial sac. Surgery is the treatment of choice, and it is always indicated even if asymptomatic. In general suture of the defect is possible. Due to patient's weak respiratory function we chose laparotomy by Kocher incision.
CONCLUSION
Being the first case of a right-sided Bochdalek hernia in the adult with a herniated ileo-cecal appendix, we name it Almeida-Reis hernia.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.06.006
PMCID: PMC3741443  PMID: 23872263
Bochdalek; Hernia; Diaphragm; Ileo-cecal appendix; Almeida-Reis
5.  Intrathoracic drainage of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer with a type II paraoesophageal hernia 
Background
With an incidence of less than 5%, type II paraesophageal hernias are one of the less common types of hiatal hernias. We report a case of a perforated prepyloric gastric ulcer which, due to a type II hiatus hernia, drained into the mediastinum.
Case presentation
A 61-year old Caucasian man presented with acute abdominal pain. On a conventional x-ray of the chest a large mediastinal air-fluid collection and free intra-abdominal air was seen. Additional computed tomography revealed a large intra-thoracic air-fluid collection with a type II paraesophageal hernia. An emergency upper midline laparotomy was performed and a perforated pre-pyloric gastric ulcer was treated with an omental patch repair. The patient fully recovered after 10 days and continues to do well.
Conclusion
Type II paraesophageal hernia is an uncommon diagnosis. The main risk is gastric volvulus and possible gastric torsion. Intrathoracic perforation of gastric ulcers due to a type II hiatus hernia is extremely rare and can be a diagnostic and treatment challenge.
doi:10.1186/1749-7922-3-34
PMCID: PMC2614979  PMID: 19063734
6.  Laparoscopic Repair of Paraesophageal Hernias 
Background and Objectives:
Laparoscopy has quickly become the standard surgical approach to repair paraesophageal hernias. Although many centers routinely perform this procedure, relatively high recurrence rates have led many surgeons to question this approach. We sought to evaluate outcomes in our cohort of patients with an emphasis on recurrence rates and symptom improvement and their correlation with true radiologic recurrence seen on contrast imaging.
Methods:
We retrospectively identified 126 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic repair of a large paraesophageal hernia between 2000 and 2010. Clinical outcomes were reviewed, and data were collected regarding operative details, perioperative and postoperative complications, symptoms, and follow-up imaging. Radiologic evidence of any size hiatal hernia was considered to indicate a recurrence.
Results:
There were 95 female and 31 male patients with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 71 ± 14 years. Laparoscopic repair was completed successfully in 120 of 126 patients, with 6 operations converted to open procedures. Crural reinforcement with mesh was performed in 79% of patients, and 11% underwent a Collis gastroplasty. Fundoplications were performed in 90% of patients: Nissen (112), Dor (1), and Toupet (1). Radiographic surveillance, obtained at a mean time interval of 23 months postoperatively, was available in 89 of 126 patients (71%). Radiographic evidence of a recurrence was present in 19 patients (21%). Reoperation was necessary in 6 patients (5%): 5 for symptomatic recurrence (4%) and 1 for dysphagia (1%). The median length of stay was 4 days.
Conclusion:
Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair results in an excellent outcome with a short length of stay when performed at an experienced center. Radiologic recurrence is observed relatively frequently with routine surveillance; however, many of these recurrences are small, and few patients require correction of the recurrence. Furthermore, these small recurrent hernias are often asymptomatic and do not seem to be associated with the same risk of severe complications developing as the initial paraesophageal hernia.
doi:10.4293/JSLS.2014.00009
PMCID: PMC4208886  PMID: 25392650
Hernia; Paraesophageal; Fundaplication; Laparoscopy; Reflux
7.  Intrathoracic gastric perforation: a late complication of an unknown postpartum recurrent hiatal hernia 
Diaphragmatic hernias occurring during pregnancy are an uncommon event. In very rare occasions, the clinical situation can suddenly worsen due to obstruction, torsion or infarction of the herniated viscera. Here, we describe a challenging case of a post-partum diaphragmatic hiatus hernia complicated by intrathoracic gastric perforation. A 23-year old woman was admitted at our hospital with a syndrome characterized by epigastralgy, dyspnoea and fever. She had previously undergone a laparoscopic antireflux surgery for hiatus hernia (6 years before) and a recent (4 months) unremarkable vaginal delivery. Due to the persistence of a pelvic pain after the delivery, she had been taking pain-killers as a self-administered medication. A CT scan showed a massive left pleural effusion and a complete herniation of the stomach into the left hemithorax. After placing a chest drainage and removing up to 3000 ml of brownish purulent fluid, a repeat CT scan (with water soluble contrast swallow) showed a leak at the level of the stomach. At surgery, we observed a complete intrathoracic herniation through a large diaphragmatic hiatal defect and a small well-defined gastric ulcer. A primary repair of both the stomach and the diaphragm was performed. We take the opportunity presented by this report to briefly discuss the patho-physiological mechanisms underlying this unusual complication.
doi:10.1093/icvts/ivs209
PMCID: PMC3397760  PMID: 22611183
Gastric ulcer; Diaphragmatic hernia; Pleural empyema
8.  Laparoscopic repair of secondary parahiatal hernia with incarceration of the stomach: a case report 
Introduction
Parahiatal hernia is an extremely rare subtype of hiatal hernia, which in turn is a type of diaphragmatic hernia in adults, and only a few cases have been reported to date. We report the case of a patient who suffered from gastric incarceration through an anatomically separate diaphragmatic defect, immediately lateral to a structurally normal esophageal hiatus, that developed after treatment of a malignant mesothelioma.
Case presentation
A 70-year-old Japanese man, who had undergone treatment for a left malignant pleural mesothelioma a year ago at another hospital, was referred to our institution following a 4-day history of epigastric pain. Esophagogastroscopy demonstrated a normal esophagogastric junction, with remarkable stenosis and active gastric ulcer of the gastric body. Histopathological examination of the gastric biopsy specimen confirmed a gastric ulcer. Furthermore, computed tomography revealed a large fluid-filled structure in the retrocardiac space. On the basis of preoperative data, we decided to attempt laparoscopic repair for the gastric volvulus. During surgery, gastric and omental herniation was observed within a peritoneal lined defect immediately lateral to the esophageal hiatus. Dissection near the esophageal hiatus revealed a discrete extrahiatal defect 3cm in diameter immediately adjacent to the left crus of the diaphragm. The parahiatal defect was closed using interrupted nonabsorbable heavy suture. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and anastomotic leakage was not observed at postoperative barium swallowing.
Conclusions
Although preoperative diagnosis of parahiatal hernia is difficult, a laparoscopic approach can be a useful therapeutic procedure not only for paraesophageal hernia but also for parahiatal hernia.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-50
PMCID: PMC3606404  PMID: 23421939
9.  Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: an Alternative for Recurrent Paraesophageal Hernias in Obese Patients 
Background:
Recurrent paraesophageal hernias in obese patients are technically challenging and have a high recurrence rate. We sought to develop an alternative to the traditional approaches for this problem. This article describes the use of a sleeve gastrectomy in an obese patient with a large recurrent paraesophageal hernia.
Case Report:
A morbidly obese 70-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of chest pain, cough, dysphagia, and dyspnea. She had undergone an open paraesophageal hernia repair 8 years earlier. Diagnostic workup revealed a recurrent large paraesophageal hernia. Laparoscopically, we took down all adhesions, excised the hernia sac, reduced the stomach and distal esophagus into the abdomen, and closed the hiatus. We then resected the greater curvature and fundus of the stomach, leaving the lesser curve in a sleeve configuration. Eighteen months after the operation, the patient's chest pain, cough, dyspnea, and dysphagia were resolved. In addition, she has lost 57 pounds (255 to 198).
Conclusion:
A sleeve gastrectomy is a potentially useful alternative to fundoplication or gastropexy, or both of these, in the treatment of obese patients with complex paraesophageal hernias.
PMCID: PMC3015686  PMID: 16709367
Paraesophageal hernia; Gastrectomy; Failed hiatal hernia repair
10.  Struggling with a Gastric Volvulus Secondary to a Type IV Hiatal Hernia 
Case Reports in Medicine  2010;2010:257497.
Type IV hiatal hernias are characterized by herniation of the stomach along with associated viscera such as the spleen, colon, small bowel, and pancreas through the esophageal hiatus. They are relatively rare, representing only about 5%–7% of all hernias, and can be associated with severe complications. We report a 71-year-old veteran wrestler who presented to our department with a type IV paraesophageal hernia containing a gastric volvulus and treated successfully with emergency operation.
doi:10.1155/2010/257497
PMCID: PMC2963801  PMID: 20981251
11.  Laparoscopic Paraesophageal Hernia Repair with Acellular Dermal Matrix Cruroplasty 
This study suggests that laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair with acellular dermal matrix Cruroplasty is an effective method of repairing symptomatic paraesophageal hernias with a low perioperative morbidity.
Background:
Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair (LPEHR) has been shown to be both safe and efficacious. Compulsory operative steps include reduction of the stomach from the mediastinum, resection of the mediastinal hernia sac, ensuring an appropriate intraabdominal esophageal length, and crural closure. The use of mesh materials in the repair of hiatal hernias remains controversial. Synthetic mesh may reduce hernia recurrences, but may increase postoperative dysphagia and result in esophageal erosion. Human acellular dermal matrix (HADM) may reduce the incidence of hernia recurrence with reduced complications compared with synthetic mesh.
Methods:
A retrospective review of all cases of laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair using HADM from December 2008 through March 2010 at a single institution was performed evaluating demographic information, BMI, operative times, length of stay, and complications.
Discussion:
Forty-six LPEHRs with HADM were identified. The mean age of patients was 60.3 years (±13.9); BMI 30.3 (±5.3); operative time 182 minutes (±56); and length of stay 2.6 days (±1.9). Nine of 46 (19.6%) patients experienced perioperative complications, including subcutaneous emphysema without pneumothorax (n=2), urinary retention (n=1), COPD exacerbation (n=2), early dysphagia resolving before discharge (n=1), esophageal perforation (n=1), delayed gastric perforation occurring 30 days postoperatively associated with gas bloat syndrome (n=1), and PEG site abscess (n=1). There were 2 clinically recurrent hernias (4.3%). Radiographic recurrences occurred in 2 of 26 patients (7.7%). Six of 46 (13%) patients reported persistent dysphagia.
Conclusion:
LPEHR with HADM crural reinforcement is an effective method of repairing symptomatic paraesophageal hernias with low perioperative morbidity. Recurrences occur infrequently with this technique. No mesh-related complications were seen in this series.
doi:10.4293/108680811X13125733356594
PMCID: PMC3183546  PMID: 21985724
Paraesophageal hernia; Hiatal hernia; Laparoscopy; Human acellular dermis
12.  Late-Presenting Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia in Children: The Experience of Single Institution in Korea 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(5):1143-1148.
Purpose
Late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) beyond the neonatal period is rare and often misdiagnosed, with delayed treatment.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed our experience with late-presenting CDH over 30 years at a single institution to determine the characteristics of late-presenting CDH for early diagnosis.
Results
Seven patients had operations due to late-presenting CHD in our institution over 30 years. The patients' ages ranged from 2.5 months to 16 years. There were six boys and one girl. Five hernias were left-sided, one was right-sided and one was a retrosternal hernia. All patients had normal intestinal rotation. Non-specific gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms and signs were usually presented. Intestinal malrotations were absent; therefore, only organs adjacent to the defect or relatively movable organs such as the small bowel and transverse colon were herniated. Two cases were accompanied by stomach herniation with the volvulus and liver, respectively. The duration from presentation to diagnosis varied from 5 days to 1 year. Diagnoses were made by chest X-ray, upper gastrointestinal series and chest computed tomography. All patients underwent primary repair with interrupted non-absorbable sutures by a transabdominal approach. None had postoperative complications. The follow-up period in six patients ranged from 4 months to 20 years (median 3.8 years). There was no recurrence in any of the patients on follow-up.
Conclusion
A high index of suspicion is important for the diagnosis of late-presenting CDH because it can be a life-threatening condition such as CDH with a gastric volvulus. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can lead to a good prognosis.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.5.1143
PMCID: PMC3743178  PMID: 23918563
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; late-presentation
13.  Metaanalysis of Recurrence After Laparoscopic Repair of Paraesophageal Hernia 
Background:
Recurrence and reflux are 2 most important remote complications of lap-paraesophageal hernia (PEH) repair. However, the extent of recurrence remains unknown. We sought to determine the true incidence of recurrence after lap-PEH repair.
Methods:
A meta-analysis was carried out. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, hand search, and personal communication were used to access and appraise studies. The inclusion criteria were full-text papers published from 1991 to date that describe lap-PEH repair in >25 patients, have at least a 6-month follow-up, and address the issue of recurrence. “Wrap migration” papers were excluded. Papers were appraised and the data were isolated on summary sheets. MS Office Excel 2003 was used to plot the results and represent it in graphs.
Results:
Thirteen studies were eligible (all retrospective case series). A total of 965 patients with 99 recurrences were noted. The overall recurrence rate (in all patients) was 10.2% and was 14% if only the followed up patients (n=658/965) were considered. However, when patients with objective evidence (follow-up Ba esophagogram) were used (301/965), the “true” recurrence rate was 25.5% (ie, 1 in 4 recurred). The learning curve did not appear to be an issue (P=0.27). The studies revealed broad 95 CI and touched the line-of-no-effect, thereby increasing the “chance factor.” When an alternate model was applied, esophageal lengthening (by Collis-Nissen gastroplasty) revealed a significant protective influence (P<0.0001).
Conclusion:
The true incidence of lap-PEH recurrence is 25.5%. The learning curve is not an adequate explanation. Mandatory (protocol) follow-up esophagograms at 1 year are essential. Two emphasis points in the repair have emerged: hiatoplasty and (superadded) esophageal lengthening.
PMCID: PMC3015848  PMID: 18237510
14.  Laparoscopic repair of paraesophageal hernias: a Canadian experience 
Canadian Journal of Surgery  2008;51(5):355-360.
Background
The surgical approach to paraesophageal hernias (PEH) has changed with the advent of laparoscopic techniques. Variation in both perioperative outcomes and hernia recurrence rates are reported in the literature. We sought to evaluate the short-and intermediate-term outcomes with laparoscopic PEH repair.
Methods
We performed a retrospective review of patients having laparoscopic repair of PEH between June 1998 and September 2002. We included patients with more than 120 days of follow-up.
Results
A total of 58 patients with a mean age of 60.4 (standard deviation [SD] 15.0) years had a laparoscopic procedure to repair a primary PEH, as well as adequate follow-up, during the study period. The types of PEH included type II (n = 13), III (n = 44) and IV (n = 1). The most common symptoms were epigastric pain (57%), dysphagia (40%), heartburn (31%) and vomiting (28%). Associated procedures included 56 (96%) Nissen fundoplications and 2 (4%) gastropexies. We closed all crural defects either with or without pledgets, and 2 patients required the use of mesh. There was 1 conversion to open surgery owing to intraoperative bleeding secondary to a consumptive coagulopathy; we observed no other major intraoperative emergencies. Minor or major complications occurred in 15 patients (26%). Late postoperative complications included 1 umbilical hernia. The mean length of stay in hospital was 3.8 (SD 2.5) days. After surgery, 19 patients were completely asymptomatic, and the majority of the remaining patients (83%) described marked symptom improvement. Upper gastrointestinal series performed in symptomatic patients in the postoperative setting identified 5 recurrent paraesophageal hernias (8.6%) and 5 small sliding hernias (9%).
Conclusion
Laparoscopic repair of PEH is associated with improved long-term symptom relief, low morbidity and acceptable recurrence rates when performed in an experienced centre.
PMCID: PMC2556541  PMID: 18841230
15.  Late-onset congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A case report☆ 
INTRODUCTION
A Bochdalek hernia is a posterior congenital defect of the diaphragm, usually on the left hemidiafragm, caused by a lack of closure of the pleuroperitoneal canal between the eighth and tenth week of fetal life during the embryonic development. It typically presents in the neonatal period with severe respiratory failure.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
In this paper we present a 35 year old man with a 5-year history of episodes of severe dyspnea who arrived to the emergency room, during his medical work-up we incidentally found an intrathoracic gastric bubble, a laparoscopy was performed, founding a necrotic stomach and for defect correction.
DISCUSSION
This pathology is infrequent in adults, among this age group, there are two different clinical presentations: asymptomatic patients who are diagnosed incidentally when abdominal organs are found in the thorax in a chest X-ray, and symptomatic patients due to side effects of incarceration, strangulation, hemorrhage and visceral perforation in the chest cavity.
CONCLUSION
Diaphragmatic hernias are rare among adult population, and they are usually asymptomatic, in this case we presented a symptomatic patient, diagnosed with a chest X-ray and treated surgically. The surgical approach for the resolution of this pathology is variable and it depends on the presence and severity of visceral complications.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.07.034
PMCID: PMC3825969  PMID: 24055915
Diaphragmatic hernia; Bochdalek hernia; Diaphragmatic defect; Thoracic surgery
16.  A Data Mining and Survey Study on Diseases Associated with Paraesophageal Hernia 
Paraesophageal hernia is a severe form of hiatal hernia, characterized by the upward dislocation of the gastric fundus into the thoracic cavity. In this study, the 1999 National Inpatient Sample dataset of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project was analyzed using data mining techniques to explore disorders associated with paraesophageal hernia. The result of this data mining process was compared with a subsequent expert knowledge survey of 97 gastrointestinal tract surgeons. This two-step analysis showed that the results of data mining and expert knowledge are consistent in some factors that are highly associated with paraesophageal hernia: older age, other gastrointestinal tract disorders and obesity, for example. But the data mining approach revealed some other related disorders that were not known to the experts or reported in the literature, for example, hypertension, peritoneal adhesions and gall bladder/bile duct diseases. These findings lay a framework for subsequent hypothesis-driven research.
PMCID: PMC1839629  PMID: 17238457
17.  Gastric Cancer Arising from an Upside-Down Stomach through a Paraesophageal Hiatal Hernia 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2014;8(1):107-114.
We report the rare case of an elderly patient with an advanced gastric cancer arising from an upside-down stomach through a paraesophageal hiatal hernia (PEH). An 82-year-old man presented with appetite loss and anemia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a type 1 tumor located in the middle body of the stomach. An upper gastrointestinal series and computed tomography showed organoaxial rotation of the stomach, which was located in the mediastinum, through a PEH, indicating an upside-down stomach. The preoperative diagnosis was gastric cancer arising from an upside-down stomach through a PEH. The patient underwent total gastrectomy with lymph node dissection and closure of the hernial orifice. Although a large PEH is a chronic disorder, gastric malignancies should be considered in patients with PEH manifested as an upside-down stomach due to its anatomical characteristics, and careful preoperative diagnosis is mandatory.
doi:10.1159/000361012
PMCID: PMC3995379  PMID: 24761138
Paraesophageal hiatal hernia; Upside-down stomach; Gastric cancer
18.  A clinical prediction rule for perioperative mortality and major morbidity after laparoscopic giant paraesophageal hernia repair 
Objective
In the current era, giant paraesophageal hernia repair by experienced minimally-invasive surgeons has excellent perioperative outcomes when performed electively. Nonelective repair, however, is associated with significantly greater morbidity and mortality, even when performed laparoscopically. We hypothesized that clinical prediction tools using pretreatment variables could be developed that would predict patient-specific risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality.
Methods
We assessed 980 patients who underwent giant paraesophageal hernia repair (1997-2010; 80% elective; 97% laparoscopic). The association between clinical predictor covariates, including demographics, comorbidity and urgency of operation, and risk for in-hospital or 30-day mortality and major morbidity was assessed. Using forward, stepwise logistic regression, clinical prediction models for mortality and major morbidity were developed.
Results
Urgency of operation was a significant predictor of mortality (elective 1.1% [9/778] versus nonelective 8% [16/199]; p<0.001) and major morbidity (elective 18% [143/781] versus nonelective 41% [81/199]; p<0.001). The most common adverse outcomes were pulmonary complications (n=199; 20%). A 4-covariate prediction model consisting of age 80 or greater, urgency of operation and two Charlson comorbidity index variables (congestive heart failure and pulmonary disease) provided discriminatory accuracy for postoperative mortality of 88% while a 5-covariate model (sex, age by decade, urgency of operation, congestive heart failure and pulmonary disease) for major postoperative morbidity was 68% predictive.
Conclusions
Predictive models using pretreatment patient characteristics can accurately predict mortality and major morbidity after giant paraesophageal hernia repair. After prospective validation, these models could provide patient-specific risk prediction, tailored for individual patient characteristics, and contribute to decision-making regarding surgical intervention.
doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.12.026
PMCID: PMC3971917  PMID: 23312974
19.  Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: Review of Current Concept in Surgical Management 
ISRN Surgery  2011;2011:974041.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDHs) occur mainly in two locations: the foramen of Morgagni and the more common type involving the foramen of Bochdalek. Hiatal hernia and paraesophageal hernia have also been described as other forms of CDH. Pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypoplasia have been recognized as the two most important factors in the pathophysiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Advances in surgical management include delayed surgical approach that enables preoperative stabilization, introduction of fetal intervention due to improved prenatal diagnosis, the introduction of minimal invasive surgery, in addition to the standard open repair, and the use of improved prosthetic devices for closure.
doi:10.5402/2011/974041
PMCID: PMC3251163  PMID: 22229104
20.  Outcomes after a Decade of Laparoscopic Giant Paraesophageal Hernia Repair 
OBJECTIVE
Laparoscopic repair of giant paraesophageal hernia (GPEH) is a complex operation requiring significant laparoscopic expertise. Our objective was to compare our current approach and outcomes with LRGPEH to our previous experience.
METHODS
A retrospective review of patients undergoing non-emergent LRGPEH, stratified by early and current era (1/1997–6/2003 and 7/2003–6/2008) was performed. Surgeon credentialing required a minimally invasive surgical fellowship and/or careful proctoring prior to independent LRGPEH. We evaluated clinical outcomes, barium esophagram and quality-of-life (QoL).
RESULTS
LRGPEH was performed in 662 patients (median age 70, range 19–92); median percent of herniated stomach 70% (range 30–100%). Over time, use of Collis gastroplasty decreased (86% to 53%) as did crural mesh reinforcement (17% to 12%). Current era patients were 50% more likely to have a Charlson comorbidity index score >3. Common complications included pleural effusion (56/652; 9%) and pneumonia (29/653; 4%). Thirty-day mortality was 1.7% (11/662). Mortality and complication rates were stable over time, despite increasing comorbid disease in the current patient cohort. Post-operative GERD-health-related QoL scores were available for 489 patients (30-month median follow-up) with “Good” to “Excellent” results in 90% (438/489). Radiographic recurrence (15.7%) was not associated with symptom recurrence. Reoperation occurred in 3.2% (21/662).
CONCLUSIONS
Over time, we have obtained significant minimally invasive experience and refined our approach to LRGPEH. Perioperative morbidity and mortality remain low, despite increased comorbid disease in the current patient cohort. LRGPEH provided excellent patient satisfaction and symptom improvement, even with small radiographic recurrences. Reoperation rates were comparable to the best open series.
doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2009.10.005
PMCID: PMC2813424  PMID: 20004917
Laparoscopy; hernia; hiatal; outcome assessment (health care); recurrence; gastroesophageal reflux; mesh; surgical
21.  Congenital asymptomatic diaphragmatic hernias in adults: a case series 
Introduction
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a major malformation occasionally found in newborns and babies. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is defined by the presence of an orifice in the diaphragm, more often to the left and posterolateral, that permits the herniation of abdominal contents into the thorax. The aim of this case series is to provide information on the presentation, diagnosis and outcome of three patients with late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernias. The diagnosis of congenital diaphragmatic hernia is based on clinical investigation and is confirmed by plain X-ray films and computed tomography scans.
Case presentations
In the present report three cases of asymptomatic abdominal viscera herniation within the thorax are described. The first case concerns herniation of some loops of the large intestine into the left hemi-thorax in a 75-year-old Caucasian Italian woman. The second case concerns a rare type of herniation in the right side of the thorax of the right kidney with a part of the liver parenchyma in a 57-year-old Caucasian Italian woman. The third case concerns herniation of the stomach and bowel into the left side of the chest with compression of the left lung in a 32-year-old Caucasian Italian man. This type of hernia may appear later in life, because of concomitant respiratory or gastrointestinal disease, or it may be an incidental finding in asymptomatic adults, such as in the three cases featured here.
Conclusions
Patients who present with late diaphragmatic hernias complain of a wide variety of symptoms, and diagnosis may be difficult. Additional investigation and research appear necessary to better explain the development and progression of this type of disease.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-7-125
PMCID: PMC3668166  PMID: 23668793
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; CT scan; Diaphragmatic malformation; Plain X-ray films; Surgery
22.  Laparoscopic repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia complicated with sliding hiatal hernia with reflux in adult 
INTRODUCTION
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in adults is a relatively rare condition being asymptomatic in the majority of cases. Symptomatic CDH should prompt surgical management because they may lead to intestinal obstruction or severe pulmonary disease. This is the first reported case of a symptomatic CDH complicated with sliding hiatal hernia (SHH).
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A 65 years old women with reflux and dysphagia was complaining of postprandial paroxysmal dyspnea and epigastric pain radiating to her back. Upper endoscopy diagnosed sliding and para-esophageal diaphragmatic hernia with severe esophagitis. Computed tomography-scan revealed a large Bochdalek hernia at the left diaphragm.
DISCUSSION
Diagnostic laparoscopy was decided, which confirmed the SHH, but also revealed a CDH defect at the tendonous part of the left diaphragm. The left bundle of the right crus was intact, separating the two hernia components (sliding and congenital). Extensive adhesiolysis was performed, dissecting and separating the stomach away from the diaphragm. Posterior cruroplasty at the esophageal hiatus was performed for the SHH with Nissen fundoplication as antireflux procedure. Primary continuous suture repair was performed for the CDH, reinforced with prosthetic mesh on top. Operative time was 150 min with no morbidity. The patient was discharged home uneventfully the third postoperative day. On 12-months follow-up, she reported no symptoms and improvement in quality of life.
CONCLUSION
Laparoscopy is a unique method for a precise diagnosis of symptomatic congenital diaphragmatic hernia in adults being also a safe and viable technique for a successful repair at the same time. Experience of advanced laparoscopic surgery is required.
doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.08.008
PMCID: PMC3484816  PMID: 22986157
Laparoscopic repair; Congenital diaphragmatic hernia; Sliding diaphragmatic hernia; Bochdalek hernia
23.  Paraesophageal hernia with incarceration of the gastric antrum and duodenal bulb: a case report 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:451.
Background
In cases of esophageal hernia, incarceration of peritoneal organs other than the stomach is rare.
Case presentation
An 84-year-old female was admitted to our institution with a complaint of nausea and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an esophageal hiatal hernia with incarceration of the gastric antrum and duodenal bulb. Gastrofluorography under gastroendoscopy confirmed prolapse of the antrum and duodenal bulb into the esophageal hernial sac. Although gastroendoscopy guided repositioning of the prolapsed organs was successful, reprolapse occurred immediately. Therefore, surgical treatment was indicated. The gastric antrum and duodenal bulb were associated with a paraesophageal hernia. Therefore, they were repositioned, and passage from the duodenal bulb to the descending portion of the duodenum was improved.
Conclusion
We report a rare case of paraesophageal hernia with incarceration of the gastric antrum and duodenal bulb.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-6-451
PMCID: PMC3835393  PMID: 24207166
Paraesophageal hernia; Incarceration; Surgery
24.  Functional disturbance in hiatal hernia in infants and children 1 
Thorax  1967;22(5):422-430.
Retrograde flow from the stomach into the oesophagus in infants and children is prevented by the mucosal choke and muscle cuff of the normally located oesophageal vestibule (Chrispin, Friedland, and Wright, 1967). When a hiatal hernia is present the cardinal functional abnormality is the retrograde flow of gastric content into the oesophagus. An analysis of the factors permitting such flow in these patients is presented in this paper. The important anatomical features are (1) the location of the oesophageal vestibule in the thorax, (2) the phreno-oesophageal membrane with its attachment to both the diaphragm and the vestibule, and (3) the size of the hiatus in the diaphragm. When the oesophageal vestibule lies entirely in the thorax its whole length lies in a zone of subatmospheric pressure. The sharp falls of intrathoracic pressure associated with crying are related to opening of the vestibule. Reduction in tension in the muscle cuff following a dry swallow may also result in vestibular opening with retrograde flow. Inefficient secondary stripping waves may fail to empty the refluxed gastric content from the oesophagus, permitting peptic oesophagitis to develop. The increased tendency to open and the increased difficulty in closing the oesophageal vestibule, because of tension in the abnormally located phreno-oesophageal membrane, are considered. The paradox of free retrograde flow with a small hernia and small retrograde flow with a large hernia is resolved. Basic radiological criteria for establishing the diagnosis of hiatal hernia in this age group are given. The objectives of surgery and the means by which they may be achieved are discussed.
Images
PMCID: PMC471680  PMID: 6050289
25.  Perforated gastric corpus in a strangulated paraesophageal hernia: a case report 
Introduction
Patients with paraesophageal hernias often present secondary to chronic symptomatology. Infrequently, acute intestinal ischemia and perforation can occur as a consequence of paraesophageal hernias with potentially dire consequences.
Case presentation
An 86-year-old obtunded male presented to the emergency department with hypotension and severe back and abdominal pain. An emergency abdominal CT scan was ordered with a presumptive diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. CT topograms revealed extensive free intra-abdominal air and herniated abdominal viscera into the right hemithorax. Prior to completion of the CT study, the patient sustained a cardiopulmonary arrest. Surgery was consulted, but the patient was unable to be revived. Post-mortem examination revealed gross contamination within the abdomen and a giant, incarcerated, hiatal hernia with organoaxial volvulus and ischemic perforation.
Conclusion
Current recommendations call for prompt repair of giant hiatal hernias before they become symptomatic due to the increased risk of strangulation. Torsion of the stomach in large hiatal hernias frequently leads to a fatal complication such as this warranting elective repair as soon as possible.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-3-6507
PMCID: PMC2726547  PMID: 19830111

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