Early complications associated with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy are well documented. Late complications associated with retained gastrostomy flange are rare. It is unclear why some patients with retained gastrostomy flange (internal bumper) develop mechanical obstruction and others do not. We report a case of mechanical obstruction with perforation occurring 6 months after the tube was cut.
PATIENT AND METHODS
A 76-year-old hemiplegic patient with no swallowing reflex and who previously was on long-term percutaneous gastrostomy feeding tube underwent removal of the feeding tube but the internal bumper was left in situ due to encrustation.
Due to migration of the retained flange, the patient developed small bowel obstruction.
Retained internal bumper is potentially dangerous and we recommend endoscopic retrieval of such flange.
Small intestinal obstruction; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG); Internal bumper; Gastric flange
The patient who has had prolonged, severe dysphasia deserves special attention. One method of treatment is the use of a permanent gastrostomy. The authors, modifying the principles of the Beck-Jianu gastrostomy, were able to improve the primary complication of gastrostomy, namely excoriation of the skin secondary to leaking of gastric contents onto the abdominal wall. After operation various tests were utilized to attempt to force gastric contents through the gastrostomy tube onto the abdominal wall. Regurgitation of gastric contents through the modified Beck-Jianu gastrostomy did not occur.
Described is a 2-port laparoscopic technique for the placement of a gastric feeding tube in patients who may not be candidates for endoscopic PEG tube insertion.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the procedure of choice in the nutritional management of patients requiring gastrostomies. However, PEG tubes are not always feasible. The aim of the present study was to determine the feasibility, complications, and adequacy of feeding support of a novel laparoscopic gastrostomy technique in adults where PEG tubes were neither feasible nor safe.
A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent a laparoscopic gastrostomy from August 2007 to July 2008 was performed. Demographic and outcome data were abstracted.
Fourteen patients underwent laparoscopic gastrostomy. Nine had obstructing head/neck cancer, 2 had severe head trauma, and one was morbidly obese. Nine patients had previous abdominal surgery. The mean operative time was 29.8 minutes (±7.2). There were no conversions to open gastrostomy. Two ports (5mm and 10mm) were used in the majority of patients (78.5%). No major complications were observed. The mean follow-up was 3.1 months (range, 2 to 8).
This innovative 2-port laparoscopic technique for gastrostomy tube placement is safe and effective. It allows for the quick, accurate, and safe insertion of the feeding tube under direct visualization and avoids open techniques in patients where PEG tubes are not feasible.
Laparoscopy; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
Although enteral feeding by nasal gastric tube is popular for the patients who have a swallowing disability and require long-term nutritional support, but have intact gut, this tube sometimes causes aspiration
pneumonia or esophageal ulcer. For these patients, conventional techniques for performance
of a feeding gastrostomy made by surgical laparotomy have been used so far. However, these patients
are frequently poor anesthetic and operative risks. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)
which can be accomplished with local anesthesia and without the necessity for laparotomy has become
popular in the clinical treatment for these patients. PEG was performed in 31 cases, percutaneous endoscopic duodenostomy (PED) in 1 case, and percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ)
in 2 cases. All patients were successfully placed, and no major complication and few minor complications
(9%) were experienced in this procedure. After this procedure, some patients could discharge
their sputa easily and their pneumonia subsided. PED and PEJ for the patients who had previously
received gastrostomy could also be done successfully with great care. Our experience suggests that
PEG, PED, and PEJ are rapid, safe, and useful procedures for the patients who have poor anesthetic
or poor operative risks.
Decompression of malignant gastrointestinal obstructions is an uncommon indication for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of venting PEG tubes in relieving nausea and vomiting and assessing complications associated with tube placement.
Patients and Methods:
This study is a retrospective chart review of patients with PEG tubes placed to decompress malignant gastrointestinal obstructions between January 2005 and September 2010 by the gastroenterology service at our institute. Patient demographics, symptom relief, procedural complications, diet tolerability and home palliation were reviewed.
Seven PEG tubes were inserted to decompress malignant gastrointestinal obstructions. The mean patient age was 62 years (range 37-82 years). The underlying primary malignancies were small intestine (1), appendiceal (1), pancreatic (2), and colon (3) cancer. Gastric outlet obstruction was present in 3 (43%) patients while small bowel obstruction occurred in 4 (57%) patients. There was relief of nausea and vomiting in 6 (86%) patients. Procedural complications were present in 1 (14%) patient and involved superficial cellulitis followed by peristomal leakage. Patients with gastric outlet obstruction continued to have limited oral intake while patients with small bowel obstruction tolerated varying degrees of oral nutrition. Six (86%) patients were discharged home after PEG tube placement, but only 2 (33%) were able to undergo end-stage palliation at home without re-admission for hospital palliation.
Venting PEG tubes significantly reduce the symptoms of nausea and vomiting in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal obstruction due to primary gastrointestinal malignancies. Complications associated with tube placement were minimal.
Gastrointestinal obstruction; gastrostomy; malignancy; palliation
Transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (TN-EGD) has recently become one of the frequently used methods of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in some countries. Changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation are smaller for TN-EGD than for conventional transoral esophagogastroduodenoscopy, making it a safer procedure. Lower pain and gag reflex enable TN-EGD to be performed without conscious sedation. TN-EGD is applied in various gastrointestinal (GI) procedures such as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, nasoenteric feeding tube placement, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography with nasobiliary drainage and lithotripsy, long intestinal tube placement in small-bowel obstruction, esophageal manometry, foreign body removal, botulinum toxin injection for achalasia, esophageal varix evaluation with the aid of endoscopic ultrasonography, and the double-scope technique for endoscopic submucosal dissection. The establishment of standard training programs and nationwide guidelines, the dissemination of educational information, the improvement in endoscopy devices and accessories, and the availability of insurance coverage for the procedure will obviously further widen the adoption of TN-EGD.
Transnasal; Esophagogastroduodenoscopy; Gastrointestinal; Endoscopy
For patients who are unable to meet their nutritional needs orally, enteral feeding via a percutaneous approach has become the mainstay of therapy. However, traditional enteral feeding methods, such as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, may not be viable options for patients with severe gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEJ) is an enteral access method that was first described more than 20 years ago and has gained popularity among gastroenterologists. This review discusses the indications for and contraindications to DPEJ, the procedure, the application of DPEJ in specific subsets of patients with gastrointestinal disorders, and presents a brief tabular summary of complications and success rates of DPEJ in case series published since 2000.
Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEJ) is a well-known approach to deliver postpyloric enteral nutritional support to individuals who cannot tolerate gastric feeding. However, it is technically difficult, and some case series have reported significant procedural failure rates. The present article describes current indications, successes and complications of DPEJ placement
A MEDLINE database search was performed to identify relevant articles using the key words “direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy”, “percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy”, and “percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with a jejunal extension tube”. Additional articles were identified by a manual search of the references cited in the key articles obtained in the primary search.
DPEJ is gradually becoming more common in the treatment of patients who cannot tolerate gastric feeding. Differences in patient selection and technique modifications may contribute to the various success rates reported. Failure is most often due to inadequate transillumination or gastroduodenal obstruction. Currently, there are limited data to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of DPEJ.
The clinical use of DPEJ is increasing. With appropriate care and expertise, DPEJ may prove to be reliable and safe.
Adverse events; Application; Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
Of 98 swallowed foreign bodies demonstrated, 71 with fate definitely known are reported. Seventeen of 20 foreign bodies in the esophagus had esophagoscopic removal. Only two of 51 foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract had laparotomy, while 49 were spontaneously passed.
Early esophagoscopic removal of foreign bodies lodged in the esophagus and conservative management of foreign bodies which have passed the esophagogastric junction are recommended. Laparotomy is rarely indicated in the management of swallowed foreign bodies, although various observers are not in full agreement as to the circumstances in which “watchful waiting” is advisable nor as to how long it is permissible to wait for spontaneous passage.
In 20 of 71 cases of swallowed foreign bodies, the objects were in the esophagus at the time the patient was first examined. Esophagoscopic removal was carried out in 17 cases. In two cases a foreign body was passed per rectum and in one was vomited. Laparotomy for removal was done in only two of the 51 cases in which the foreign body was already in the stomach or bowel at the time of examination, and in one of them the operation probably could have been avoided.
For patients who are not able to maintain nutrition by normal oral feeding, the choices of nutritional support can be parenteral, enteral, or gastric. Very little has been written in recent surgical literature about permanent feeding gastrostomies. Dissatisfaction with the conventional Stamm and Witzel gastrostomies prompted the authors to devise an improved method that creates a stapler-constructed, proximally based, antral gastric tube with an antireflux valve made by imbricating the gastric wall around the base of the gastric tube. Forty such procedures done between 1982 and 1984 were reviewed.
When properly constructed, this antireflux feeding gastrostomy has the distinct advantage of being physiologic, economical, and easy to maintain for long-term use. If the patient recovers to the point of no longer needing the feeding gastrostomy, the tube stoma can be closed easily under local anesthesia.
Numerous procedures have been developed to provide adequate enteral nutrition to patients with gastrointestinal disorders. Previously, operative placement of a feeding gastrostomy or jejunostomy tube was the accepted means of gaining chronic enteral access. However, improved technology and experience with endoscopic techniques have quickly replaced primary operative placement of enteral access. Direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (D-PEJ) is a procedure that was designed to deliver enteral feeding solutions for patients with proximal disease after unsatisfactory results from percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes with jejunal extensions (PEG-J). As with any procedure, it is associated with complications. We present the first reported case of a colojejunal fistula resulting from a D-PEJ placement. While D-PEJ has been shown to be relatively safe, complications related to the inherent limitations of the procedure need to be considered when the patient experiences unusual post-procedure symptoms and worked up appropriately.
Colojejunal fistula; Complications; D-PEJ; Feeding tube
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, under local anaesthetic, was successfully used in 40 out of 41 patients referred for nutritional support. The indications were neurological disorders of swallowing in 32 patients, head and neck cancer in four patients and supplemental feeding in a miscellaneous group of five patients. The main complications of this procedure were one failed insertion and one peritubal infection. At prospective follow-up, the tube continued to function in 16 patients (seven at home) a mean of 184 days post-insertion (range 6-610 days). In 11 patients resumption of swallowing at a mean of 122 (20-390) days allowed tube removal. Thirteen patients died from their disease, a mean of 96 (12-320) days post-insertion. Patient tolerance and patient and carer satisfaction have been excellent and early results suggest that recovery of speech and swallowing in acute neurological disorders may be enhanced. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy should be performed in all patients referred for a gastrostomy and should be considered in all patients requiring long-term tube feeding.
The placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes is a common procedure in patients with head and neck cancer who require adequate nutrition because of the inability to swallow before or after surgery and adjuvant therapies. A potential complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes is the metastatic spread from the original head and neck tumor to the gastrostomy site.
This is a case of a 59-year-old male with a (T4N2M0) Stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx who underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement at the time of his surgery and shortly thereafter developed metastatic spread to the gastrostomy site. A review of the published literature regarding the subject will be made.
Twenty-nine cases of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site metastasis occurring in patients with head and neck cancer have been previously reported in the literature. The pull-through method of gastrostomy tube placement had been used in our patient as well as in the majority of the other cases reviewed in the literature.
The metastatic spread of head and neck cancer to the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site is a very rare occurrence. The direct implantation of tumor through instrumentation is the most likely explanation for metastasis; however, hematogenous seeding is also a possibility. To prevent this rare complication, other techniques of tube insertion need to be considered.
Head and neck cancer; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
Swallowed foreign bodies encounter a major problem especially in children, but fortunately they mostly do not cause any related complication and are easily passed with the stool. In this paper, an interesting journey of a needle is presented. A 20-year old female admitted to our emergency service after she had swallowed a sewing machine needle, which is initially observed in the stomach in the plain abdominal radiography. During the follow-up period, the needle traveled through bowels, and surprisingly was observed in the left lung on 10th day of the follow-up. It was removed with a thoracotomy and pneumotomy under the fluoroscopic guidance. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on the day 5. We also review the literature on interesting extra-abdominal migrations of swallowing foreign bodies.
Foreign body; migration; pneumotomy
Although gastrostomy tube insertion – whether endoscopic or open – is generally safe, procedure-related complications have been reported.
To compare gastrostomy tube insertion-related complications between percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and open gastrostomy at a single pediatric centre.
The charts of children (younger than 17 years of age at the time of tube insertion) who underwent endoscopic or open gastrostomy tube insertion from January 2005 to December 2007 at the Stollery Children’s Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta) were examined.
A total of 298 children underwent gastrostomy tube insertion over a period of three years. After excluding patients with incomplete charts, 160 children (91 boys, mean [± SD] age 3.18±4.73 years) were included. Eighty-five children (mean age 4.50±5.40 years) had their gastrostomy tube inserted endoscopically, while the remaining 75 (mean age 1.68±3.27 years; P<0.001) underwent an open procedure. The overall rate of major complications was 10.2% for the endoscopic technique and 8.6% for the open technique (P=0.1). Major infections were higher in the endoscopic technique group, while persistent gastrocutaneous fistulas after tube removal were more common in the open technique group.
Although the rate of major complications was similar between the endoscopic and open tube insertion groups, major infections were more common among children who underwent endoscopic gastrostomy. The decision for gastrostomy tube insertion was primarily based on clinical background.
Children; Gastrostomy; PEG
Replacement of gastrostomy tube in patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is generally considered as a safe and simple procedure. However, it could be associated with serious complications, such as gastrocutaneous tract disruption and intraperitoneal tube placement, which may lead to chemical peritonitis and even death. When PEG tube needs a replacement (e.g., occlusion or breakage of the tube), clinicians must realize that the gastrocutaneous tract of PEG is more friable than that of surgical gastrostomy because there is no suture fixation between gastric wall and abdominal wall in PEG. In general, the tract of PEG begins to mature in 1-2 wk after placement and it is well formed in 4-6 wk. However, this process could take a longer period of time in some patients. Accordingly, this article describes three major principles of a safe PEG tube replacement: (1) good control of the replacement tube along the well-formed gastrocutaneous tract; (2) minimal insertion force during the replacement, and, most importantly; and (3) reliable methods for the confirmation of intragastric tube insertion. In addition, the management of patients with suspected intraperitoneal tube placement (e.g., patients having abdominal pain or signs of peritonitis immediately after PEG tube replacement or shortly after tube feeding was resumed) is discussed. If prompt investigation confirms the intraperitoneal tube placement, surgical intervention is usually required. This article also highlights the fact that each institute should have an optimal protocol for PEG tube replacement to prevent, or to minimize, such serious complications. Meanwhile, clinicians should be aware of these potential complications, particularly if there are any difficulties during the gastrostomy tube replacement.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Gastrostomy tube replacement; Gastrostomy tube exchange; Gastrostomy tube reinsertion; Complication; Peritonitis; Prevention; Management
The presentation of ingested foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal system is common in the emergency setting. The majority responds to conservative management and passes spontaneously; however, giant foreign bodies pose a management difficulty. We report a peculiar case of a giant foreign body (spoon) that presented very late after ingestion and the management of this presentation.
A 30-year-old British white male barrister presented with abdominal pain 10 years after he swallowed a spoon that never passed spontaneously. His workup revealed the spoon lodged in his ascending colon. Laparoscopic retrieval was not feasible so a laparotomy was done for retrieval. He did well and went home with no complications.
Symptomatic giant ingested foreign bodies represent a management challenge sometimes and usually necessitate surgical intervention when all conservative means fail. We review the literature on management of giant ingested foreign bodies.
The differential diagnoses of acute abdomen in children include common and rare pathologies. Within this list, different types of bezoars causing gastrointestinal obstruction have been reported in the literature and different methods of management have been described. The aim of this article is to highlight a rare presentation of lactobezoars following prolonged percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding and its successful surgical management.
A 16-year-old boy was admitted to a paediatric ward with abdominal distension and high output from his permanent gastrostomy feeding tube, with drainage of bilious fluids. The clinical, radiological and endoscopical examinations were suggestive of partial duodenal obstruction with multiple bezoars in the stomach and duodenum. Gastrojejunostomy was performed after the removal of 14 bezoars. The child had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged on the sixth postoperative day in a stable condition.
Lactobezoars should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in patients with percutaneous endogastric feeding. Endoscopy is important in making the diagnosis of this surgical condition of the upper gastrointestinal tract in a child.
Most ingested foreign bodies will pass uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, long and rigid foreign bodies are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal impaction, perforation and bleeding. Moreover, there has been no case of spontaneous passage of a toothbrush reported. Therefore, the prompt removal of such ingested foreign objects is recommended before complications develop. This case report describes a case of an 18-year-old woman who accidentally swallowed her toothbrush. The toothbrush was successfully removed via flexible endoscopy using a polypectomy snare. A swallowed toothbrush is a special clinical challenge. Early endoscopic retrieval of the toothbrush is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. In cases when endoscopic removal fails, a laparoscopic surgical approach may be an alternative.
Toothbrush; Flexible endoscopy; Polypectomy snare
Pediatric gastric access for long-term enteral feeding may be performed via a laparotomy, laparoscopy, or a percutaneous approach. In children and adolescents, laparoscopic-assisted gastrostomy may be difficult due to a thick abdominal wall. Therefore, if the abdominal wall is estimated to be >2 cm on physical examination, or in children in whom a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was unsuccessfully attempted by a gastroenterologist, we routinely perform a laparoscopic-assisted percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
From January 1998 through February 2003, we retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of a laparoscopic-assisted percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Instruments used to perform this technique are a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy kit, an Olympus flexible endoscope, and one 5-mm STEP port placed through an infraumbilical incision for a 5-mm, 30-degree scope.
Age range was 2 years to 20 years (mean, 10). Operative time ranged from 20 minutes to 45 minutes. When a concurrent laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication was performed (n = 6), the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was placed after completion of the Nissen fundoplication. No intraoperative complications occurred, and all tubes were successfully placed. Feeds were instituted the following day and advanced to goal. To date, no postoperative complications have occurred, and revision has not been necessary.
Laparoscopic-assisted percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children and adolescents is safe and effective. Utilizing laparoscopy permits evaluation of the peritoneum and lysis of adhesions, if necessary. Moreover, laparoscopy provides excellent exposure for accurate placement of the PEG, while avoiding injury to other organs.
Laparoscopy; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
Swallowing foreign bodies is a common problem in children. Although most objects pass through the gastrointestinal tract with no untoward effect; long, sharppointed, or slender objects can perforate the gut. Migration of a swallowed object to the liver is extremely rare and very few cases have been reported in the literature up to now. The aim of this study is to draw attention to this subject once again by contributing a case report of a child with hepatic migration of a swallowed sewing needle.
A 16-year-old girl presented to the emergency room of pediatrics department in our hospital with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Physical examination revealed tenderness on the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Laboratory examination revealed increased hepatic enzymes as well as increased white blood cell count. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed foreign body in the liver accompanied by surrounding abscess formation. The foreign body (sewing needle) was removed surgically after two operations.
The children may not be able to remember the swallowing of the foreign body or they may try to hide such a condition. The radiological diagnosis in such cases which can be achieved by X-rays, ultrasonography or computed tomography is of critical importance, as well as getting detailed patient history for foreign body swallowing.
foreign body swallowing; migration; hepatic; liver
Background. Among patients with chronic disease, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are a common mechanism to deliver enteral feedings to patients unable to feed by mouth. While several cases in the literature describe difficulties with and complications of the initial placement of the PEG, few studies have documented the effects of a delayed diagnosis of a misplaced tube. Methods. This case study reviews the hospitalization of an 82 year old male with an inadvertent placement of a PEG tube through the transverse colon. Photos of the placement in the stomach as well as those of the follow up colonoscopy, and a recording of the episodes of diarrhea during the hospitalization were made. Results. The records of this patient reveal complaints of gastrointestinal distress and diarrhea immediately after placement of the tube. Placement in the stomach was verified by endoscopy, with discovery of the tube only after a follow up colonoscopy. The tube remained in place after this discovery, and was removed weeks after the diarrhea was unsuccessfully treated with antibiotics. After tube removal, the patient recovered well and was sent home.
Since its introduction in the early 1980s, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy has become the most popular method for performing a gastrostomy for long-term enteral feeding. It has been associated, however, with a lot of minor and major complications.
A case of mediastinitis with concominant sepsis caused by a masked esophageal perforation after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in a multi-traumatized, brain-injured patient is presented. Ten – fourteen days after the procedure, the patient became febrile and gradually septic with tenderness of the sternum and upper abdomen. Computerized tomography of the thorax revealed mediastinitis. An urgent left thoracotomy and laparotomy were performed for drainage of the mediastinum, removal of the gastrostomy and insertion of a jejunostomy tube. The patient improved soon after the surgery. He was successfully weaned off the ventilator and was discharged from the Intensive Care Unit.
Perforating mediastinitis is a rare but potentially lethal complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. When diagnosed and properly treated it may have a favourable outcome.
Mediastinitis; percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; complications; intensive care unit; brain injury
To describe the current practice of placing gastrostomy tubes (endoscopic and radiological), patient characteristics, indications for enteral support, complications and outcomes over a 13-month period, and explore factors that influenced complications and outcomes. Second, to provide Canadian data regarding feeding tube placement because no current literature reflecting these practices for Canadian hospitals is available.
Retrospective chart reviews were conducted. Patients who had initial percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or percutaneous radiological gastrostomy (PRG) tubes inserted for nutritional purposes were included in the study.
A total of 136 charts which included 30 PEG and 44 PRG procedures were reviewed. The PRG group was older than the PEG group (mean [± SD] age 68±19 years versus 55±21 years, respectively; P=0.008). Patients in PEG group had longer lengths of hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions than the PRG group (P=0.029). The main reason for tube insertion was dysphagia/aspiration (PEG [60%] and PRG [77%]). Minor complications were comparable between the two groups (P=0.678). There were three cases of major complications overall. More subjects in the PRG group died (18%) while in hospital than in the PEG group (3%) (P=0.055). No procedure-related deaths occured in either group.
Both methods of tube insertion provided a safe route for nutrition delivery despite a significant cost differential with PEGs costing 44% more than PRGs. Characteristics such as age, presence of ascites and severity of disease influenced the method of insertion despite the lack of current guidelines. Overall, the present study provides new descriptive data in a Canadian context.
Feeding tubes; Gastrostomy; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Percutaneous radiological gastrostomy
OBJECTIVE--To compare percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding in patients with persisting neurological dysphagia. DESIGN--Randomised 28 day study of inpatients requiring long term enteral nutrition. SETTING--Three Glasgow teaching hospitals. SUBJECTS--40 patients with dysphagia for at least four weeks secondary to neurological disorders: 20 patients (10 women) were randomised to nasogastric feeding and 20 (eight women) to endoscopic gastrostomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Treatment failure (blocked or displaced tubes on three or more occasions or refusal to continue treatment); duration of feeding; intake of liquid diets; complications; nutritional status at end of trial. RESULTS--One patient in each group died before starting feeding. Treatment failure occurred in 18 of the 19 nasogastric patients and in none of the gastrostomy group. The mean (SE) duration of feeding for the nasogastric group was 5.2 (1.5) days. No complications occurred in the nasogastric group but three (16%) of the gastrostomy group developed minor problems (aspiration pneumonia (two patients) wound infection (one)). Gastrostomy patients received a significantly greater proportion of their prescribed feed (93% (2%)) compared with the nasogastric group, (55% (4%); p less than 0.001) and also gained significantly more weight after seven days of feeding (1.4 (0.5) kg v 0.6 (0.1) kg; p less than 0.05). Analyses at days 14, 21, and 28 were not possible due to the small numbers remaining in the nasogastric group. CONCLUSION--Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding is a safe and effective method of providing long term enteral nutrition to patients with neurological dysphagia and offers important advantages over nasogastric tube feeding.
The insertion of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy has been well documented. The possible benefits for patient nutrition and nursing practice have, however, not been assessed. We report a study of enteral feeding by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in 30 patients, the majority with a persistent vegetative state. All patients had previously been fed through a nasogastric tube using manual administration and a dietitian assessed protein calorie intake. Based upon body mass index (weight/height2), midarm circumference and triceps skinfold thickness, 20 (67%) were malnourished, with 10 patients having a body mass index less than 17 (severe malnutrition); attributed to high rates of both tube displacement and feed regurgitation. Patients were observed over six to 12 months after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion combined with overnight continuous pump feeding. All patients attained a body mass index greater than 17, and 17 (56%) of the total number achieved the normal range with no change in protein-calorie intake (pre: 2110 kcal, post: 1880 kcal). Complications of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in the study group included peritonitis (one), tube site infection (two) and displacement (two); all without serious sequelae. As part of an integrated approach percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy proved a safe and efficient method of enteral feeding and justifies wider consideration in the United Kingdom.