Euchromatic regions of the Brassica rapa genome were sequenced and mapped onto the corresponding regions in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome.
Brassica rapa is one of the most economically important vegetable crops worldwide. Owing to its agronomic importance and phylogenetic position, B. rapa provides a crucial reference to understand polyploidy-related crop genome evolution. The high degree of sequence identity and remarkably conserved genome structure between Arabidopsis and Brassica genomes enables comparative tiling sequencing using Arabidopsis sequences as references to select the counterpart regions in B. rapa, which is a strong challenge of structural and comparative crop genomics.
We assembled 65.8 megabase-pairs of non-redundant euchromatic sequence of B. rapa and compared this sequence to the Arabidopsis genome to investigate chromosomal relationships, macrosynteny blocks, and microsynteny within blocks. The triplicated B. rapa genome contains only approximately twice the number of genes as in Arabidopsis because of genome shrinkage. Genome comparisons suggest that B. rapa has a distinct organization of ancestral genome blocks as a result of recent whole genome triplication followed by a unique diploidization process. A lack of the most recent whole genome duplication (3R) event in the B. rapa genome, atypical of other Brassica genomes, may account for the emergence of B. rapa from the Brassica progenitor around 8 million years ago.
This work demonstrates the potential of using comparative tiling sequencing for genome analysis of crop species. Based on a comparative analysis of the B. rapa sequences and the Arabidopsis genome, it appears that polyploidy and chromosomal diploidization are ongoing processes that collectively stabilize the B. rapa genome and facilitate its evolution.
The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa) and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea).
Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development.
Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes) population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This analysis also demonstrated that screening a 1 kb amplicon in just one third of the population (3072 M2 plants) will provide an average of 68 mutations and a 97% probability of obtaining a stop-codon mutation resulting in a truncated protein. We furthermore calculated that each plant contains on average ~10,000 mutations and due to the large number of plants, it is predicted that mutations in approximately half of the GC base pairs in the genome exist within this population.
We have developed the first EMS TILLING resource in the diploid Brassica species, B. rapa. The mutation density in this population is ~1 per 60 kb, which makes it the most densely mutated diploid organism for which a TILLING population has been published. This resource is publicly available through the RevGenUK reverse genetics platform http://revgenuk.jic.ac.uk.
The genus Brassica includes the most extensively cultivated vegetable crops worldwide. Investigation of the Brassica genome presents excellent challenges to study plant genome evolution and divergence of gene function associated with polyploidy and genome hybridization. A physical map of the B. rapa genome is a fundamental tool for analysis of Brassica "A" genome structure. Integration of a physical map with an existing genetic map by linking genetic markers and BAC clones in the sequencing pipeline provides a crucial resource for the ongoing genome sequencing effort and assembly of whole genome sequences.
A genome-wide physical map of the B. rapa genome was constructed by the capillary electrophoresis-based fingerprinting of 67,468 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones using the five restriction enzyme SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs by means of FPC v8.5.3. After contig validation and manual editing, the resulting contig assembly consists of 1,428 contigs and is estimated to span 717 Mb in physical length. This map provides 242 anchored contigs on 10 linkage groups to be served as seed points from which to continue bidirectional chromosome extension for genome sequencing.
The map reported here is the first physical map for Brassica "A" genome based on the High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF) technique. This physical map will serve as a fundamental genomic resource for accelerating genome sequencing, assembly of BAC sequences, and comparative genomics between Brassica genomes. The current build of the B. rapa physical map is available at the B. rapa Genome Project website for the user community.
The Brassica species include an important group of crops and provide opportunities for studying the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. They are related to Arabidopsis thaliana, for which the first complete plant genome sequence was obtained and their genomes show extensive, although imperfect, conserved synteny with that of A. thaliana. A large number of EST sequences, derived from a range of different Brassica species, are available in the public database, but no public microarray resource has so far been developed for these species.
We assembled unigenes using ~800,000 EST sequences, mainly from three species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The assembly was conducted with the aim of co-assembling ESTs of orthologous genes (including homoeologous pairs of genes in B. napus from each of the A and C genomes), but resolving assemblies of paralogous, or paleo-homoeologous, genes (i.e. the genes related by the ancestral genome triplication observed in diploid Brassica species). 90,864 unique sequence assemblies were developed. These were incorporated into the BAC sequence annotation for the Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project, enabling the identification of cognate genomic sequences for a proportion of them. A 60-mer oligo microarray comprising 94,558 probes was developed using the unigene sequences. Gene expression was analysed in reciprocal resynthesised B. napus lines and the B. oleracea and B. rapa lines used to produce them. The analysis showed that significant expression could consistently be detected in leaf tissue for 35,386 unigenes. Expression was detected across all four genotypes for 27,355 unigenes, genome-specific expression patterns were observed for 7,851 unigenes and 180 unigenes displayed other classes of expression pattern. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly resolved the individual microarray datasets for B. rapa, B. oleracea and resynthesised B. napus. Quantitative differences in expression were observed between the resynthesised B. napus lines for 98 unigenes, most of which could be classified into non-additive expression patterns, including 17 that showed cytoplasm-specific patterns. We further characterized the unigenes for which A genome-specific expression was observed and cognate genomic sequences could be identified. Ten of these unigenes were found to be Brassica-specific sequences, including two that originate from complex loci comprising gene clusters.
We succeeded in developing a Brassica community microarray resource. Although expression can be measured for the majority of unigenes across species, there were numerous probes that reported in a genome-specific manner. We anticipate that some proportion of these will represent species-specific transcripts and the remainder will be the consequence of variation of sequences within the regions represented by the array probes. Our studies demonstrated that the datasets obtained from the arrays can be used for typical analyses, including PCA and the analysis of differential expression. We have also demonstrated that Brassica-specific transcripts identified in silico in the sequence assembly of public EST database accessions are indeed reported by the array. These would not be detectable using arrays designed using A. thaliana sequences.
Brassica rapa is an economically important crop and a model plant for studies concerning polyploidization and the evolution of extreme morphology. The multinational B. rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP) was launched in 2003. In 2008, next generation sequencing technology was used to sequence the B. rapa genome. Several maps concerning B. rapa pseudochromosome assembly have been published but their coverage of the genome is incomplete, anchoring approximately 73.6% of the scaffolds on to chromosomes. Therefore, a new genetic map to aid pseudochromosome assembly is required.
This study concerns the construction of a reference genetic linkage map for Brassica rapa, forming the backbone for anchoring sequence scaffolds of the B. rapa genome resulting from recent sequencing efforts. One hundred and nineteen doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from microspore cultures of an F1 cross between a Chinese cabbage (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis) DH line (Z16) and a rapid cycling inbred line (L144) were used to construct the linkage map. PCR-based insertion/deletion (InDel) markers were developed by re-sequencing the two parental lines. The map comprises a total of 507 markers including 415 InDels and 92 SSRs. Alignment and orientation using SSR markers in common with existing B. rapa linkage maps allowed ten linkage groups to be identified, designated A01-A10. The total length of the linkage map was 1234.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.43 cM between adjacent marker loci. The lengths of linkage groups ranged from 71.5 cM to 188.5 cM for A08 and A09, respectively. Using the developed linkage map, 152 scaffolds were anchored on to the chromosomes, encompassing more than 82.9% of the B. rapa genome. Taken together with the previously available linkage maps, 183 scaffolds were anchored on to the chromosomes and the total coverage of the genome was 88.9%.
The development of this linkage map is vital for the integration of genome sequences and genetic information, and provides a useful resource for the international Brassica research community.
The species Brassica rapa includes important vegetable and oil crops. It also serves as an excellent model system to study polyploidy-related genome evolution because of its paleohexaploid ancestry and its close evolutionary relationships with Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassica species with larger genomes. Therefore, its genome sequence will be used to accelerate both basic research on genome evolution and applied research across the cultivated Brassica species.
We have determined and analyzed the sequence of B. rapa chromosome A3. We obtained 31.9 Mb of sequences, organized into nine contigs, which incorporated 348 overlapping BAC clones. Annotation revealed 7,058 protein-coding genes, with an average gene density of 4.6 kb per gene. Analysis of chromosome collinearity with the A. thaliana genome identified conserved synteny blocks encompassing the whole of the B. rapa chromosome A3 and sections of four A. thaliana chromosomes. The frequency of tandem duplication of genes differed between the conserved genome segments in B. rapa and A. thaliana, indicating differential rates of occurrence/retention of such duplicate copies of genes. Analysis of 'ancestral karyotype' genome building blocks enabled the development of a hypothetical model for the derivation of the B. rapa chromosome A3.
We report the near-complete chromosome sequence from a dicotyledonous crop species. This provides an example of the complexity of genome evolution following polyploidy. The high degree of contiguity afforded by the clone-by-clone approach provides a benchmark for the performance of whole genome shotgun approaches presently being applied in B. rapa and other species with complex genomes.
Improving crop species by breeding for salt tolerance or introducing salt tolerant traits is one method of increasing crop yields in saline affected areas. Extensive studies of the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has led to the availability of substantial information regarding the function and importance of many genes involved in salt tolerance. However, the identification and characterization of A. thaliana orthologs in species such as Brassica napus (oilseed rape) can prove difficult due to the significant genomic changes that have occurred since their divergence approximately 20 million years ago (MYA). The recently released Brassica rapa genome provides an excellent resource for comparative studies of A. thaliana and the cultivated Brassica species, and facilitates the identification of Brassica species orthologs which may be of agronomic importance. Sodium hydrogen antiporter (NHX) proteins transport a sodium or potassium ion in exchange for a hydrogen ion in the other direction across a membrane. In A. thaliana there are eight members of the NHX family, designated AtNHX1-8, that can be sub-divided into three clades, based on their subcellular localization: plasma membrane (PM), intracellular class I (IC-I) and intracellular class II (IC-II). In plants, many NHX proteins are primary determinants of salt tolerance and act by transporting Na+ out of the cytosol where it would otherwise accumulate to toxic levels. Significant work has been done to determine the role of both PM and IC-I clade members in salt tolerance in a variety of plant species, but relatively little analysis has been described for the IC-II clade. Here we describe the identification of B. napus orthologs of AtNHX5 and AtNHX6, using the B. rapa genome sequence, macro- and micro-synteny analysis, comparative expression and promoter motif analysis, and highlight the value of these multiple approaches for identifying true orthologs in closely related species with multiple paralogs.
Arabidopsis; NHX; antiporter; Brassica; sodium transport; potassium transport; pH; cation transport
Brassica rapa, which is closely related to
Arabidopsis thaliana, is an important crop and a
model plant for studying genome evolution via
polyploidization. We report the current understanding of the
genome structure of B. rapa and efforts for the
whole-genome sequencing of the species. The tribe
Brassicaceae, which comprises ca. 240 species,
descended from a common hexaploid ancestor with a basic genome
similar to that of Arabidopsis. Chromosome
rearrangements, including fusions and/or fissions, resulted in
the present-day “diploid” Brassica
species with variation in chromosome number and phenotype.
Triplicated genomic segments of B. rapa are
collinear to those of A. thaliana with InDels.
The genome triplication has led to an approximately 1.7-fold
increase in the B. rapa gene number compared to
that of A. thaliana. Repetitive DNA of B.
rapa has also been extensively amplified and has
diverged from that of A. thaliana. For its
whole-genome sequencing, the Brassica rapa Genome
Sequencing Project (BrGSP) consortium has developed suitable
genomic resources and constructed genetic and physical maps.
Ten chromosomes of B. rapa are being allocated to
BrGSP consortium participants, and each chromosome will be
sequenced by a BAC-by-BAC approach. Genome sequencing of
B. rapa will offer a new perspective for plant
biology and evolution in the context of polyploidization.
Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species.
Brassica rapa; quantitative trait loci (QTL); morphological traits; single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); conserved genome blocks
Recent advances, such as the availability of extensive genome survey sequence (GSS)
data and draft physical maps, are radically transforming the means by which we
can dissect Brassica genome structure and systematically relate it to the Arabidopsis
model. Hitherto, our view of the co-linearities between these closely related genomes
had been largely inferred from comparative RFLP data, necessitating substantial
interpolation and expert interpretation. Sequencing of the Brassica rapa genome
by the Multinational Brassica Genome Project will, however, enable an entirely
computational approach to this problem. Meanwhile we have been developing
databases and bioinformatics tools to support our work in Brassica comparative
genomics, including a recently completed draft physical map of B. rapa integrated
with anchor probes derived from the Arabidopsis genome sequence. We are also
exploring new ways to display the emerging Brassica–Arabidopsis sequence homology
data. We have mapped all publicly available Brassica sequences in silico to the
Arabidopsis TIGR v5 genome sequence and published this in the ATIDB database
that uses Generic Genome Browser (GBrowse). This in silico approach potentially
identifies all paralogous sequences and so we colour-code the significance of the
mappings and offer an integrated, real-time multiple alignment tool to partition them
into paralogous groups. The MySQL database driving GBrowse can also be directly
interrogated, using the powerful API offered by the Perl Bio∷DB∷GFF methods,
facilitating a wide range of data-mining possibilities.
Molecular genetic maps provide a means to link heritable traits with underlying genome sequence variation. Several genetic maps have been constructed for Brassica species, yet to date, there has been no simple means to compare this information or to associate mapped traits with the genome sequence of the related model plant, Arabidopsis.
We have developed a comparative genetic map database for the viewing, comparison and analysis of Brassica and Arabidopsis genetic, physical and trait map information. This web-based tool allows users to view and compare genetic and physical maps, search for traits and markers, and compare genetic linkage groups within and between the amphidiploid and diploid Brassica genomes. The inclusion of Arabidopsis data enables comparison between Brassica maps that share no common markers. Analysis of conserved syntenic blocks between Arabidopsis and collated Brassica genetic maps validates the application of this system. This tool is freely available over the internet on .
This database enables users to interrogate the relationship between Brassica genetic maps and the sequenced genome of A. thaliana, permitting the comparison of genetic linkage groups and mapped traits and the rapid identification of candidate genes.
Sequencing of the chloroplast (cp) genome using traditional sequencing methods has been difficult because of its size (>120 kb) and the complicated procedures required to prepare templates. To explore the feasibility of sequencing the cp genome using DNA extracted from whole cells and Solexa sequencing technology, we sequenced whole cellular DNA isolated from leaves of three Brassica
rapa accessions with one lane per accession. In total, 246, 362, and 361 Mb sequence data were generated for the three accessions Chiifu-401-42, Z16, and FT, respectively. Micro-reads were assembled by reference-guided assembly using the cpDNA sequences of B. rapa, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Nicotiana tabacum. We achieved coverage of more than 99.96% of the cp genome in the three tested accessions using the B. rapa sequence as the reference. When A. thaliana or N. tabacum sequences were used as references, 99.7–99.8 or 95.5–99.7% of the B. rapa cp genome was covered, respectively. These results demonstrated that sequencing of whole cellular DNA isolated from young leaves using the Illumina Genome Analyzer is an efficient method for high-throughput sequencing of cp genome.
chloroplast genome; sequencing; Solexa sequencing technology; whole cellular DNA; Brassica rapa
As part of a research programme focused on flavonoid biosynthesis in the seed coat of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), orthologs of the BANYULS gene that encoded anthocyanidin reductase were cloned in B. napus as well as in the related species Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. B. napus genome contained four functional copies of BAN, two originating from each diploid progenitor. Amino acid sequences were highly conserved between the Brassicaceae including B. napus, B. rapa, B. oleracea as well as the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Along the 200 bp in 5′ of the ATG codon, Bna.BAN promoters (ProBna.BAN) were conserved with AtANR promoter and contained putative cis-acting elements. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis and oilseed rape plants carrying the first 230 bp of ProBna.BAN fused to the UidA reporter gene were generated. In the two Brassicaceae backgrounds, ProBna.BAN activity was restricted to the seed coat. In B. napus seed, ProBna.BAN was activated in procyanidin-accumulating cells, namely the innermost layer of the inner integument and the micropyle-chalaza area. At the transcriptional level, the four Bna.BAN genes were expressed in the seed. Laser microdissection assays of the seed integuments showed that Bna.BAN expression was restricted to the inner integument, which was consistent with the activation profile of ProBna.BAN. Finally, Bna.BAN genes were mapped onto oilseed rape genetic maps and potential co-localisations with seed colour quantitative trait loci are discussed.
Anthocyanidin reductase; BANYULS genes; Brassica; Flavonoid metabolism; Seed coat-specific promoter
The Brassica species, related to Arabidopsis thaliana, include an important group of crops and represent an excellent system for studying the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. Previous studies have led to a proposed structure for an ancestral karyotype and models for the evolution of the B. rapa genome by triplication and segmental rearrangement, but these have not been validated at the sequence level.
We developed computational tools to analyse the public collection of B. rapa BAC end sequence, in order to identify candidates for representing collinearity discontinuities between the genomes of B. rapa and A. thaliana. For each putative discontinuity, one of the BACs was sequenced and analysed for collinearity with the genome of A. thaliana. Additional BAC clones were identified and sequenced as part of ongoing efforts to sequence four chromosomes of B. rapa. Strikingly few of the 19 inter-chromosomal rearrangements corresponded to the set of collinearity discontinuities anticipated on the basis of previous studies. Our analyses revealed numerous instances of newly detected collinearity blocks. For B. rapa linkage group A8, we were able to develop a model for the derivation of the chromosome from the ancestral karyotype. We were also able to identify a rearrangement event in the ancestor of B. rapa that was not shared with the ancestor of A. thaliana, and is represented in triplicate in the B. rapa genome. In addition to inter-chromosomal rearrangements, we identified and analysed 32 BACs containing the end points of segmental inversion events.
Our results show that previous studies of segmental collinearity between the A. thaliana, Brassica and ancestral karyotype genomes, although very useful, represent over-simplifications of their true relationships. The presence of numerous cryptic collinear genome segments and the frequent occurrence of segmental inversions mean that inference of the positions of genes in B. rapa based on the locations of orthologues in A. thaliana can be misleading. Our results will be of relevance to a wide range of plants that have polyploid genomes, many of which are being considered according to a paradigm of comprising conserved synteny blocks with respect to sequenced, related genomes.
The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae) is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele). Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.
The complex genome of rapeseed (Brassica napus) is not well understood despite the economic importance of the species. Good knowledge of sequence variation is needed for genetics approaches and breeding purposes. We used a diversity set of B. napus representing eight different germplasm types to sequence genome-wide distributed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) fragments for polymorphism detection and genotyping.
More than 113,000 RAD clusters with more than 20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 125 insertions/deletions were detected and characterized. About one third of the RAD clusters and polymorphisms mapped to the Brassica rapa reference sequence. An even distribution of RAD clusters and polymorphisms was observed across the B. rapa chromosomes, which suggests that there might be an equal distribution over the Brassica oleracea chromosomes, too. The representation of Gene Ontology (GO) terms for unigenes with RAD clusters and polymorphisms revealed no signature of selection with respect to the distribution of polymorphisms within genes belonging to a specific GO category.
Considering the decreasing costs for next-generation sequencing, the results of our study suggest that RAD sequencing is not only a simple and cost-effective method for high-density polymorphism detection but also an alternative to SNP genotyping from transcriptome sequencing or SNP arrays, even for species with complex genomes such as B. napus.
Brassica napus; Restriction-site associated DNA; Next-generation sequencing; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Genotyping by sequencing; Genetic diversity
The species Brassica rapa includes various vegetable crops. Production of these vegetable crops is usually impaired by heat stress. Some microRNAs (miRNAs) in Arabidopsis have been considered to mediate gene silencing in plant response to abiotic stress. However, it remains unknown whether or what miRNAs play a role in heat resistance of B. rapa. To identify genomewide conserved and novel miRNAs that are responsive to heat stress in B. rapa, we defined temperature thresholds of non-heading Chinese cabbage (B. rapa ssp. chinensis) and constructed small RNA libraries from the seedlings that had been exposed to high temperature (46 °C) for 1 h. By deep sequencing and data analysis, we selected a series of conserved and novel miRNAs that responded to heat stress. In total, Chinese cabbage shares at least 35 conserved miRNA families with Arabidopsis thaliana. Among them, five miRNA families were responsive to heat stress. Northern hybridization and real-time PCR showed that the conserved miRNAs bra-miR398a and bra-miR398b were heat-inhibitive and guided heat response of their target gene, BracCSD1; and bra-miR156h and bra-miR156g were heat-induced and its putative target BracSPL2 was down-regulated. According to the criteria of miRNA and miRNA* that form a duplex, 21 novel miRNAs belonging to 19 miRNA families were predicted. Of these, four were identified to be heat-responsive by Northern blotting and/or expression analysis of the putative targets. The two novel miRNAs bra-miR1885b.3 and bra-miR5718 negatively regulated their putative target genes. 5′-Rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR indicated that three novel miRNAs cleaved the transcripts of their target genes where their precursors may have evolved from. These results broaden our perspective on the important role of miRNA in plant responses to heat.
Brassica rapa; heat response; miRNA; small RNA
Following successful completion of the Brassica rapa sequencing project, the next step is to investigate functions of individual genes/proteins. For Arabidopsis thaliana, large amounts of protein–protein interaction (PPI) data are available from the major PPI databases (DBs). It is known that Brassica crop species are closely related to A. thaliana. This provides an opportunity to infer the B. rapa interactome using PPI data available from A. thaliana. In this paper, we present an inferred B. rapa interactome that is based on the A. thaliana PPI data from two resources: (i) A. thaliana PPI data from three major DBs, BioGRID, IntAct, and TAIR. (ii) ortholog-based A. thaliana PPI predictions. Linking between B. rapa and A. thaliana was accomplished in three complementary ways: (i) ortholog predictions, (ii) identification of gene duplication based on synteny and collinearity, and (iii) BLAST sequence similarity search. A complementary approach was also applied, which used known/predicted domain–domain interaction data. Specifically, since the two species are closely related, we used PPI data from A. thaliana to predict interacting domains that might be conserved between the two species. The predicted interactome was investigated for the component that contains known A. thaliana meiotic proteins to demonstrate its usability.
Brassica rapa; Arabidopsis thaliana; interactome; protein–protein interaction; domain–domain interaction; meiosis
Genome evolution is a continuous process and genomic rearrangement occurs both within and between species. With the sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, comparative genetics and genomics offer new insights into plant biology. The genus Brassica offers excellent opportunities with which to compare genomic synteny so as to reveal genome evolution. During a previous genetic analysis of clubroot resistance in Brassica rapa, we identified a genetic region that is highly collinear with Arabidopsis chromosome 4. This region corresponds to a disease resistance gene cluster in the A. thaliana genome. Relying on synteny with Arabidopsis, we fine-mapped the region and found that the location and order of the markers showed good correspondence with those in Arabidopsis. Microsynteny on a physical map indicated an almost parallel correspondence, with a few rearrangements such as inversions and insertions. The results show that this genomic region of Brassica is conserved extensively with that of Arabidopsis and has potential as a disease resistance gene cluster, although the genera diverged 20 million years ago.
microsynteny; genome evolution; genome organization; genomic collinearity; BAC library
The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP) has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola).
In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from 536 sequenced BACs. 890 SSR markers (designated as BrGMS) were developed and used for the construction of an integrated linkage map for the A genome in B. rapa and B. napus. Two hundred and nineteen BrGMS markers were integrated to an existing B. napus linkage map (BnaNZDH). Among these mapped BrGMS markers, 168 were only distributed on the A genome linkage groups (LGs), 18 distrubuted both on the A and C genome LGs, and 33 only distributed on the C genome LGs. Most of the A genome LGs in B. napus were collinear with the homoeologous LGs in B. rapa, although minor inversions or rearrangements occurred on A2 and A9. The mapping of these BAC-specific SSR markers enabled assignment of 161 sequenced B. rapa BACs, as well as the associated BAC contigs to the A genome LGs of B. napus.
The genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa enabled direct links to be established between the B. napus linkage map and a B. rapa physical map, and thus the assignment of B. rapa BACs and the associated BAC contigs to the B. napus linkage map. This integrated genetic linkage map will facilitate exploitation of the B. rapa annotated genomic resources for gene tagging and map-based cloning in B. napus, and for comparative analysis of the A genome within Brassica species.
Completion of the sequencing of the Brassica rapa genome enabled us to undertake a genome-wide identification and functional study of the gene families related to the morphological diversity and agronomic traits of Brassica crops. In this study, we identified the auxin response factor (ARF) gene family, which is one of the key regulators of auxin-mediated plant growth and development in the B. rapa genome. A total of 31 ARF genes were identified in the genome. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses suggest that ARF genes fell into four major classes and were amplified in the B. rapa genome as a result of a recent whole genome triplication after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite its recent hexaploid ancestry, B. rapa includes a relatively small number of ARF genes compared with the 23 members in A. thaliana, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative genomic and mRNA sequencing analyses demonstrated that 27 of the 31 BrARF genes were transcriptionally active, and their expression was affected by either auxin treatment or floral development stage, although 4 genes were inactive, suggesting that the generation and pseudogenization of ARF members are likely to be an ongoing process. This study will provide a fundamental basis for the modification and evolution of the gene family after a polyploidy event, as well as a functional study of ARF genes in a polyploidy crop species.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00438-012-0718-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Brassica rapa; Auxin response factor; Genome organization; mRNA sequencing; Evolution
Arabidopsis belongs to the Brassicaceae family and plays an important role as a model plant for which researchers have developed fine-tuned genome resources. Genome sequencing projects have been initiated for other members of the Brassicaceae family. Among these projects, research on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) started early because of strong interest in this species. Here, we report the development of a library of Chinese cabbage full-length cDNA clones, the RIKEN BRC B. rapa full-length cDNA (BBRAF) resource, to accelerate research on Brassica species. We sequenced 10 000 BBRAF clones and confirmed 5476 independent clones. Most of these cDNAs showed high homology to Arabidopsis genes, but we also obtained more than 200 cDNA clones that lacked any sequence homology to Arabidopsis genes. We also successfully identified several possible candidate marker genes for plant defence responses from our analysis of the expression of the Brassica counterparts of Arabidopsis marker genes in response to salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. We compared gene expression of these markers in several Chinese cabbage cultivars. Our BBRAF cDNA resource will be publicly available from the RIKEN Bioresource Center and will help researchers to transfer Arabidopsis-related knowledge to Brassica crops.
Arabidopsis; Brassica rapa; full-length cDNA; jasmonic acid; salicylic acid
Anthocyanins are flavonoid pigments that are responsible for purple coloration in the stems and leaves of a variety of plant species. Anthocyaninless (anl) mutants of Brassica rapa fail to produce anthocyanin pigments. In rapid-cycling Brassica rapa, also known as Wisconsin Fast Plants, the anthocyaninless trait, also called non-purple stem, is widely used as a model recessive trait for teaching genetics. Although anthocyanin genes have been mapped in other plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, the anl locus has not been mapped in any Brassica species.
We tested primer pairs known to amplify microsatellites in Brassicas and identified 37 that amplified a product in rapid-cycling Brassica rapa. We then developed three-generation pedigrees to assess linkage between the microsatellite markers and anl. 22 of the markers that we tested were polymorphic in our crosses. Based on 177 F2 offspring, we identified three markers linked to anl with LOD scores ≥ 5.0, forming a linkage group spanning 46.9 cM. Because one of these markers has been assigned to a known B. rapa linkage group, we can now assign the anl locus to B. rapa linkage group R9.
This study is the first to identify the chromosomal location of an anthocyanin pigment gene among the Brassicas. It also connects a classical mutant frequently used in genetics education with molecular markers and a known chromosomal location.
Nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-encoding resistance genes are key plant disease-resistance genes and are abundant in plant genomes, comprising up to 2% of all genes. The availability of genome sequences from several plant models enables the identification and cloning of NBS-encoding genes from closely related species based on a comparative genomics approach. In this study, we used the genome sequence of Brassica rapa to identify NBS-encoding genes in the Brassica genome. We identified 92 non-redundant NBS-encoding genes [30 CC-NBS-LRR (CNL) and 62 TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) genes] in approximately 100 Mbp of B. rapa euchromatic genome sequence. Despite the fact that B. rapa has a significantly larger genome than Arabidopsis thaliana due to a recent whole genome triplication event after speciation, B. rapa contains relatively small number of NBS-encoding genes compared to A. thaliana, presumably because of deletion of redundant genes related to genome diploidization. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses suggest that relatively higher relaxation of selective constraints on the TNL group after the old duplication event resulted in greater accumulation of TNLs than CNLs in both Arabidopsis and Brassica genomes. Recent tandem duplication and ectopic deletion are likely to have played a role in the generation of novel Brassica lineage-specific resistance genes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00438-009-0492-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Brassica rapa; NBS-encoding gene; Disease resistance; Genome diploidization; Evolution
Yellow seed is a desirable quality trait of the Brassica oilseed species. Previously, several seed coat color genes have been mapped in the Brassica species, but the molecular mechanism is still unknown. In the present investigation, map-based cloning method was used to identify a seed coat color gene, located on A9 in B. rapa. Blast analysis with the Arabidopsis genome showed that there were 22 Arabidopsis genes in this region including at4g09820 to at4g10620. Functional complementation test exhibited a phenotype reversion in the Arabidopsis thaliana tt8-1 mutant and yellow-seeded plant. These results suggested that the candidate gene was a homolog of TRANSPARENT TESTA8 (TT8) locus. BrTT8 regulated the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the seed coat. Sequence analysis of two alleles revealed a large insertion of a new class of transposable elements, Helitron in yellow sarson. In addition, no mRNA expression of BrTT8 was detected in the yellow-seeded line. It indicated that the natural transposon might have caused the loss in function of BrTT8. BrTT8 encodes a basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that shares a high degree of similarity with other bHLH proteins in the Brassica. Further expression analysis also revealed that BrTT8 was involved in controlling the late biosynthetic genes (LBGs) of the flavonoid pathway. Our present findings provided with further studies could assist in understanding the molecular mechanism involved in seed coat color formation in Brassica species, which is an important oil yielding quality trait.