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1.  Serotonin paracrine signaling in tissue fibrosis☆☆☆ 
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta  2013;1832(7):905-910.
The molecule serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is involved in numerous biological processes both inside and outside of the central nervous system. 5-HT signals through 5-HT receptors and it is the diversity of these receptors and their subtypes that give rise to the varied physiological responses. It is clear that platelet derived serotonin is critical for normal wound healing in multiple organs including, liver, lung heart and skin. 5-HT stimulates both vasoconstriction and vasodilation, influences inflammatory responses and promotes formation of a temporary scar which acts as a scaffold for normal tissue to be restored. However, in situations of chronic injury or damage 5-HT signaling can have deleterious effects and promote aberrant wound healing resulting in tissue fibrosis and impaired organ regeneration. This review highlights the diverse actions of serotonin signaling in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disease and explores how modulating the activity of specific 5-HT receptors, in particular the 5-HT2 subclass could have the potential to limit fibrosis and restore tissue regeneration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Fibrosis: Translation of basic research to human disease.
Highlights
► Introduction, overview of serotonin signaling and biology ► The role of serotonin in wound healing, regeneration and fibrosis ► Future perspectives
doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2012.09.009
PMCID: PMC3793867  PMID: 23032152
Fibrosis; Serotonin
2.  Activation of canonical Wnt signalling is required for TGF-β-mediated fibrosis 
Nature Communications  2012;3:735-.
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signalling pathway is a key mediator of fibroblast activation that drives the aberrant synthesis of extracellular matrix in fibrotic diseases. Here we demonstrate a novel link between transforming growth factor-β and the canonical Wnt pathway. TGF-β stimulates canonical Wnt signalling in a p38-dependent manner by decreasing the expression of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1. Tissue samples from human fibrotic diseases show enhanced expression of Wnt proteins and decreased expression of Dickkopf-1. Activation of the canonical Wnt pathway stimulates fibroblasts in vitro and induces fibrosis in vivo. Transgenic overexpression of Dickkopf-1 ameliorates skin fibrosis induced by constitutively active TGF-β receptor type I signalling and also prevents fibrosis in other TGF-β-dependent animal models. These findings demonstrate that canonical Wnt signalling is necessary for TGF-β-mediated fibrosis and highlight a key role for the interaction of both pathways in the pathogenesis of fibrotic diseases.
Aberrant activation of the TGF-β pathway leads to fibrotic disease. Distler and colleagues show that TGF-β-mediated fibrosis requires the decrease of Dickkopf-1, an antagonist of canonical Wnt signalling, suggesting that the two pathways interact for the manifestation of this disease.
doi:10.1038/ncomms1734
PMCID: PMC3316881  PMID: 22415826
3.  The Possible Potential Therapeutic Targets for Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth 
Mediators of Inflammation  2013;2013:639468.
Gingival overgrowth is a side effect of certain medications. The most fibrotic drug-induced lesions develop in response to therapy with phenytoin, the least fibrotic lesions are caused by cyclosporin A, and the intermediate fibrosis occurs in nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth. Fibrosis is one of the largest groups of diseases for which there is no therapy but is believed to occur because of a persistent tissue repair program. During connective tissue repair, activated gingival fibroblasts synthesize and remodel newly created extracellular matrix. Proteins such as transforming growth factor (TGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), angiotensin II (Ang II), connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) appear to act in a network that contributes to the development of gingival fibrosis. Since inflammation is the prerequisite for gingival overgrowth, mast cells and its protease enzymes also play a vital role in the pathogenesis of gingival fibrosis. Drugs targeting these proteins are currently under consideration as antifibrotic treatments. This review summarizes recent observations concerning the contribution of TGF-β, CTGF, IGF, PDGF, ET-1, Ang II, and mast cell chymase and tryptase enzymes to fibroblast activation in gingival fibrosis and the potential utility of agents blocking these proteins in affecting the outcome of drug-induced gingival overgrowth.
doi:10.1155/2013/639468
PMCID: PMC3652200  PMID: 23690667
4.  Gadolinium-induced fibrosis is counter-regulated by CCN3 in human dermal fibroblasts: a model for potential treatment of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis 
We recently show that CCN3 is a counter-regulatory molecule for the pro-fibrotic protein CCN2, and a potentially novel fibrosis therapy. The goal of this study was to assess the role of CCN3 in fibroproliferative/fibrotic responses in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to Omniscan, one of the gadolinium-based contrast agents associated with development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) a rare but life-threatening disease thought to be complication of NMR diagnostics in renal impaired patients. Human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to Omniscan; or to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) as controls. Proliferation was assessed along with matrix metalloproteinase-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and type 1 procollagen in the absence and presence of CCN3. In parallel, CCN3 production was assessed in control and Omniscan-treated cells. The results showed that PDGF stimulated fibroblast proliferation, production of Timp-1 and MMP-1 whereas exogenous CCN3 inhibited, in a dose response manner, cell proliferation (approx. 50 % max.) and production of MMP-1 (approx 35 % max.) but had little effect on TIMP-1. TGF-β stimulated type 1 procollagen production but not proliferation, Timp-1 or MMP-1 compared to non-TGF-ß treated control cells, and CCN3 treatment blocked (approx. 80 % max.) this up-regulation. Interestingly, untreated, control fibroblasts produced high constitutive levels of CCN3 and concentrations of Omniscan that induced fibroproliferative/fibrogenic changes in dermal fibroblasts correspondingly suppressed CCN3 production. The use of PDGF and TGF-β as positive controls, and the study of differential responses, including that to Omniscan itself, provide the first evidence for a role of fibroblast-derived CCN3 as an endogenous regulator of pro-fibrotic changes, elucidating possible mechanism(s). In conclusion, these data support our hypothesis of a role for fibroblast-derived CCN3 as an endogenous regulator of pro-fibrotic changes in these cells, and suggest that CCN3 may be an important regulatory molecule in NSF and a target for treatment in this and other fibrotic diseases.
doi:10.1007/s12079-012-0164-4
PMCID: PMC3368017  PMID: 22648571
Nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (NOV) [CCN3]; Gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA); Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1); Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF); Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotienases-1 (TIMP-1); Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)
5.  Egr-1: new conductor for the tissue repair orchestra directs harmony (regeneration) or cacophony (fibrosis) 
The Journal of pathology  2012;229(2):286-297.
Fibroblasts and myofibroblasts are the key effector cells executing physiologic tissue repair leading to regeneration on one hand, and pathological fibrogenesis leading to chronic fibrosing conditions on the other. Recent studies identify the multifunctional transcription factor Early Growth Response-1(Egr-1) as an important mediator of fibroblast activation triggered by diverse stimuli. Egr-1 has potent stimulatory effects on fibrotic gene expression, and aberrant Egr-1 expression or function is associated with animal models of fibrosis and human fibrotic disorders including emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and systemic sclerosis. Pharmacological suppression or genetic targeting of Egr-1 blocks fibrotic responses in vitro and ameliorates experimental fibrosis in the skin and lung. In contrast, Egr-1 appear to acts as a negative regulator of hepatic fibrosis in mouse models, suggesting a context-dependent role in fibrosis. The Egr-1-binding protein Nab2 is an endogenous inhibitor of Egr-1-mediated signaling, and abrogates the stimulation of fibrotic responses induced by transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß). Moreover, mice deficient in Nab2 show excessive collagen accumulation in the skin. These observations highlight a previously unsuspected fundamental physiologic function for the Egr-1/Nab2 signaling axis in regulating fibrogenesis, and suggest that Egr-1 may be a potential novel therapeutic target in human diseases complicated by fibrosis. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the regulation and complex functional role of Egr-1 and its related proteins and inhibitors in pathological fibrosis.
doi:10.1002/path.4131
PMCID: PMC3965177  PMID: 23132749
Egr-1; Nab2; TGF-ß; fibrosis; scleroderma; fibroblast; myofibroblast; p300; c-Abl
6.  A polymorphism in the human serotonin 5-HT2A receptor gene may protect against systemic sclerosis by reducing platelet aggregation 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2008;10(5):R103.
Introduction
Platelet aggregation may contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis: following activation, platelets release significant amounts of serotonin – which promotes vasoconstriction and fibrosis, and further enhances aggregation. The C+1354T polymorphism in the exonic region of the serotonin 2A receptor gene determining the His452Tyr substitution was associated with blunted intracellular responses after serotonin stimulation, and may have a role in susceptibility to scleroderma.
Methods
One hundred and fifteen consecutive systemic sclerosis patients and 140 well-matched healthy control individuals were genotyped by sequence-specific primer-PCR for the His452Tyr substitution of the serotonin 2A receptor gene, and associations were sought with scleroderma and its main clinical features. The functional relevance of the His452Tyr substitution was also assessed by evaluating the aggregation of platelet-rich plasma from His452/His452 and His452/Tyr452 healthy individuals after stimulation with adenosine diphosphate ± serotonin.
Results
The T allele of the C+1354T polymorphism was underrepresented in scleroderma patients compared with control individuals (5.2% versus 12.4%, P < 0.001, chi-square test and 1,000-fold permutation test) and its carriage reduced the risk for systemic sclerosis (odds ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval = 0.19 to 0.85, P < 0.01). Platelets from His452/Tyr452 healthy subjects more weakly responded to serotonin stimulation compared with platelets from His452/His452 individuals (3.2 ± 2.6-fold versus 9.6 ± 8.6-fold increase in aggregation, P = 0.017 by Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and P = 0.003 after correction for baseline adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation values).
Conclusion
The His452Tyr substitution may influence susceptibility to systemic sclerosis by altering platelet aggregation in response to serotonin.
doi:10.1186/ar2495
PMCID: PMC2592780  PMID: 18761744
7.  Rupatadine Protects against Pulmonary Fibrosis by Attenuating PAF-Mediated Senescence in Rodents 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68631.
A similar immune response is implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and allergic disorders. We investigated the potential therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of rupatadine, a dual antagonist of histamine and platelet-activation factor (PAF), in bleomycin- (BLM-) and silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The indicated dosages of rupatadine were administered in rodents with bleomycin or silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The tissue injury, fibrosis, inflammatory cells and cytokines, and lung function were examined to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of rupatadine. The anti-fibrosis effect of rupatadine was compared with an H1 or PAF receptor antagonist, and efforts were made to reveal rupatadine’s anti-fibrotic mechanism. Rupatadine promoted the resolution of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by the reductions in inflammation score, collagen deposition and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, and infiltration or expression of inflammatory cells or cytokines in the fibrotic lung tissue. Thus, rupatadine treatment improved the declined lung function and significantly decreased animal death. Moreover, rupatadine was able not only to attenuate silica-induced silicosis but also to produce a superior therapeutic efficacy compared to pirfenidone, histamine H1 antagonist loratadine, or PAF antagonist CV-3988. The anti-fibrotic action of rupatadine might relate to its attenuation of BLM- or PAF-induced premature senescence because rupatadine treatment protected against the in vivo and in vitro activation of the p53/p21-dependent senescence pathway. Our studies indicate that rupatadine promotes the resolution of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis by attenuating the PAF-mediated senescence response. Rupatadine holds promise as a novel drug to treat the devastating disease of pulmonary fibrosis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068631
PMCID: PMC3711902  PMID: 23869224
8.  Innovative Approaches to the Therapy of Fibrosis 
Current opinion in rheumatology  2009;21(6):649-655.
Purpose of review
The lung in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is susceptible to fibrosis and the ensuing respiratory insufficiency contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in this disease. The lack of effective therapies for pulmonary fibrosis has spurred a re-evaluation of pathobiological paradigms and therapeutic strategies in scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The purpose of this review is to examine emerging new therapeutic targets that modulate pro-fibrotic phenotypes of tissue-resident cells and the associated aberrant tissue remodeling responses in fibrotic disorders.
Recent findings
Progressive forms of tissue fibrosis, including scleroderma, are characterized by an accumulation of activated mesenchymal cells and their secreted extracellular matrix proteins in association with dysrepair of epithelial and endothelial cells. Recent studies suggest that emergence of cellular phenotypes that perpetuate loss of cellular homeostasis is characteristic of many fibrosis-related clinical syndromes.
Summary
Therapeutic strategies that modulate the fate/phenotype of reparative structural cells, including epithelial, endothelial, and mesenchymal cells, offer new opportunities for the development of more effective drugs for the treatment of fibrosis.
doi:10.1097/BOR.0b013e328330da9b
PMCID: PMC2862988  PMID: 19667993
Epithelial Cells; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Fibroblasts; Apoptosis; Protein Kinase Inhibitors; PPAR gamma; Losartan; Bosentan; Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductase Inhibitors
9.  5-HT2B antagonism arrests non-canonical TGF-β1-induced valvular myofibroblast differentiation 
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induces myofibroblast activation of quiescent aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs), a differentiation process implicated in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). The ubiquity of TGF-β1 signaling makes it difficult to target in a tissue specific manner; however, the serotonin 2B receptor (5-HT2B) is highly localized to cardiopulmonary tissues and agonism of this receptor displays pro-fibrotic effects in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that antagonism of 5-HT2B opposes TGF-β1-induced pathologic differentiation of AVICs and may offer a druggable target to prevent CAVD. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the interaction of 5-HT2B antagonism with canonical and non-canonical TGF-β1 pathways to inhibit TGF-β1-induced activation of isolated porcine AVICs in vitro. Here we show that AVIC activation and subsequent calcific nodule formation is completely mitigated by 5-HT2B antagonism. Interestingly, 5-HT2B antagonism does not inhibit canonical TGF-β1 signaling as identified by Smad3 phosphorylation and activation of a partial plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter (PAI-1, a transcriptional target of Smad3), but prevents non-canonical p38 MAPK phosphorylation. It was initially suspected that 5-HT2B antagonism prevents Src tyrosine kinase phosphorylation; however, we found that this is not the case and time-lapse microscopy indicates that 5-HT2B antagonism prevents non-canonical TGF-β1 signaling by physically arresting Src tyrosine kinase. This study demonstrates the necessity of non-canonical TGF-β1 signaling in leading to pathologic AVIC differentiation. Moreover, we believe that the results of this study suggest 5-HT2B antagonism as a novel therapeutic approach for CAVD that merits further investigation.
doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2012.08.012
PMCID: PMC3472096  PMID: 22940605
heart valves; calcification; TGF-β1; serotonin receptors
10.  Protease-Activated Receptor 1 Inhibition by SCH79797 Attenuates Left Ventricular Remodeling and Profibrotic Activities of Cardiac Fibroblasts 
Purpose
Fibroblast activity promotes adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling that underlies the development of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a potent stimulus for fibrosis, and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases(ERK) 1/2 pathway also contributes to the fibrotic response. The thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), has been shown to play an important role in the excessive fibrosis in different tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a PAR1 inhibitor, SCH79797, on cardiac fibrosis, tissue stiffness and postinfarction remodeling, and effects of PAR1 inhibition on thrombin-induced TGF-β and (ERK) 1/2 activities in cardiac fibroblasts.
Methods
We used a rat model of myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury, isolated cardiac fibroblasts, and 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue models fabricated to ascertain the contribution of PAR1 activation on cardiac fibrosis and LV remodeling.
Results
The PAR1 inhibitor attenuated LV dilation and improved LV systolic function of the reperfused myocardium at 28 days. This improvement was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in scar size (%LV) from 23 ± % in the control group (n = 10) to 16% ± 5.5% in the treated group (n = 9; P = .052). In the short term, the PAR1 inhibitor did not rescue infarct size or LV systolic function after 3 days. The PAR1 inhibition abolished thrombin-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TGF-β and type I procollagen production, matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activation, myofibroblasts transformation in vitro, and abrogated the remodeling of 3D tissues induced by chronic thrombin treatment.
Conclusion
These studies suggest PAR1 inhibition initiated after ischemic injury attenuates adverse LV remodeling through late-stage antifibrotic events.
doi:10.1177/1074248413485434
PMCID: PMC3771535  PMID: 23598708
cardiac fibrosis; protease-activated receptor 1; thrombin receptor antagonist; remodeling; ischemia; reperfusion; 3D cell culture
11.  Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Downregulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D Expression in Human Lung Fibroblasts via the Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Signaling Pathway 
Molecular Medicine  2014;20(1):120-134.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D, a member of the VEGF family, induces both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by activating VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and VEGFR-3 on the surface of endothelial cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been shown to stimulate VEGF-A expression in human lung fibroblast via the Smad3 signaling pathway and to induce VEGF-C in human proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, the effects of TGF-β1 on VEGF-D regulation are unknown. To investigate the regulation of VEGF-D, human lung fibroblasts were studied under pro-fibrotic conditions in vitro and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 downregulates VEGF-D expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human lung fibroblasts. This TGF-β1 effect can be abolished by inhibitors of TGF-β type I receptor kinase and Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), but not by Smad3 knockdown. In addition, VEGF-D knockdown in human lung fibroblasts induces G1/S transition and promotes cell proliferation. Importantly, VEGF-D protein expression is decreased in lung homogenates from IPF patients compared with control lung. In IPF lung sections, fibroblastic foci show very weak VEGF-D immunoreactivity, whereas VEGF-D is abundantly expressed within alveolar interstitial cells in control lung. Taken together, our data identify a novel mechanism for downstream signal transduction induced by TGF-β1 in lung fibroblasts, through which they may mediate tissue remodeling in IPF.
doi:10.2119/molmed.2013.00123
PMCID: PMC3960396  PMID: 24515257
12.  Role of Serotoninergic Pathways in Drug-induced Valvular Heart Disease and Diagnostic Features by Echocardiography 
Serotonin plays a significant role in the development of carcinoid heart disease, which primarily leads to fibrosis and contraction of right-sided heart valves. Recently, strong evidence has emerged that the use of specific drug classes such as ergot alkaloids (for migraine headaches), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) uptake regulators/inhibitors (for weight reduction), and ergot-derived dopamine agonists (for Parkinson’s disease) can result in left-sided heart valve damage that resembles carcinoid heart disease. Recent studies suggest that both right- and left-sided drug-induced heart valve disease involves increased serotoninergic activity and in particular activation of the 5-HT receptors, including the 5-HT2B receptor subtype, which mediate many of the central and peripheral functions of serotonin. G-proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity mediate the activity of the 5-HT2B receptor subunit which is widely expressed in a variety of tissues including liver, lung, heart, and coronary and pulmonary arteries; and it has also been reported in embryonic mouse heart, particularly on mouse heart valve leaflets. In this review we discuss the salient features of serotoninergic manifestations of both carcinoid heart disease and drug-induced cardiac valvulopathy with an emphasis on echocardiographic diagnosis.
doi:10.1016/j.echo.2009.05.002
PMCID: PMC3808845  PMID: 19553085
Carcinoid heart disease; Serotonin; Echocardiography
13.  Human Skin Culture as an Ex Vivo Model for Assessing the Fibrotic Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins  
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease of unknown etiology. A hallmark of SSc is fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. We recently demonstrated increased expression of IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 in primary cultures of fibroblasts from the skin of patients with SSc. In vitro, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 induced a fibrotic phenotype and IGFBP-5 triggered dermal fibrosis in mice. To assess the ability of IGFBPs to trigger fibrosis, we used an ex vivo human skin organ culture model. Our findings demonstrate that IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, but not IGFBP-4, increase dermal and collagen bundle thickness in human skin explants, resulting in substantial dermal fibrosis and thickening. These fibrotic effects were sustained for at least two weeks. Our findings demonstrate that human skin ex vivo is an appropriate model to assess the effects of fibrosis-inducing factors such as IGFBPs, and for evaluating the efficacy of inhibitors/therapies to halt the progression of fibrosis and potentially reverse it.
doi:10.2174/1874312900802010017
PMCID: PMC2577950  PMID: 19088866
14.  Lysophosphatidic acid and renal fibrosis 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2008;1781(9):582-587.
Summary
The development of fibrosis involves a multitude of events and molecules. Until now the majority of these molecules were found to be proteins or peptides. But recent data show significant involvement of the phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the development of pulmonary, liver and renal fibrosis. The latest data on the role of LPA and the G-protein-coupled LPA1 receptor in the development of renal fibrosis will be discussed. LPA1 receptor-activation was found to be associated with increased vascular leakage and increased fibroblast recruitment in pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, in renal fibrosis LPA1 receptor-activation stimulates macrophage recruitment and connective tissue growth factor expression. The observations make this receptor an interesting alternative and new therapeutic target in fibrotic diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2008.04.001
PMCID: PMC2577601  PMID: 18455518
15.  Endoglin in fibrosis and scleroderma 
International review of cell and molecular biology  2012;297:10.1016/B978-0-12-394308-8.00008-X.
Fibrosis plays a role in many pathological conditions, among which is the autoimmune disease systemic sclerosis (SSc). SSc is characterized by fibrosis in the skin and internal organs, but the etiology remains to be elucidated. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a key player in the fibrotic process, also in SSc. TGF-β induces the production of several components of the extracellular matrix and induces differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, which further worsens fibrosis. Although TGF-β has been extensively investigated in fibrosis, the roles of several components of its signaling pathway are still unknown. Endoglin is a co-receptor for TGF-β and is known to modulate TGF-β signaling. Therefore, endoglin could enhance the effects of TGF-β in fibrosis or act as an inhibitor. Multiple studies have been conducted that support either hypothesis. Elucidating the exact role of endoglin in TGF-β signaling during fibrosis is important in understanding the process of fibrosis and could lead to the development of better treatment.
doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-394308-8.00008-X
PMCID: PMC3824608  PMID: 22608563
Endoglin; systemic sclerosis; fibrosis; TGF-β
16.  Overview of Platelet Physiology: Its Hemostatic and Nonhemostatic Role in Disease Pathogenesis 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:781857.
Platelets are small anucleate cell fragments that circulate in blood playing crucial role in managing vascular integrity and regulating hemostasis. Platelets are also involved in the fundamental biological process of chronic inflammation associated with disease pathology. Platelet indices like mean platelets volume (MPV), platelets distributed width (PDW), and platelet crit (PCT) are useful as cheap noninvasive biomarkers for assessing the diseased states. Dynamic platelets bear distinct morphology, where α and dense granule are actively involved in secretion of molecules like GPIIb , IIIa, fibrinogen, vWf, catecholamines, serotonin, calcium, ATP, ADP, and so forth, which are involved in aggregation. Differential expressions of surface receptors like CD36, CD41, CD61 and so forth have also been quantitated in several diseases. Platelet clinical research faces challenges due to the vulnerable nature of platelet structure functions and lack of accurate assay techniques. But recent advancement in flow cytometry inputs huge progress in the field of platelets study. Platelets activation and dysfunction have been implicated in diabetes, renal diseases, tumorigenesis, Alzheimer's, and CVD. In conclusion, this paper elucidates that platelets are not that innocent as they keep showing and thus numerous novel platelet biomarkers are upcoming very soon in the field of clinical research which can be important for predicting and diagnosing disease state.
doi:10.1155/2014/781857
PMCID: PMC3960550
17.  Enhanced migration of fibroblasts derived from lungs with fibrotic lesions. 
Thorax  1995;50(9):984-989.
BACKGROUND--The migration and proliferation of fibroblasts may be important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Considerable data are available on the proliferation of fibroblasts, but very few on their migration. METHODS--The migratory activity of fibroblasts obtained from lung biopsy specimens from 11 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was studied using a 96-well chemotaxis chamber. Fibroblasts from eight normal controls, seven patients with interstitial fibrosis associated with a collagen vascular disease (IP-CVD), and 13 patients with sarcoidosis were also examined. Migratory activity was tested in a serum-free medium in the presence and absence of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), 30 ng/ml, as a chemoattractant. RESULTS--Migration of fibroblasts from patients with IPF was enhanced in serum-free maintenance medium alone (mean (SD) controls v IPF: 183 (86) v 689 (491) cells/field), and was also enhanced when cells were stimulated by PDGF (controls v IPF: 829 (222) v 1928 (600) cells/field). Fibroblasts from tissues with dense fibrosis had a greater capacity for migration than those from an earlier stage of fibrosis. No correlation was found between migratory activity and proliferative capacity of the individual cells. CONCLUSIONS--The fact that fibroblasts from fibrotic lungs migrate faster than those from controls suggests that migration is related to the initiation of the pulmonary fibrotic process. These in vitro studies suggest that fibroblasts derived from the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis have a migratory phenotype. Such a change in fibroblast phenotype, if it occurred in vivo, may be important in the context of the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis.
PMCID: PMC1021314  PMID: 8539681
18.  Increased local expression of coagulation factor X contributes to the fibrotic response in human and murine lung injury 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2009;119(9):2550-2563.
Uncontrolled activation of the coagulation cascade contributes to the pathophysiology of several conditions, including acute and chronic lung diseases. Coagulation zymogens are considered to be largely derived from the circulation and locally activated in response to tissue injury and microvascular leak. Here we report that expression of coagulation factor X (FX) is locally increased in human and murine fibrotic lung tissue, with marked immunostaining associated with bronchial and alveolar epithelia. FXa was a potent inducer of the myofibroblast differentiation program in cultured primary human adult lung fibroblasts via TGF-β activation that was mediated by proteinase-activated receptor–1 (PAR1) and integrin αvβ5. PAR1, αvβ5, and α-SMA colocalized to fibrotic foci in lung biopsy specimens from individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, we demonstrated a causal link between FXa and fibrosis development by showing that a direct FXa inhibitor attenuated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. These data support what we believe to be a novel pathogenetic mechanism by which FXa, a central proteinase of the coagulation cascade, is locally expressed and drives the fibrotic response to lung injury. These findings herald a shift in our understanding of the origins of excessive procoagulant activity and place PAR1 central to the cross-talk between local procoagulant signaling and tissue remodeling.
doi:10.1172/JCI33288
PMCID: PMC2735922  PMID: 19652365
19.  VEGF ameliorates pulmonary hypertension through inhibition of endothelial apoptosis in experimental lung fibrosis in rats 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2009;119(5):1298-1311.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) can lead to the development of secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH) and ultimately death. Despite this known association, the precise mechanism of disease remains unknown. Using a rat model of IPF, we explored the role of the proangiogenic and antiapoptotic growth factor VEGF in the vascular remodeling that underlies PH. In this model, adenoviral delivery of active TGF-β1 induces pulmonary arterial remodeling, loss of the microvasculature in fibrotic areas, and increased pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). Immunohistochemistry and mRNA analysis revealed decreased levels of VEGF and its receptor, which were inversely correlated with PAP and endothelial cell apoptosis in both the micro- and macrovasculature. Treatment of IPF rats with adenoviral delivery of VEGF resulted in reduced endothelial apoptosis, increased vascularization, and improved PAP due to reduced remodeling but worsened PF. These data show that experimental pulmonary fibrosis (PF) leads to loss of the microvasculature through increased apoptosis and to remodeling of the pulmonary arteries, with both processes resulting in PH. As administration of VEGF ameliorated the PH in this model but concomitantly aggravated the fibrogenic process, VEGF-based therapies should be used with caution.
doi:10.1172/JCI36136
PMCID: PMC2673845  PMID: 19381013
20.  Fibrocyte CXCR4 regulation as a therapeutic target in pulmonary fibrosis 
Fibrotic interstitial lung diseases are characterized by progressive decline in lung function and premature death from respiratory failure. Fibrocytes are circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cell that traffic to the lungs and contribute to fibrosis and may represent novel therapeutic targets in these diseases. We have previously found the recruitment of fibrocytes to the lung to be dependent on the chemokine ligand CXCL12. Given that the expression of the CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4, can be modulated pharmacologically in other cell types, we tested the hypotheses that the regulation of CXCR4 expression on fibrocytes mediates their influx to the lung in the context of pulmonary fibrosis and that pharmacologic inhibition of this process results in attenuated disease severity. CXCR4 was the predominant chemokine receptor on human fibrocytes, and its expression on fibrocytes was enhanced by hypoxia and by growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor. Both hypoxia-induced and growth factor-induced CXCR4 expressions were attenuated by specific inhibition of PI3 kinase and mTOR. Finally, in the mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin resulted in reduced numbers of CXCR4-expressing fibrocytes in the peripheral blood and lung as well as reduced lung collagen deposition. Taken together, these experiments support the notion that pharmacologic inhibition of the CXCR4/CXCL12 biological axis is achievable in human fibrocytes and reduces the magnitude of pulmonary fibrosis in an animal model. This approach may hold promise in human fibrotic lung diseases.
doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.02.020
PMCID: PMC2681415  PMID: 19433312
chemokines; stem cells; lung; cell traffic; signal transduction
21.  Loss of PPARγ expression by fibroblasts enhances dermal wound closure 
Background
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ may be a key regulator of connective tissue deposition and remodeling in vivo. PPARγ expression is reduced in dermal fibroblasts isolated from fibrotic areas of scleroderma patients; PPARγ agonists suppress the persistent fibrotic phenotype of this cell type. Previously, we showed that loss of PPARγ expression in fibroblasts resulted in enhanced bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. However, whether loss of PPARγ expression in skin fibroblasts affects cutaneous tissue repair or homeostasis is unknown.
Results
Mice deleted for PPARγ in skin fibroblasts show an enhanced rate of dermal wound closure, concomitant with elevated phosphorylation of Smad3, Akt and ERK, and increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), collagen, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and CCN2. Conversely, dermal homeostasis was not appreciably affected by loss of PPARγ expression.
Conclusion
PPARγ expression by fibroblasts suppresses cutaneous tissue repair. In the future, direct PPARγ antagonists and agonists might be of clinical benefit in controlling chronic wounds or scarring, respectively.
doi:10.1186/1755-1536-5-5
PMCID: PMC3348009  PMID: 22502865
22.  Commentary on a recent article—“A prostacyclin analogue, Iloprost, protects from bleomycin-induced fibrosis in mice” Zhu Y et al. Respir Res. 2010 Mar 20;11(1):34 
Data from our laboratory show that in vitro fibroblasts are exquisitely responsive to prostacyclin and the prostacyclin derivative Iloprost, which block their activation by TGFβ. A recent article by Zhu Y et al confirm these effects in vivo showing that Iloprost, given as a single intraperitoneal injection, blocks lung fibrosis in the bleomycin model of lung injury and fibrosis. These results are important because at present no effective clinical treatments are available to treat idiopathic lung fibrosis, which progresses and leads to respiratory failure. Limiting factors for the clinical use of prostacyclin derivatives as anti-fibrotics are failure to achieve therapeutic levels in the involved fibrotic tissues, and dose limiting side effects due to vasodilatation and binding to the IP receptor on vascular cells. Possible approaches include fibroblast directed gene therapies or amelioration of the vascular side effects.
doi:10.1007/s12079-010-0100-4
PMCID: PMC2995136  PMID: 21234124
Fibrosis; Iloprost; Prostacyclin
23.  Connective tissue growth factor(CCN2), a pathogenic factor in diabetic nephropathy. What does it do? How does it do it? 
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a member of the CCN family of matricellular proteins. Its expression is induced by a number of factors including TGF-β. It has been associated with fibrosis in various tissues including the kidney. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) develops in about 30% of patients with diabetes and is characterized by thickening of renal basement membranes, fibrosis in the glomerulus (glomerulosclerosis), tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, all of which compromise kidney function. This review examines changes in CTGF expression in the kidney in DN, the effects they have on glomerular mesangial and podocyte cells and the tubulointerstitium, and how these contribute to driving fibrotic changes in the disease. CTGF can bind to several other growth factors modifying their function. CTGF is also able to interact with receptors on cells, including integrins, tyrosine receptor kinase A (TrkA), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and heparan sulphate proteoglycans. These interactions, the intracellular signalling pathways they activate, and the cellular responses evoked are reviewed. CTGF also induces the expression of chemokines which themselves have pharmacological actions on cells. CTGF may prompt some responses by acting through several different mechanisms, possibly simultaneously. For example, CTGF is often described as an effector of TGF-β. It can promote TGF-β signalling by binding directly to the growth factor, promoting its interaction with the TGF-β receptor; by triggering intracellular signalling on binding the TrkA receptor, which leads to the transcriptional repression of Smad7, an inhibitor of the TGF-β signalling pathway; and by binding to BMP-7 whose own signalling pathway opposing TGF-β is inhibited, leading to enhanced TGF-β signalling.
doi:10.1007/s12079-009-0038-6
PMCID: PMC2721079  PMID: 19214781
CTGF; CCN2; Fibrosis; Diabetic nephropathy
24.  Connective tissue growth factor(CCN2), a pathogenic factor in diabetic nephropathy. What does it do? How does it do it? 
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a member of the CCN family of matricellular proteins. Its expression is induced by a number of factors including TGF-β. It has been associated with fibrosis in various tissues including the kidney. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) develops in about 30% of patients with diabetes and is characterized by thickening of renal basement membranes, fibrosis in the glomerulus (glomerulosclerosis), tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, all of which compromise kidney function. This review examines changes in CTGF expression in the kidney in DN, the effects they have on glomerular mesangial and podocyte cells and the tubulointerstitium, and how these contribute to driving fibrotic changes in the disease. CTGF can bind to several other growth factors modifying their function. CTGF is also able to interact with receptors on cells, including integrins, tyrosine receptor kinase A (TrkA), low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and heparan sulphate proteoglycans. These interactions, the intracellular signalling pathways they activate, and the cellular responses evoked are reviewed. CTGF also induces the expression of chemokines which themselves have pharmacological actions on cells. CTGF may prompt some responses by acting through several different mechanisms, possibly simultaneously. For example, CTGF is often described as an effector of TGF-β. It can promote TGF-β signalling by binding directly to the growth factor, promoting its interaction with the TGF-β receptor; by triggering intracellular signalling on binding the TrkA receptor, which leads to the transcriptional repression of Smad7, an inhibitor of the TGF-β signalling pathway; and by binding to BMP-7 whose own signalling pathway opposing TGF-β is inhibited, leading to enhanced TGF-β signalling.
doi:10.1007/s12079-009-0038-6
PMCID: PMC2721079  PMID: 19214781
CTGF; CCN2; Fibrosis; Diabetic nephropathy
25.  In vivo bradykinin B2 receptor activation reduces renal fibrosis 
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce the progression of various fibrotic renal diseases both in humans and in animal models. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is an animal model of accelerated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis that is attenuated by ACE inhibition. Although ACE inhibitors increase bradykinin concentrations in addition to their effect on angiotensin II formation, the role of bradykinin in renal fibrosis has not been studied. We show here that genetic ablation (B2–/– mice) or pharmacological blockade of the bradykinin B2 receptor increases UUO-induced interstitial fibrosis in mice, whereas transgenic rats expressing increased endogenous bradykinin show reduced UUO-induced interstitial fibrosis. The increased interstitial fibrosis in B2–/– mice was accompanied by a decreased activity of plasminogen activators (PAs) and metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), enzymes involved in ECM degradation, suggesting that the protective effects of bradykinin involve activation of a B2 receptor/PA/MMP-2 cascade. This ability of bradykinin to increase PA activity was confirmed in primary culture proximal tubular cells. Thus, in both mice and rats, bradykinin B2 receptor activation reduces renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in vivo, most likely by increasing ECM degradation.
doi:10.1172/JCI15493
PMCID: PMC151090  PMID: 12163456

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