Retroperitoneal hematoma (RH) due to radiologic intervention for an intracranial lesion is relatively rare, difficult to diagnose, and can be life-threatening. We report a case of RH that developed in a patient on anticoagulant therapy following endovascular coiling of a ruptured anterior communicating artery (AcoA) aneurysm. An 82-year-old man presented with a 12-day history of headache. Computed tomography (CT) on admission demonstrated slight subarachnoid hemorrhage, and left carotid angiography revealed an AcoA aneurysm. The next day, the aneurysm was occluded with coils via the femoral approach under general anesthesia. The patient received a bolus of 5,000 units of heparin immediately following the procedure, and an infusion rate of 10,000 units/day was initiated. The patient gradually became hypotensive 25 hours after coiling. Abdominal CT showed a huge, high-density soft-tissue mass filling the right side of the retroperitoneum space. The patient eventually died of multiple organ failure five days after coiling. RH after interventional radiology for neurological disease is relatively rare and can be difficult to diagnose if consciousness is disturbed. This case demonstrates the importance of performing routine physical examinations, sequentially measuring the hematocrit and closely monitoring systemic blood pressures following interventional radiologic procedures in patients with abnormal mental status.
Cerebral aneurysm; Coil; Interventional radiology; Complication; Retroperitoneal hematoma
The objective and importance of this study was to describe the challenges encountered with treating a high-flow vertebral arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and ruptured aneurysm in a patient with life-threatening hemorrhage. A 36-year-old female with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) presented 2 weeks after uneventful cesarean section with a rapidly expanding pulsatile neck mass. Angiography demonstrated a complex left vertebral AVF and multiple associated vertebral artery aneurysms. Emergent endovascular coil embolization was performed using a retrograde and antegrade approach to occlude the fistulas and trap the ruptured aneurysm, successfully treating the acute hemorrhage. Subsequent definitive therapy was accomplished utilizing a combined neurointerventional and neurosurgical strategy of direct-puncture acrylic embolization and ligation of the vertebral artery. Recent advances in neurointerventional technology allow novel approaches in the primary and/or preoperative treatment of complex vascular lesions such as those seen in NF1.
Agenesis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare congenital anomaly. Most of the patients are asymptomatic and it is usually discovered incidentally by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is close association of the cranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage with ICA agenesis. We present a case of a 61-year-old male with left ICA agenesis associated with basilar artery and left vertebral artery aneurysms. The patient complained of headaches and numbness on the right-side of the face. Physical examination showed high blood pressure (210/90 mmHg). Neurological examination revealed nystagmus and decreased sensation on the right-side of the face. Agenesis of left ICA, left carotid canal with basilar and left vertebral artery aneurysms were demonstrated incidentally using CT, MRI, and digital subtraction angiography, as a part of an evaluation for suspected cerebrovascular accident.
Agenesis; basilar artery aneurysm; internal carotid artery
Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA), although uncommon, are increasingly being detected. We describe a case of spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage from a ruptured IMA aneurysm associated with stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and celiac trunk, successfully treated with surgery.
A 65-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock. Abdominal CT scan showed an aneurysm of the inferior mesenteric artery with retroperitoneal hematoma. In addition, an obstructive disease of the superior mesenteric artery and celiac axis was observed.
Upon emergency laparotomy a ruptured inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm was detected. The aneurysm was excised and the artery reconstructed by end-to-end anastomosis.
This report discusses the etiology, presentation, diagnosis and case management of inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms.
A communicating vein between the left renal vein and the left ascending lumbar vein has only rarely been reported in the imaging literature. There are very few reports of varicosity of this communicating vein. Nonetheless, awareness about this communicating vein is of utmost importance for surgeons performing aortoiliac surgeries and nephrectomies as it may pose technical difficulties during surgery or cause life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Varicosity of this venous channel may be mistaken for paraaortic lymphadenopathy, adrenal pseudo-mass, or renal artery aneurysm. We report a case of a patient with varicosity of this communicating vein, which mimicked a left renal artery aneurysm. A novel hypothesis is also proposed to explain the relationship with abdominal pain.
Ascending lumbar vein; communicating vein; renal artery; renal vein; varicosity
This report documents the management of a traumatic carotid aneurysm (TCA) with a traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (T-CCF) of the contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA) following a closed head injury. A 38-year-old man presented with severe traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and pneumocephalus due to a severe head injury.
Four months after the accident, the patient presented with clinical symptoms of exophthalmos and retroorbital bruit. Cerebral angiography showed a TCA of the IC-PC region, which coexisted with a contralateral T-CCF. Both lesions were successfully managed with an endovascular treatment using coils to isolate a fistula from the ICA, and direct surgical trapping of the intracranial ICA to eliminate a TCA.
Post-operative angiography revealed a good cross-flow through the anterior communicating artery from the contralateral ICA, which was completely obliterated by the T-CCF. No additional surgical or endovascular procedure for traumatic vascular injuries was required. The patient remained asymptomatic during the clinical follow-up period of 24 months. The goal of traumatic carotid injuries is the selective elimination of the vascular pathologic injury with asymptomatic state, using direct surgery and/or an endovascular treatment.
cerebral aneurysm, traumatism, carotico-cavernous fistula, detachable balloon, coiling
Endovascular aortic repair, if technically feasible, is the treatment of choice for patients with a contained ruptured aortic aneurysm who are unfit for open surgery.
We report the case of an 80-year-old Caucasian man who presented with an unusually configured, symptomatic infrarenal aortic aneurysm. His aneurysm showed an erosion of the fourth lumbar vertebra and a severely arteriosclerotic pelvic axis. A high thigh amputation of his right leg had been performed 15 months previously. On his right side, occlusion of his external iliac artery, common femoral artery, and deep femoral artery had occurred. His aneurysm was treated by a left-sided aortomonoiliac stent graft without femorofemoral revascularization, resulting in occlusions of both internal iliac arteries. No ischemic symptoms appeared, although perfusion of his right side was maintained only over epigastric collaterals.
The placement of aortomonoiliac stent grafts for endovascular treatment of infrarenal aortic aneurysms without contralateral revascularization is a feasible treatment option in isolated cases. In this report, access problems and revascularization options in endovascular aneurysm repair are discussed.
A 27-year-old man developed an unruptured anterior-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) feeding aneurysm from a transverse-sigmoid dural arteriovenous malformation. The patient, with a known history of left transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis, presented with pulse-synchronous tinnitus. Angiography revealed an extensive dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF), with feeders from both the extracranial and intracranial circulations, involving the right transverse sinus, the torcula, and the left transverse/sigmoid sinuses. Multimodal endovascular and open surgical therapy was used to manage the lesion. Before a planned second-stage treatment for the left sigmoid sinus component, the dural AVF improved significantly. During this interval, however, a small flow-related aneurysm developed on the left AICA feeding the petrous dural region. The aneurysm resolved after resection of the involved sigmoid sinus. This is the first reported case of an unruptured feeding-artery aneurysm in an intracranial dural AVF that resolved spontaneously with treatment of the dural AVF. Until more is known about the natural history, the decisions of when and whether to treat an unruptured dural AVF feeding-artery aneurysm must be made on an individual basis.
Aneurysms; dural arteriovenous fistulas; endovascular therapy; surgery
Cases of aneurysm associated with the occlusion of both common carotid arteries are very rare. We present a case of ruptured aneurysms of the basilar bifurcation and posterior cerebral artery coexisting with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, successfully treated by endovascular coil embolization with a double-balloon remodeling technique. Finally, we review the literature. A 62-year-old woman presented with severe headache; a computed tomography scan demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed that the bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded.
The muscle branches of the vertebral arteries had anastomosed to the bilateral external carotid arteries. Bilateral posterior communicating arteries had developed and supplied the bilateral internal carotid arteries. Two aneurysms (a saccular aneurysm of the P1 portion of the left posterior cerebral artery and a wide-necked aneurysm of the basilar bifurcation) were also observed. Endovascular embolization of the aneurysms was successfully performed using a double-balloon remodeling technique.
The patient made a full recovery after treatment, and the aneurysms remained obliterated 12 months after embolization. We believe that this is the first report of ruptured aneurysms associated with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion successfully treated by endovascular coiling. The double-balloon remodeling technique was useful for treatment of wide-necked basilar bifurcation aneurysm.
bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, cerebral aneurysm, endovascular coiling, balloon neck remodeling
Residual aneurysm from incomplete clipping or slowly recurrent aneurysm is associated with high risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe complete treatment of the lesions by surgical clipping or endovascular treatment.
We analyzed 11 patients of residual or recurrent aneurysms who had undergone surgical clipping from 1998 to 2009. Among them, 5 cases were initially clipped at our hospital. The others were referred from other hospitals after clipping. The radiologic and medical records were retrospectively analyzed.
All patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage at first time, and the most frequent location of the ruptured residual or recurrent aneurysm was in the anterior communicating artery to posterior-superior direction. Distal anterior cerebral artery, posterior communicating artery, and middle cerebral artery was followed. Repositioning of clipping in eleven cases, and one endovascular treatment were performed. No residual aneurysm was found in postoperative angiography, and no complication was noted in related to the operations.
These results indicate the importance of postoperative or follow up angiography and that reoperation of residual or slowly recurrent aneurysm should be tried if such lesions being found. Precise evaluation and appropriate planning including endovascular treatment should be performed for complete obliteration of the residual or recurrent aneurysm.
Intracranial aneurysm; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Reoperation
Fenestration of intracranial arteries is a rare anomaly, and is frequently associated with cerebral aneurysms. In this paper, we report rare kissing aneurysms associated with A1 fenestration.
A 71-year-old woman presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Diagnostic digital subtraction angiography revealed two saccular aneurysms at the proximal junction of a fenestration and posterior aspect of the fenestration that appeared to be ‘kissing’ each other. Emergent endovascular coil embolization was performed.
Kissing aneurysms associated with fenestration of the horizontal segment in the anterior cerebral artery are rare, and have not been reported. During treatment of such specific types of aneurysms by endovascular treatment, three-dimensional rotational digital subtraction angiography was very useful for deciding the appropriate working angles.
Coil embolization; fenestration; kissing aneurysms; ruptured aneurysm; three-dimensional rotational digital subtraction angiogram
Proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery is regarded as a safe and effective method of treating aneurysms of the vertebral artery or the vertebrobasilar junction unsuitable for treatment by neck clipping. Complications known to develop after this procedure include ischemic lesions of the perforators and other areas. There are only a limited number of reports on early rupture of aneurysm following proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery for the treatment of unruptured aneurysm. We recently encountered a case of large aneurysm of the vertebral artery identified after detection of brainstem compression. This patient underwent proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery with a coil and developed a fatal rupture of the aneurysm ten days after proximal occlusion.
The patient was a 72-year-old woman who had complained of dysphagia and unsteadiness for several years. An approximately 20 mm diameter aneurysm was detected in her left vertebral artery. She underwent endovascular treatment, that is, her left vertebral artery was occluded with coils at a point proximal to the aneurysm. Her initial post-procedure course was uneventful. However, she suddenly developed right-side hemiparesis nine days after procedure. At that time, CT scan suggested sudden thrombosis of the aneurysm. Right vertebral angiography revealed a small part of the aneurysm. She was treated conservatively. Ten days after the procedure, she suffered massive subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Both the present case and past reports suggest that proximal occlusion of the vertebral artery is effective in treating relatively large aneurysms unsuitable for treatment by neck clipping or trapping. However, when the bifurcation of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is distal to the occluded point in cases where the PICA bifurcates from the aneurysm or the neck region, blood supply to the aneurysm may persist because anterograde blood flow to the PICA may be preserved. Therefore, clinicians must consider the possibility of aneurysm rupture after proximal occlusion in the following cases:
1) when the aneurysm is large or giant, but non-thrombosed;
2) when thrombosis occurs soon after the procedure;
3) when postoperative angiography shows partial filling of the aneurysm with contrast agent through the contralateral vertebral artery of basilar artery or the cervical muscle branches.
large unruptured aneurysm, vertebral artery, proximal occlusion, subarachnoid haemorrhage
We present the case of a 57-year-old man who developed retroperitoneal hemorrhage due to unintentional arterial puncture during femoral artery cannulation for Guglielmi detachable coil embolization. On emergence from anesthesia, he developed severe hypotension. Computed tomographic angiogram of the abdomen showed retroperitoneal hematomas around the urinary bladder, liver, and spleen. Because femoral artery cannulation is a common procedure for intravascular embolization in neuroradiologic procedures, Clinicians should be aware of the development of severe hematomas as a consequence of femoral artery puncture.
Cerebral aneurysm; GDC embolization; Intervention; Retroperitoneal hemorrhage
Brain tumors, hematological diseases and vascular malformations like fistulas or arteriovenous malformations are the most well known causes of non-traumatic subdural hematoma (SDH) 1. Although spontaneous subdural hematoma from ruptured intracranial aneurysm has been reported 2, SDH with non radiographic evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage is very rare 3,4. Moreover, a patient with acute and bilateral spontaneous subdural hematoma secondary to ruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm has not been reported to date. The clinical findings and etiologic mechanisms are discussed.
brain aneurysm, subdural hematoma, posterior communicating artery
Partial thrombosis of giant aneurysms is not uncommon however, complete angiographic occlusion occurs less frequently. In the case of non-giant aneurysms, complete thrombosis and recanalization has been rarely reported. A 31-year-old man presented to the emergency department with sudden bursting headache. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage on the left side. Both CT angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography showed suspicion of small left anterior choroidal artery aneurysm. We performed surgical exploration. In the operation field, anterior choroidal artery aneurysm of 2 × 2 mm with broad neck and friable appearance was observed. Because we could not clip without sacrificing the anterior choroidal artery, we performed wrapping only. Follow up CTA after 7 months demonstrated 4 mm right internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm. The patient underwent aneurismal neck clipping. During the operation, 9 × 13 mm sized thrombosed aneurysm was detected and completely clipped. We initially thought this aneurysm to be a de novo aneurysm however, it was an aneurysm that had recanalized from a completely thrombosed aneurysm. This case report provides an insight into the potential for complete thrombosis and recanalization of non-giant aneurysms.
Cerebral aneurysm; Thrombosis; Recanalization
This study investigated and summarized endovascular therapeutic strategies for intracranial ruptured aneurysms associated with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Between June 2005 and June 2009, we identified 16 aneurysms in 14 hemorrhagic cases of intracranial AVM using digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Of the 16 aneurysms, 14 were ruptured and two were unruptured. Aneurysms were classified as types I to IV, and were treated. Aneurysm treatment was followed by AVM treatment via various therapies, including embolization, gamma knife radiotherapy, or follow-up and observation to reduce the risk of aneurysm rupture or intracranial hemorrhage. Over a follow-up period ranging from six months to one year, none of the patients had aneurysm ruptures or intracranial hemorrhage. Most (13/14) patients had a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5, and one patient had a score of 4. Sixteen aneurysms were treated successfully, as confirmed by DSA examination, and no AVMs re-grew. Clinical therapeutic strategies for intracranial ruptured aneurysms associated with AVMs should include aneurysm treatment first to reduce the risk of rupture and intracranial hemorrhage, eventually leading to a better prognosis.
aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation, endovascular treatment
We performed a percutaneous vertebroplasty at the compressed L2 vertebral body of a 73-year-old female using a left-sided unilateral extrapedicular approach. She complained severe radiating pain and a tingling sensation in her left leg two hours after the vertebroplasty. Spinal computed tomographic scan showed a large retroperitoneal hematoma, and a subsequent spinal angiography revealed a left L2 segmental artery injury. Bleeding was successfully controlled by endovascular embolization. Recently, extrapedicular approaches have been attempted, allowing for the avoidance of facet and pedicle injury with only a unilateral approach. With this approach, however, the needle punctures the vertebral body directly. Therefore, this procedure carries the potential risk of a spinal segmental artery.
Compression fractures; Vascular injury; Vertebroplasty
Splenic artery aneurysms (SAA) are uncommon but the most common visceral artery aneurysm. Splenic artery aneurysms are important to recognize because up to 25% may be complicated by rupture and the mortality rate after rupture is between 25% and 70%.
We present a patient who have abdominal pain. Previously healthy 22-year-old female admitted to emergency department with abdominal pain. Her physical examination reveals only left upper quadrant tenderness. Suddenly she developed hypovolemic shock. On emergent laparotomy massive blood collection within peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal space at the left upper quadrant was detected. The source of bleeding was evident as rupture of splenic artery aneurysm. Splenectomy was performed following the ligation of splenic artery proximal to lesion. On the tenth day she was discharged from the hospital with complete recovery.
It is important to remember rupture of splenic artery aneurysm in patients with abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock status.
A spinal intramedullary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) associated with a radicular arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is reported. The patient had mild myelopathy and low back pain. Spinal angiography revealed the AVM fed by the anterior spinal artery via left T10, T11 and right L1 radiculomedullary arteries and the radiculopial arteries of left L1, L2 and right T11, L3 levels and the radicular AVF at the left L4 level. There were three radiculomedullary arteries within four levels in our case. This spinal AVM associated with a radicular AVF is considered a genetic nonhereditary lesion with metameric link.
arteriovenous malformation, arteriovenous fistula, spine
Giant basilar aneurysms are infrequently seen in children. We present the endovascular management of an adolescent who presented comatose with pinpoint pupils due to a ruptured giant basilar trunk aneurysm. A noncontrast head CT disclosed a large prepontine lesion with brainstem hemorrhage. Catheter angiography showed a 4.5 cm irregular, fusiform basilar trunk aneurysm. With SSEP, BAER, and MEP monitoring, the patient underwent bilateral temporary vertebral artery occlusion, followed by GDC embolization of the aneurysm. Postprocedure internal carotid angiograms showed adequate blood supply to the basilar apex via patent posterior communicating arteries. On postprocedure day two, the patient was following commands.
The remainder of his hospital course was uneventful. Postoperative angiograms showed no residual filling of the aneurysm. At 12 months the patient was neurologically intact and at baseline function as an honor student and follow-up angiogram showed persistent occlusion of the aneurysm from the circulation. Successful endovascular treatment has been considered a less invasive and safer alternative to surgical management of some complex vascular lesions. While most reports on reversing basilar artery flow have been carried out in awake patients with neurological examinations, this is not possible in a patient presenting in a comatose state. This report suggests that SSEPs, BAERs and MEP may be of use in such patients in safely carrying out basilar artery occlusion.
giant basilar aneurysm, aneurysm coiling, SSEP, BAER, MEP
Acute occlusion of the basilar artery is a neurological emergency that has a high risk of severe disability and mortality. Delayed thrombolysis or endovascular therapy has been performed with some success in patients who present after 3 hours of symptom onset. Here we present the first case of delayed intra-arterial thrombolysis of a basilar artery thrombosis associated with a large saccular aneurysm.
A 73-year-old Caucasian man with a history of smoking and alcohol abuse presented to the Emergency Department complaining of diplopia and mild slurred speech and who progressed over 12 hours to coma and quadriparesis. He was found to have a large basilar tip aneurysm putting him at high risk for hemorrhage with lytic treatment.
The treatment options for basilar thrombosis are discussed. Aggressive treatment options should be considered despite long durations of clinical symptoms in basilar thrombosis, even in extremely high risk patients.
A fenestration of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare congenital condition. We report an aneurysm arising from the proximal end of an ICA fenestration that was treated by endovascular coiling. Three-dimensional rotational angiography of preoperative cerebral angiography provided an understanding of the complex anatomy of the aneurysms associated with the fenestration and may facilitate the clinical decision regarding the treatment option. Endovascular coiling appears to be safe and effective for treating an aneurysm originating from a fenestration on the supraclinoid ICA, which is a difficult lesion to treat using a conventional surgical approach.
Internal carotid artery; Fenestration; Aneurysm; Coil embolization; Angiography
We report a case of successful endovascular treatment of bilateral carotid artery occlusion with concurrent basilar apex aneurysm. An elderly female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) onset was admitted to the hospital. Computed tomography (CT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) confirmed the presence of bilateral carotid artery occlusion with concurrent basilar apex aneurysm. Brain blood supply was provided by the bilateral vertebral artery through the basilar artery. We treated the aneurysm with the endovascular approach by embolizing the aneurysm with three coils. The patient recovered well after surgery and showed no recanalization of the aneurysm on a one-year follow-up DSA. We also reviewed six similar cases found with a PUBMED database search (1980-2010), including those with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. In conclusion, by using the endovascular approach, bilateral carotid artery occlusion with concurrent basilar apex aneurysm was efficiently treated.
carotid artery occlusion; basilar apex aneurysm; endovascular treatment
The development of multiple aneurysms in different segments of the arterial tree requiring treatment is a challenge for the vascular surgeon as their management often demands more than one surgical procedure. We report a case of a 71-year-old male suffering from multiple aneurysms in four different segments of the arterial tree in combination with disabling claudication of his left leg. The patient was managed in a single session with a combination of classic open surgical and endovascular techniques in order to treat his aneurysms and revascularize his leg. This case illustrates the prospect to combine classic open surgical and endovascular techniques for the optimal management of multileveled arterial pathology. Combined therapy simplifies management and allows the one-stage treatment of these patients, while minimizing the overall operative risk.
Traditionally, surgery of the anterior circulation aneurysms of the cerebral vasculature is dictated by the site of the lesion, excluding such midline lesions as anterior communication artery aneurysms. Few reports address the issue of using a single craniotomy to obliterate multiple aneurysms located in both hemispheres.
A 51 year-old Caucasian right handed housewife lady (weight 61 kg, height 159 cm) presented with a headache of acute onset which proved to be caused by acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral computed tomographic angiography revealed multiple aneurysms. The patient underwent a right pterional craniotomy to obliterate right middle cerebral, distal basilar and left carotid bifurcation aneurysms. The post-operative course was uneventful.
Despite technical difficulties of approaching cerebral vasculature through a contralateral craniotomy, this policy is advised in selected cases in which the benefits of unilateral craniotomy outweigh the risks of brain retraction.