Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer have persistent, long-term risk of breast cancer recurrence and death. Therefore, trials evaluating endocrine therapies for this patient population require extended follow-up. We present an update of efficacy outcomes in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study at 8.1 years median follow-up.
BIG 1-98 is a randomized, phase III, double-blind trial of 8010 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer that compares five years of tamoxifen or letrozole monotherapy or sequential treatment with two years of one of these agents followed by three years of the other. The primary efficacy endpoint is disease-free survival (DFS: events comprise invasive breast cancer relapse, second primaries [contralateral breast and non-breast], or death without prior cancer event), and secondary endpoints are overall survival (OS), distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI) and breast cancer-free interval (BCFI). The monotherapy comparison includes patients randomized to tamoxifen × 5 years (n=2459) or letrozole × 5 years (n=2463). In 2005, after significant DFS benefit was reported for letrozole as compared with tamoxifen, a protocol amendment facilitated the crossover to letrozole of patients who were still receiving tamoxifen alone; Cox models and Kaplan-Meier estimates with inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW) are used to account for selective crossover to letrozole of 619 patients in the tamoxifen arm. The comparison of sequential treatments to letrozole monotherapy includes patients enrolled in the four-arm option of the trial and randomized to letrozole × 5 years (n=1546), letrozole × 2 years followed by tamoxifen × 3 years (n=1540), or tamoxifen × 2 years followed by letrozole × 3 years (n=1548). All patients have completed study treatment; follow up is continuing for those enrolled in the four-arm option. BIG 1-98 is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT00004205.
At a median follow-up of 8.7 years from randomization (range 0–12.4), letrozole monotherapy is significantly better than tamoxifen, whether using IPCW or intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis [IPCW: DFS HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.74–0.92), OS HR 0.79 (0.69–0.900, DRFI HR 0.79 (0.68–0.92), BCFI HR 0.80 (0.70–0.92); ITT: DFS HR 0.86 (0.78–0.96), OS HR 0.87 (0.77–0.999), DRFI HR 0.86 (0.74–0.998), BCFI HR 0.86 (0.76–0.98)]. At a median follow-up of 8.0 years from randomization (range 0–11.2), there were no statistically significant differences in any of the four endpoints for either sequence compared with letrozole monotherapy. Eight-year ITT estimates [each with SE ≤ 1.1%] for letrozole monotherapy, letrozole followed by tamoxifen, and tamoxifen followed by letrozole were 78.6%, 77.8%, 77.3% for DFS; 87.5%, 87.7%, 85.9% for OS; 89.9%, 88.7%, 88.1% for DRFI; and 86.1%, 85.3%, 84.3% for BCFI.
For postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer, a reduction in breast cancer recurrence and mortality is obtained by letrozole monotherapy when compared to tamoxifen. Sequential treatments involving tamoxifen and letrozole do not improve outcome compared with letrozole monotherapy, but may represent useful strategies considering individual patient’s risk of recurrence and treatment tolerability: more thromboembolic events, vaginal bleeding, hot flushes and night sweats with tamoxifen, while more vaginal dryness, bone fractures, osteoporosis, arthralgia/myalgia, and higher grade cardiac events with letrozole.
Novartis, United States National Cancer Institute, International Breast Cancer Study Group.
aromatase inhibitor; letrozole; breast cancer; adjuvant therapy; endocrine therapy; tamoxifen
A randomized controlled trial is currently being conducted in Japan to demonstrate the superiority of the no-touch isolation technique over the conventional technique for patients with potentially curative colon and rectosigmoid cancer. The conventional technique procedure gives first priority to mobilization of the tumor-bearing segment of the colon, which is followed by central vascular ligation and ligation of other vasculature. Conversely, the no-touch isolation technique gives first priority to central vascular ligation, which is followed by mobilization of the tumor-bearing segment of the colon. A total of 850 patients will be enrolled in this trial. The primary endpoint is disease-free survival. Secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse-free survival, liver metastasis-free survival, mode of recurrence, surgical morbidity, adverse events due to postoperative chemotherapy, serious adverse events and short-term clinical outcomes.
colorectal cancer; randomized controlled trial; conventional technique; no-touch isolation technique
To determine whether 1 of 2 vaccines based on dendritic cells (DCs) and poxvectors encoding CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) and MUC1 (PANVAC) would lengthen survival in patients with resected metastases of colorectal cancer (CRC).
Recurrences after complete resections of metastatic CRC remain frequent. Immune responses to CRC are associated with fewer recurrences, suggesting a role for cancer vaccines as adjuvant therapy. Both DCs and poxvectors are potent stimulators of immune responses against cancer antigens.
Patients, disease-free after CRC metastasectomy and perioperative chemotherapy (n = 74), were randomized to injections of autologous DCs modified with PANVAC (DC/PANVAC) or PANVAC with per injection GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Endpoints were recurrence-free survival overall survival, and rate of CEA-specific immune responses. Clinical outcome was compared with that of an unvaccinated, contemporary group of patients who had undergone CRC metastasectomy, received similar perioperative therapy, and would have otherwise been eligible for the study.
Recurrence-free survival at 2 years was similar (47% and 55% for DC/PANVAC and PANVAC/GM-CSF, respectively) (χ2
P = 0.48). At a median follow-up of 35.7 months, there were 2 of 37 deaths in the DC/PANVAC arm and 5 of 37 deaths in the PANVAC/GM-CSF arm. The rate and magnitude of T-cell responses against CEA was statistically similar between study arms. As a group, vaccinated patients had superior survival compared with the contemporary unvaccinated group.
Both DC and poxvector vaccines have similar activity. Survival was longer for vaccinated patients than for a contemporary unvaccinated group, suggesting that a randomized trial of poxvector vaccinations compared with standard follow-up after metastasectomy is warranted. (NCT00103142)
cancer vaccine; CEA; poxvectors; T-cell responses; antibody responses
Although 2-20% of breast cancer patients develop a contralateral breast cancer (CBC), prognosis after CBC is still debated. Using a unique patient cohort, we have investigated whether time interval to second breast cancer (BC2) and mode of detection are associated to prognosis.
Information on patient-, tumour-, treatment-characteristics, and outcome was abstracted from patients' individual charts for all patients diagnosed with metachronous CBC in the Southern Healthcare Region of Sweden from 1977-2007. Distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and risk of distant metastases were primary endpoints.
The cohort included 723 patients with metachronous contralateral breast cancer as primary breast cancer event. Patients with less than three years to BC2 had a significantly impaired DDFS (p = 0.01), and in sub-group analysis, this effect was seen primarily in patients aged <50. By logistic regression analysis, patients diagnosed with BC2 within routine follow-up examinations had a significantly lower risk of developing metastases compared to those who were symptomatic at diagnosis (p < 0.0001). Chemotherapy given after breast BC1 was a negative prognostic factor for DDFS, whereas endocrine treatment and radiotherapy given after BC2 improved DDFS.
In a large cohort of patients with CBC, we found the time interval to BC2 to be a strong prognostic factor for DDFS in young women and mode of detection to be related to risk of distant metastases. Future studies of tumour biology of BC2 in relation to prognostic factors found in the present study can hopefully provide biological explanations to these findings.
metachronous breast cancer; contralateral breast cancer; prognosis; detection; adjuvant therapy
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the planned continuation of bevacizumab beyond first progression (BBP) in Japanese patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
Previously untreated patients with assessable disease were treated with mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab until tumor progression, followed by FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab. The primary endpoint of the study was the second progression-free survival (2nd PFS), defined as duration from enrollment until progression after the second-line therapy. Secondary endpoints of the study were overall survival (OS), survival beyond first progression (SBP), progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety.
In the first-line setting, 47 patients treated with mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab achieved RR of 61.7 %, DCR of 89.4 %, and median PFS of 13.1 months (95 % CI, 8.7–17.5 months). Thirty-one patients went on to receive a second-line therapy with FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab and achieved RR of 27.6 %, DCR of 62.1 %, and median PFS of 7.3 months (95 % CI, 5.0–9.6 months). Median 2nd PFS was 18.0 months (95 % CI, 13.7–22.3 months). The median OS and SBP were 30.8 months (95 % CI, 27.6–34.0 months) and 19.6 months (95 % CI, 13.5–25.7 months), respectively. No critical events associated with bevacizumab were observed during the second-line therapy.
The planned continuation of bevacizumab during a second-line treatment, BBP strategy, is feasible for the Japanese mCRC patients.
Colorectal cancer; Chemotherapy; Bevacizumab beyond progression (BBP)
This phase III trial compared the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab alone with that of bevacizumab and capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) as maintenance treatment following induction chemotherapy with XELOX plus bevacizumab in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Noninferiority could not be confirmed, but the median progression-free survival detriment was >3 weeks.
The aim of this phase III trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab alone with those of bevacizumab and capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) as maintenance treatment following induction chemotherapy with XELOX plus bevacizumab in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
Patients and Methods.
Patients were randomly assigned to receive six cycles of bevacizumab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin every 3 weeks followed by XELOX plus bevacizumab or bevacizumab alone until progression. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) interval; secondary endpoints were the overall survival (OS) time, objective response rate (RR), time to response, duration of response, and safety.
The intent-to-treat population comprised 480 patients (XELOX plus bevacizumab, n = 239; bevacizumab, n = 241); there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. The median follow-up was 29.0 months (range, 0–53.2 months). There were no statistically significant differences in the median PFS or OS times or in the RR between the two arms. The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicities in the XELOX plus bevacizumab versus bevacizumab arms were diarrhea, hand–foot syndrome, and neuropathy.
Although the noninferiority of bevacizumab versus XELOX plus bevacizumab cannot be confirmed, we can reliably exclude a median PFS detriment >3 weeks. This study suggests that maintenance therapy with single-agent bevacizumab may be an appropriate option following induction XELOX plus bevacizumab in mCRC patients.
Capecitabine; Oxaliplatin; 5-FU; Bevacizumab; Metastatic colorectal cancer
This economic analysis aimed to determine, from the perspective of a Canadian provincial government payer, the cost-effectiveness of docetaxel (Taxotere: Sanofi–Aventis, Laval, QC) in combination with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (tac) compared with 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (fac) following primary surgery for breast cancer in women with operable, axillary lymph node–positive breast cancer.
A Markov model looking at two time phases—5-year treatment and long-term follow-up—was constructed. Clinical events included clinical response (based on disease-free survival and overall survival) and rates of febrile neutropenia, stomatitis, diarrhea, and infections. Health states were “no recurrence,” “locoregional recurrence,” “distant recurrence,” and “death.” Costs were based on published sources and are presented in 2006 Canadian dollars. Model inputs included chemotherapy drug acquisition costs, chemotherapy administration costs, relapse and follow-up costs, costs for management of adverse events, and costs for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (g-csf) prophylaxis. A 5% discount rate was applied to costs and outcomes alike. Health utilities were obtained from published sources.
For tac as compared with fac, the incremental cost was $6921 per life-year (ly) gained and $6,848 per quality-adjusted life-year (qaly) gained. The model was robust to changes in input variables (for example, febrile neutropenia rate, utility). When g-csf and antibiotics were given prophylactically before every cycle, the incremental ratios increased to $13,183 and $13,044 respectively.
Compared with fac, tac offered improved response at a higher cost. The cost-effectiveness ratios were low, indicating good economic value in the adjuvant setting of node-positive breast cancer patients.
Adjuvant chemotherapy; breast cancer; cost analysis; economic model; prophylaxis
AIM: To assess whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the management of small bowel obstructions (SBOs) secondary to gastric cancer and its role in treatment strategies.
METHODS: The medical records of all of the patients who were admitted for an intestinal obstruction after curative resection for gastric cancer were retrospectively reviewed. PET/CT was performed before a clinical treatment strategy was established for each patient. The patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with no evidence of a tumor recurrence and patients with evidence of a tumor recurrence. Tumor recurrences included a local recurrence, peritoneal carcinomatosis or distant metastases. The primary endpoint was the 1-year survival rate, and other variables included patient demographics, the length of hospital stay, complications, and mortality.
RESULTS: The median time between a diagnosis of gastric cancer and the detection of a SBO was 1.4 years. Overall, 31 of 65 patients (47.7%) had evidence of a tumor recurrence on the PET/CT scan, which was the only factor that was associated with poor survival. Open and close surgery was the main type of surgical procedure reported for the patients with tumor recurrences. R0 resections were performed in 2 patients, including 1 who underwent combined adjacent organ resection. In the group with no evidence of a tumor recurrence on PET/CT, bowel resections were performed in 7 patients, adhesiolysis was performed in 7 patients, and a bypass was performed in 1 patient. The 1-year survival curves according to PET/CT evidence of a tumor recurrence vs no PET/CT evidence of a tumor recurrence were significantly different, and the 1-year survival rates were 8.8% vs 93.5%, respectively. There were no significant differences (P = 0.71) in the 1-year survival rates based on surgical vs nonsurgical management (0% with nonoperative treatment vs 20% after exploratory laparotomy).
CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG PET/CT can be used to identify the causes of bowel obstructions in patients with a history of gastric cancer, and this method is useful for planning the surgical management of these patients.
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography; Small bowel obstructions; Gastric cancer; Clinical treatment strategy
In some cohort studies, a high-vegetable diet has been associated with greater likelihood of recurrence-free survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Carotenoids are obtained primarily from vegetables and fruit, and they exhibit biological activities that may specifically reduce the progression of mammary carcinogenesis. The present analysis examines the relationship between plasma carotenoids at enrollment and 1, 2 or 3, 4 and 6 years and breast cancer-free survival in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study participants (n = 3043), who had been diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. The primary endpoint was time to a second breast cancer event (a recurrence or new primary breast cancer). An average carotenoid concentration over time was estimated for each participant as the average area under the plasma carotenoid curve (AUC) formed by the plasma carotenoid concentrations at scheduled clinic visits. Multiple regression Cox proportional hazards analysis with adjustment for prognostic and other factors was used to examine the association between carotenoids and breast cancer-free survival. A total of 508 (16.7%) breast cancer events occurred over a median 7.12 years follow-up. Compared to the lowest tertile, the hazard ratio for the medium/high plasma carotenoid tertiles was 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.54–0.83) after adjustment. The interaction between study group and tertile of average carotenoid concentration over time was not significant (P = 0.23). Higher biological exposure to carotenoids, when assessed over the time frame of the study, was associated with greater likelihood of breast cancer-free survival regardless of study group assignment.
Carotenoids; Diet; Breast Cancer; Survival; Cohort
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death in the United States. To determine whether certain molecular markers might be prognostic for survival, we measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR the expression levels of 15 previously studied genes that are known to be up-regulated or down-regulated in the progression of epithelial cancers. The tumor samples were extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissues derived from patients with Stage II CRC who developed disease recurrence within two years (n=10), or were disease-free for at least 4 years (n=12). We were able to determine, by AUC curve analysis, that the ratio of microtubule associated protein 7 (Map7)/B2M was predictive of outcome in our sample set. Further, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, we observed significantly different curves as a function of marker positivity for the Map7/B2M (p=0.0001; HR=11) expression ratio. This suggests that the expression ratio of Map7/B2M may serve as a valuable prognostic marker in patients with Stage II colon cancer, and potentially guide therapeutic decision making.
Map7/B2M; colon cancer
Current guidelines recommend treatment with capecitabine and bevacizumab for patients (pts) with non-resectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), although clinical data in this particular patient group are lacking.
Previously untreated patients with non-resectable mCRC were to receive capecitabine (1,250 mg/sqm bid d1-14 oral) and bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg i.v.) every 3 weeks. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints include overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR) and toxicity.
82 pts were included: 40 female, median age 70 (range 50–86). ECOG PS 0/1/2 was 38/52/10%, respectively. Synchronous metastases were present in 58 pts. 16 pts had primary tumor in situ. Median treatment duration was 4.1 months (6 cycles). Toxicity was generally mild. ORR was 38%, with 5 complete and 23 partial responses. Median PFS was 7.0 months [95% CI (5.0-9.1)] and OS 17.9 months [95% CI (14.6-21.6)]. Second- and third-line systemic therapy was given to 57% and 33% of pts, respectively.
Besides the favourable tolerability, PFS and OS were shorter than reported by other trials. Careful patient selection for upfront capecitabine and bevacizumab is essential.
Non-resectable; Metastatic; Colorectal cancer; Capecitabine; Bevacizumab
Colorectal cancer (CRC) can recur locoregionally or at distant sites. Timely diagnosis of recurrence is of paramount importance, as radical treatment of the localized disease can prolong survival. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT) is routinely used in restaging and surveillance of colorectal cancer, as it can demonstrate recurrent disease with good accuracy. This article illustrates the spectrum of standard as well as unusual patterns of local recurrence and distant metastases of colorectal cancer.
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET / CT; colorectal cancer; recurrence disease
AIM: To analyze the prognostic factors involved in survival and cancer recurrence in patients undergoing surgical treatment for colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and to describe the effects of time-related changes on survival and recurrence in these patients.
METHODS: From January 1994 to January 2006, 236 patients with CLM underwent surgery with the aim of performing curative resection of neoplastic disease at our institution and 189 (80%) of these patients underwent resection of CLM with curative intention. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data, including primary tumor and CLM pathology results, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two time periods: a first period from January 1994 to January 2000 (n = 93), and a second period from February 2000 to January 2006 (n = 143).
RESULTS: Global survival at 1, 3 and 5 years in patients undergoing hepatic resection was 91%, 54% and 47%, respectively. Patients with preoperative extrahepatic disease, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels over 20 ng/dL, more than four nodules or extrahepatic invasion at pathological analysis had worse survival. Tumor recurrence rate at 1 year was 48.3%, being more frequent in patients with preoperative and pathological extrahepatic disease and CEA levels over 20 ng/dL. Although patients in the second time period had more adverse prognostic factors, no differences in overall survival and recurrence were observed between the two periods.
CONCLUSION: Despite advances in surgical technique and better adjuvant treatments and preoperative imaging, careful patient staging and selection is crucial to continue offering a chance of cure to patients with CLM.
Liver metastases; Colorectal cancer; Hepatic resection; Survival; Prognostic factors
UICC classification accurately predicts overall survival but not recurrence-risk. We report here data of overall and first site-specific recurrence following curative surgery useful for the development of recurrence-oriented preventive target therapies. Patients who underwent resection for gastric cancer were stratified according to curability of surgery [curative (R0) vs non-curative resection], extent of surgery [limited (D1) vs extended (D2) node dissection] and pathological nodal/serosal status. The intent-to-treat principle, log-rank test and Cox regression analysis were used for statistical analysis of time-to-event (recurrence, death) endpoints. Curative resection only produced a chance of cure whereas survival was very poor following non-curative resection (P < 0.0001). For D2 R0 subgroup of patients, a pathological serosa and a node state-based classification into three groups, proved to be of clinical implication. Risk of recurrence after a median follow-up of 92 months was low among patients with both serosa and node-negative cancer (first group; 11%), moderate among those with either serosa or node-positive cancer (second group; 53%) and very high among those with both serosa and node-positive cancer (third group; 83%). In multivariate analysis, the relative risks of recurrence and death from gastric cancer among patients in the second and third groups, as compared to those in the first, were 7.07 (95% CI, 2.36–21.17;P = 0.0002) and 16.19 (95% CI, 5.76–45.54;P < 0.0001) respectively. First site-specific recurrence analysis revealed: low rate of loco-regional recurrence alone (12%), serosa state determinant factor of the site-recurrence (peritoneal for serosa-positive and haematogenous for serosa-negative cancers) and dramatic increase of all types of recurrence by the presence of nodal metastases. Our findings demonstrate that a pathological serosa- and node-based classification is very simple and predicts accurately site-specific recurrence-risks. Furthermore they reveal that risk of recurrence following curative D2 surgery alone is low for serosa- and node-negative cancers, but very high in serosa- and node-positive cancers suggesting the need for new therapeutic strategies in this subgroup of patients. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com
gastric cancer; extensive surgery; recurrence; survival; prognostic factors
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among Alaska Native (AN) people, and the second leading cause of cancer death. The incidence rate for the combined years 1999 through 2003 was 30% higher than the rate among U.S. whites (USWs) for the same period. Current incidence rates may serve to monitor the impact of screening programs in reducing CRC in the AN population.
Incidence data are from the Alaska Native Tumor Registry and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. We compared AN CRC incidence, survival rates, and stage at diagnosis with rates in USWs for cases diagnosed from 2005 through 2009. Relative survival calculations were produced in SEER*Stat by the actuarial method.
The CRC age-adjusted incidence rate among AN men and women combined was higher than those in USW men and women (84 vs. 43/100,000; P < .05; AN:USW rate ratio [RR] = 2.0). The greatest differences between rates in AN people and USWs were for tumors in the hepatic flexure (RR = 3.1) and in the transverse (RR = 2.9) and sigmoid (RR = 2.5) regions of the colon. Rectal cancer rates among AN people were significantly higher than rates in USWs (21 vs.12/100,000). Five-year relative survival proportions by stage at diagnosis indicate that the CRC 5-year relative survival was similar in AN people and USWs for the period 2004 through 2009.
The high rate of CRC in AN people emphasizes the need for screening programs and interventions to reduce known modifiable risks. Research in methods to promote healthy behaviors among AN people is greatly needed.
Given the use of tamoxifen as standard treatment for hormone receptor–positive breast cancer, the use of toremifene as an adjuvant endocrine therapy has not been widely examined. The present retrospective study compared the efficacy and safety of toremifene and tamoxifen in the treatment of operable hormone receptor–positive breast cancer in premenopausal women.
Premenopausal patients with hormone receptor– positive operable breast cancer were eligible. Enrolled patients (n = 1847) received either 60 mg toremifene (n = 396) or 20 mg tamoxifen (n = 1451) daily for a minimum of 5 years after surgery. Disease-free survival (dfs) was the primary endpoint. Overall survival (os) and time to distant recurrence were secondary endpoints.
Treatment with toremifene and tamoxifen resulted in no between-group differences in dfs (p = 0.659) or os (p = 0.364). Mean dfs was 10.3 years for both groups. Mean os was 11.2 years for the toremifene group and 11.1 years for tamoxifen group. The 5-year dfs rate was 87.0% in the toremifene group and 85.0% in the tamoxifen group. The 5-year survival rate was 94.3% in the toremifene group and 93.5% in the tamoxifen group. Adverse events rates were similar in the two groups, with the exception of irregular menses, which occurred at a higher rate in the tamoxifen group than in the toremifene group (10.0% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.025).
In this retrospective study, the efficacy and safety profiles of toremifene and tamoxifen for the treatment of operable hormone receptor–positive breast cancer in premenopausal women were similar.
Tamoxifen; toremifene; breast cancer; adjuvant endocrine therapy; premenopausal
To determine the outcome and patterns of failure in oral cavity cancer (OCC) patients after postoperative intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concomitant systemic therapy.
All patients with locally advanced (AJCC stage III/IV) or high-risk OCC (AJCC stage II) who underwent postoperative IMRT at our institution between December 2006 and July 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The primary endpoint was locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS). Secondary endpoints included distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), acute and late toxicities.
Overall 53 patients were analyzed. Twenty-three patients (43%) underwent concomitant chemotherapy with cisplatin, two patients with carboplatin (4%) and four patients were treated with the monoclonal antibody cetuximab (8%).
At a median follow-up of 2.3 (range, 1.1–4.6) years the 3-year LRRFS, DMFS and OS estimates were 79%, 90%, and 73% respectively. Twelve patients experienced a locoregional recurrence. Eight patients, 5 of which had both a flap reconstruction and extracapsular extension (ECE), showed an unusual multifocal pattern of recurrence. Ten locoregional recurrences occurred marginally or outside of the high-risk target volumes. Acute toxicity grades of 2 (27%) and 3 (66%) and late toxicity grades of 2 (34%) and 3 (11%) were observed.
LRRFS after postoperative IMRT is satisfying and toxicity is acceptable. The majority of locoregional recurrences occurred marginally or outside of the high-risk target volumes. Improvement of high-risk target volume definition especially in patients with flap reconstruction and ECE might transfer into better locoregional control.
Head and neck cancer; IMRT; Oral cavity; Outcome; Postoperative
The aim of this study was to compare TOMOX versus FOLFOX4 as first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC).
Materials and methods
191 chemotherapy-naïve patients were randomized to receive TOMOX or FOLFOX4. Patients were evaluated every 3 months and chemotherapy was continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Overall response rate was the primary endpoint.
183 patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis (92 TOMOX and 91 FOLFOX4). Overall response rate was 45.6 and 36.3 % (p = 0.003) for TOMOX and FOLFOX4, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed in overall survival (15.6 and 17.2 months; p = 0.475); progression-free survival (7.7 and 8.7 months; p = 0.292), and response duration (6.4 and 7.6 months; p = 0.372) for TOMOX and FOLFOX4, respectively. Grades 3 and 4 neutropenia (p < 0.0001) and leukopenia (p = 0.028) were more common with the FOLFOX4 regimen, while hepatic disorders and asthenia were higher in TOMOX group (p = ns). There were two treatment-related deaths in the FOLFOX4 arm and one in the TOMOX arm. Quality of life analysis based on the SF-36 revealed differences between the two regimens for physical and mental composite scores after 6 weeks, and for body pain and emotional role functioning after 6 and 12 weeks; all of these favored the FOLFOX4 arm (p ≤ 0.05).
TOMOX and FOLFOX4 seem to have similar efficacy and are well tolerated in the first-line treatment for advanced CRC with different profiles of toxicity. The convenient TOMOX regimen may offer an alternative to fluoropyrimidine-based regimens.
Colorectal cancer; Raltitrexed; Oxaliplatin; Fluorouracil
Few patients with lung metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are candidates for surgical therapy with a curative intent, and it is currently impossible to identify those who may benefit the most from thoracotomy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of various parameters on survival after pulmonary metastasectomy for CRC.
We performed a retrospective analysis of 40 consecutive patients (median age 63.5 [range 33-82] years) who underwent resection of pulmonary metastases from CRC in our institution from 1996 to 2009.
Median follow-up was 33 (range 4-139) months. Twenty-four (60%) patients did not have previous liver metastases before undergoing lung surgery. Median disease-free interval between primary colorectal tumor and development of lung metastases was 32.5 months. 3- and 5-year overall survival after thoracotomy was 70.1% and 43.4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the following parameters were correlated with tumor recurrence after thoracotomy; a history of previous liver metastases (HR = 3.8, 95%CI 1.4-9.8); and lung surgery other than wedge resection (HR = 3.0, 95%CI 1.1-7.8). Prior resection of liver metastases was also correlated with an increased risk of death (HR = 5.1, 95% CI 1.1-24.8, p = 0.04). Median survival after thoracotomy was 87 (range 34-139) months in the group of patients without liver metastases versus 40 (range 28-51) months in patients who had undergone prior hepatectomy (p = 0.09).
The main parameter associated with poor outcome after lung resection of CRC metastases is a history of liver metastases.
15-20% of all patients initially diagnosed with colorectal cancer develop metastatic disease and surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment available. Current 5-year survival following R0-resection of liver metastases is 28-39%, but recurrence eventually occurs in up to 70%. To date, adjuvant chemotherapy has not improved clinical outcomes significantly. The primary objective of the ongoing LICC trial (L-BLP25 In Colorectal Cancer) is to determine whether L-BLP25, an active cancer immunotherapy, extends recurrence-free survival (RFS) time over placebo in colorectal cancer patients following R0/R1 resection of hepatic metastases. L-BLP25 targets MUC1 glycoprotein, which is highly expressed in hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. In a phase IIB trial, L-BLP25 has shown acceptable tolerability and a trend towards longer survival in patients with stage IIIB locoregional NSCLC.
This is a multinational, phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a sample size of 159 patients from 20 centers in 3 countries. Patients with stage IV colorectal adenocarcinoma limited to liver metastases are included. Following curative-intent complete resection of the primary tumor and of all synchronous/metachronous metastases, eligible patients are randomized 2:1 to receive either L-BLP25 or placebo. Those allocated to L-BLP25 receive a single dose of 300 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide (CP) 3 days before first L-BLP25 dose, then primary treatment with s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg once weekly for 8 weeks, followed by s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg maintenance doses at 6-week (years 1&2) and 12-week (year 3) intervals unless recurrence occurs. In the control arm, CP is replaced by saline solution and L-BLP25 by placebo. Primary endpoint is the comparison of recurrence-free survival (RFS) time between groups. Secondary endpoints are overall survival (OS) time, safety, tolerability, RFS/OS in MUC-1 positive cancers. Exploratory immune response analyses are planned. The primary endpoint will be assessed in Q3 2016. Follow-up will end Q3 2017. Interim analyses are not planned.
The design and implementation of such a vaccination study in colorectal cancer is feasible. The study will provide recurrence-free and overall survival rates of groups in an unbiased fashion.
EudraCT Number 2011-000218-20
We planned a multicenter randomized phase III study to evaluate the efficacy of appropriate dose of bevacizumab (5 or 10 mg/kg) with FOLFIRI in patients with advanced/metastatic colorectal cancer who have failed prior bevacizumab plus oxaliplatin-based therapy. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints are the toxicity, response rate, time to treatment failure, overall survival, overall survival from the start of the first-line treatment and second progression-free survival (time duration from the initiation of the first-line treatment until progression after the protocol treatment). A total of 370 patients were considered to be appropriate for this trial.
bevacizumab; FOLIRI; irinotecan; beyond progression; advanced/metastatic colorectal cancer
The treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has evolved rapidly with the recent approval of a number of treatments and agents, including docetaxel, sipuleucel T, abiraterone, cabazitaxel, and enzalutamide. Enzalutamide (previously MDV-3100) is a novel oral androgen receptor inhibitor that targets multiple steps in the androgen receptor signaling pathway. The randomized phase III AFFIRM study demonstrated significant improvements in a number of efficacy endpoints, including the primary endpoint of overall survival and secondary endpoints of progression-free survival, and time to prostate-specific antigen progression in patients with progressive mCRPC who had received prior treatment with docetaxel. Enzalutamide was well tolerated and there were comparable incidences of grade 3 or greater adverse events reported for the enzalutamide and placebo control arms in AFFIRM. Unlike some other treatments for mCRPC, enzalutamide does not require administration with steroids. The ongoing randomized phase III PREVAIL trial will investigate the efficacy and safety of enzalutamide in chemotherapy-naïve patients with mCRPC. Additional trials are investigating the use of enzalutamide in a number of disease settings.
AFFIRM trial; enzalutamide; metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer; PREVAIL trial
Substantial observational epidemiological evidence exists that physical activity and weight control are associated with decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Uncertainty remains regarding several aspects of these associations, including the effect of possible confounding factors on these associations. We present the rationale and design for two randomized controlled trials that can help resolve this uncertainty. In a 5-year prevention trial conducted among women at high risk of breast cancer, the primary endpoint would be breast cancer incidence. For a comparable survivorship trial, the primary endpoint would be the disease-free interval and secondary endpoints would be breast cancer recurrence–free interval, second primary breast cancer, and total invasive plus in situ breast cancer. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria is proposed for both trials. Intervention goals are the same for both trials. Goals for the weight control intervention would be, for women whose body mass index (BMI) is greater than 25 kg/m2, to lose 10% of body weight and, for women whose BMI is less than or equal to 25 kg/m2, to avoid weight gain. The goal for the physical activity intervention would be to achieve and maintain regular participation in a moderate-intensity physical activity program for a total of 150–225 minutes over at least 5 days per week. Sample size calculations are based on alternative assumptions about hazard ratio, adherence, follow-up duration, and power and are presented for the primary prevention and survivorship trials. Although both studies could enhance our understanding of breast cancer etiology and benefit public health, practical considerations, including smaller sample size, ease of recruitment, and reduced likelihood of early termination, favor the survivorship trial at this time.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common non-cutaneous malignancy in the United States and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death. One of the most important determinants of CRC survival is lymph node metastasis. To determine whether molecular markers might be prognostic for lymph node metastases, we measured by quantitative real-time RT–PCR the expression levels of 15 cancer-associated genes in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tissues derived from stage I–IV CRC patients with (n=20) and without (n=18) nodal metastases. Using the mean of the 15 genes as an internal reference control, we observed that low expression of β2microglobulin (B2M) was a strong prognostic indicator of lymph node metastases (area under the curve (AUC)=0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.69–0.94). We also observed that the expression ratio of B2M/Spint2 had the highest prognostic accuracy (AUC=0.87; 95% CI=0.71–0.96) of all potential two-gene combinations. Expression values of Spint2 correlated with the mean of the entire gene set at an R2 value of 0.97, providing evidence that Spint2 serves not as an independent prognostic gene, but rather as a reliable reference control gene. These studies are the first to demonstrate a prognostic role of B2M at the mRNA level and suggest that low B2M expression levels might be useful for identifying patients with lymph node metastasis and/or poor survival.
formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded; gene expression; prognostic assay; colorectal cancer; real-time PCR; area under the curve
In recent years, significant advances have been made in the management of metastatic colorectal cancer. Traditionally, an improvement in overall survival has been considered the “gold standard”—the most convincing measure of efficacy. However, overall survival requires larger patient numbers and longer follow-up and may often be confounded by other factors, including subsequent therapies and crossover. Given the number of active therapies for potential investigation, demand for rapid evaluation and early availability of new therapies is growing. Progression-free survival is regarded as an important measure of treatment benefit and, compared with overall survival, can be evaluated earlier, with fewer patients and no confounding by subsequent lines of therapy. The present paper reviews the advantages, limitations, and relevance of progression-free survival as a primary endpoint in randomized trials of metastatic colorectal cancer.
Progression-free survival; metastatic colorectal cancer; surrogate endpoints; targeted therapies; randomized clinical trials