Plasmodesmata (PD) are essential but poorly understood structures in plant cell walls that provide symplastic continuity and intercellular communication pathways between adjacent cells and thus play fundamental roles in development and pathogenesis. Viruses encode movement proteins (MPs) that modify these tightly regulated pores to facilitate their spread from cell to cell. The most striking of these modifications is observed for groups of viruses whose MPs form tubules that assemble in PDs and through which virions are transported to neighbouring cells. The nature of the molecular interactions between viral MPs and PD components and their role in viral movement has remained essentially unknown. Here, we show that the family of PD-located proteins (PDLPs) promotes the movement of viruses that use tubule-guided movement by interacting redundantly with tubule-forming MPs within PDs. Genetic disruption of this interaction leads to reduced tubule formation, delayed infection and attenuated symptoms. Our results implicate PDLPs as PD proteins with receptor-like properties involved the assembly of viral MPs into tubules to promote viral movement.
In plants, spreading virus infection occurs via small pores in the cell wall named plasmodesmata that connect adjacent cells. Two decades have passed since the first discovery of specific viral proteins (movement proteins; MP) that assist this process. However, the manner by which these proteins adapt plasmodesmata to allow the movement of relatively large viral structures remains largely unknown. Here, we show that a family of plasmodesmata-located proteins, called PDLPs, which are conserved amongst higher plants, specifically mediate this process. PDLPs bind classes of MP that assemble into tubules within plasmodesmata to promote the movement of entire virions. This class of MP occurs for a diverse range of plant virus genera and we show that representatives of these viruses have MPs that bind PDLPs. The importance of PDLPs in this process was shown when reduction in accumulation led to reduced tubule formation, delayed infection and attenuated symptoms. Altogether, our study supports a scenario whereby the PDLPs work together to support virus infection of plants and as such provide important mechanistic insights into the movement mechanism of plant viruses within their hosts.
Plasmodesmata provide the cytoplasmic conduits for cell-to-cell communication throughout plant tissues and participate in a diverse set of non–cell-autonomous functions. Despite their central role in growth and development and defence, resolving their modus operandi remains a major challenge in plant biology. Features of protein sequences and/or structure that determine protein targeting to plasmodesmata were previously unknown. We identify here a novel family of plasmodesmata-located proteins (called PDLP1) whose members have the features of type I membrane receptor-like proteins. We focus our studies on the first identified type member (namely At5g43980, or PDLP1a) and show that, following its altered expression, it is effective in modulating cell-to-cell trafficking. PDLP1a is targeted to plasmodesmata via the secretory pathway in a Brefeldin A–sensitive and COPII-dependent manner, and resides at plasmodesmata with its C-terminus in the cytoplasmic domain and its N-terminus in the apoplast. Using a deletion analysis, we show that the single transmembrane domain (TMD) of PDLP1a contains all the information necessary for intracellular targeting of this type I membrane protein to plasmodesmata, such that the TMD can be used to target heterologous proteins to this location. These studies identify a new family of plasmodesmal proteins that affect cell-to-cell communication. They exhibit a mode of intracellular trafficking and targeting novel for plant biology and provide technological opportunities for targeting different proteins to plasmodesmata to aid in plasmodesmal characterisation.
In plants, cylindrical, microscopic channels called plasmodesmata provide intracellular connections between cells for communication and material transport, and are important for many aspects of plant growth and defence. We identify a novel family of plasmodesmata-located proteins (called PDLP1) with features of type I membrane receptor-like proteins. In line with the potential for this protein to regulate molecular movement from cell to cell, we show that altered expression of the protein changes the efficiency of protein diffusion from plasmodesmata. We have also analysed the manner in which PDLP1 is transported to plasmodesmata. We show that the single transmembrane domain (TMD) of the protein contains all the information necessary for targeting to plasmodesmata and that proper targeting depends upon specific interactions with other factors within the membrane. Notably, a single amino acid close to the C-terminus of the TMD is critical for determining the intracellular destination. Further, by fusing the TMD to yellow fluorescent protein, we establish that the TMD can be used to target heterologous proteins to plasmodesmata.
Little is know about the structure and function of plant cell-to-cell connections, called plasmodesmata. This paper describes a new family of plasmodesmal proteins and the processes controlling their subcellular trafficking.
The downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) is a filamentous oomycete that invades plant cells via sophisticated but poorly understood structures called haustoria. Haustoria are separated from the host cell cytoplasm and surrounded by an extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) of unknown origin. In some interactions, including Hpa-Arabidopsis, haustoria are progressively encased by host-derived, callose-rich materials but the molecular mechanisms by which callose accumulates around haustoria remain unclear. Here, we report that PLASMODESMATA-LOCATED PROTEIN 1 (PDLP1) is expressed at high levels in Hpa infected cells. Unlike other plasma membrane proteins, which are often excluded from the EHM, PDLP1 is located at the EHM in Hpa-infected cells prior to encasement. The transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of PDLP1 are sufficient to convey this localization. PDLP1 also associates with the developing encasement but this association is lost when encasements are fully mature. We found that the pdlp1,2,3 triple mutant is more susceptible to Hpa while overexpression of PDLP1 enhances plant resistance, suggesting that PDLPs enhance basal immunity against Hpa. Haustorial encasements are depleted in callose in pdlp1,2,3 mutant plants whereas PDLP1 over-expression elevates callose deposition around haustoria and across the cell surface. These data indicate that PDLPs contribute to callose encasement of Hpa haustoria and suggests that the deposition of callose at haustoria may involve similar mechanisms to callose deposition at plasmodesmata.
Haustoria are specialised invasive structures that project from fungal or oomycete hyphae into host plant cells during infection, acting as sites for molecular exchange between host and pathogen. Haustoria are targets of plant defence responses, including the deposition of membranes and polysaccharides in an encasement structure that surrounds the haustorium. It is assumed that the encasement physically seals the haustorium off from the host cell. Here we have used cell biological and genetic approaches to reveal that the plasmodesmata-associated receptor-like protein PDLP1 plays a role in infection success of the Arabidopsis downy mildew pathogen, specifically in the development of the encasement. Using live cell imaging, we observed that PDLP1 relocates to the extra-haustorial membrane, and this is required for deposition of the polysaccharide callose in the encasement. This directly correlates pathogen success with the structure of the encasement, verifying the significance of the encasement in host defence. Further, our data pose the possibility that callose deposition at plasmodesmata and the haustorial encasement exploit similar mechanisms. Our findings shed light on plant defences at haustoria and how they inhibit pathogen success.
Viruses are obligatory parasites that depend on host cellular factors for their replication as well as for their local and systemic movement to establish infection. Although myosin motors are thought to contribute to plant virus infection, their exact roles in the specific infection steps have not been addressed. Here we investigated the replication, cell-to-cell and systemic spread of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using dominant negative inhibition of myosin activity. We found that interference with the functions of three class VIII myosins and two class XI myosins significantly reduced the local and long-distance transport of the virus. We further determined that the inactivation of myosins XI-2 and XI-K affected the structure and dynamic behavior of the ER leading to aggregation of the viral movement protein (MP) and to a delay in the MP accumulation in plasmodesmata (PD). The inactivation of myosin XI-2 but not of myosin XI-K affected the localization pattern of the 126k replicase subunit and the level of TMV accumulation. The inhibition of myosins VIII-1, VIII-2 and VIII-B abolished MP localization to PD and caused its retention at the plasma membrane. These results suggest that class XI myosins contribute to the viral propagation and intracellular trafficking, whereas myosins VIII are specifically required for the MP targeting to and virus movement through the PD. Thus, TMV appears to recruit distinct myosins for different steps in the cell-to-cell spread of the infection.
Viruses are parasites that require the host cell machinery for their propagation within and between cells. Myosins are molecular motors involved in the trafficking of cargos along actin filaments. Plant viruses have evolved to borrow this transport mechanism to aid their infection and spread within the plant. However, little is known about which of the many plant myosins are essential and at which specific steps they act to support virus infection. Here we investigated the role of different N. benthamiana myosins during the infection by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Our results show that class XI myosins play specific roles in the reproduction and intracellular movement of TMV in association with the dynamic endoplasmic reticulum network, whereas class VIII myosins support the specific targeting of the viral movement protein to plasmodesmata and thus the cell-to-cell movement of the virus. Together these results indicate that TMV interacts with distinct myosins during specific infection steps.
Many animal and plant viruses rely on vectors for their transmission from host to
host. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), a picorna-like virus from
plants, is transmitted specifically by the ectoparasitic nematode
Xiphinema index. The icosahedral capsid of GFLV, which
consists of 60 identical coat protein subunits (CP), carries the determinants of
this specificity. Here, we provide novel insight into GFLV transmission by
nematodes through a comparative structural and functional analysis of two GFLV
variants. We isolated a mutant GFLV strain (GFLV-TD) poorly transmissible by
nematodes, and showed that the transmission defect is due to a glycine to
aspartate mutation at position 297 (Gly297Asp) in the CP. We next determined the
crystal structures of the wild-type GFLV strain F13 at 3.0 Å and of
GFLV-TD at 2.7 Å resolution. The Gly297Asp mutation mapped to an exposed
loop at the outer surface of the capsid and did not affect the conformation of
the assembled capsid, nor of individual CP molecules. The loop is part of a
positively charged pocket that includes a previously identified determinant of
transmission. We propose that this pocket is a ligand-binding site with
essential function in GFLV transmission by X. index. Our data
suggest that perturbation of the electrostatic landscape of this pocket affects
the interaction of the virion with specific receptors of the nematode's
feeding apparatus, and thereby severely diminishes its transmission efficiency.
These data provide a first structural insight into the interactions between a
plant virus and a nematode vector.
Numerous pathogenic viruses from animals and plants rely on vectors such as
insects, worms or other organisms for their transmission from host to host. The
reasons why certain vectors transmit some viruses but not others remain poorly
understood. In plants, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), a major
pathogen of grapes worldwide and its specific vector, the dagger nematode
Xiphinema index, provides a well-established model
illustrating this specificity. Here, we determined the high-resolution
structures of two GFLV isolates that differ in their transmissibility. We show
that this difference is due to a single mutation in a region exposed at the
outer surface of the viral particles. This mutation does not alter the
conformation of the particles but modifies the distribution of charges within a
positively-charged pocket at the outer surface of virions which likely affects
particle retention by X. index and, thereby also transmission
efficiency. Therefore, we propose that this pocket is involved in the specific
recognition of GFLV by its nematode vector. This work paves the way towards the
characterization of the specific compound(s) within the nematodes that trigger
vector specificity and provides novel perspectives to interfere with virus
Infection by Grapevine fanleaf nepovirus (GFLV), a bipartite RNA virus of positive polarity belonging to the Comoviridae family, causes extensive cytopathic modifications of the host endomembrane system that eventually culminate in the formation of a perinuclear “viral compartment.” We identified by immunoconfocal microscopy this compartment as the site of virus replication since it contained the RNA1-encoded proteins necessary for replication, newly synthesized viral RNA, and double-stranded replicative forms. In addition, by using transgenic T-BY2 protoplasts expressing green fluorescent protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or in the Golgi apparatus (GA), we could directly show that GFLV replication induced a depletion of the cortical ER, together with a condensation and redistribution of ER-derived membranes, to generate the viral compartment. Brefeldin A, a drug known to inhibit vesicle trafficking between the GA and the ER, was found to inhibit GFLV replication. Cerulenin, a drug inhibiting de novo synthesis of phospholipids, also inhibited GFLV replication. These observations imply that GFLV replication depends both on ER-derived membrane recruitment and on de novo lipid synthesis. In contrast to proteins involved in viral replication, the 2B movement protein and, to a lesser extent, the 2C coat protein were not confined to the viral compartment but were transported toward the cell periphery, a finding consistent with their role in cell-to-cell movement of virus particles.
The contribution of different host cell transport systems in the intercellular movement of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was investigated. To discriminate between primary infections and secondary infections associated with the virus intercellular movement, a gene cassette expressing GFP-HDEL was inserted adjacent to a TuMV infectious cassette expressing 6K2:mCherry, both within the T-DNA borders of the binary vector pCambia. In this system, both gene cassettes were delivered to the same cell by a single binary vector and primary infection foci emitted green and red fluorescence while secondarily infected cells emitted only red fluorescence. Intercellular movement was measured at 72 hours post infiltration and was estimated to proceed at an average rate of one cell being infected every three hours over an observation period of 17 hours. To determine if the secretory pathway were important for TuMV intercellular movement, chemical and protein inhibitors that blocked both early and late secretory pathways were used. Treatment with Brefeldin A or Concanamycin A or expression of ARF1 or RAB-E1d dominant negative mutants, all of which inhibit pre- or post-Golgi transport, reduced intercellular movement by the virus. These treatments, however, did not inhibit virus replication in primary infected cells. Pharmacological interference assays using Tyrphostin A23 or Wortmannin showed that endocytosis was not important for TuMV intercellular movement. Lack of co-localization by endocytosed FM4-64 and Ara7 (AtRabF2b) with TuMV-induced 6K2-tagged vesicles further supported this conclusion. Microfilament depolymerizing drugs and silencing expression of myosin XI-2 gene, but not myosin VIII genes, also inhibited TuMV intercellular movement. Expression of dominant negative myosin mutants confirmed the role played by myosin XI-2 as well as by myosin XI-K in TuMV intercellular movement. Using this dual gene cassette expression system and transport inhibitors, components of the secretory and actomyosin machinery were shown to be important for TuMV intercellular spread.
Plant viruses move from the initially infected cell to neighboring cells during local movement and then over long distances through vascular tissue to establish a systemic infection in the plant. Virus intercellular transport requires viral and host factors to move viral RNA-protein complexes through plasmodesmata (PDs). Virus intercellular movement is normally assessed by assays that cannot always differentiate between reduced viral RNA replication and intercellular movement. By using a dual cassette of genes encoding fluorescent proteins that can differentiate between primary infected cells and cells infected after intercellular transport, we provide evidence that turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) needs a functional secretory pathway where pre- and post-Golgi trafficking and the actomyosin network are important for its movement. Interestingly, disruption of these host transport machineries had no impact on TuMV accumulation in initially infected cells. These results support the idea that virus replication activities can be influenced separately from those involved in other virus activities such as movement, although aspects of both are likely coordinated.
The Hsp70 homolog (Hsp70h) of Beet yellows virus (BYV) functions in virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement and is autonomously targeted to plasmodesmata in association with the actomyosin motility system (A. I. Prokhnevsky, V. V. Peremyslov, and V. V. Dolja, J. Virol. 79:14421-14428, 2005). Myosins are a diverse category of molecular motors that possess a motor domain and a tail domain involved in cargo binding. Plants have two classes of myosins, VIII and XI, whose specific functions are poorly understood. We used dominant negative inhibition to identify myosins required for Hsp70h localization to plasmodesmata. Six full-length myosin cDNAs from the BYV host plant Nicotiana benthamiana were sequenced and shown to encode apparent orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana myosins VIII-1, VIII-2, VIII-B, XI-2, XI-F, and XI-K. We found that the ectopic expression of the tail domains of each of the class VIII, but not the class XI, myosins inhibited the plasmodesmatal localization of Hsp70h. In contrast, the overexpression of the motor domains or the entire molecules of the class VIII myosins did not affect Hsp70h targeting. Further mapping revealed that the minimal cargo-binding part of the myosin VIII tails was both essential and sufficient for the inhibition of the proper Hsp70h localization. Interestingly, plasmodesmatal localization of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and Arabidopsis protein RGP2 was not affected by myosin VIII tail overexpression. Collectively, our data implicate class VIII myosins in protein delivery to plasmodesmata and suggest that more than one mechanism of such delivery exist in plants.
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) from the genus Nepovirus, family Secoviridae, cause a severe degeneration of grapevines. GFLV and ArMV have a bipartite RNA genome and are transmitted specifically by the ectoparasitic nematodes Xiphinema index and Xiphinema diversicaudatum, respectively. The transmission specificity of both viruses maps to their respective RNA2-encoded coat protein (CP). To further delineate the GFLV CP determinants of transmission specificity, three-dimensional (3D) homology structure models of virions and CP subunits were constructed based on the crystal structure of Tobacco ringspot virus, the type member of the genus Nepovirus. The 3D models were examined to predict amino acids that are exposed at the external virion surface, highly conserved among GFLV isolates but divergent between GFLV and ArMV. Five short amino acid stretches that matched these topographical and sequence conservation criteria were selected and substituted in single and multiple combinations by their ArMV counterparts in a GFLV RNA2 cDNA clone. Among the 21 chimeric RNA2 molecules engineered, transcripts of only three of them induced systemic plant infection in the presence of GFLV RNA1. Nematode transmission assays of the three viable recombinant viruses showed that swapping a stretch of (i) 11 residues in the βB-βC loop near the icosahedral 3-fold axis abolished transmission by X. index but was insufficient to restore transmission by X. diversicaudatum and (ii) 7 residues in the βE-αB loop did not interfere with transmission by the two Xiphinema species. This study provides new insights into GFLV CP determinants of nematode transmission.
The complete sequences of RNA1, RNA2 and satellite RNA have been determined for a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-SACH44). The two RNAs of GFLV-SACH44 are 7,341 nucleotides (nt) and 3,816 nt in length, respectively, and its satellite RNA (satRNA) is 1,104 nt in length, all excluding the poly(A) tail. Multiple sequence alignment of these sequences showed that GFLV-SACH44 RNA1 and RNA2 were the closest to the South African isolate, GFLV-SAPCS3 (98.2% and 98.6% nt identity, respectively), followed by the French isolate, GFLV-F13 (87.3% and 90.1% nt identity, respectively). Interestingly, the GFLV-SACH44 satRNA is more similar to three Arabis mosaic virus satRNAs (85%–87.4% nt identity) than to the satRNA of GFLV-F13 (81.8% nt identity) and was most distantly related to the satRNA of GFLV-R2 (71.0% nt identity). Full-length infectious clones of GFLV-SACH44 satRNA were constructed. The infectivity of the clones was tested with three nepovirus isolates, GFLV-NW, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV)-NW and GFLV-SAPCS3. The clones were mechanically inoculated in Chenopodium quinoa and were infectious when co-inoculated with the two GFLV helper viruses, but not when co-inoculated with ArMV-NW.
Grapevine fanleaf virus; Arabis mosaic virus; satellite RNA; phylogenetics; full-length infectious cDNA clones; herbaceous hosts
A small open reading frame (ORF), pipo, overlaps with the P3 coding region of the potyviral polyprotein ORF. Previous evidence suggested a requirement for pipo for efficient viral cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide immunoblotting evidence that the protein PIPO is expressed as a trans-frame protein consisting of the amino-terminal half of P3 fused to PIPO (P3N-PIPO). P3N-PIPO of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) fused to GFP facilitates its own cell-to-cell movement. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, co-immunoprecipitation assays, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, we found that P3N-PIPO interacts with host protein PCaP1, a cation-binding protein that attaches to the plasma membrane via myristoylation. BiFC revealed that it is the PIPO domain of P3N-PIPO that binds PCaP1 and that myristoylation of PCaP1 is unnecessary for interaction with P3N-PIPO. In PCaP1 knockout mutants (pcap1) of Arabidopsis, accumulation of TuMV harboring a GFP gene (TuMV-GFP) was drastically reduced relative to the virus level in wild-type plants, only small localized spots of GFP were visible, and the plants showed few symptoms. In contrast, TuMV-GFP infection in wild-type Arabidopsis yielded large green fluorescent patches, and caused severe stunting. However, viral RNA accumulated to high level in protoplasts from pcap1 plants indicating that PCaP1 is not required for TuMV RNA synthesis. In contrast to TuMV, the tobamovirus Oilseed rape mosaic virus did not require PCaP1 to infect Arabidopsis plants. We conclude that potyviral P3N-PIPO interacts specifically with the host plasma membrane protein PCaP1 to participate in cell-to-cell movement. We speculate that PCaP1 links a complex of viral proteins and genomic RNA to the plasma membrane by binding P3N-PIPO, enabling localization to the plasmodesmata and cell-to-cell movement. The PCaP1 knockout may contribute to a new strategy for recessive resistance to potyviruses.
The Potyviridae is the largest and most economically important family of plant viruses. A key step in the life cycle of all plant viruses is transport of the viral genome through the plasmodesmata, highly regulated channels that connect cells. While the mechanisms of cell-to-cell movement of many plant viruses have been characterized, our understanding of Potyviridae movement is lacking. The viral RNA genome is transported to the plasmodesmata by a complex of viral proteins including a recently discovered protein, P3N-PIPO which is encoded in two reading frames. The details of this localization process are unclear. Here, we identify a potential missing link that suggests how the potyviral movement complex may anchor to the plasma membrane including in the plasmodesmata. The host protein PCaP1, a divalent cation-binding plasma membrane protein, binds the P3N-PIPO protein of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). Both proteins were detected in the plasma membrane and plasmodesmata. Arabidopsis plants lacking PCaP1 allowed TuMV RNA replication but showed inefficient TuMV movement, reduced TuMV accumulation, and had greatly attenuated symptoms. However, these plants allowed normal infection by a tobamovirus. Thus, mutation of the PCaP1 gene may contribute to breeding potyvirus-resistant crops.
The formation of virus movement protein (MP)-containing punctate structures on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum is required for efficient intercellular movement of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), a bipartite positive-strand RNA plant virus. We found that these cortical punctate structures constitute a viral replication complex (VRC) in addition to the previously reported aggregate structures that formed adjacent to the nucleus. We identified host proteins that interacted with RCNMV MP in virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves using a tandem affinity purification method followed by mass spectrometry. One of these host proteins was glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-A (NbGAPDH-A), which is a component of the Calvin-Benson cycle in chloroplasts. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A reduced RCNMV multiplication in the inoculated leaves, but not in the single cells, thereby suggesting that GAPDH-A plays a positive role in cell-to-cell movement of RCNMV. The fusion protein of NbGAPDH-A and green fluorescent protein localized exclusively to the chloroplasts. In the presence of RCNMV RNA1, however, the protein localized to the cortical VRC as well as the chloroplasts. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay and GST pulldown assay confirmed in vivo and in vitro interactions, respectively, between the MP and NbGAPDH-A. Furthermore, gene silencing of NbGAPDH-A inhibited MP localization to the cortical VRC. We discuss the possible roles of NbGAPDH-A in the RCNMV movement process.
Intercellular movement of plant viruses is the crucial step during systemic viral infections. Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), a bipartite positive-strand RNA plant virus, forms movement protein (MP)-containing punctate structures on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum in infected cells, which are required for efficient intercellular movement of the virus. We provide evidence that these cortical punctate structures constitute the viral replication complex (VRC), which forms during the early stage of virus infection. Furthermore, we show that a host protein of Nicotiana benthamiana, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-A (NbGAPDH-A), possibly intercalates between the cortical VRC and MP. Knockdown of NbGAPDH-A diffused subcellular localization of MP and reduced intercellular movement of the virus. Chloroplastic NbGAPDH-A relocalized to the cortical VRC after infection with the virus. Our results suggest that the cortical VRC serves not only as the replication factory of viral RNA but also as a transportation hub, which transports viral RNA to neighboring uninfected cells via plasmodesmata.
Eukaryotic cells restrain the activity of foreign genetic elements, including viruses, through RNA silencing. Although viruses encode suppressors of silencing to support their propagation, viruses may also exploit silencing to regulate host gene expression or to control the level of their accumulation and thus to reduce damage to the host. RNA silencing in plants propagates from cell to cell and systemically via a sequence-specific signal. Since the signal spreads between cells through plasmodesmata like the viruses themselves, virus-encoded plasmodesmata-manipulating movement proteins (MP) may have a central role in compatible virus:host interactions by suppressing or enhancing the spread of the signal. Here, we have addressed the propagation of GFP silencing in the presence and absence of MP and MP mutants. We show that the protein enhances the spread of silencing. Small RNA analysis indicates that MP does not enhance the silencing pathway but rather enhances the transport of the signal through plasmodesmata. The ability to enhance the spread of silencing is maintained by certain MP mutants that can move between cells but which have defects in subcellular localization and do not support the spread of viral RNA. Using MP expressing and non-expressing virus mutants with a disabled silencing suppressing function, we provide evidence indicating that viral MP contributes to anti-viral silencing during infection. Our results suggest a role of MP in controlling virus propagation in the infected host by supporting the spread of silencing signal. This activity of MP involves only a subset of its properties implicated in the spread of viral RNA.
RNA silencing is a fundamental mechanism that, among other important tasks, controls the accumulation of viruses through the degradation of their RNA intermediates. Since viruses encode suppressors of RNA silencing it is assumed that RNA silencing has evolved as an antiviral defense response. Thus, the idea of an arms race between the virus and the host, which the virus has to win for a successful infection, is now widely accepted. Our results question this concept of an arms race by showing that a virus-encoded protein, the movement protein (MP) of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), supports the intercellular trafficking of the non-cell-autonomous silencing signal. A virus mutant with defects in the suppressor is shown to be more prone for silencing with MP than without MP indicating that MP supports antiviral silencing during infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of silencing suppressors leads to viral overaccumulation and the death of the plant. Therefore, we suggest that the ability of MP to support the spread of signal may contribute to the control of virus propagation in the infected host.
Myosins are molecular motors that carry cargo on actin filaments in eukaryotic cells. Seventeen myosin genes have been identified in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. The myosin genes can be divided into two plant-specific subfamilies, class VIII with four members and class XI with 13 members. Class XI myosins are related to animal and fungal myosin class V that are responsible for movement of particular vesicles and organelles. Organelle localization of only one of the 13 Arabidopsis myosin XI (myosin XI-6; At MYA2), which is found on peroxisomes, has so far been reported. Little information is available concerning the remaining 12 class XI myosins.
We investigated 6 of the 13 class XI Arabidopsis myosins. cDNAs corresponding to the tail region of 6 myosin genes were generated and incorporated into a vector to encode YFP-myosin tail fusion proteins lacking the motor domain. Chimeric genes incorporating tail regions of myosin XI-5 (At MYA1), myosin XI-6 (At MYA2), myosin XI-8 (At XI-B), myosin XI-15 (At XI-I), myosin XI-16 (At XI-J) and myosin XI-17 (At XI-K) were expressed transiently. All YFP-myosin-tail fusion proteins were targeted to small organelles ranging in size from 0.5 to 3.0 μm. Despite the absence of a motor domain, the fluorescently-labeled organelles were motile in most cells. Tail cropping experiments demonstrated that the coiled-coil region was required for specific localization and shorter tail regions were inadequate for targeting. Myosin XI-6 (At MYA2), previously reported to localize to peroxisomes by immunofluorescence, labeled both peroxisomes and vesicles when expressed as a YFP-tail fusion. None of the 6 YFP-myosin tail fusions interacted with chloroplasts, and only one YFP-tail fusion appeared to sometimes co-localize with fluorescent proteins targeted to Golgi and mitochondria.
6 myosin XI tails, extending from the coiled-coil region to the C-terminus, label specific vesicles and/or organelles when transiently expressed as YFP fusions in plant cells. Although comparable constructs lacking the motor domain result in a dominant negative effect on organelle motility in animal systems, the plant organelles remained motile. YFP-myosin tail fusions provide specific labeling for vesicles of unknown composition, whose identity can be investigated in future studies.
Movement and coat protein genes from Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) isolates have been characterized previously from Iran. In this study, an optimized reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction protocol was established to amplify RNA2 genomic segment corresponding to the hypothetical protein (2AHP). The sequence of 2AHP was compared with that of previously reported GFLV strains/isolates from other countries which showed 82–86% sequence identities. The 2AHP gene from Iran appeared to be standing distinct from other isolates of GFLV when genetic distance- or parsimony-based phylogeneitc analyses were carried out. The present study for the first time reports characterization of Iranian isolate of GFLV based on 2AHP gene.
Hypothetical protein; 2AHP gene; RT-PCR; ELISA; GFLV; Nepovirus
The triple-gene-block protein 3 (TGBp3) of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) is an integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein which is assumed to form a membrane complex to deliver the virus intracellularly. However, the virus entity that is delivered to plasmodesmata (PD) and its association with TGBp3-based complexes are not known. Results from chemical extraction and partial proteolysis of TGBp3 in membrane vesicles revealed that TGBp3 has a right-side-out membrane topology; i.e., TGBp3 has its C-terminal tail exposed to the outer surface of ER. Analyses of the TGBp3-specific immunoprecipitate of Sarkosyl-extracted TGBp3-based complex revealed that TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, capsid protein (CP), replicase and viral RNA are potential constituents of virus movement complex. Substantial co-fractionation of TGBp2, TGBp3 and CP, but not TGBp1, in the early eluted gel filtration fractions in which virions were detected after TGBp3-specific immunoprecipitation suggested that the TGBp2- and TGBp3-based complex is able to stably associate with the virion. This notion was confirmed by immunogold-labeling transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the purified virions. In addition, mutational and confocal microscopy analyses revealed that TGBp3 plays a key role in virus cell-to-cell movement by enhancing the TGBp2- and TGBp3-dependent PD localization of TGBp1. Taken together, our results suggested that the cell-to-cell movement of potexvirus requires stable association of the virion cargo with the TGBp2- and TGBp3-based membrane complex and recruitment of TGBp1 to the PD by this complex.
Plant viruses spread their infectious entities from cell to cell via plasmodesmata (PD) through the assistance of virus-encoded movement proteins and host factors. Some RNA viruses encode three functionally coordinated movement proteins organized into a triple gene block (TGB) to facilitate their cell-to-cell movement. TGBp2 and TGBp3 are known to associate with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and ER-derived vesicles. The ER- or vesicle-associated TGBp2 and TGBp3 presumably form a membrane complex to deliver the viruses. However, the identity of the “viral RNA cargo” and whether the cargo is able to associate with the TGBp2- and TGBp3-containing membrane complex during intracellular transport remain unclear for potex-like viruses. Taking advantage of an HA-tagged and a His-tagged TGBp3 construct of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), we have been able to determine the membrane topology of TGBp3, isolate the TGBp3-based complex and detect the existence of a stable TGBp2-TGBp3-virion complex. Moreover, we have clarified that TGBp3 plays a key role in virus cell-to-cell movement by enhancing the TGBp2- and TGBp3-dependent PD localization of TGBp1. These results suggested that the cell-to-cell movement of potexvirus requires stable association of the virion cargo with the TGBp2- and TGBp3-containing membrane complex and recruitment of TGBp1 to the PD by this complex.
Intercellular transport of viruses through cytoplasmic connections, termed plasmodesmata (PD), is essential for systemic infection in plants by viruses. Previous genetic and ultrastructural data revealed that the potyvirus cyclindrical inclusion (CI) protein is directly involved in cell-to-cell movement, likely through the formation of conical structures anchored to and extended through PD. In this study, we demonstrate that plasmodesmatal localization of CI in N. benthamiana leaf cells is modulated by the recently discovered potyviral protein, P3N-PIPO, in a CI:P3N-PIPO ratio-dependent manner. We show that P3N-PIPO is a PD-located protein that physically interacts with CI in planta. The early secretory pathway, rather than the actomyosin motility system, is required for the delivery of P3N-PIPO and CI to PD. Moreover, CI mutations that disrupt virus cell-to-cell movement compromise PD-localization capacity. These data suggest that the CI and P3N-PIPO complex coordinates the formation of PD-associated structures that facilitate the intercellular movement of potyviruses in infected plants.
Plant viral pathogens cause an estimated US$60 billion loss in crop yields worldwide each year. Potyviruses, accounting for ∼30% of known plant viruses, include many agriculturally important viruses. Despite their importance, the cell-to-cell spread of potyviruses remains poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that at early time points of infection, the virus-encoded CI protein, one of 11 known potyviral proteins, is associated with cone-shaped structures at plasmodesmata (PD) and is involved in viral cell-to-cell movement. In this paper, we show that a newly identified potyviral protein, P3N-PIPO, is a PD-located protein and directs the CI protein to PD, facilitating the deposition of the cone-shaped structures of CI at PD by interacting with CI protein. We demonstrate that the mutant of CI, which impairs potyviral cell-to-cell movement, loses its ability to accumulate at PD. We further reveal that P3N-PIPO utilizes the secretory pathway rather than the actomyosin motility system for trafficking to PD. Taken together, the data presented in this study suggest that CI and P3N-PIPO coordinates the formation of conical structure at PD for potyviral cell-to-cell spread.
Maize and Arabidopsis thaliana class 1 reversibly glycosylated polypeptides (C1RGPs) are plasmodesmata-associated proteins. Previously, overexpression of Arabidopsis C1RGP AtRGP2 in Nicotiana tabacum was shown to reduce intercellular transport of photoassimilate, resulting in stunted, chlorotic plants, and inhibition of local cell-to-cell spread of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Here, we used virus induced gene silencing to examine the effects of reduced levels of C1RGPs in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silenced plants show wild-type growth and development. Intercellular transport in silenced plants was probed using fluorescently labeled TMV and its movement protein, P30. P30 shows increased cell-to-cell movement and TMV exhibited accelerated systemic spread compared with control plants. These results support the hypothesis that C1RGPs act to regulate intercellular transport via plasmodesmata.
plasmodesmata; reversibly glycosylated polypeptide; TMV movement protein; tobacco mosaic virus; virus-induced gene silencing
Plant viruses spread cell-to-cell in infected plants by exploiting plasmodesmata (PD), gatable channels in the cell wall that provide cytoplasmic passageways for the trafficking of informational macromolecules. Since it became known that the intercellular spread of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) depends on virus-encoded movement protein (MP), the mechanism by which this protein mediates in the targeting of this virus to PD is subject to intense studies. TMV movement occurs in a non-encapsidated form and thus promises to reveal important host functions involved in the intra-and intercellular trafficking of RNA molecules. We have recently presented new evidence that the cell-to-cell trafficking of TMV RNA (vRNA) involves the formation and intracellular trafficking of distinct MP particles. Upon assembly, these particles detach from cortical microtubule (MT) sites and then move with the flow of ER through the cell. During passage the particles continue to undergo transient interactions with MT which may guide the particles to their destination. The comprehensive analysis of particle composition may lead to important insights into the regulation of RNA transport in plants and may also reveal potential similarities to RNA transport mechanisms in animals and humans.
Tobacco mosaic virus; movement protein; RNA transport; plasmodesmata; microtubules; endoplasmic reticulum
Myosin XI motor proteins transport plant organelles on the actin cytoskeleton. The Arabidopsis gene family that encodes myosin XI has 13 members, 12 of which have sub-domains within the tail region that are homologous to well-characterized cargo-binding domains in the yeast myosin V myo2p. Little is presently known about the cargo-binding domains of plant myosin XIs. Prior experiments in which most or all of the tail regions of myosin XIs have been fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and transiently expressed have often not resulted in fluorescent labeling of plant organelles. We identified 42 amino-acid regions within 12 Arabidopsis myosin XIs that are homologous to the yeast myo2p tail region known to be essential for vacuole and mitochondrial inheritance. A YFP fusion of the yeast region expressed in plants did not label tonoplasts or mitochondria. We investigated whether the homologous Arabidopsis regions, termed by us the “PAL” sub-domain, could associate with subcellular structures following transient expression of fusions with YFP in Nicotiana benthamiana. Seven YFP::PAL sub-domain fusions decorated Golgi and six were localized to mitochondria. In general, the myosin XI PAL sub-domains labeled organelles whose motility had previously been observed to be affected by mutagenesis or dominant negative assays with the respective myosins. Simultaneous transient expression of the PAL sub-domains of myosin XI-H, XI-I, and XI-K resulted in inhibition of movement of mitochondria and Golgi.
yeast myo2p; myosin V; transient expression; Golgi; mitochondria; vacuole; confocal microscopy; Nicotiana benthamiana
Plasmodesma (PD) is a channel structure that spans the cell wall and provides symplastic connection between adjacent cells. Various macromolecules are known to be transported through PD in a highly regulated manner, and plant viruses utilize their movement proteins (MPs) to gate the PD to spread cell-to-cell. The mechanism by which MP modifies PD to enable intercelluar traffic remains obscure, due to the lack of knowledge about the host factors that mediate the process. Here, we describe the functional interaction between Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) MP and a plant factor, an ankyrin repeat containing protein (ANK), during the viral cell-to-cell movement. We utilized a reverse genetics approach to gain insight into the possible involvement of ANK in viral movement. To this end, ANK overexpressor and suppressor lines were generated, and the movement of MP was tested. MP movement was facilitated in the ANK-overexpressing plants, and reduced in the ANK-suppressing plants, demonstrating that ANK is a host factor that facilitates MP cell-to-cell movement. Also, the TMV local infection was largely delayed in the ANK-suppressing lines, while enhanced in the ANK-overexpressing lines, showing that ANK is crucially involved in the infection process. Importantly, MP interacted with ANK at PD. Finally, simultaneous expression of MP and ANK markedly decreased the PD levels of callose, β-1,3-glucan, which is known to act as a molecular sphincter for PD. Thus, the MP-ANK interaction results in the downregulation of callose and increased cell-to-cell movement of the viral protein. These findings suggest that ANK represents a host cellular receptor exploited by MP to aid viral movement by gating PD through relaxation of their callose sphincters.
During infection, plant viruses utilize their cell-to-cell movement proteins (MPs) to gate plant intercellular connections, the plasmodesmata (PD), and spread between the host cells. The mechanism by which MPs facilitate their cell-to-cell translocation remains elusive. We have identified a tobacco ankyrin repeat-containing protein, ANK, that interacts with MP of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) both in vivo and in vitro. When coexpressd with MP, ANK promoted intercellular transport of MP and, by implication, gated PD for its movement and facilitated the viral spread. Conversely, RNAi-based knock-down of the ANK gene expression resulted in reduced MP movement and attenuated viral infection. Coexpression of ANK with MP resulted in reduction of callose deposits at PD, which are known to function as PD channel sphincters. Interestingly, expressing ANK alone did not affect callose deposits. Thus, ANK most likely represents a cellular factor that recognizes MP and acts synergistically with it to gate PD and mediate MP transport through these channels.
Plant viruses are a class of plant pathogens that specialize in movement from cell to cell. As part of their arsenal for infection of plants, every virus encodes a movement protein (MP), a protein dedicated to enlarging the pore size of plasmodesmata (PD) and actively transporting the viral nucleic acid into the adjacent cell. As our knowledge of intercellular transport has increased, it has become apparent that viruses must also use an active mechanism to target the virus from their site of replication within the cell to the PD. Just as viruses are too large to fit through an unmodified plasmodesma, they are also too large to be freely diffused through the cytoplasm of the cell. Evidence has accumulated now for the involvement of other categories of viral proteins in intracellular movement in addition to the MP, including viral proteins originally associated with replication or gene expression. In this review, we will discuss the strategies that viruses use for intracellular movement from the replication site to the PD, in particular focusing on the role of host membranes for intracellular transport and the coordinated interactions between virus proteins within cells that are necessary for successful virus spread.
Macromolecular trafficking; membrane biology; membrane proteins; movement proteins; plasmodesmata; plant–virus interactions
Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients' life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.
myosin II; motor proteins; molecular machines; cell migration; cytokinesis; cancer; pathogenesis; microparticles
Cell-to-cell movement of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is used to illustrate macromolecular traffic through plant intercellular connections, the plasmodesmata. This transport process is mediated by a specialized viral movement protein, P30. In the initially infected cell, P30 is produced by transcription of a subgenomic RNA derived from the invading virus. Presumably, P30 then associates with a certain proportion of the viral RNA molecules, sequestering them from replication and mediating their transport into neighbouring uninfected host cells. This nucleoprotem complex is targeted to plasmodesmata, possibly via interaction with the host cell's cytoskeleton. Prior to passage through a plasmodesma, the plasmodesmatal channel is dilated by the movement protein. It is proposed that targeting of P30-TMV RNA complexes to plasmodesmatal involves binding to a specific cell-wall-associated receptor molecule. This protein, designated p38, also functions as a protein kinase, phosphorylating P30 at its carboxy-terminus and minimizing P30-induced interference with plasmodesmatal permeability during viral infection.
The value of biotin-avidin (B-A) ELISA for the detection of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in Xiphinema was estimated with field populations and greenhouse subpopulations. Samples consisted of increasing numbers of adults ranging from 1 to 64 in multiples of two. Tests with virus-free X. index populations reared on grapevine and fig plants as negative controls did not reveal a noticeable effect of the host plant. ELISA absorbances of virus-free X. index samples were greater than corresponding absorbances of X. pachtaicum samples. Differences occurred between two X. index field populations from GFLV-infected grapevines in Champagne and Languedoc. In most tests, 1-, 2-, 4-, and 8-nematode samples of virus-free and virus-infected populations, respectively, could not be separated. Consequently, B-A ELISA was not a reliable method for GFLV detection in samples of less than 10 X. index adults, but comparison of the absorbances obtained with increasing numbers may allow differentiation of the viral infectious potential of several populations.
diagnosis; ELISA; grape fanleaf virus; nematode; virus; Xiphinema index; X. pachtaicum