Plasmodesmata (PD) are essential but poorly understood structures in plant cell walls that provide symplastic continuity and intercellular communication pathways between adjacent cells and thus play fundamental roles in development and pathogenesis. Viruses encode movement proteins (MPs) that modify these tightly regulated pores to facilitate their spread from cell to cell. The most striking of these modifications is observed for groups of viruses whose MPs form tubules that assemble in PDs and through which virions are transported to neighbouring cells. The nature of the molecular interactions between viral MPs and PD components and their role in viral movement has remained essentially unknown. Here, we show that the family of PD-located proteins (PDLPs) promotes the movement of viruses that use tubule-guided movement by interacting redundantly with tubule-forming MPs within PDs. Genetic disruption of this interaction leads to reduced tubule formation, delayed infection and attenuated symptoms. Our results implicate PDLPs as PD proteins with receptor-like properties involved the assembly of viral MPs into tubules to promote viral movement.
In plants, spreading virus infection occurs via small pores in the cell wall named plasmodesmata that connect adjacent cells. Two decades have passed since the first discovery of specific viral proteins (movement proteins; MP) that assist this process. However, the manner by which these proteins adapt plasmodesmata to allow the movement of relatively large viral structures remains largely unknown. Here, we show that a family of plasmodesmata-located proteins, called PDLPs, which are conserved amongst higher plants, specifically mediate this process. PDLPs bind classes of MP that assemble into tubules within plasmodesmata to promote the movement of entire virions. This class of MP occurs for a diverse range of plant virus genera and we show that representatives of these viruses have MPs that bind PDLPs. The importance of PDLPs in this process was shown when reduction in accumulation led to reduced tubule formation, delayed infection and attenuated symptoms. Altogether, our study supports a scenario whereby the PDLPs work together to support virus infection of plants and as such provide important mechanistic insights into the movement mechanism of plant viruses within their hosts.
Plasmodesmata provide the cytoplasmic conduits for cell-to-cell communication throughout plant tissues and participate in a diverse set of non–cell-autonomous functions. Despite their central role in growth and development and defence, resolving their modus operandi remains a major challenge in plant biology. Features of protein sequences and/or structure that determine protein targeting to plasmodesmata were previously unknown. We identify here a novel family of plasmodesmata-located proteins (called PDLP1) whose members have the features of type I membrane receptor-like proteins. We focus our studies on the first identified type member (namely At5g43980, or PDLP1a) and show that, following its altered expression, it is effective in modulating cell-to-cell trafficking. PDLP1a is targeted to plasmodesmata via the secretory pathway in a Brefeldin A–sensitive and COPII-dependent manner, and resides at plasmodesmata with its C-terminus in the cytoplasmic domain and its N-terminus in the apoplast. Using a deletion analysis, we show that the single transmembrane domain (TMD) of PDLP1a contains all the information necessary for intracellular targeting of this type I membrane protein to plasmodesmata, such that the TMD can be used to target heterologous proteins to this location. These studies identify a new family of plasmodesmal proteins that affect cell-to-cell communication. They exhibit a mode of intracellular trafficking and targeting novel for plant biology and provide technological opportunities for targeting different proteins to plasmodesmata to aid in plasmodesmal characterisation.
In plants, cylindrical, microscopic channels called plasmodesmata provide intracellular connections between cells for communication and material transport, and are important for many aspects of plant growth and defence. We identify a novel family of plasmodesmata-located proteins (called PDLP1) with features of type I membrane receptor-like proteins. In line with the potential for this protein to regulate molecular movement from cell to cell, we show that altered expression of the protein changes the efficiency of protein diffusion from plasmodesmata. We have also analysed the manner in which PDLP1 is transported to plasmodesmata. We show that the single transmembrane domain (TMD) of the protein contains all the information necessary for targeting to plasmodesmata and that proper targeting depends upon specific interactions with other factors within the membrane. Notably, a single amino acid close to the C-terminus of the TMD is critical for determining the intracellular destination. Further, by fusing the TMD to yellow fluorescent protein, we establish that the TMD can be used to target heterologous proteins to plasmodesmata.
Little is know about the structure and function of plant cell-to-cell connections, called plasmodesmata. This paper describes a new family of plasmodesmal proteins and the processes controlling their subcellular trafficking.
Cell-to-cell movement of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is used to illustrate macromolecular traffic through plant intercellular connections, the plasmodesmata. This transport process is mediated by a specialized viral movement protein, P30. In the initially infected cell, P30 is produced by transcription of a subgenomic RNA derived from the invading virus. Presumably, P30 then associates with a certain proportion of the viral RNA molecules, sequestering them from replication and mediating their transport into neighbouring uninfected host cells. This nucleoprotem complex is targeted to plasmodesmata, possibly via interaction with the host cell's cytoskeleton. Prior to passage through a plasmodesma, the plasmodesmatal channel is dilated by the movement protein. It is proposed that targeting of P30-TMV RNA complexes to plasmodesmatal involves binding to a specific cell-wall-associated receptor molecule. This protein, designated p38, also functions as a protein kinase, phosphorylating P30 at its carboxy-terminus and minimizing P30-induced interference with plasmodesmatal permeability during viral infection.
Plant viruses spread cell-to-cell in infected plants by exploiting plasmodesmata (PD), gatable channels in the cell wall that provide cytoplasmic passageways for the trafficking of informational macromolecules. Since it became known that the intercellular spread of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) depends on virus-encoded movement protein (MP), the mechanism by which this protein mediates in the targeting of this virus to PD is subject to intense studies. TMV movement occurs in a non-encapsidated form and thus promises to reveal important host functions involved in the intra-and intercellular trafficking of RNA molecules. We have recently presented new evidence that the cell-to-cell trafficking of TMV RNA (vRNA) involves the formation and intracellular trafficking of distinct MP particles. Upon assembly, these particles detach from cortical microtubule (MT) sites and then move with the flow of ER through the cell. During passage the particles continue to undergo transient interactions with MT which may guide the particles to their destination. The comprehensive analysis of particle composition may lead to important insights into the regulation of RNA transport in plants and may also reveal potential similarities to RNA transport mechanisms in animals and humans.
Tobacco mosaic virus; movement protein; RNA transport; plasmodesmata; microtubules; endoplasmic reticulum
The Hsp70 homolog (Hsp70h) of Beet yellows virus (BYV) functions in virion assembly and cell-to-cell movement and is autonomously targeted to plasmodesmata in association with the actomyosin motility system (A. I. Prokhnevsky, V. V. Peremyslov, and V. V. Dolja, J. Virol. 79:14421-14428, 2005). Myosins are a diverse category of molecular motors that possess a motor domain and a tail domain involved in cargo binding. Plants have two classes of myosins, VIII and XI, whose specific functions are poorly understood. We used dominant negative inhibition to identify myosins required for Hsp70h localization to plasmodesmata. Six full-length myosin cDNAs from the BYV host plant Nicotiana benthamiana were sequenced and shown to encode apparent orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana myosins VIII-1, VIII-2, VIII-B, XI-2, XI-F, and XI-K. We found that the ectopic expression of the tail domains of each of the class VIII, but not the class XI, myosins inhibited the plasmodesmatal localization of Hsp70h. In contrast, the overexpression of the motor domains or the entire molecules of the class VIII myosins did not affect Hsp70h targeting. Further mapping revealed that the minimal cargo-binding part of the myosin VIII tails was both essential and sufficient for the inhibition of the proper Hsp70h localization. Interestingly, plasmodesmatal localization of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein and Arabidopsis protein RGP2 was not affected by myosin VIII tail overexpression. Collectively, our data implicate class VIII myosins in protein delivery to plasmodesmata and suggest that more than one mechanism of such delivery exist in plants.
Many animal and plant viruses rely on vectors for their transmission from host to
host. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), a picorna-like virus from
plants, is transmitted specifically by the ectoparasitic nematode
Xiphinema index. The icosahedral capsid of GFLV, which
consists of 60 identical coat protein subunits (CP), carries the determinants of
this specificity. Here, we provide novel insight into GFLV transmission by
nematodes through a comparative structural and functional analysis of two GFLV
variants. We isolated a mutant GFLV strain (GFLV-TD) poorly transmissible by
nematodes, and showed that the transmission defect is due to a glycine to
aspartate mutation at position 297 (Gly297Asp) in the CP. We next determined the
crystal structures of the wild-type GFLV strain F13 at 3.0 Å and of
GFLV-TD at 2.7 Å resolution. The Gly297Asp mutation mapped to an exposed
loop at the outer surface of the capsid and did not affect the conformation of
the assembled capsid, nor of individual CP molecules. The loop is part of a
positively charged pocket that includes a previously identified determinant of
transmission. We propose that this pocket is a ligand-binding site with
essential function in GFLV transmission by X. index. Our data
suggest that perturbation of the electrostatic landscape of this pocket affects
the interaction of the virion with specific receptors of the nematode's
feeding apparatus, and thereby severely diminishes its transmission efficiency.
These data provide a first structural insight into the interactions between a
plant virus and a nematode vector.
Numerous pathogenic viruses from animals and plants rely on vectors such as
insects, worms or other organisms for their transmission from host to host. The
reasons why certain vectors transmit some viruses but not others remain poorly
understood. In plants, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), a major
pathogen of grapes worldwide and its specific vector, the dagger nematode
Xiphinema index, provides a well-established model
illustrating this specificity. Here, we determined the high-resolution
structures of two GFLV isolates that differ in their transmissibility. We show
that this difference is due to a single mutation in a region exposed at the
outer surface of the viral particles. This mutation does not alter the
conformation of the particles but modifies the distribution of charges within a
positively-charged pocket at the outer surface of virions which likely affects
particle retention by X. index and, thereby also transmission
efficiency. Therefore, we propose that this pocket is involved in the specific
recognition of GFLV by its nematode vector. This work paves the way towards the
characterization of the specific compound(s) within the nematodes that trigger
vector specificity and provides novel perspectives to interfere with virus
Plant viruses are a class of plant pathogens that specialize in movement from cell to cell. As part of their arsenal for infection of plants, every virus encodes a movement protein (MP), a protein dedicated to enlarging the pore size of plasmodesmata (PD) and actively transporting the viral nucleic acid into the adjacent cell. As our knowledge of intercellular transport has increased, it has become apparent that viruses must also use an active mechanism to target the virus from their site of replication within the cell to the PD. Just as viruses are too large to fit through an unmodified plasmodesma, they are also too large to be freely diffused through the cytoplasm of the cell. Evidence has accumulated now for the involvement of other categories of viral proteins in intracellular movement in addition to the MP, including viral proteins originally associated with replication or gene expression. In this review, we will discuss the strategies that viruses use for intracellular movement from the replication site to the PD, in particular focusing on the role of host membranes for intracellular transport and the coordinated interactions between virus proteins within cells that are necessary for successful virus spread.
Macromolecular trafficking; membrane biology; membrane proteins; movement proteins; plasmodesmata; plant–virus interactions
Plant viruses move through plasmodesmata (PD) either as nucleoprotein complexes (NPCs) or as tubule-guided encapsidated particles with the help of movement proteins (MPs). To explore how and why MPs specialize in one mechanism or the other, we tested the exchangeability of MPs encoded by DNA and RNA virus genomes by means of an engineered alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) system. We show that Caulimoviridae (DNA genome virus) MPs are competent for RNA virus particle transport but are unable to mediate NPC movement, and we discuss this restriction in terms of the evolution of DNA virus MPs as a means of mediating DNA viral genome entry into the RNA-trafficking PD pathway.
Intercellular transport of viruses through cytoplasmic connections, termed plasmodesmata (PD), is essential for systemic infection in plants by viruses. Previous genetic and ultrastructural data revealed that the potyvirus cyclindrical inclusion (CI) protein is directly involved in cell-to-cell movement, likely through the formation of conical structures anchored to and extended through PD. In this study, we demonstrate that plasmodesmatal localization of CI in N. benthamiana leaf cells is modulated by the recently discovered potyviral protein, P3N-PIPO, in a CI:P3N-PIPO ratio-dependent manner. We show that P3N-PIPO is a PD-located protein that physically interacts with CI in planta. The early secretory pathway, rather than the actomyosin motility system, is required for the delivery of P3N-PIPO and CI to PD. Moreover, CI mutations that disrupt virus cell-to-cell movement compromise PD-localization capacity. These data suggest that the CI and P3N-PIPO complex coordinates the formation of PD-associated structures that facilitate the intercellular movement of potyviruses in infected plants.
Plant viral pathogens cause an estimated US$60 billion loss in crop yields worldwide each year. Potyviruses, accounting for ∼30% of known plant viruses, include many agriculturally important viruses. Despite their importance, the cell-to-cell spread of potyviruses remains poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that at early time points of infection, the virus-encoded CI protein, one of 11 known potyviral proteins, is associated with cone-shaped structures at plasmodesmata (PD) and is involved in viral cell-to-cell movement. In this paper, we show that a newly identified potyviral protein, P3N-PIPO, is a PD-located protein and directs the CI protein to PD, facilitating the deposition of the cone-shaped structures of CI at PD by interacting with CI protein. We demonstrate that the mutant of CI, which impairs potyviral cell-to-cell movement, loses its ability to accumulate at PD. We further reveal that P3N-PIPO utilizes the secretory pathway rather than the actomyosin motility system for trafficking to PD. Taken together, the data presented in this study suggest that CI and P3N-PIPO coordinates the formation of conical structure at PD for potyviral cell-to-cell spread.
Cell-to-cell transport of plant viruses is mediated by virus-encoded movement proteins and occurs through plasmodesmata interconnecting neighboring cells in plant tissues. Three movement proteins coded by the “triple gene block” (TGB) and named TGBp1, TGBp2 and TGBp3 have distinct functions in viral transport. TGBp1 binds viral genomic RNAs to form ribonucleoprotein complexes representing the transport form of viral genome, while TGBp2 and TGBp3 are necessary for intracellular delivery of such complexes to plasmodesmata. Recently, it was revealed that overexpression of Potato virus X TGBp3 triggers the unfolded protein response mitigating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leading to cell death if this protein reaches high levels in the ER. Here we report microscopic studies of the influence of the Poa semilatent hordeivirus TGBp3 overexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells by particle bombardment on cell endomembranes and demonstrate that the protein C-terminal transmembrane segment contains a determinant responsible for vesiculation and coalescence of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi presumably accompanying the ER stress that can be induced upon high-level TGBp3 expression.
Cell-to-cell movement of cowpea mosaic virus particles in plants takes place with the help of tubules that penetrate presumably modified plasmodesmata. These tubules, which are built up by the virus-encoded 48-kDa movement protein (MP), are also formed on single protoplast cells. To determine whether the MP contains different functional domains, the effect of mutations in its coding region was studied. Mutations between amino acids 1 and 313 led to complete abolishment of the tubule-forming capacity, while a deletion in the C-terminal region resulted in tubules that could not take up virus particles. From these observations, it is concluded that the MP contains at least two distinct domains, one that is involved in tubule formation and that spans amino acids 1 and 313 and a second that is probably involved in the incorporation of virus particles in the tubule and that is located in the C terminus between amino acids 314 and 331.
The value of biotin-avidin (B-A) ELISA for the detection of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in Xiphinema was estimated with field populations and greenhouse subpopulations. Samples consisted of increasing numbers of adults ranging from 1 to 64 in multiples of two. Tests with virus-free X. index populations reared on grapevine and fig plants as negative controls did not reveal a noticeable effect of the host plant. ELISA absorbances of virus-free X. index samples were greater than corresponding absorbances of X. pachtaicum samples. Differences occurred between two X. index field populations from GFLV-infected grapevines in Champagne and Languedoc. In most tests, 1-, 2-, 4-, and 8-nematode samples of virus-free and virus-infected populations, respectively, could not be separated. Consequently, B-A ELISA was not a reliable method for GFLV detection in samples of less than 10 X. index adults, but comparison of the absorbances obtained with increasing numbers may allow differentiation of the viral infectious potential of several populations.
diagnosis; ELISA; grape fanleaf virus; nematode; virus; Xiphinema index; X. pachtaicum
The interaction between tobacco mosaic virus and its host plant cells has been intensively studied as a model for macromolecular trafficking. The observation that GFP-labelled TMV movement protein localises to microtubules led to the suggestion that microtubules are required for the cell to cell movement of the virus. In a recent paper we have demonstrated that the targeting of TMV movement protein to plasmodesmata requires the actin and ER networks, which supports previous evidence from our laboratory that showed that disruption of microtubules did not prevent cell to cell movement of TMV virus, and that a mutated movement protein, which did not localise to micro-tubules, showed enhanced viral movement. In this addendum we speculate where the TMV movement protein accumulates within plasmodesmata, and the relationship of this accumulation to the cell to cell movement of the virus.
actin; endoplasmic reticulum; microtubule; plasmodesmata; targeting; tobacco mosaic virus
Maize and Arabidopsis thaliana class 1 reversibly glycosylated polypeptides (C1RGPs) are plasmodesmata-associated proteins. Previously, overexpression of Arabidopsis C1RGP AtRGP2 in Nicotiana tabacum was shown to reduce intercellular transport of photoassimilate, resulting in stunted, chlorotic plants, and inhibition of local cell-to-cell spread of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Here, we used virus induced gene silencing to examine the effects of reduced levels of C1RGPs in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silenced plants show wild-type growth and development. Intercellular transport in silenced plants was probed using fluorescently labeled TMV and its movement protein, P30. P30 shows increased cell-to-cell movement and TMV exhibited accelerated systemic spread compared with control plants. These results support the hypothesis that C1RGPs act to regulate intercellular transport via plasmodesmata.
plasmodesmata; reversibly glycosylated polypeptide; TMV movement protein; tobacco mosaic virus; virus-induced gene silencing
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) from the genus Nepovirus, family Secoviridae, cause a severe degeneration of grapevines. GFLV and ArMV have a bipartite RNA genome and are transmitted specifically by the ectoparasitic nematodes Xiphinema index and Xiphinema diversicaudatum, respectively. The transmission specificity of both viruses maps to their respective RNA2-encoded coat protein (CP). To further delineate the GFLV CP determinants of transmission specificity, three-dimensional (3D) homology structure models of virions and CP subunits were constructed based on the crystal structure of Tobacco ringspot virus, the type member of the genus Nepovirus. The 3D models were examined to predict amino acids that are exposed at the external virion surface, highly conserved among GFLV isolates but divergent between GFLV and ArMV. Five short amino acid stretches that matched these topographical and sequence conservation criteria were selected and substituted in single and multiple combinations by their ArMV counterparts in a GFLV RNA2 cDNA clone. Among the 21 chimeric RNA2 molecules engineered, transcripts of only three of them induced systemic plant infection in the presence of GFLV RNA1. Nematode transmission assays of the three viable recombinant viruses showed that swapping a stretch of (i) 11 residues in the βB-βC loop near the icosahedral 3-fold axis abolished transmission by X. index but was insufficient to restore transmission by X. diversicaudatum and (ii) 7 residues in the βE-αB loop did not interfere with transmission by the two Xiphinema species. This study provides new insights into GFLV CP determinants of nematode transmission.
Eukaryotic cells restrain the activity of foreign genetic elements, including viruses, through RNA silencing. Although viruses encode suppressors of silencing to support their propagation, viruses may also exploit silencing to regulate host gene expression or to control the level of their accumulation and thus to reduce damage to the host. RNA silencing in plants propagates from cell to cell and systemically via a sequence-specific signal. Since the signal spreads between cells through plasmodesmata like the viruses themselves, virus-encoded plasmodesmata-manipulating movement proteins (MP) may have a central role in compatible virus:host interactions by suppressing or enhancing the spread of the signal. Here, we have addressed the propagation of GFP silencing in the presence and absence of MP and MP mutants. We show that the protein enhances the spread of silencing. Small RNA analysis indicates that MP does not enhance the silencing pathway but rather enhances the transport of the signal through plasmodesmata. The ability to enhance the spread of silencing is maintained by certain MP mutants that can move between cells but which have defects in subcellular localization and do not support the spread of viral RNA. Using MP expressing and non-expressing virus mutants with a disabled silencing suppressing function, we provide evidence indicating that viral MP contributes to anti-viral silencing during infection. Our results suggest a role of MP in controlling virus propagation in the infected host by supporting the spread of silencing signal. This activity of MP involves only a subset of its properties implicated in the spread of viral RNA.
RNA silencing is a fundamental mechanism that, among other important tasks, controls the accumulation of viruses through the degradation of their RNA intermediates. Since viruses encode suppressors of RNA silencing it is assumed that RNA silencing has evolved as an antiviral defense response. Thus, the idea of an arms race between the virus and the host, which the virus has to win for a successful infection, is now widely accepted. Our results question this concept of an arms race by showing that a virus-encoded protein, the movement protein (MP) of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), supports the intercellular trafficking of the non-cell-autonomous silencing signal. A virus mutant with defects in the suppressor is shown to be more prone for silencing with MP than without MP indicating that MP supports antiviral silencing during infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of silencing suppressors leads to viral overaccumulation and the death of the plant. Therefore, we suggest that the ability of MP to support the spread of signal may contribute to the control of virus propagation in the infected host.
Myosins are molecular motors that carry cargo on actin filaments in eukaryotic cells. Seventeen myosin genes have been identified in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. The myosin genes can be divided into two plant-specific subfamilies, class VIII with four members and class XI with 13 members. Class XI myosins are related to animal and fungal myosin class V that are responsible for movement of particular vesicles and organelles. Organelle localization of only one of the 13 Arabidopsis myosin XI (myosin XI-6; At MYA2), which is found on peroxisomes, has so far been reported. Little information is available concerning the remaining 12 class XI myosins.
We investigated 6 of the 13 class XI Arabidopsis myosins. cDNAs corresponding to the tail region of 6 myosin genes were generated and incorporated into a vector to encode YFP-myosin tail fusion proteins lacking the motor domain. Chimeric genes incorporating tail regions of myosin XI-5 (At MYA1), myosin XI-6 (At MYA2), myosin XI-8 (At XI-B), myosin XI-15 (At XI-I), myosin XI-16 (At XI-J) and myosin XI-17 (At XI-K) were expressed transiently. All YFP-myosin-tail fusion proteins were targeted to small organelles ranging in size from 0.5 to 3.0 μm. Despite the absence of a motor domain, the fluorescently-labeled organelles were motile in most cells. Tail cropping experiments demonstrated that the coiled-coil region was required for specific localization and shorter tail regions were inadequate for targeting. Myosin XI-6 (At MYA2), previously reported to localize to peroxisomes by immunofluorescence, labeled both peroxisomes and vesicles when expressed as a YFP-tail fusion. None of the 6 YFP-myosin tail fusions interacted with chloroplasts, and only one YFP-tail fusion appeared to sometimes co-localize with fluorescent proteins targeted to Golgi and mitochondria.
6 myosin XI tails, extending from the coiled-coil region to the C-terminus, label specific vesicles and/or organelles when transiently expressed as YFP fusions in plant cells. Although comparable constructs lacking the motor domain result in a dominant negative effect on organelle motility in animal systems, the plant organelles remained motile. YFP-myosin tail fusions provide specific labeling for vesicles of unknown composition, whose identity can be investigated in future studies.
Organelle movement in plants is dependent on actin filaments with most of the organelles being transported along the actin cables by class XI myosins. Although chloroplast movement is also actin filament-dependent, a potential role of myosin motors in this process is poorly understood. Interestingly, chloroplasts can move in any direction and change the direction within short time periods, suggesting that chloroplasts use the newly formed actin filaments rather than preexisting actin cables. Furthermore, the data on myosin gene knockouts and knockdowns in Arabidopsis and tobacco do not support myosins' XI role in chloroplast movement. Our recent studies revealed that chloroplast movement and positioning are mediated by the short actin filaments localized at chloroplast periphery (cp-actin filaments) rather than cytoplasmic actin cables. The accumulation of cp-actin filaments depends on kinesin-like proteins, KAC1 and KAC2, as well as on a chloroplast outer membrane protein CHUP1. We propose that plants evolved a myosin XI-independent mechanism of the actin-based chloroplast movement that is distinct from the mechanism used by other organelles.
actin; Arabidopsis; blue light; kinesin; myosin; organelle movement; phototropin
In eukaryotic cells, organelle movement, positioning, and communications are critical for maintaining cellular functions and are highly regulated by intracellular trafficking. Directional movement of motor proteins along the cytoskeleton is one of the key regulators of such trafficking. Most plants have developed a unique actin–myosin system for intracellular trafficking. Although the composition of myosin motors in angiosperms is limited to plant-specific myosin classes VIII and XI, there are large families of myosins, especially in class XI, suggesting functional diversification among class XI members. However, the molecular properties and regulation of each myosin XI member remains unclear. To achieve a better understanding of the plant-specific actin–myosin system, the characterization of myosin XI members at the molecular level is essential. In the first half of this review, we summarize the molecular properties of tobacco 175-kDa myosin XI, and in the later half, we focus on myosin XI members in Arabidopsis thaliana. Through detailed comparison of the functional domains of these myosins with the functional domain of myosin V, we look for possible diversification in enzymatic and mechanical properties among myosin XI members concomitant with their regulation.
myosin XI; cytoplasmic streaming; intracellular transport; plants
Movement and coat protein genes from Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) isolates have been characterized previously from Iran. In this study, an optimized reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction protocol was established to amplify RNA2 genomic segment corresponding to the hypothetical protein (2AHP). The sequence of 2AHP was compared with that of previously reported GFLV strains/isolates from other countries which showed 82–86% sequence identities. The 2AHP gene from Iran appeared to be standing distinct from other isolates of GFLV when genetic distance- or parsimony-based phylogeneitc analyses were carried out. The present study for the first time reports characterization of Iranian isolate of GFLV based on 2AHP gene.
Hypothetical protein; 2AHP gene; RT-PCR; ELISA; GFLV; Nepovirus
Cell-to-cell signal transduction is vital for orchestrating the whole-body physiology of multi-cellular organisms, and many endogenous macromolecules, proteins, and nucleic acids function as such transported signals. In plants, many of these molecules are transported through plasmodesmata (Pd), the cell wall-spanning channel structures that interconnect plant cells. Furthermore, Pd also act as conduits for cell-to-cell movement of most plant viruses that have evolved to pirate these channels to spread the infection. Pd transport is presumed to be highly selective, and only a limited repertoire of molecules is transported through these channels. Recent studies have begun to unravel mechanisms that actively regulate the opening of the Pd channel to allow traffic. This macromolecular transport between cells comprises two consecutive steps: intracellular targeting to Pd and translocation through the channel to the adjacent cell. Here, we review the current knowledge of molecular species that are transported though Pd and the mechanisms that control this traffic. Generally, Pd traffic can occur by passive diffusion through the trans-Pd cytoplasm or through the membrane/lumen of the trans-Pd ER, or by active transport that includes protein–protein interactions. It is this latter mode of Pd transport that is involved in intercellular traffic of most signal molecules and is regulated by distinct and sometimes interdependent mechanisms, which represent the focus of this article.
Plasmodesmata; cell-to-cell transport; plant viruses; transcription factors
The cell-to-cell movement of plant viruses involves translocation of virus particles or nucleoproteins to and through the plasmodesmata (PDs). As we have shown previously, the movement of the Beet yellows virus requires the concerted action of five viral proteins including a homolog of cellular ∼70-kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70h). Hsp70h is an integral component of the virus particles and is also found in PDs of the infected cells. Here we investigate subcellular distribution of Hsp70h using transient expression of Hsp70h fused to three spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins. We found that fluorophore-tagged Hsp70h forms motile granules that are associated with actin microfilaments, but not with microtubules. In addition, immobile granules were observed at the cell periphery. A pairwise appearance of these granules at the opposite sides of cell walls and their colocalization with the movement protein of Tobacco mosaic virus indicated an association of Hsp70h with PDs. Treatment with various cytoskeleton-specific drugs revealed that the intact actomyosin motility system is required for trafficking of Hsp70h in cytosol and its targeting to PDs. In contrast, none of the drugs interfered with the PD localization of Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein. Collectively, these findings suggest that Hsp70h is translocated and anchored to PDs in association with the actin cytoskeleton.
The membrane-spanning protein TGBp3 is one of the three movement proteins (MPs) of Poa semilatent virus. TGBp3 is thought to direct other viral MPs and genomic RNA to peripheral bodies located in close proximity to plasmodesmata. We used the ectopic expression of green fluorescent protein-fused TGBp3 in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves to study the TGBp3 intracellular trafficking pathway. Treatment with inhibitors was used to reveal that the targeting of TGBp3 to plasmodesmata does not require a functional cytoskeleton or secretory system. In addition, the suppression of endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicle formation by a dominant negative mutant of small GTPase Sar1 had no detectable effect on TGBp3 trafficking to peripheral bodies. Collectively, these results suggested the involvement of an unconventional pathway in the intracellular transport of TGBp3. The determinants of targeting to plasmodesmata were localized to the C-terminal region of TGBp3, including the conserved hydrophilic and terminal membrane-spanning domains.
Although organelle movement in higher plants is predominantly actin-based, potential roles for the 17 predicted Arabidopsis myosins in motility are only just emerging. It is shown here that two Arabidopsis myosins from class XI, XIE, and XIK, are involved in Golgi, peroxisome, and mitochondrial movement. Expression of dominant negative forms of the myosin lacking the actin binding domain at the amino terminus perturb organelle motility, but do not completely inhibit movement. Latrunculin B, an actin destabilizing drug, inhibits organelle movement to a greater extent compared to the effects of AtXIE-T/XIK-T expression. Amino terminal YFP fusions to XIE-T and XIK-T are dispersed throughout the cytosol and do not completely decorate the organelles whose motility they affect. XIE-T and XIK-T do not affect the global actin architecture, but their movement and location is actin-dependent. The potential role of these truncated myosins as genetically encoded inhibitors of organelle movement is discussed.
Golgi; mitochondria; motility; myosin; peroxisome
Myosins are cytoskeletal motors critical for generating the forces necessary for establishing cell structure and mediating actin-dependent cell motility. In each cell type a multitude of myosins are expressed, each myosin contributing to aspects of morphogenesis, transport, or motility occurring in that cell type. To examine the roles of myosins in individual retinal cell types, we first used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening to identify myosins expressed in retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), followed by immunohistochemistry to examine the cellular and subcellular localizations of seven of these expressed myosins. In the myosin PCR screen of cDNA from striped bass retina and striped bass RPE, we amplified 17 distinct myosins from eight myosin classes from retinal cDNA and 11 distinct myosins from seven myosin classes from RPE cDNA. By using antibodies specific for myosins IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, VI, VIIA, and IXB, we examined the localization patterns of these myosins in retinas and RPE of fish, and in isolated inner/outer segment fragments of green sunfish photoreceptors. Each of the myosins exhibited unique expression patterns in fish retina. Individual cell types expressed multiple myosin family members, some of which colocalized within a particular cell type. Because much is known about the functions and properties of these myosins from studies in other systems, their cellular and subcellular localization patterns in the retina help us understand which roles they might play in the vertebrate retina and RPE.
myosin; retina; photoreceptor; actin; fish; RPE