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1.  Isoform-Specific Potentiation of Stem and Progenitor Cell Engraftment by AML1/RUNX1  
PLoS Medicine  2007;4(5):e172.
Background
AML1/RUNX1 is the most frequently mutated gene in leukaemia and is central to the normal biology of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the role of different AML1 isoforms within these primitive compartments is unclear. Here we investigate whether altering relative expression of AML1 isoforms impacts the balance between cell self-renewal and differentiation in vitro and in vivo.
Methods and Findings
The human AML1a isoform encodes a truncated molecule with DNA-binding but no transactivation capacity. We used a retrovirus-based approach to transduce AML1a into primitive haematopoietic cells isolated from the mouse. We observed that enforced AML1a expression increased the competitive engraftment potential of murine long-term reconstituting stem cells with the proportion of AML1a-expressing cells increasing over time in both primary and secondary recipients. Furthermore, AML1a expression dramatically increased primitive and committed progenitor activity in engrafted animals as assessed by long-term culture, cobblestone formation, and colony assays. In contrast, expression of the full-length isoform AML1b abrogated engraftment potential. In vitro, AML1b promoted differentiation while AML1a promoted proliferation of progenitors capable of short-term lymphomyeloid engraftment. Consistent with these findings, the relative abundance of AML1a was highest in the primitive stem/progenitor compartment of human cord blood, and forced expression of AML1a in these cells enhanced maintenance of primitive potential both in vitro and in vivo.
Conclusions
These data demonstrate that the “a” isoform of AML1 has the capacity to potentiate stem and progenitor cell engraftment, both of which are required for successful clinical transplantation. This activity is consistent with its expression pattern in both normal and leukaemic cells. Manipulating the balance of AML1 isoform expression may offer novel therapeutic strategies, exploitable in the contexts of leukaemia and also in cord blood transplantation in adults, in whom stem and progenitor cell numbers are often limiting.
The truncated "a" isoform of AML1 is shown to have the capacity to potentiate stem and progenitor cell engraftment, both of which are required for successful clinical transplantation.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Blood contains red blood cells (which carry oxygen round the body), platelets (which help the blood to clot), and white blood cells (which fight off infections). All these cells, which are regularly replaced, are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, blood-forming cells present in the bone marrow. Like all stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells self-renew (reproduce themselves) and produce committed progenitor cells, which develop into mature blood cells in a process called hematopoiesis. Many proteins control hematopoiesis, some of which are called transcription factors; these factors bind to DNA through their DNA-binding domain and then control the expression of genes (that is, how DNA is turned into proteins) through particular parts of the protein (their transcription regulatory domains). An important hematopoietic transcription factor is AML1—a protein first identified because of its involvement in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, a form of blood cancer). Mutations (changes) in the AML1 gene are now known to be present in other types of leukemia, which are often characterized by overproliferation of immature blood cells.
Why Was This Study Done?
Because of AML1′s crucial role in hematopoiesis, knowing more about which genes it regulates and how its activity is regulated could provide clues to treating leukemia and to improving hematopoietic cell transplantation. Many cancer treatments destroy hematopoietic stem cells, leaving patients vulnerable to infection. Transplants of bone marrow or cord blood (the cord that links mother and baby during pregnancy contains peripheral blood stem cells) can replace the missing cells, but cord blood in particular often contains insufficient stem cells for successful transplantation. It would be useful, therefore, to expand the stem cell content of these tissues before transplantation. In this study, the researchers investigated the effect of AML1 on self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the laboratory (in vitro) and in animals (in vivo). In particular, they have asked how two isoforms (closely related versions) of AML1 affect the ability of these cells to grow and differentiate (engraft) in mice after transplantation.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers artificially expressed AML1a and AML1b (both isoforms contain a DNA binding domain, but only AML1b has transcription regulatory domains) in mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and then tested the cells' ability to engraft in mice. AML1a-expressing cells engrafted better than unaltered cells and outgrew unaltered cells when transplanted as a mixture. AML1b-expressing cells, however, did not engraft. In vitro, AML1a-expressing cells grew more than AML1b-expressing cells, whereas differentiation was promoted in AML1b-expressing cells. To investigate whether the isoforms have the same effects in human cells, the researchers measured the amount of AML1a and AML1b mRNA (the template for protein production) made by progenitor cells in human cord blood. Although AML1b (together with AML1c, an isoform with similar characteristics) mRNA predominated in all the progenitor cell types, the relative abundance of AML1a was greatest in the stem and progenitor cells. Furthermore, forced expression of AML1a in these cells improved their ability to divide in vitro and to engraft in mice.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that AML1a expression increases the self-renewal capacity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and consequently improves their ability to engraft in mice, whereas AML1b expression encourages the differentiation of these cell types. These activities are consistent with the expression patterns of the two isoforms in normal hematopoietic cells and in leukemic cells—the mutated AML made by many leukemic cells resembles AML1a. Because the AML1 isoforms were expressed at higher than normal levels in these experiments, the physiological relevance of these findings needs to be confirmed by showing that normal levels of AML1a and AML1b produce similar results. Nevertheless, these results suggest that manipulating the balance of AML1 isoforms made by hematopoietic cells might be useful clinically. In leukemia, a shift toward AML1b expression might slow the proliferation of leukemic cells and encourage their differentiation. Conversely, in cord blood transplantation, a shift toward AML1a expression might improve patient outcomes by expanding the stem and progenitor cell populations.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040172.
Wikipedia has pages on hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cells (note: Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit; available in several languages)
The US National Cancer Institute has a fact sheet on bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (in English and Spanish) and information for patients and professionals on leukemia (in English)
The American Society of Hematology provides patient information about blood diseases, including information on bone marrow and stem cell transplantation
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040172
PMCID: PMC1868041  PMID: 17503961
2.  An Erythroid Differentiation Signature Predicts Response to Lenalidomide in Myelodysplastic Syndrome  
PLoS Medicine  2008;5(2):e35.
Background
Lenalidomide is an effective new agent for the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), an acquired hematopoietic disorder characterized by ineffective blood cell production and a predisposition to the development of leukemia. Patients with an interstitial deletion of Chromosome 5q have a high rate of response to lenalidomide, but most MDS patients lack this deletion. Approximately 25% of patients without 5q deletions also benefit from lenalidomide therapy, but response in these patients cannot be predicted by any currently available diagnostic assays. The aim of this study was to develop a method to predict lenalidomide response in order to avoid unnecessary toxicity in patients unlikely to benefit from treatment.
Methods and Findings
Using gene expression profiling, we identified a molecular signature that predicts lenalidomide response. The signature was defined in a set of 16 pretreatment bone marrow aspirates from MDS patients without 5q deletions, and validated in an independent set of 26 samples. The response signature consisted of a cohesive set of erythroid-specific genes with decreased expression in responders, suggesting that a defect in erythroid differentiation underlies lenalidomide response. Consistent with this observation, treatment with lenalidomide promoted erythroid differentiation of primary hematopoietic progenitor cells grown in vitro.
Conclusions
These studies indicate that lenalidomide-responsive patients have a defect in erythroid differentiation, and suggest a strategy for a clinical test to predict patients most likely to respond to the drug. The experiments further suggest that the efficacy of lenalidomide, whose mechanism of action in MDS is unknown, may be due to its ability to induce erythroid differentiation.
Using gene expression profiling, Azra Raza and colleagues identified a molecular signature that predicts response to lenalidomide in patients without Chromosome 5q deletions, which suggests that these patients have a defect in erythroid differentiation.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a group of disorders in which the bone marrow (the spongy material found inside bones) does not make enough healthy blood cells. Normally, immature cells in the bone marrow called hematopoietic stem cells mature (differentiate) into three types of blood cells: red blood cells (which carry oxygen around the body; people with too few red blood cells are “anemic”), white blood cells (which fight off infections), and platelets (which prevent bleeding by forming blood clots). In patients with MDS, the production of these mature cell types is defective. In addition, immature cells called leukemic blasts sometimes accumulate in the bone marrow and blood. Thus, although MDS itself is not a type of cancer, it often develops into leukemia (blood cancer). The cause of most cases of MDS, which affects mainly elderly people, is not known. Its symptoms include tiredness and breathlessness (signs of anemia), frequent infections, and easy bruising or bleeding. Patients are usually given supportive care to relieve their symptoms (for example, blood transfusions to top up their red blood cells). Chemotherapy can sometimes delay the progression of MDS to leukemia and a few patients can be helped with bone marrow transplantation.
Why Was This Study Done?
Recently, researchers have discovered that some people with MDS respond very well to a drug called lenalidomide. Three-quarters of patients whose MDS is characterized by the loss of a small part of Chromosome 5 need fewer blood transfusions after being given lenalidomide but only a quarter of people without this chromosomal defect respond to the drug. Unfortunately, most patients with MDS do not have this chromosome abnormality and there is no way to predict which of these patients are likely to respond to lenalidomide. Lenalidomide is a toxic drug that damages white blood cells and platelets, so it is important not to give it to people who might not benefit. In this study, the researchers have used gene expression profiling (a technique that catalogs all the genes expressed by a cell) to try to develop a way of predicting who will respond to lenalidomide
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers obtained pre-treatment bone marrow samples from patients enrolled in two clinical trials of lenalidomide and compared the gene expression profiles of the bone marrow cells from the patients who subsequently responded to the drug with the profiles of cells from nonresponding patients. In all, 47 genes were more highly expressed in nonresponders than in responders. The researchers then asked whether the expression of any gene sets (collections of genes that code for proteins that work in a single pathway) was greater in the nonresponders than in the responders. This analysis revealed a “signature” of lenalidomide response consisting of a set of genes normally expressed during the differentiation of red blood cells (an “erythroid differentiation signature”). Decreased expression of this signature was associated with a response to lenalidomide in an independent set of patients (validation set). The researchers then used the response signature and the original set of samples to develop a single score that could distinguish individual responders from nonresponders. This score accurately predicted the response of three-quarters of the patients in the validation set to lenalidomide. Finally, the researchers showed that lenalidomide promotes the erythroid maturation of normal human hematopoietic stem cells grown in dishes and stimulates the expression of the lenalidomide response signature in these cells.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that patients with MDS who respond to lenalidomide have defective red blood cell differentiation. In addition, they suggest that it might be possible to use the response signature to develop a test that can predict which patients with MDS will benefit from treatment with lenalidomide. However, the preliminary predictive test described here will need to be tested in many more patients before it can be used as a routine clinical test. Finally, the researchers' last experiment suggests that lenalidomide may help people with MDS because it induces red blood cell differentiation. Lenalidomide therapy might, therefore be useful in other disorders in which red blood cell maturation is defective, including some forms of anemia.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050035.
See a related PLoS Medicine Perspective article
The US National Cancer Institute provides information for patients about myelodysplastic syndrome (in English and Spanish)
The UK charity Cancerbackup provides information about myelodysplastic syndrome
The American Cancer Society and the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society provide additional information about myelodysplastic syndrome
The US Food and Drug Administration provides information for patients on lenalidomide
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050035
PMCID: PMC2235894  PMID: 18271621
3.  Essential Role for the P55 Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor in Regulating Hematopoiesis at a Stem Cell Level 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  1999;190(10):1493-1504.
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal is a complicated process, and its regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous studies have identified tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α as a pleiotropic cytokine, which, among other actions, prevents various hematopoietic progenitor cells from proliferating and differentiating in vitro. However, its role in regulating long-term repopulating HSCs in vivo has not been investigated. In this study, mice deficient for the p55 or the p75 subunit of the TNF receptor were analyzed in a variety of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cell assays. In older p55−/− mice (>6 mo), we identified significant differences in their hematopoietic system compared with age-matched p75−/− or wild-type counterparts. Increased marrow cellularity and increased numbers of myeloid and erythroid colony-forming progenitor cells (CFCs), paralleled by elevated peripheral blood cell counts, were found in p55-deficient mice. In contrast to the increased myeloid compartment, pre-B CFCs were deficient in older p55−/− mice. In addition, a fourfold decrease in the number of HSCs could be demonstrated in a competitive repopulating assay. Secondary transplantations of marrow cells from primary recipients of p55−/− marrow revealed impaired self-renewal ability of p55-deficient HSCs. These data show that, in vivo, signaling through the p55 subunit of the TNF receptor is essential for regulating hematopoiesis at the stem cell level.
PMCID: PMC2195701  PMID: 10562323
hematopoietic stem cell; cell differentiation; cytokine receptors
4.  Feedback Signals in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Increased Self-Renewal of the Malignant Clone Suppresses Normal Hematopoiesis 
PLoS Computational Biology  2014;10(4):e1003599.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are triggered by an aberrant hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). It is, however, unclear how this clone interferes with physiologic blood formation. In this study, we followed the hypothesis that the MDS clone impinges on feedback signals for self-renewal and differentiation and thereby suppresses normal hematopoiesis. Based on the theory that the MDS clone affects feedback signals for self-renewal and differentiation and hence suppresses normal hematopoiesis, we have developed a mathematical model to simulate different modifications in MDS-initiating cells and systemic feedback signals during disease development. These simulations revealed that the disease initiating cells must have higher self-renewal rates than normal HSCs to outcompete normal hematopoiesis. We assumed that self-renewal is the default pathway of stem and progenitor cells which is down-regulated by an increasing number of primitive cells in the bone marrow niche – including the premature MDS cells. Furthermore, the proliferative signal is up-regulated by cytopenia. Overall, our model is compatible with clinically observed MDS development, even though a single mutation scenario is unlikely for real disease progression which is usually associated with complex clonal hierarchy. For experimental validation of systemic feedback signals, we analyzed the impact of MDS patient derived serum on hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro: in fact, MDS serum slightly increased proliferation, whereas maintenance of primitive phenotype was reduced. However, MDS serum did not significantly affect colony forming unit (CFU) frequencies indicating that regulation of self-renewal may involve local signals from the niche. Taken together, we suggest that initial mutations in MDS particularly favor aberrant high self-renewal rates. Accumulation of primitive MDS cells in the bone marrow then interferes with feedback signals for normal hematopoiesis – which then results in cytopenia.
Author Summary
Myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases which are characterized by ineffective blood formation. There is accumulating evidence that they are caused by an aberrant hematopoietic stem cell. However, it is yet unclear how this malignant clone suppresses normal hematopoiesis. To this end, we generated mathematical models under the assumption that feedback signals regulate self-renewal and proliferation of normal and diseased stem cells. The simulations demonstrate that the malignant cells must have particularly higher self-renewal rates than normal stem cells – rather than higher proliferation rates. On the other hand, down-regulation of self-renewal by the increasing number of malignant cells in the bone marrow niche can explain impairment of normal blood formation. In fact, we show that serum of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, as compared to serum of healthy donors, stimulates proliferation and moderately impacts on maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in vitro. Thus, aberrant high self-renewal rates of the malignant clone seem to initiate disease development; suppression of normal blood formation is then caused by a rebound effect of feedback signals which down-regulate self-renewal of normal stem and progenitor cells as well.
doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003599
PMCID: PMC3998886  PMID: 24763223
5.  Burn Injury Dampens Erythroid Cell Production Through Reprioritizing Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Response 
The Journal of trauma  2011;71(5):1288-1296.
Introduction
Anemia in burn patients is due to surgical blood loss and anemia of critical illness. Since the commitment paradigm of common bone marrow progenitors dictates the production of erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid cells, we hypothesized that skewed bone marrow lineage commitment decreases red cell production and causes anemia after a burn injury.
Methods
After anesthesia, B6D2F1 mice received a 15% TBSA dorsal scald burn. The sham group did not receive scald burn. Femoral bone marrow was harvested on 2, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days post burn (PBD). Total bone marrow cells were labeled with specific antibodies to erythroid (CD71/Ter119), myeloid (CD11b), and lymphoid (CD19) lineages and analyzed by flowcytometry. To test whether erythropoietin (EPO) could increase red blood cell production, EPO was administered to sham and burn animals and their reticulocyte response was measured on PBD#2 and PBD#7.
Results
Burn injury reduced the erythroid cells of the bone marrow from 35% in sham to 17% by PBD#5 and remained at similar level until PBD#21. Myeloid cells however, increased from 42% in sham to 60% on PBD #5 and 77% on PBD#21. Burn injury reduced reticulocyte counts on PBD#2 and PBD#7 indicating that the erythroid compartment is severely depleted. This depleted compartment however responded to EPO but was not sufficient to change red cell production.
Conclusion
Burn injury skews the bone marrow hematopoietic commitment away from erythroid and toward myeloid cells. Shrinkage of the erythroid compartment contributes to resistance to EPO and the anemia of critical illness.
doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31822e2803
PMCID: PMC3217199  PMID: 22071930
6.  A critical role for Apc in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2008;205(9):2163-2175.
The adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) tumor suppressor is involved in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer via regulation of the Wnt signaling cascade. In addition, Apc plays an important role in multiple cellular functions, including cell migration and adhesion, spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation. However, its role during adult hematopoiesis is unknown. We show that conditional inactivation of Apc in vivo dramatically increases apoptosis and enhances cell cycle entry of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)/ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), leading to their rapid disappearance and bone marrow failure. The defect in HSCs/HPCs caused by Apc ablation is cell autonomous. In addition, we found that loss of Apc leads to exhaustion of the myeloid progenitor pool (common myeloid progenitor, granulocyte-monocyte progenitor, and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor), as well as the lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor pool. Down-regulation of the genes encoding Cdkn1a, Cdkn1b, and Mcl1 occurs after acute Apc excision in candidate HSC populations. Together, our data demonstrate that Apc is essential for HSC and HPC maintenance and survival.
doi:10.1084/jem.20080578
PMCID: PMC2526209  PMID: 18725524
7.  Single-Cell STAT5 Signal Transduction Profiling in Normal and Leukemic Stem and Progenitor Cell Populations Reveals Highly Distinct Cytokine Responses 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(11):e7989.
Background
Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) plays critical roles in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis. However, the manner in which STAT5 responds to early-acting and lineage-restricted cytokines, particularly in leukemic stem/progenitor cells, is largely unknown.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We optimized a multiparametric flow cytometry protocol to analyze STAT5 phosphorylation upon cytokine stimulation in stem and progenitor cell compartments at a single-cell level. In normal cord blood (CB) cells, STAT5 phosphorylation was efficiently induced by TPO, IL-3 and GM-CSF within CD34+CD38− hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). EPO- and SCF-induced STAT5 phosphorylation was largely restricted to the megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor (MEP) compartment, while G-CSF as well IL-3 and GM-CSF were most efficient in inducing STAT5 phosphorylation in the myeloid progenitor compartments. Strikingly, mobilized adult peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cells responded much less efficiently to cytokine-induced STAT5 activation, with the exception of TPO. In leukemic stem and progenitor cells, highly distinct cytokine responses were observed, differing significantly from their normal counterparts. These responses could not be predicted by the expression level of cytokine receptors. Also, heterogeneity existed in cytokine requirements for long-term expansion of AML CD34+ cells on stroma.
Conclusions/Significance
In conclusion, our optimized multiparametric flow cytometry protocols allow the analysis of signal transduction at the single cell level in normal and leukemic stem and progenitor cells. Our study demonstrates highly distinctive cytokine responses in STAT5 phosphorylation in both normal and leukemic stem/progenitor cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007989
PMCID: PMC2776352  PMID: 19956772
8.  MYBL2 is a sub-haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene in myeloid malignancy 
eLife  2013;2:e00825.
A common deleted region (CDR) in both myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) affects the long arm of chromosome 20 and has been predicted to harbor a tumor suppressor gene. Here we show that MYBL2, a gene within the 20q CDR, is expressed at sharply reduced levels in CD34+ cells from most MDS cases (65%; n = 26), whether or not they harbor 20q abnormalities. In a murine competitive reconstitution model, Mybl2 knockdown by RNAi to 20–30% of normal levels in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors resulted in clonal dominance of these ‘sub-haploinsufficient’ cells, which was reflected in all blood cell lineages. By 6 months post-transplantation, the reconstituted mice had developed a clonal myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic disorder originating from the cells with aberrantly reduced Mybl2 expression. We conclude that downregulation of MYBL2 activity below levels predicted by classical haploinsufficiency underlies the clonal expansion of hematopoietic progenitors in a large fraction of human myeloid malignancies.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00825.001
eLife digest
Blood cells are produced within bone marrow by specialized stem cells and progenitor cells. Abnormalities in this process lead to a group of diseases known as myeloid malignancies, which include acute myeloid leukaemia—in which the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells—and myelodysplastic syndromes, which are caused by too few mature blood cells being produced.
Many individuals affected by these disorders possess a shortened form of chromosome 20 that lacks a number of genes. This deletion is only ever seen in one of their two copies of the chromosome—suggesting that at least some of these genes are essential for survival—but the identity of the gene(s) that are associated with the increased risk of myeloid malignancies is unknown.
Now, Heinrichs et al. have uncovered a key tumor suppressor among those genes frequently lost on chromosome 20. The gene, which is called MYBL2, encodes a transcription factor that helps to control the cell division cycle. Myeloid malignancy patients lacking one copy of this gene showed levels of MYBL2 expression that were less than 50% of those in healthy individuals. This suggests that additional mechanisms must be acting to reduce expression of their remaining copy of the gene. Surprisingly, MYBL2 levels were also reduced in myeloid malignancy patients who possessed two intact copies of chromosome 20, indicating that loss of a single copy represents only one mechanism to reduce MYBL2 expression, i.e., the ‘tip-of-the-iceberg’. Hence, this finding reveals a more general role for MYBL2 as it indicates that more patients are likely to be affected by altered expression of this gene.
To confirm their findings from studies in patients, Heinrichs et al. used gene silencing techniques to reduce the expression of MYBL2 in mice and showed that this induced symptoms of myeloid malignancies in the animals. Moreover, injection of modified cells from these animals into healthy mice also induced symptoms in the recipients. The modified cells are able to expand more robustly than normal cells, and this dominance induced by downregulation of the tumor suppressor increases the risk of malignancy.
In addition to revealing a new tumor suppressor gene and its contribution to myeloid malignancies, the study by Heinrichs et al. highlights the importance of gene dosage in mediating the effects of tumor suppressors.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00825.002
doi:10.7554/eLife.00825
PMCID: PMC3713455  PMID: 23878725
Myelodysplastic Syndromes; MYBL2; 20q CDR; Human; Mouse
9.  The role of tumor suppressor p15Ink4b in the regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell fate 
Blood Cancer Journal  2013;3(1):e99-.
Epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor gene p15Ink4b (CDKN2B) is a frequent event in blood disorders like acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. The molecular function of p15Ink4b in hematopoietic differentiation still remains to be elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that loss of p15Ink4b in mice results in skewing of the differentiation pattern of the common myeloid progenitor towards the myeloid lineage. Here, we investigated a function of p15Ink4b tumor suppressor gene in driving erythroid lineage commitment in hematopoietic progenitors. It was found that p15Ink4b is expressed more highly in committed megakaryocyte–erythroid progenitors than granulocyte–macrophage progenitors. More importantly, mice lacking p15Ink4b have lower numbers of primitive red cell progenitors and a severely impaired response to 5-fluorouracil- and phenylhydrazine-induced hematopoietic stress. Introduction of p15Ink4b into multipotential progenitors produced changes at the molecular level, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase\extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling, increase GATA-1, erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and decrease Pu1, GATA-2 expression. These changes rendered cells more permissive to erythroid commitment and less permissive to myeloid commitment, as demonstrated by an increase in early burst-forming unit-erythroid formation with concomitant decrease in myeloid colonies. Our results indicate that p15Ink4b functions in hematopoiesis, by maintaining proper lineage commitment of progenitors and assisting in rapid red blood cells replenishment following stress.
doi:10.1038/bcj.2012.44
PMCID: PMC3556574  PMID: 23359317
p15Ink4b; hematopoiesis; stem cell; cell fate; differentiation; erythropoiesis
10.  Activating PTPN11 Mutants Promote Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Cycle Progression and Survival 
Experimental hematology  2008;36(10):1285-1296.
Objective
Mutations in PTPN11, which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, are commonly found in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). We hypothesized that PTPN11 mutations promote cell cycle progression and confer enhanced survival to hematopoietic progenitors.
Methods
Murine bone marrow low density mononuclear cells were transduced with pMIEG3, pMIEG3-WT Shp2, pMIEG3-Shp2D61Y, or pMIEG3-Shp2E76K followed by cell cycle and survival functional analysis as well as biochemical analysis for key cell cycle and programmed cell death regulatory proteins.
Results
A higher proportion of hematopoietic progenitors bearing the gain-of-function Shp2 mutants were residing in the S or G2 phase of the cell cycle in response to low doses of GM-CSF compared to cells transduced with empty vector (MIEG3) or with WT Shp2. Likewise, Shp2D61Y-or Shp2E76K-expressing hematopoietic cells demonstrated reduced apoptosis based on annexin V staining and produced increased progenitor colonies after 48 hours in minimal media compared to cells transduced with empty vector or WT Shp2. To differentiate enhanced survival v. hyperproliferation, cells were stained with PKH26 to distinguish undivided cells from divided progeny. Shp2D61Y- or Shp2E76K-expressing PKH26+ cells similarly demonstrated reduced apoptosis. Upon biochemical analysis, expression of Akt- and Erk-responsive cell cycle and programmed cell death regulatory proteins were altered, including increased levels of cyclin D1, Bcl2, and BclXL and reduced levels of p27, p21, and Bim.
Conclusion
Collectively, these data demonstrate that gain-of-function Shp2 mutants promote hematopoietic progenitor cell cycle progression and survival and imply that agents targeting the cell cycle or promoting apoptosis may have therapeutic potential in JMML.
doi:10.1016/j.exphem.2008.04.016
PMCID: PMC2613044  PMID: 18640765
11.  Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces leukemic but not normal hematopoietic cell death in a dose-dependent manner 
Over the last few years, studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in the regulation of hematopoietic cell homeostasis. In particular, the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) range from hematopoietic cell proliferation to cell death, depending on its concentration in the intracellular milieu. In this work, we evaluated the effects of an oxidative environment on normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells by stimulating normal human (umbilical cord blood) and murine (bone marrow) hematopoietic cells, as well as human myeloid leukemic cells (HL-60 lineage), upon H2O2 stimulus. Total cell populations and primitive subsets were evaluated for each cell type. H2O2 stimulus induces HL-60 cell death, whereas the viability of human and murine normal cells was not affected. The effects of H2O2 stimulus on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell subsets were examined and the normal primitive cells were found to be unaffected; however, the percentage of leukemic stem cells (LSC) increased in response to H2O2, while clonogenic ability of these cells to generate myeloid clones was inhibited. In addition, H2O2 stimulus caused a decrease in the levels of p-AKT in HL-60 cells, which most likely mediates the observed decrease of viability. In summary, we found that at low concentrations, H2O2 preferentially affects both the LSC subset and total HL-60 cells without damage normal cells.
doi:10.1186/1475-2867-13-123
PMCID: PMC3878036  PMID: 24365069
Hematopoietic stem cell; HL-60; Leukemic stem cell; Hydrogen peroxide
12.  Curcumin reduces expression of Bcl-2, leading to apoptosis in daunorubicin-insensitive CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia cell lines and primary sorted CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia cells 
Background
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an immunophenotypically heterogenous malignant disease, in which CD34 positivity is associated with poor prognosis. CD34+ AML cells are 10-15-fold more resistant to daunorubicin (DNR) than CD34- AML cells. Curcumin is a major component of turmeric that has shown cytotoxic activity in multiple cancers; however, its anti-cancer activity has not been well studied in DNR-insensitive CD34+ AML cells. The aim of this study was to therefore to explore curcumin-induced cytotoxicity in DNR-insensitive CD34+ AML cell lines (KG1a, Kasumi-1), DNR-sensitive U937 AML cells, and primary CD34+ AML bone-marrow-derived cells.
Methods
Primary human CD34+ cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells or bone marrow mononuclear cells using a CD34 MicroBead kit. The growth inhibitory effects of curcumin were evaluated by MTT and colony-formation assays. Cell cycle distribution was examined by propidium iodide (PI) assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by Wright-Giemsa, Hoechst 33342 and Annexin-V/PI staining assays. The change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was examined by JC-1 staining and flow cytometry. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) against Bcl-2 was used in CD34+ KG1a and Kasumi-1 cells incubated with/without DNR.
Results
Curcumin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis and G1/S arrest in both DNR-insensitive KG1a, Kasumi-1 and DNR-sensitive U937 cells. Curcumin-induced apoptosis was associated with reduced expression of both Bcl-2 mRNA and protein, subsequent loss of MMP, and activation of caspase-3 followed by PARP degradation. Curcumin synergistically enhanced the cytotoxic effect of DNR in DNR-insensitive KG1a and Kasumi-1 cells, consistent with decreased Bcl-2 expression. Accordingly, siRNA against Bcl-2 increased the susceptibility of KG1a and Kasumi-1 cells to DNR-induced apoptosis. More importantly, curcumin suppressed Bcl-2 expression, selectively inhibited proliferation and synergistically enhanced the cytotoxicity of DNR in primary CD34+ AML cells, while showing limited lethality in normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors.
Conclusion
Curcumin down-regulates Bcl-2 and induces apoptosis in DNR-insensitive CD34+ AML cell lines and primary CD34+ AML cells.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-9-71
PMCID: PMC3118333  PMID: 21595920
13.  The Proliferation Index of Specific Bone Marrow Cell Compartments from Myelodysplastic Syndromes Is Associated with the Diagnostic and Patient Outcome 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(8):e44321.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal stem cell disorders which frequently show a hypercellular dysplastic bone marrow (BM) associated with inefficient hematopoiesis and peripheral cytopenias due to increased apoptosis and maturation blockades. Currently, little is known about the role of cell proliferation in compensating for the BM failure syndrome and in determining patient outcome. Here, we analyzed the proliferation index (PI) of different compartments of BM hematopoietic cells in 106 MDS patients compared to both normal/reactive BM (n = 94) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 30 cases) using multiparameter flow cytometry. Our results show abnormally increased overall BM proliferation profiles in MDS which significantly differ between early/low-risk and advanced/high-risk cases. Early/low-risk patients showed increased proliferation of non-lymphoid CD34+ precursors, maturing neutrophils and nucleated red blood cells (NRBC), while the PI of these compartments of BM precursors progressively fell below normal values towards AML levels in advanced/high-risk MDS. Decreased proliferation of non-lymphoid CD34+ and NRBC precursors was significantly associated with adverse disease features, shorter overall survival (OS) and transformation to AML, both in the whole series and when low- and high-risk MDS patients were separately considered, the PI of NRBC emerging as the most powerful independent predictor for OS and progression to AML. In conclusion, assessment of the PI of NRBC, and potentially also of other compartments of BM precursors (e.g.: myeloid CD34+ HPC), could significantly contribute to a better management of MDS.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044321
PMCID: PMC3432128  PMID: 22952954
14.  Identification of CD13+CD36+ cells as a common progenitor for erythroid and myeloid lineages in human bone marrow 
Experimental hematology  2007;35(7):1047-1055.
Objective
To identify bi-potential precursor cells of erythroid and myeloid development in human bone marrow.
Materials and Methods
Cells co-expressing CD13 and CD36 (CD13+CD36+) were investigated by analyzing cell surface marker expression during erythroid development (induced with a combination of cytokines plus erythropoietin [EPO]), or myeloid development (induced with the same cocktail of cytokines plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor [G-CSF]) of bone marrow derived CD133 cells in liquid cultures. CD13+CD36+ subsets were also isolated on the 14th day of cultures and further evaluated for their hematopoietic clonogenic capacity in methylcellulose.
Results
Colony-forming analysis of sorted CD13+CD36+ cells of committed erythroid and myeloid lineages demonstrated that these cells were able to generate erythroid, granulocyte, and mixed erythroid –granulocyte colonies. In contrast, CD13+CD36− or CD13−CD36+ cells exclusively committed to granulocyte/monocyte or erythroid colonies, respectively, but failed to form mixed erythroid –granulocyte colonies; no colonies were detected in CD13−CD36− cells with lineage-supporting cytokines. In addition, our data confirmed that EPO induced both erythroid and myeloid commitment, while G-CSF only supported the differentiation of the myeloid lineage.
Conclusions
The present data identify some CD13+CD36+ cells as bi-potential precursors of erythroid and myeloid commitment in normal hematopoiesis. They provide a physiological explanation for the cell identification of myeloid and erythroid lineages observed in hematopoietic diseases. This unique fraction of CD13+CD36+ cells may be useful for further studies on regulating erythroid and myeloid differentiation during normal and malignant hematopoiesis.
doi:10.1016/j.exphem.2007.04.003
PMCID: PMC2693325  PMID: 17588473
15.  Immunological aspects of hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome 
Seminars in oncology  2011;38(5):667-672.
The pathophysiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is multiple, complex, and poorly understood. In some cases of MDS, especially in which the bone marrow is hypocellular, there is increasing experimental and clinical indication that an immune-mediated damage to hematopoietic precursors and changes in the hematopoiesis-supporting microenvironment contribute to disease development. Increased serum levels of type-1 cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and oligoclonal expansion of cytotoxic T cells are observed in human MDS. In some cases, the immunological attack to the marrow appears to be triggered by MDS-specific antigens, damaging the microenvironment and inducing cell apoptosis especially of normal progenitors. In murine models, dysregulation of osteoprogenitors leads to disrupted hematopoiesis of healthy hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells, eventually resulting in MDS and leukemia. In hypocellular MDS, marrow failure appears to be not only the result of ineffective erythropoiesis of abnormal clones, but also due to inhibition of normal progenitors. Immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, anti-thymocyte globulin, or alemtuzumab may alleviate cytopenias and in some instances induce cytogenetic remission. However, not all patients respond to immunosuppression, and the identification of relevant biomarkers for an immune mechanism is necessary to identify those patients who may benefit from this treatment modality.
doi:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2011.04.006
PMCID: PMC3187571  PMID: 21943673
16.  Heterogenic Final Cell Cycle by Chicken Retinal Lim1 Horizontal Progenitor Cells Leads to Heteroploid Cells with a Remaining Replicated Genome 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e59133.
Retinal progenitor cells undergo apical mitoses during the process of interkinetic nuclear migration and newly generated post-mitotic neurons migrate to their prospective retinal layer. Whereas this is valid for most types of retinal neurons, chicken horizontal cells are generated by delayed non-apical mitoses from dedicated progenitors. The regulation of such final cell cycle is not well understood and we have studied how Lim1 expressing horizontal progenitor cells (HPCs) exit the cell cycle. We have used markers for S- and G2/M-phase in combination with markers for cell cycle regulators Rb1, cyclin B1, cdc25C and p27Kip1 to characterise the final cell cycle of HPCs. The results show that Lim1+ HPCs are heterogenic with regards to when and during what phase they leave the final cell cycle. Not all horizontal cells were generated by a non-apical (basal) mitosis; instead, the HPCs exhibited three different behaviours during the final cell cycle. Thirty-five percent of the Lim1+ horizontal cells was estimated to be generated by non-apical mitoses. The other horizontal cells were either generated by an interkinetic nuclear migration with an apical mitosis or by a cell cycle with an S-phase that was not followed by any mitosis. Such cells remain with replicated DNA and may be regarded as somatic heteroploids. The observed heterogeneity of the final cell cycle was also seen in the expression of Rb1, cyclin B1, cdc25C and p27Kip1. Phosphorylated Rb1-Ser608 was restricted to the Lim1+ cells that entered S-phase while cyclin B1 and cdc25C were exclusively expressed in HPCs having a basal mitosis. Only HPCs that leave the cell cycle after an apical mitosis expressed p27Kip1. We speculate that the cell cycle heterogeneity with formation of heteroploid cells may present a cellular context that contributes to the suggested propensity of these cells to generate cancer when the retinoblastoma gene is mutated.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059133
PMCID: PMC3602602  PMID: 23527113
17.  Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Reductase Enhances Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cell Repopulation Efficiency in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69913.
Background
Bone marrow microenvironment (niche) plays essential roles in the fate of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Intracellular and extracellular redox metabolic microenvironment is one of the critical factors for the maintenance of the niche. Cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is an obligate electron donor to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450 or CYP), and contributes to the redox metabolic process. However, its role in maintaining HSCs is unknown.
Objective
To examine the effects of low CPR expression on HSCs function using a mouse model of globally suppressed Cpr gene expression (Cpr Low, CL mice).
Methods
Hematopoietic cell subpopulations in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) from WT and CL mice were examined for their repopulation and differentiation ability upon BM competitive transplantation and enriched HSC (LKS+) transplantation. Effects of low CPR expression on hematopoiesis were examined by transplanting normal BM cells into CL recipients. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle, and apoptosis in CL mice were analyzed by flow cytometry for DCF-DA fluorescence intensity, Ki67 protein, and Annexin-V, respectively.
Results
The levels of ROS in BM cells, HPCs and HSCs were comparable between CL and WT mice. In comparison to WT mice, the number of LT-HSCs or ST-HSCs was lower in CL mice while CMPs, GMPs and MEPs in CL mice were higher than that in WT control. Competitive transplantation assay revealed enhanced repopulation capacity of HSCs with low CPR expression, but no difference in differentiation potential upon in vitro experiments. Furthermore, lymphoid differentiation of donor cells decreased while their myeloid differentiation increased under CL microenvironment although the overall level of donor hematopoietic repopulation was not significantly altered.
Conclusions
Our studies demonstrate that suppressing CPR expression enhances the repopulation efficiency of HSCs and a low CPR expression microenvironment favors the differentiation of myeloid over lymphoid lineage cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069913
PMCID: PMC3724780  PMID: 23922855
18.  JAK2 V617F impairs hematopoietic stem cell function in a conditional knock-in mouse model of JAK2 V617F–positive essential thrombocythemia 
Blood  2010;116(9):1528-1538.
The JAK2 V617F mutation is found in most patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm and is sufficient to produce a myeloproliferative phenotype in murine retroviral transplantation or transgenic models. However, several lines of evidence suggest that disease phenotype is influenced by the level of mutant JAK2 signaling, and we have therefore generated a conditional knock-in mouse in which a human JAK2 V617F is expressed under the control of the mouse Jak2 locus. Human and murine Jak2 transcripts are expressed at similar levels, and mice develop modest increases in hemoglobin and platelet levels reminiscent of human JAK2 V617F–positive essential thrombocythemia. The phenotype is transplantable and accompanied by increased terminal erythroid and megakaryocyte differentiation together with increased numbers of clonogenic progenitors, including erythropoietin-independent erythroid colonies. Unexpectedly, JAK2V617F mice develop reduced numbers of lineage−Sca-1+c-Kit+ cells, which exhibit increased DNA damage, reduced apoptosis, and reduced cell cycling. Moreover, competitive bone marrow transplantation studies demonstrated impaired hematopoietic stem cell function in JAK2V617F mice. These results suggest that the chronicity of human myeloproliferative neoplasms may reflect a balance between impaired hematopoietic stem cell function and the accumulation of additional mutations.
doi:10.1182/blood-2009-12-259747
PMCID: PMC3145111  PMID: 20489053
19.  Extramedullary Myelopoiesis in Malaria Depends on Mobilization of Myeloid-Restricted Progenitors by IFN-γ Induced Chemokines 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(6):e1003406.
Resolution of a variety of acute bacterial and parasitic infections critically relies on the stimulation of myelopoiesis leading in cases to extramedullary hematopoiesis. Here, we report the isolation of the earliest myeloid-restricted progenitors in acute infection with the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. The rapid disappearance of these infection-induced myeloid progenitors from the bone marrow (BM) equated with contraction of the functional myeloid potential in that organ. The loss of BM myelopoiesis was not affected by the complete genetic inactivation of toll-like receptor signaling. De-activation of IFN-γ signaling completely abrogated the contraction of BM myeloid progenitors. Radiation chimeras of Ifngr1-null and control BM revealed that IFN-γ signaling in an irradiation-resistant stromal compartment was crucial for the loss of early myeloid progenitors. Systemic IFN-γ triggered the secretion of C-C motif ligand chemokines CCL2 and CCL7 leading to the egress of early, myeloid-committed progenitors from the bone marrow mediated by their common receptor CCR2. The mobilization of myeloid progenitors initiated extramedullary myelopoiesis in the spleen in a CCR2-dependent manner resulting in augmented myelopoiesis during acute malaria. Consistent with the lack of splenic myelopoiesis in the absence of CCR2 we observed a significant persistence of parasitemia in malaria infected CCR2-deficient hosts. Our findings reveal how the activated immune system mobilizes early myeloid progenitors out of the BM thereby transiently establishing myelopoiesis in the spleen in order to contain and resolve the infection locally.
Author Summary
Malaria in man and in most animal models is accompanied by splenomegaly. At the same time, the spleen is the main organ for the control resolution of the parasitemia. This process initially depends mostly on the innate immune system and requires increased production of myeloid cells. We investigated the number of bone marrow (BM) LIN− cells which includes hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors during infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi and observed a significant reduction. Using a refined definition for early myeloid-restricted progenitors we could show that the loss of these cells in malaria equated with contraction of BM myelopoiesis. Since absence of IFN-γ receptor on stromal cells was sufficient to block this contraction we investigated the effect of IFN-γ on chemokine secretion. We observed a huge upregulation of CCL2/CCL7 serum levels and an increase in Ccl2/Ccl7 transcription in the BM at peak parasitemia. Egress from the BM of early myeloid progenitors was critically dependent on the chemokine receptor CCR2. Their mobilization resulted in extramedullary myelopopiesis in the spleen which contributed to the clearance of parasite-infected erythrocytes. Our study defined the molecular signals and interaction of various cell types leading to the establishment of splenic myelopoiesis in a mouse model of malaria.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003406
PMCID: PMC3675198  PMID: 23762028
20.  Prognostic Factors in Myelodysplastic Syndromes 
Mædica  2012;7(4):295-302.
ABSTRACT
Background: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cell and are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with normo- or hyper cellular bone marrow and cytopenia(s).The natural evolution of the disease consists of bone marrow failure (leading to infectious and hemorrhagic episodes or anemia related complications) and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Because MDSs display remarkable clinical, pathologic, and cytogenetic heterogeneity, with variable evolution and survival ranging from months to years, the predictive factors of prognosis have a key role in optimal therapeutic decisions.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze prognostic factors within a group of patients diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndromes. The prognostic factors taken into account are: the number and depth of cytopenias, percentage of bone marrow blasts, cytogenetic abnormalities, intensity of anemia and transfusional dependence. These factors are related to overall survival, leukemia free survival, bone marrow failure complications, leukemic evolution, treatment decisions and the response to treatment.
Material and method: The study group comprises of 119 patients diagnosed with de novo MDS, between 2008 and 2011 in the Hematology Department of Coltea Clinical Hospital. In this monitoring period the patients were stratified according to the FAB (French-American-British) morphologic classification.
Results: This study revealed that the outcomes of patients with MDS is influenced by the percentage of bone marrow blasts at diagnosis, the number and severity of hematopoietic lineage affected by cytopenia and by the presence of chromosomal abnormalities.
Conclusions: The studied prognostic factors have predictive value in terms of survival, leukemic transformation, treatment response and development of bone marrow failure-related characteristic complications.
PMCID: PMC3593279  PMID: 23483702
IPSS; risk groups; complications
21.  Myelodysplastic syndromes: pathogenesis, functional abnormalities, and clinical implications. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1985;38(11):1201-1217.
The myelodysplastic syndromes represent a preleukaemic state in which a clonal abnormality of haemopoietic stem cell is characterised by a variety of phenotypic manifestations with varying degrees of ineffective haemopoiesis. This state probably develops as a sequence of events in which the earliest stages may be difficult to detect by conventional pathological techniques. The process is characterised by genetic changes leading to abnormal control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Expansion of an abnormal clone may be related to independence from normal growth factors, insensitivity to normal inhibitory factors, suppression of normal clonal growth, or changes in the immunological or nutritional condition of the host. The haematological picture is of peripheral blood cytopenias: a cellular bone marrow, and functional abnormalities of erythroid, myeloid, and megakaryocytic cells. In most cases marrow cells have an abnormal DNA content, often with disturbances of the cell cycle: an abnormal karyotype is common in premalignant clones. Growth abnormalities of erythroid or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors are common in marrow cultures, and lineage specific surface membrane markers indicate aberrations of differentiation. Progression of the disorder may occur through clonal expansion or through clonal evolution with a greater degree of malignancy. Current attempts to influence abnormal growth and differentiation have had only limited success. Clinical recognition of the syndrome depends on an acute awareness of the signs combined with the identification of clonal and functional abnormalities.
PMCID: PMC499415  PMID: 2999194
22.  Microarray analysis reveals genetic pathways modulated by tipifarnib in acute myeloid leukemia 
BMC Cancer  2004;4:56.
Background
Farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors (FTIs) were originally developed to inhibit oncogenic ras, however it is now clear that there are several other potential targets for this drug class. The FTI tipifarnib (ZARNESTRA™, R115777) has recently demonstrated clinical responses in adults with refractory and relapsed acute leukemias. This study was conducted to identify genetic markers and pathways that are regulated by tipifarnib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
Methods
Tipifarnib-mediated gene expression changes in 3 AML cell lines and bone marrow samples from two patients with AML were analyzed on a cDNA microarray containing approximately 7000 human genes. Pathways associated with these expression changes were identified using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool.
Results
The expression analysis identified a common set of genes that were regulated by tipifarnib in three leukemic cell lines and in leukemic blast cells isolated from two patients who had been treated with tipifarnib. Association of modulated genes with biological functional groups identified several pathways affected by tipifarnib including cell signaling, cytoskeletal organization, immunity, and apoptosis. Gene expression changes were verified in a subset of genes using real time RT-PCR. Additionally, regulation of apoptotic genes was found to correlate with increased Annexin V staining in the THP-1 cell line but not in the HL-60 cell line.
Conclusions
The genetic networks derived from these studies illuminate some of the biological pathways affected by FTI treatment while providing a proof of principle for identifying candidate genes that might be used as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-4-56
PMCID: PMC516036  PMID: 15329151
23.  Chemosensitization by phenothiazines in human lung cancer cells: impaired resolution of γH2AX and increased oxidative stress elicit apoptosis associated with lysosomal expansion and intense vacuolation 
Cell Death & Disease  2011;2(7):e181-.
Chemotherapy resistance poses severe limitations on the efficacy of anti-cancer medications. Recently, the notion of using novel combinations of ‘old' drugs for new indications has garnered significant interest. The potential of using phenothiazines as chemosensitizers has been suggested earlier but so far our understanding of their molecular targets remains scant. The current study was designed to better define phenothiazine-sensitive cellular processes in relation to chemosensitivity. We found that phenothiazines shared the ability to delay γH2AX resolution in DNA-damaged human lung cancer cells. Accordingly, cells co-treated with chemotherapy and phenothiazines underwent protracted cell-cycle arrest followed by checkpoint escape that led to abnormal mitoses, secondary arrest and/or a form of apoptosis associated with increased endogenous oxidative stress and intense vacuolation. We provide evidence implicating lysosomal dysfunction as a key component of cell death in phenothiazine co-treated cells, which also exhibited more typical hallmarks of apoptosis including the activation of both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. Finally, we demonstrated that vacuolation in phenothiazine co-treated cells could be reduced by ROS scavengers or the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin, leading to increased cell viability. Our data highlight the potential benefit of using phenothiazines as chemosensitizers in tumors that acquire molecular alterations rendering them insensitive to caspase-mediated apoptosis.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2011.62
PMCID: PMC3199719  PMID: 21776019
phenothiazine; γH2AX, checkpoint recovery, apoptosis, lysosomes, oxidative stress
24.  C/EBPδ Deficiency Sensitizes Mice to Ionizing Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic and Intestinal Injury 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94967.
Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the radiation response is critical for developing interventions to mitigate radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Exposure to radiation leads to increased oxidative stress, DNA-damage, genomic instability and inflammation. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (Cebpd; C/EBPδ is implicated in regulation of these same processes, but its role in radiation response is not known. We investigated the role of C/EBPδ in radiation-induced hematopoietic and intestinal injury using a Cebpd knockout mouse model. Cebpd−/− mice showed increased lethality at 7.4 and 8.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI), compared to Cebpd+/+ mice. Two weeks after a 6 Gy dose of TBI, Cebpd−/− mice showed decreased recovery of white blood cells, neutrophils, platelets, myeloid cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells, decreased colony-forming ability of bone marrow progenitor cells, and increased apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells compared to Cebpd+/+ controls. Cebpd−/− mice exhibited a significant dose-dependent decrease in intestinal crypt survival and in plasma citrulline levels compared to Cebpd+/+ mice after exposure to radiation. This was accompanied by significantly decreased expression of γ-H2AX in Cebpd−/− intestinal crypts and villi at 1 h post-TBI, increased mitotic index at 24 h post-TBI, and increase in apoptosis in intestinal crypts and stromal cells of Cebpd−/− compared to Cebpd+/+ mice at 4 h post-irradiation. This study uncovers a novel biological function for C/EBPδ in promoting the response to radiation-induced DNA-damage and in protecting hematopoietic and intestinal tissues from radiation-induced injury.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094967
PMCID: PMC3991713  PMID: 24747529
25.  Altered Hematopoiesis in Mice Lacking DNA Polymerase μ Is Due to Inefficient Double-Strand Break Repair 
PLoS Genetics  2009;5(2):e1000389.
Polymerase mu (Polμ) is an error-prone, DNA-directed DNA polymerase that participates in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair. In vivo, Polμ deficiency results in impaired Vκ-Jκ recombination and altered somatic hypermutation and centroblast development. In Polμ−/− mice, hematopoietic development was defective in several peripheral and bone marrow (BM) cell populations, with about a 40% decrease in BM cell number that affected several hematopoietic lineages. Hematopoietic progenitors were reduced both in number and in expansion potential. The observed phenotype correlates with a reduced efficiency in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in hematopoietic tissue. Whole-body γ-irradiation revealed that Polμ also plays a role in DSB repair in non-hematopoietic tissues. Our results show that Polμ function is required for physiological hematopoietic development with an important role in maintaining early progenitor cell homeostasis and genetic stability in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic tissues.
Author Summary
Double-strand breaks (DSB) in DNA are a highly deleterious type of genetic damage, potentially causing genomic rearrangements or cell death if unrepaired. DSB can be triggered by environmental factors (such as electromagnetic radiation or clastogenic chemicals) or normal cell metabolism. The main mechanism of DSB repair in mammals is thought to be the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. Our article describes how DNA polymerase mu (Polμ), a recently identified component of the NHEJ machinery, is required for hematopoiesis—the process that generates and maintains the correct balance of the millions of blood cells needed to sustain life and defend against infection. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) divide asymmetrically, yielding another HSC and a progenitor cell. These progenitors proliferate and differentiate, their progeny eventually generating mature blood cells. In mice in which Polμ is genetically eliminated, we found that hematopoietic progenitors proliferate slowly and are functionally impaired. The incidence of DSB in hematopoietic cells from these mice is increased, suggesting that reduced DNA repair may be the cause of the hematopoietic defects. DNA damage was also increased in tissues unrelated to hematopoiesis, including liver, kidney, lung, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Thus, these results demonstrate that Polμ plays an important role in general DSB repair in many cell lineages.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000389
PMCID: PMC2638008  PMID: 19229323

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