The cost-effectiveness of sugammadex for the routine reversal of muscle relaxation produced by rocuronium or vecuronium in UK practice is uncertain. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of sugammadex compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate and an economic assessment of sugammadex for the reversal of moderate or profound neuromuscular block (NMB) produced by rocuronium or vecuronium. The economic assessment aimed to establish the reduction in recovery time and the ‘value of time saved’ which would be necessary for sugammadex to be potentially cost-effective compared with existing practice. Three trials indicated that sugammadex 2 mg kg−1 (4 mg kg−1) produces more rapid recovery from moderate (profound) NMB than neostigmine/glycopyrrolate. The economic assessment indicated that if the reductions in recovery time associated with sugammadex in the trials are replicated in routine practice, sugammadex would be cost-effective if those reductions are achieved in the operating theatre (assumed value of staff time, £4.44 per minute), but not if they are achieved in the recovery room (assumed value of staff time, £0.33 per minute). However, there is considerable uncertainty in these results. Sugammadex has the potential to be cost-effective compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate for the reversal of rocuronium-induced moderate or profound NMB, provided that the time savings observed in trials can be achieved and put to productive use in clinical practice. Further research is required to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on patient safety, predictability of recovery from NMB, patient outcomes, and efficient use of resources.
clinical trials; neuromuscular block, recovery; neuromuscular block, rocuronium
Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs), such as rocuronium, are widely used in clinical anesthesia and emergency medicine to facilitate endotracheal intubation and artificial ventilation and to allow surgical access to body cavities. Reversal of neuromuscular blockade is important for the acceleration of patient recovery and prevention of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade and reduces the incidence of severe morbidity and mortality associated with anesthesia management. Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA) and has been designed to reverse the steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug rocuronium. Encapsulation of the rocuronium molecule by sugammadex results in a rapid decrease in free rocuronium in the plasma and subsequently at the nicotinic receptor at the motor endplate. After encapsulation, rocuronium is not available to bind to the nicotinic receptor in the neuromuscular junction. This promotes the liberation of acetylcholine receptors, and muscle activity reappears. This new concept of reversal of neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium (or vecuronium) led to impressive results in animal and phase 1 and 2 studies. Sugammadex is currently in phase 3 clinical studies and may be commercially available by 2008.
neuromuscular block; rocuronium; neuromuscular blocking agent; sugammadex; reversal agent
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugammadex compared with neostigmine in reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia.
Patients aged ≥18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1-4, scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this phase III, multicenter, randomized, safety-assessor blinded study. Sevoflurane anesthetized patients received vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.015 mg/kg as required. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg or neostigmine 70 μg/kg with glycopyrrolate 14 μg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic counts. The primary efficacy variable was time from start of study drug administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Safety assessments included physical examination, laboratory data, vital signs, and adverse events.
Eighty three patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (sugammadex, n = 47; neostigmine, n = 36). Geometric mean time to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 15-fold faster with sugammadex (4.5 minutes) compared with neostigmine (66.2 minutes; p < 0.0001) (median, 3.3 minutes with sugammadex versus 49.9 minutes with neostigmine). No serious drug-related adverse events occurred in either group.
Recovery from profound vecuronium-induced block is significantly faster with sugammadex, compared with neostigmine. Neostigmine did not rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block (Trial registration number: NCT00473694).
Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin which is showing favorable outcomes regarding reversal of neuromuscular blockade, especially by rocuronium. It is designed to encapsulate rocuronium and being considered a new class of drugs as selective relaxant binding agents. It has given countless benefits to the patients at risk of incomplete or delayed recovery after neuromuscular block and has renown for another milestone in anesthesia practice. Recurrence of neuromuscular block has not been reported to be associated with the provided doses of sugammadex that are adequate for selected for reversal. Acceptable profiles are brought to light telling safety of sugammadex. However, some questions related to the twitch characteristics those resembled succinylcholine when reversal, the application for rocuronium anaphylaxis, and the hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis to sugammadex remain and are need of further investigation. It is imperative that potential problems that we need attention may include the patient's history of pulmonary disease and allergic disease for using sugammadex.
Allergy; Hypersensitivity; Neuromuscular blockade; Patient safety; Sugammadex
We report a patient with myotonic dystrophy who showed prolonged rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, although with a fast recovery with sugammadex. During general anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil, the times to spontaneous recovery of the first twitch (T1) of train of four to 10% of control values after an intubating dose of rocuronium 1 mg/kg and an additional dose of 0.2 mg/kg were 112 min and 62 min, respectively. Despite the high sensitivity to rocuronium, sugammadex 2 mg/kg administered at a T1 of 10% safely and effectively antagonized rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in 90 s.
Neuromuscular blockade, induced by neuromuscular blocking agents, has allowed prescribed immobility, improved surgical exposure, optimal airway management conditions, and facilitated mechanical ventilation. However, termination of the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents has, until now, remained limited. A novel cyclodextrin encapsulation process offers improved termination of the paralytic effects of aminosteroidal non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. Sugammadex sodium is the first in a new class of drug called selective relaxant binding agents. Currently, in clinical trials, sugammadex, a modified gamma cyclodextrin, has shown consistent and rapid termination of neuromuscular blockade with few side effects. The pharmacology of cyclodextrins in general and sugammadex in particular, together with the results of current clinical research are reviewed. The ability of sugammadex to terminate the action of neuromuscular blocking agents by direct encapsulation is compared to the indirect competitive antagonism of their effects by cholinesterase inhibitors. Also discussed are the clinical implications that extend beyond fast, effective reversal, including numerous potential perioperative benefits.
modified cyclodextrin; selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA); sugammadex; encapsulation; muscle relaxants; neuromuscular blockade reversal
Despite the significant improvements in the pharmacology of muscle relaxants in the past six decades, the search for the ideal muscle relaxant continues, mainly because of the incomplete efficacy and persistent side effects associated with their antagonism. Clinical concerns remain about the residual paralysis and hemodynamic side effects associated with the classic pharmacologic reversal agents, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Although the development of the “ideal muscle relaxant” remains illusory, pharmacologic advancements hold promise for improved clinical care and patient safety. Recent clinical advances include the development of short-acting nondepolarizing muscle relaxant agents that have fast onset and a very rapid metabolism that allows reliable and complete recovery; and the development of selective, “designer” reversal agents that are specific for a single drug or class of drugs. This article reviews recent developments in the pharmacology of these selective reversal agents: plasma cholinesterases, cysteine, and sugammadex. Although each of the selective reversal agents is specific in its substrate, the clinical use of the combination of muscle relaxant with its specific reversal agent will allow much greater intraoperative titrating ability, decreased side effect profile, and may result in a decreased incidence of postoperative residual paralysis and improved patient safety.
selective reversal agents; cysteine; plasma cholinesterases; sugammadex
We report a case of a patient with tumor of the caecum with coexistent myasthenia gravis (a form according to Osserman II A), requiring general anesthesia for abdominal surgery. To reverse the neuromuscular block induced by vecuronium was used sugammadex.
sugammadex; myasthenia gravis; neuromuscular monitoring; vecuronium
We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome; electro convulsive therapy; succinyl choline; rocuronium; sugammadex
Rocuronium produces faster neuromuscular blockade compared with other neuromuscular blocking drugs. It produces comparable intubating conditions to that of succinylcholine, but does not have the short intubation time of the latter. Hence, it may not be preferable for rapid sequence intubation, but rocuronium with priming may produce comparable intubating time and conditions to that of succinylcholine. Rocuronium with priming may be an alternative to succinylcholine in rapid sequence intubation in conditions where succinylcholine is contraindicated. The present study was conducted to compare the intubating conditions and intubation time of rocuronium with and without priming.
Sixty patients of ASA physical status I and II, aged between 18 and 60 years, of both sexes, were divided into priming and control groups of 30 each. Patients in the priming group received 0.06 mg/kg of rocuronium and those in the control group received normal saline. All patients received fentanyl 1 μg/kg, followed by thiopentone 5 mg/kg for induction. Intubating dose of rocuronium 0.54 mg/kg in the priming group and 0.6 mg/kg in the control group were administered 3 min after priming. Onset time of intubation was assessed using a Train of Four stimuli, and the intubating conditions were compared by the Cooper scoring system.
The onset time of intubation was 50.67±7.39 s in the priming group and 94.00±11.62 s in the control group, with excellent intubating conditions in both the groups and without any adverse effects.
Priming with rocuronium provides excellent intubating conditions in less than 60 s with no adverse effects.
Endotracheal intubation; intubating conditions; priming; rocuronium
Although cisatracurium has many advantages in anesthetic practices, the best choice of a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent that can replace succinylcholine is rocuronium. However, it is reported that remifentanil with propofol might provide reliable intubating condition, even without a neuromuscular blocking agent; therefore, it might improve the intubating condition with cisatracurium. This study examined intubating conditions after administering rocuronium or cisatracurium in a rapid sequence induction with remifentanil-propofol.
Fifty two ASA physical status 1 or 2 adult patients scheduled for an elective surgery were enrolled in a randomized double-blinded trial. Anesthesia was induced in all patients with propofol 2.0 mg/kg and remifentanil 0.5 µg/kg, administered over 60 seconds. Rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg (3 × ED95, R group, n = 23) or cisatracurium 0.15 mg/kg (3 × ED95, C group, n = 29) was administered after the induction sequence. Laryngoscopy was attempted when the anesthesiologist thought it was 90 seconds after drug administration and appropriate time for intubation. The examiner, another anesthesiologist, recorded the exact time to intubation and suppression of maximal T1 on TOF. The intubating condition was assessed by the first anesthesiologist, as excellent, good, poor or not possible.
The best time to laryngoscopy was predicted by measuring TOF and was found to be significantly longer in the C group (197 ± 53 s) than in the R group (102 ± 49 s) (P value < 0.05). However, time to larygoscopy, intubating condition during the laryngoscopy, and hemodynamic changes after intubation was similar in both groups.
Despite fundamentally slower onset time, cisatracurium can provide quite good intubating conditions, which were comparable to those achieved with equipotent doses of rocuronium, which is more expensive in anesthesia inducted with remifentanil and propofol.
Cisatracurium; Intubation; Rocuronium; Satisfaction; TIVA
Succinylcholine and rocuronium are widely used to facilitate rapid sequence induction (RSI) intubation in intensive care. Concerns relate to the side effects of succinylcholine and to slower onset and inferior intubation conditions associated with rocuronium. So far, succinylcholine and rocuronium have not been compared in an adequately powered randomized trial in intensive care. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of hypoxemia after rocuronium or succinylcholine in critically ill patients requiring an emergent RSI.
This was a prospective randomized controlled single-blind trial conducted from 2006 to 2010 at the University Hospital of Basel. Participants were 401 critically ill patients requiring emergent RSI. Patients were randomized to receive 1 mg/kg succinylcholine or 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium for neuromuscular blockade. The primary outcome was the incidence of oxygen desaturations defined as a decrease in oxygen saturation ≥ 5%, assessed by continuous pulse oxymetry, at any time between the start of the induction sequence and two minutes after the completion of the intubation. A severe oxygen desaturation was defined as a decrease in oxygen saturation ≥ 5% leading to a saturation value of ≤ 80%.
There was no difference between succinylcholine and rocuronium regarding oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine 73/196; rocuronium 66/195; P = 0.67); severe oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine 20/196; rocuronium 20/195; P = 1.0); and extent of oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine -14 ± 12%; rocuronium -16 ± 13%; P = 0.77). The duration of the intubation sequence was shorter after succinycholine than after rocuronium (81 ± 38 sec versus 95 ± 48 sec; P = 0.002). Intubation conditions (succinylcholine 8.3 ± 0.8; rocuronium 8.2 ± 0.9; P = 0.7) and failed first intubation attempts (succinylcholine 32/200; rocuronium 36/201; P = 1.0) did not differ between the groups.
In critically ill patients undergoing emergent RSI, incidence and severity of oxygen desaturations, the quality of intubation conditions, and incidence of failed intubation attempts did not differ between succinylcholine and rocuronium.
ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00355368.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and contracture, and special care during anesthesia is needed in these patients. Because inhalational anesthetics and succinylcholine can cause fatal results, intravenous anesthetics are commonly used. However, monitorings for the pediatric population are not otherwise specified. We report our experience of a 6 year-old boy that underwent muscle biopsy suspicious of muscle dystrophy under general anesthesia. The patient received midazolam, fentanyl, propofol and a small dose of rocuronium. He was monitored with bispectral index (BIS), acceleromyography (TOF). At the end of surgery, recovery of TOF ratio to 90% was evaluated, followed by injection of pyridostigmine and glycopyrrolate. When reversal of neuromuscular block was confirmed quantitatively and clinically, the patient was extubated and he experienced no complication.
Anesthesia; Bispectral index; Monitoring; Muscular dystrophy
Rocuronium is the anesthetic agent most likely to cause anaphylaxis. Immediately after intravenous rocuronium administration, the authors experienced ventilatory impairment due to unilateral bronchospasm (left lung), which was relieved by emergency treatment. However, 80 minutes after beginning laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer, the left lung suddenly re-collapsed under pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position. A postoperative intradermal test revealed that rocuronium, vecuronium, atracurium, succinylcholine, or thiopental could induce anaphylaxis in this patient, but it was not established whether the second incident during surgery was due to endobronchial intubation or anaphylactic bronchospasm. This case cautions that under pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position, patients suspected of being prone to anaphylactic bronchospasm should also be considered at risk of endobronchial intubation.
Anaphylaxis; Bronchial spasm; Laparoscopic surgery; Rocuronium
This randomized, prospective, blinded study compared the use of succinylcholine or rocuronium to aid endotracheal intubation of 27 adult sows [mean body weight 261 ± 28 (standard deviation) kg]. Preliminary trials allowed development of the intubation technique and skills. The sows were premedicated with azaperone, atropine, and morphine, and anesthesia was induced with thiopental [6 mg/kg body weight (BW)]. Nine sows each received succinylcholine (1.0 mg/kg BW), rocuronium (0.5 mg/kg BW), or saline (15 mL) after induction. Increments of thiopental (1 mg/kg BW) were used if swallowing impaired intubation. Intubation was performed 45 s after injection of the test drug and was timed and scored. The intubation scores were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA). Time taken for intubation, body weight, and total dose of thiopental were analyzed with ANOVA and Bonferroni’s multiple-comparisons test. No significant differences (at P < 0.05) were found between the groups with regard to intubation score, time taken for intubation, or total thiopental dose. Thus, neuromuscular blocking agents did not aid endotracheal intubation of adult sows anesthetized with thiopental.
Rapid and safe endotracheal intubation is of paramount importance in general anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare the intubating conditions of succinylcholine with rocuronium bromide and vecuronium bromide using “Timing principle”. The timing principle entails administration of a single bolus dose of nondepolarizing muscle relaxant, followed by an induction drug at the onset of clinical weakness.
Patients & Methods:
75 patients were divided into three groups of 25 each. Patients allocated to Groups A and B received rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1 and vecuronium 0.12 mg kg-1 respectively. At the onset of clinical weakness (ptosis), anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.5 mg kg-1; intubation was accomplished after 60 seconds of induction agent in both groups. Patients in Group C received propofol 2.5mg kg-1 followed by succinylcholine 2mg kg-1 and their tracheas were intubated at 60s.Train of four count was assessed at adductor pollicis muscle using nerve stimulator at intubation and time to loss of TOF was observed. in group A and B. Intubating conditions were assessed according to a grading scale and haemodynamic variables were compared at 1,3 and 5 minutes after intubation.
Intubating conditions were either excellent(84% in group A,48% in group B and 88% in group C) or good (16% in group A, 48% in group B and 12 %in group C)and only 4% pt had poor intubating conditions in group B. Patients were interviewed postoperatively, and all were satisfied with the technique of induction of anesthesia.Rocuronium and Vecuronium are haemodynamically stable drugs as compared to Succinylcholine.
Rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1 provides good to excellent intubating conditions at 60 s comparable to succinylcholine after the induction of anesthesia using the timing principle.
Rocuronium; Vecuronium; Timing Principle; Nerve stimulator
The neuromuscular and hem+odynamic effects of mivacurium 0.15 mg/kg and succinylcholine 1 mg/kg were compared in 26 adult patients (ASA I and II) during nitrous oxide-oxygen-propofol-fentanyl anesthesia. Neuromuscular block was monitored by recording the compound electromyogram of the hypothenar muscle resulting from supramaximal train-of-four stimuli applied to the ulnar nerve. Time to onset of over 95% block and duration to 25% recovery of control twitch after injection of mivacurium were significantly longer than for succinylcholine (201 +/- 37.6 vs 54 +/- 5.2 sec and 13.0 +/- 2.2 vs 8.4 +/- 2.1 min; mean +/- SD). Onset of mivacurium with priming technique was shortened (125 +/- 20.7 sec), but was also slower than that of succinylcholine. Although the recovery index during spontaneous recovery was significantly longer for mivacurium than for succinylcholine (6.9 +/- 1.3 vs 5.1 +/- 0.9 min), antagonism with neostigmine at 25% recovery of twitch height sufficiently facilitated the recovery index of mivacurium (4.5 +/- 1.0 min) to a level similar to that of succinylcholine with no statistical difference. The hemodynamic effects of mivacurium were few as compared to those of succinylcholine. In conclusion, mivacurium is considered to have additional advantages for short procedures when succinylcholine is undesirable.
Objective: To document the relationship of the indoor air consultancy company Healthy Buildings International (HBI) with the Australian tobacco industry.
Design: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement.
Results: Since 1987 HBI has played a high profile role in advancing the Australian tobacco industry's concerns to prevent building owners introducing smoke-free workplaces by advocating for ventilation solutions. HBI invoiced Philip Morris' US lawyers Covington and Burling for work undertaken in Australia and sought to publicly deny its association with the industry. HBI breached Standards Australia protocols in providing PM with confidential public submissions made to a review of the Australian standard on ventilation and acted as an undeclared cipher into the review for Philip Morris's concerns, leading to the eventual dismissal of the HBI representative from the standards subcommittee.
Conclusions: HBI in Australia exemplifies the tobacco industry's use of third party strategy in publicly advancing a case against smoke-free indoor air.
Ulinastatin is a glycoprotein derived from human urine and a serine protease inhibitor found in human urine and blood. Ulinastatin increases both liver blood flow and urine output. Rocuronium is eliminated mainly through the liver and partly through the kidney, hepatic elimination of rocuronium might be enhanced by ulinastatin. We examined the effect of ulinastatin on the neuromuscular block caused by rocuronium.
Forty four adult patients were randomly divided into two groups of 22 patients each, i.e. the study group and the control group. In the study group, a bolus dose of ulinastatin 5,000 U/kg was administered 2 min before the injection of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. In the control group, normal saline was administered instead of ulinastatin. For the monitoring of both onset and recovery from neuromuscular blockade, train-of-four (TOF) and post-tetanic count were used with TOF-Watch Sx. All patients underwent general anesthesia with total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) of remifentanil and propofol, using the effect site target infusion system.
In the study group, the onset of neuromuscular block was significantly slower than in the control group (P < 0.05). The recovery time from the rocuronium injection to the return of PTC was also significantly shorter in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Similarly, times to the return of T1, T2, T3, and T4 (i.e. the first, second, third, and fourth response of TOF) were significantly shorter in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.05).
Ulinastatin significantly delays the onset of neuromuscular block and accelerates the recovery from the block caused by rocuronium.
Neuromuscular junction; Rocuronium; Ulinastatin
Osteoporosis is a growing problem worldwide, linked to an increasingly aging population. Despite the availability of a wide variety of treatments for osteoporosis, a significant number of patients are either not being prescribed treatment or discontinue therapy as early as 6 months after initiation. The reasons for a lack of adherence are many but poor adherence increases the risk of fracture and, therefore, the disease burden to the patient and society. Results from large-scale, randomized clinical studies have shown that different osteoporosis treatments are efficacious in reducing the risk of fracture. Studies assessing the effects of discontinuing osteoporosis therapies show that some treatments appear to continue to protect patients from the risk of future fracture even when treatment is stopped. However, these trials involve patients who have been compliant with treatment for between 2 and 5 years, a situation not reflective of real-world clinical practice. In reality, patients who discontinue therapy within the first 6 months may never achieve the optimum protection from fracture regardless of which treatment they have been prescribed. Clinicians need to develop management strategies to enable patients to adhere to their treatment. This will ultimately result in better prevention of fracture and a lower burden of disease to society and patients.
osteoporosis; adherence; treatment; persistence; compliance; fracture
It was well-known that smoking affects the cardiovascular system, and remifentanil can suppress the sympathetic stimulations induced by tracheal intubation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was any difference in the hemodynamic changes induced by tracheal intubation with using remifentanil between smokers and nonsmokers.
Eighty patients were enrolled: male smokers (MS), male nonsmokers (MN), female smokers (FS) and female nonsmokers (FN). Anesthesia was induced with diluted remifentanil (20 µg/ml) at a rate of 10 µg/kg/hr using an infusion pump, and 2 min later, midazolam 0.05 mg/kg and propofol 0.8 mg/kg were injected for achieving unconsciousness. Rocuronium 1 mg/kg was used for muscle relaxation, and tracheal intubation was performed 2 min after rocuronium injection. After tracheal intubation, the remifentanil was decreased to 2 µg/kg/hr. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were checked before induction, on unconsciousness, just before intubation, just after intubation and 1, 2 and 3 minutes after intubation, and these values were compared between the groups.
In men, the MAP and HR just after intubation and at 1, 2 and 3 minutes after intubation in Group MS were significantly higher than those of Group MN (P < 0.05). For the women, the HR in both groups (the FS and FN groups) were increased just after intubation and 1, 2 and 3 minutes after intubation compared with that at the baseline, respectively, but there was no difference between the two groups.
There was a difference of the hemodynamic changes induced by tracheal intubation with using remifentanil between the male smokers and nonsmokers, but not in women.
Hemodynamic change; Intubation; Nonsmoker; Remifentanil; Smoker
Rocuronium produces injection pain in 50-80% of treated patients. Therefore, a variety of pretreatments have been attempted to reduce this issue. We evaluated the efficacy of 3 different doses of magnesium on the rocuronium injection pain and following hemodynamic changes by laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation (LTI).
Two hundreds patients, ASA I and II, undergoing general anesthesia for elective surgery were randomly divided to 4 groups: group 1, 2, 3, 4 received saline 5 ml, magnesium 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg prior to 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium, respectively. Then, group 1 only was treated with esmolol (20 mg) before LTI. Pain intensity with rocuronium injection was assessed using a four-point scale according to patient's movement. Cardiovascular responses at baseline, after induction, 1 minutes after LTI were determined.
Compared to saline, 10 and 20 mg/kg of magnesium significantly reduced the incidence of overall movement after rocuronium injection (34% and 36% in group 3 and 4, respectively vs. 76% in the group 1) (P < 0.0001). Generalized movement was seen in 4% of patients in groups 3 and 4, respectively. Compared to baseline values, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) immediately after LTI significantly increased within groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.001), but not within groups 3 and 4.
Magnesium (10 and 20 mg/kg) prior to rocuronium was effective in attenuating rocuronium associated injection pain and cardiovascular changes by LTI.
Cardiovascular response; Magnesium sulfate; Rocuronium injection pain; Tracheal intubation
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical effective dose of rocuronium for tracheal intubation using a lightwand after induction with propofol, alfentanil, and a low concentration of sevoflurane.
Twenty-eight adults scheduled to undergo elective surgery lasting less than one hour were enrolled in this study. All patients received alfentanil (10 µg/kg) and propofol (1.5 mg/kg) for the induction of anesthesia. Tracheal intubation using a lightwand was attempted 3 minutes after administering rocuronium and mask ventilation with 2 vol% of sevoflurane. The initial rocuronium dose was 0.5 mg/kg. The rocuronium dose for consecutive patients, determined by Dixon's up-and-down method, was increased or decreased by 0.05 mg/kg according to the result of the previous patient. The mean arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded before induction, 1 min before intubation, 1 and 2 min after intubation.
The 50% clinical effective dose (cED50) of rocuronium for tracheal intubation using a lightwand was 0.20 ± 0.05 mg/kg according to Dixon's up and down method. Isotonic regression revealed the cED50 and cED95 (95% confidence intervals) to be 0.20 mg/kg (0.10-0.3 mg/kg) and 0.35 mg/kg (0.16-0.49 mg/kg), respectively.
The cED50 and cED95 of rocuronium for tracheal intubation using the lightwand were 0.20 mg/kg and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively, after induction with alfentanil, propofol, and a low concentration of sevoflurane.
Dixon's up-and-down method; Lightwand; Rocuronium