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1.  Sugammadex compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate for routine reversal of neuromuscular block: a systematic review and economic evaluation† 
BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia  2010;105(5):558-567.
Summary
The cost-effectiveness of sugammadex for the routine reversal of muscle relaxation produced by rocuronium or vecuronium in UK practice is uncertain. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of sugammadex compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate and an economic assessment of sugammadex for the reversal of moderate or profound neuromuscular block (NMB) produced by rocuronium or vecuronium. The economic assessment aimed to establish the reduction in recovery time and the ‘value of time saved’ which would be necessary for sugammadex to be potentially cost-effective compared with existing practice. Three trials indicated that sugammadex 2 mg kg−1 (4 mg kg−1) produces more rapid recovery from moderate (profound) NMB than neostigmine/glycopyrrolate. The economic assessment indicated that if the reductions in recovery time associated with sugammadex in the trials are replicated in routine practice, sugammadex would be cost-effective if those reductions are achieved in the operating theatre (assumed value of staff time, £4.44 per minute), but not if they are achieved in the recovery room (assumed value of staff time, £0.33 per minute). However, there is considerable uncertainty in these results. Sugammadex has the potential to be cost-effective compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate for the reversal of rocuronium-induced moderate or profound NMB, provided that the time savings observed in trials can be achieved and put to productive use in clinical practice. Further research is required to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on patient safety, predictability of recovery from NMB, patient outcomes, and efficient use of resources.
doi:10.1093/bja/aeq269
PMCID: PMC2955536  PMID: 20935005
clinical trials; neuromuscular block, recovery; neuromuscular block, rocuronium
2.  Reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia: sugammadex versus neostigmine.  
BMC Anesthesiology  2010;10:15.
Background
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugammadex compared with neostigmine in reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia.
Methods
Patients aged ≥18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1-4, scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this phase III, multicenter, randomized, safety-assessor blinded study. Sevoflurane anesthetized patients received vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.015 mg/kg as required. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg or neostigmine 70 μg/kg with glycopyrrolate 14 μg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic counts. The primary efficacy variable was time from start of study drug administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Safety assessments included physical examination, laboratory data, vital signs, and adverse events.
Results
Eighty three patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (sugammadex, n = 47; neostigmine, n = 36). Geometric mean time to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 15-fold faster with sugammadex (4.5 minutes) compared with neostigmine (66.2 minutes; p < 0.0001) (median, 3.3 minutes with sugammadex versus 49.9 minutes with neostigmine). No serious drug-related adverse events occurred in either group.
Conclusions
Recovery from profound vecuronium-induced block is significantly faster with sugammadex, compared with neostigmine. Neostigmine did not rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block (Trial registration number: NCT00473694).
doi:10.1186/1471-2253-10-15
PMCID: PMC2944304  PMID: 20809967
3.  Sensitivity to Rocuronium-Induced Neuromuscular Block and Reversibility with Sugammadex in a Patient with Myotonic Dystrophy 
Case Reports in Anesthesiology  2012;2012:107952.
We report a patient with myotonic dystrophy who showed prolonged rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, although with a fast recovery with sugammadex. During general anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil, the times to spontaneous recovery of the first twitch (T1) of train of four to 10% of control values after an intubating dose of rocuronium 1 mg/kg and an additional dose of 0.2 mg/kg were 112 min and 62 min, respectively. Despite the high sensitivity to rocuronium, sugammadex 2 mg/kg administered at a T1 of 10% safely and effectively antagonized rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in 90 s.
doi:10.1155/2012/107952
PMCID: PMC3350161  PMID: 22606401
4.  Sugammadex as a reversal agent for neuromuscular block: an evidence-based review 
Core Evidence  2013;8:57-67.
Sugammadex is the first clinical representative of a new class of drugs called selective relaxant binding agents. It has revolutionized the way anesthesiologists think about drug reversal. Sugammadex selectively binds rocuronium or vecuronium, thereby reversing their neuromuscular blocking action. Due to its 1:1 binding of rocuronium or vecuronium, it is able to reverse any depth of neuromuscular block. So far, it has been approved for use in adult patients and for pediatric patients over 2 years. Since its approval in Europe, Japan, and Australia, further insight on its use in special patient populations and specific diseases have become available. Due to its pharmacodynamic profile, sugammadex, in combination with rocuronium, may have the potential to displace succinylcholine as the “gold standard” muscle relaxant for rapid sequence induction. The use of rocuronium or vecuronium, with the potential of reverse of their action with sugammadex, seems to be safe in patients with impaired neuromuscular transmission, ie, neuromuscular diseases, including myasthenia gravis. Data from long-term use of sugammadex is not yet available. Evidence suggesting an economic advantage of using sugammadex and justifying its relatively high cost for an anesthesia-related drug, is missing.
doi:10.2147/CE.S35675
PMCID: PMC3789633  PMID: 24098155
reversal agent; cyclodextrin; PORC; SRBAs
5.  Sugammadex versus neostigmine reversal of moderate rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in Korean patients 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;65(6):501-507.
Background
Rapid and complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) is desirable at the end of surgery. Sugammadex reverses rocuronium-induced NMB by encapsulation. It is well tolerated in Caucasian patients, providing rapid reversal of moderate (reappearance of T2) rocuronium-induced NMB. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sugammadex versus neostigmine in Korean patients.
Methods
This randomized, safety assessor-blinded trial (NCT01050543) included Korean patients undergoing general anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was given prior to intubation with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as required. Patients received sugammadex 2.0 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 µg/kg with glycopyrrolate 10 µg/kg to reverse the NMB at the reappearance of T2, after the last rocuronium dose. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time from sugammadex or neostigmine administration to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9. The safety of these medications was also assessed.
Results
Of 128 randomized patients, 118 had evaluable data (n = 59 in each group). The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) time to recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was 1.8 (1.6, 2.0) minutes in the sugammadex group and 14.8 (12.4, 17.6) minutes in the neostigmine group (P < 0.0001). Sugammadex was generally well tolerated, with no evidence of residual or recurrence of NMB; four patients in the neostigmine group reported adverse events possibly indicative of inadequate NMB reversal.
Conclusions
Sugammadex was well tolerated and provided rapid reversal of moderate rocuronium-induced NMB in Korean patients, with a recovery time 8.1 times faster than neostigmine. These results are consistent with those reported for Caucasian patients.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.65.6.501
PMCID: PMC3888842  PMID: 24427455
Caucasian; Korean; Neostigmine; Neuromuscular blockade; Rocuronium; Sugammadex
6.  Sugammadex and Ideal Body Weight in Bariatric Surgery 
Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at T2 recovery in a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of real body weight (RBW) can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW). Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of IBW and the second received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2 μg kg−1, propofol 3 mg kg−1, rocuronium 0,6 mg kg−1, oxygen, air, and desflurane (6–8%). Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at T2 recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the T4/T1 value of 0.9 was reached in 151 ± 44 seconds and in 121 ± 55 seconds in RBW group (P = 0.07). Discussion. Recovery times to T4/T1 of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC.
doi:10.1155/2013/389782
PMCID: PMC3690214  PMID: 23840203
7.  A temporary decrease in twitch response following reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block with a small dose of sugammadex in a pediatric patient 
Journal of Anesthesia  2013;28:288-290.
We report a temporary decrease in twitch response following reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block with a small dose of sugammadex in our dose-finding study in pediatric patients. A 19-month-old female infant (9.6 kg, 80 cm) was scheduled for elective cheiloplasty surgery. Anesthesia was induced with nitrous oxide 50 % and sevoflurane 5 % and maintained with air, oxygen, sevoflurane 3 %, and fentanyl (total, 3 μg/kg). Neuromuscular monitoring was performed at the adductor pollicis muscle after induction of anesthesia but before the administration of rocuronium. Total dose of rocuronium during the surgery was 0.9 mg/kg. Neuromuscular block was reversed with 0.5 mg/kg sugammadex when one response was observed with post-tetanic count stimulation. Twitch responses after sugammadex administration showed a temporary decrease after its initial recovery. Maximum decreases in twitch responses were observed 17 min after initial dose of sugammadex. Twitch responses recovered to their control values after additional doses of 3.5 mg/kg sugammadex (4 mg/kg in total). Time from sugammadex administration to maximum decreases in twitch responses is earlier than has been reported in adults (20–70 min). It is demonstrated that following neuromuscular block reversal with insufficient dose of sugammadex, there is a possibility of the recurrence of residual paralysis within less than 20 min in pediatric patients.
doi:10.1007/s00540-013-1688-3
PMCID: PMC3983881  PMID: 23963464
Sugammadex; Rocuronium; Pediatric; Neuromuscular monitoring
8.  Update on the management of neuromuscular block: focus on sugammadex 
Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs), such as rocuronium, are widely used in clinical anesthesia and emergency medicine to facilitate endotracheal intubation and artificial ventilation and to allow surgical access to body cavities. Reversal of neuromuscular blockade is important for the acceleration of patient recovery and prevention of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade and reduces the incidence of severe morbidity and mortality associated with anesthesia management. Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA) and has been designed to reverse the steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug rocuronium. Encapsulation of the rocuronium molecule by sugammadex results in a rapid decrease in free rocuronium in the plasma and subsequently at the nicotinic receptor at the motor endplate. After encapsulation, rocuronium is not available to bind to the nicotinic receptor in the neuromuscular junction. This promotes the liberation of acetylcholine receptors, and muscle activity reappears. This new concept of reversal of neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium (or vecuronium) led to impressive results in animal and phase 1 and 2 studies. Sugammadex is currently in phase 3 clinical studies and may be commercially available by 2008.
PMCID: PMC2656290  PMID: 19300584
neuromuscular block; rocuronium; neuromuscular blocking agent; sugammadex; reversal agent
9.  In the hour of Sugammadex 
Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin which is showing favorable outcomes regarding reversal of neuromuscular blockade, especially by rocuronium. It is designed to encapsulate rocuronium and being considered a new class of drugs as selective relaxant binding agents. It has given countless benefits to the patients at risk of incomplete or delayed recovery after neuromuscular block and has renown for another milestone in anesthesia practice. Recurrence of neuromuscular block has not been reported to be associated with the provided doses of sugammadex that are adequate for selected for reversal. Acceptable profiles are brought to light telling safety of sugammadex. However, some questions related to the twitch characteristics those resembled succinylcholine when reversal, the application for rocuronium anaphylaxis, and the hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis to sugammadex remain and are need of further investigation. It is imperative that potential problems that we need attention may include the patient's history of pulmonary disease and allergic disease for using sugammadex.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.64.1.3
PMCID: PMC3558646  PMID: 23372878
Allergy; Hypersensitivity; Neuromuscular blockade; Patient safety; Sugammadex
10.  Sugammadex: clinical development and practical use 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;65(6):495-500.
Sugammadex is belonging to a new class of drugs: the selective relaxant binding agents. Sugammadex can reverse residual paralysis by encapsulating free circulating non depolarizing muscle relaxants. The mains advantages of sugammadex when compared with conventional anticholinesterase agents are a much faster recovery time and the unique ability, for the first time, to reverse rapidly and efficiently deep levels of neuromuscular blockade. However it only works for reversal of rocuronium or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. When administered 3 min after rocuronium the use of a large dose (16 mg/kg) can even reverse rocuronium significantly faster than the spontaneous recovery after succinylcholine.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.65.6.495
PMCID: PMC3888841  PMID: 24427454
Cyclodextrins; Neostigmine; Neuromuscular block; Residual neuromuscular blockade; Rocuronium; Sugammadex
11.  Discovery, development, and clinical application of sugammadex sodium, a selective relaxant binding agent 
Neuromuscular blockade, induced by neuromuscular blocking agents, has allowed prescribed immobility, improved surgical exposure, optimal airway management conditions, and facilitated mechanical ventilation. However, termination of the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents has, until now, remained limited. A novel cyclodextrin encapsulation process offers improved termination of the paralytic effects of aminosteroidal non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. Sugammadex sodium is the first in a new class of drug called selective relaxant binding agents. Currently, in clinical trials, sugammadex, a modified gamma cyclodextrin, has shown consistent and rapid termination of neuromuscular blockade with few side effects. The pharmacology of cyclodextrins in general and sugammadex in particular, together with the results of current clinical research are reviewed. The ability of sugammadex to terminate the action of neuromuscular blocking agents by direct encapsulation is compared to the indirect competitive antagonism of their effects by cholinesterase inhibitors. Also discussed are the clinical implications that extend beyond fast, effective reversal, including numerous potential perioperative benefits.
PMCID: PMC2761174  PMID: 19920893
modified cyclodextrin; selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA); sugammadex; encapsulation; muscle relaxants; neuromuscular blockade reversal
12.  Introduction of sugammadex as standard reversal agent: Impact on the incidence of residual neuromuscular blockade and postoperative patient outcome 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;57(1):46-51.
Background:
The aim of this prospective audit was to investigate clinical practice related to muscle relaxant reversal and the impact made by the recent introduction of sugammadex on patient outcome at a tertiary teaching hospital.
Methods:
Data from all patients intubated at our institution during two epochs of seven consecutive days each was collected prospectively. Directly prior to extubation, the train-of-four (TOF) ratio was assessed quantitatively by an independent observer. Postoperative outcome parameters were complications in the recovery room and radiological diagnosed atelectasis or pneumonia within 30 days.
Results:
Data from 146 patients were analysed. Three reversal strategies were used: no reversal, neostigmine or sugammadex. The TOF ratio was less than 0.7 in 17 patients (nine no reversal, eight neostigmine) and less than 0.9 in 47 patients (24 no reversal, 19 neostigmine, four sugammadex). Those reversed with sugammadex showed fewer episodes of postoperative oxygen desaturation (15% vs. 33%; P<0.05). TOF ratios of less than 0.7 (P<0.05) and also <0.9 (P<0.01) were more likely associated with X-ray results consistent with postoperative atelectasis or pneumonia.
Conclusions:
Our results suggest a significant impact of residual paralysis on patient outcome. The use of sugammadex resulted in the lowest incidence of residual paralysis.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.108562
PMCID: PMC3658335  PMID: 23716766
Neostigmine; residual paralysis; sugammadex
13.  Selective reversal of muscle relaxation in general anesthesia: focus on sugammadex 
Despite the significant improvements in the pharmacology of muscle relaxants in the past six decades, the search for the ideal muscle relaxant continues, mainly because of the incomplete efficacy and persistent side effects associated with their antagonism. Clinical concerns remain about the residual paralysis and hemodynamic side effects associated with the classic pharmacologic reversal agents, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Although the development of the “ideal muscle relaxant” remains illusory, pharmacologic advancements hold promise for improved clinical care and patient safety. Recent clinical advances include the development of short-acting nondepolarizing muscle relaxant agents that have fast onset and a very rapid metabolism that allows reliable and complete recovery; and the development of selective, “designer” reversal agents that are specific for a single drug or class of drugs. This article reviews recent developments in the pharmacology of these selective reversal agents: plasma cholinesterases, cysteine, and sugammadex. Although each of the selective reversal agents is specific in its substrate, the clinical use of the combination of muscle relaxant with its specific reversal agent will allow much greater intraoperative titrating ability, decreased side effect profile, and may result in a decreased incidence of postoperative residual paralysis and improved patient safety.
PMCID: PMC2769228  PMID: 19920928
selective reversal agents; cysteine; plasma cholinesterases; sugammadex
14.  Sugammadex and Reversal of Neuromuscular Block in Adult Patient with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy 
Case Reports in Anesthesiology  2014;2014:680568.
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common and severe form of myopathy. Patients with DMD are more sensitive to sedative, anesthetic, and neuromuscular blocking agents which may result in intraoperative and early postoperative cardiovascular and respiratory complications, as well as prolonged recovery from anesthesia. In this case report, we describe a 25-year-old male patient admitted for cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. We induced our anesthesia by oxygen, propofol, fentanyl, and rocuronium bromide. Maintenance was done by fentanyl, rocuronium bromide, sevoflurane, and O2. We report in this case the safety use of sugammadex to antagonize the neuromuscular block and rapid recovery in such category of patients.
doi:10.1155/2014/680568
PMCID: PMC3970074  PMID: 24715988
15.  Sugammadex, a Neuromuscular Blockade Reversal Agent, Causes Neuronal Apoptosis in Primary Cultures 
Sugammadex, a γ-cyclodextrin that encapsulates selectively steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, such as rocuronium or vecuronium, has changed the face of clinical neuromuscular pharmacology. Sugammadex allows a rapid reversal of muscle paralysis. Sugammadex appears to be safe and well tolerated. Its blood-brain barrier penetration is poor (< 3% in rats), and thus no relevant central nervous toxicity is expected. However the blood brain barrier permeability can be altered under different conditions (i.e. neurodegenerative diseases, trauma, ischemia, infections, or immature nervous system).
Using MTT, confocal microscopy, caspase-3 activity, cholesterol quantification and Western-blot we determine toxicity of Sugammadex in neurons in primary culture. Here we show that clinically relevant sugammadex concentrations cause apoptotic/necrosis neuron death in primary cultures. Studies on the underlying mechanism revealed that sugammadex-induced activation of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis associates with depletion of neuronal cholesterol levels. Furthermore SUG increase CytC, AIF, Smac/Diablo and CASP-3 protein expression in cells in culture. Potential association of SUG-induced alteration in cholesterol homeostasis with oxidative stress and apoptosis activation occurs. Furthermore, resistance/sensitivity to oxidative stress differs between neuronal cell types.
doi:10.7150/ijms.6254
PMCID: PMC3752716  PMID: 23983586
Sugammadex; apoptosis; CytC; AIF; Smac/Diablo and CASP-3.
16.  Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema after Reversing Rocuronium-Induced Neuromuscular Blockade by Sugammadex 
Case Reports in Anesthesiology  2014;2014:135032.
Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is a rare complication that accompanies general anesthesia, especially after extubation. We experienced a case of negative pressure pulmonary edema after tracheal extubation following reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex. In this case, the contribution of residual muscular block on the upper airway muscle as well as large inspiratory forces created by the respiratory muscle which has a low response to muscle relaxants, is suspected as the cause.
doi:10.1155/2014/135032
PMCID: PMC3970085  PMID: 24715986
17.  Rocuronium and sugammadex: An alternative to succinylcholine for electro convulsive therapy in patients with suspected neuroleptic malignant syndrome 
We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.
doi:10.4103/0970-9185.83687
PMCID: PMC3161467  PMID: 21897513
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome; electro convulsive therapy; succinyl choline; rocuronium; sugammadex
18.  Anaesthetic management of a patient with myasthenia gravis for abdominal surgery using sugammadex 
We report a case of a patient with tumor of the caecum with coexistent myasthenia gravis (a form according to Osserman II A), requiring general anesthesia for abdominal surgery. To reverse the neuromuscular block induced by vecuronium was used sugammadex.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2011.22094
PMCID: PMC3258733  PMID: 22291783
sugammadex; myasthenia gravis; neuromuscular monitoring; vecuronium
19.  Comparison of intubating conditions between rocuronium with priming and without priming: Randomized and double-blind study 
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia  2011;55(5):494-498.
Background:
Rocuronium produces faster neuromuscular blockade compared with other neuromuscular blocking drugs. It produces comparable intubating conditions to that of succinylcholine, but does not have the short intubation time of the latter. Hence, it may not be preferable for rapid sequence intubation, but rocuronium with priming may produce comparable intubating time and conditions to that of succinylcholine. Rocuronium with priming may be an alternative to succinylcholine in rapid sequence intubation in conditions where succinylcholine is contraindicated. The present study was conducted to compare the intubating conditions and intubation time of rocuronium with and without priming.
Methods:
Sixty patients of ASA physical status I and II, aged between 18 and 60 years, of both sexes, were divided into priming and control groups of 30 each. Patients in the priming group received 0.06 mg/kg of rocuronium and those in the control group received normal saline. All patients received fentanyl 1 μg/kg, followed by thiopentone 5 mg/kg for induction. Intubating dose of rocuronium 0.54 mg/kg in the priming group and 0.6 mg/kg in the control group were administered 3 min after priming. Onset time of intubation was assessed using a Train of Four stimuli, and the intubating conditions were compared by the Cooper scoring system.
Results:
The onset time of intubation was 50.67±7.39 s in the priming group and 94.00±11.62 s in the control group, with excellent intubating conditions in both the groups and without any adverse effects.
Conclusions:
Priming with rocuronium provides excellent intubating conditions in less than 60 s with no adverse effects.
doi:10.4103/0019-5049.89882
PMCID: PMC3237150  PMID: 22174467
Endotracheal intubation; intubating conditions; priming; rocuronium
20.  Succinylcholine versus rocuronium for rapid sequence intubation in intensive care: a prospective, randomized controlled trial 
Critical Care  2011;15(4):R199.
Introduction
Succinylcholine and rocuronium are widely used to facilitate rapid sequence induction (RSI) intubation in intensive care. Concerns relate to the side effects of succinylcholine and to slower onset and inferior intubation conditions associated with rocuronium. So far, succinylcholine and rocuronium have not been compared in an adequately powered randomized trial in intensive care. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of hypoxemia after rocuronium or succinylcholine in critically ill patients requiring an emergent RSI.
Methods
This was a prospective randomized controlled single-blind trial conducted from 2006 to 2010 at the University Hospital of Basel. Participants were 401 critically ill patients requiring emergent RSI. Patients were randomized to receive 1 mg/kg succinylcholine or 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium for neuromuscular blockade. The primary outcome was the incidence of oxygen desaturations defined as a decrease in oxygen saturation ≥ 5%, assessed by continuous pulse oxymetry, at any time between the start of the induction sequence and two minutes after the completion of the intubation. A severe oxygen desaturation was defined as a decrease in oxygen saturation ≥ 5% leading to a saturation value of ≤ 80%.
Results
There was no difference between succinylcholine and rocuronium regarding oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine 73/196; rocuronium 66/195; P = 0.67); severe oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine 20/196; rocuronium 20/195; P = 1.0); and extent of oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine -14 ± 12%; rocuronium -16 ± 13%; P = 0.77). The duration of the intubation sequence was shorter after succinycholine than after rocuronium (81 ± 38 sec versus 95 ± 48 sec; P = 0.002). Intubation conditions (succinylcholine 8.3 ± 0.8; rocuronium 8.2 ± 0.9; P = 0.7) and failed first intubation attempts (succinylcholine 32/200; rocuronium 36/201; P = 1.0) did not differ between the groups.
Conclusions
In critically ill patients undergoing emergent RSI, incidence and severity of oxygen desaturations, the quality of intubation conditions, and incidence of failed intubation attempts did not differ between succinylcholine and rocuronium.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00355368.
doi:10.1186/cc10367
PMCID: PMC3387641  PMID: 21846380
21.  Prediction of Optimal Reversal Dose of Sugammadex after Rocuronium Administration in Adult Surgical Patients 
The objective of this study was to determine the point after sugammadex administration at which sufficient or insufficient dose could be determined, using first twitch height of train-of-four (T1 height) or train-of-four ratio (TOFR) as indicators. Groups A and B received 1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg of sugammadex, respectively, as a first dose when the second twitch reappeared in train-of-four stimulation, and Groups C and D received 1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg of sugammadex, respectively, as the first dose at posttetanic counts 1–3. Five minutes after the first dose, an additional 1 mg/kg of sugammadex was administered and changes in T1 height and TOFR were observed. Patients were divided into a recovered group and a partly recovered group, based on percentage changes in T1 height after additional dosing. T1 height and TOFR during the 5 min after first dose were then compared. In the recovered group, TOFR exceeded 90% in all patients at 3 min after sugammadex administration. In the partly recovered group, none of the patients had a TOFR above 90% at 3 min after sugammadex administration. An additional dose of sugammadex can be considered unnecessary if the train-of-four ratio is ≥90% at 3 min after sugammadex administration. This trial is registered with UMIN000007245.
doi:10.1155/2014/848051
PMCID: PMC3942288  PMID: 24672542
22.  Anesthesiologist's satisfaction using between cisatracurium and rocuronium for the intubation in the anesthesia induced by remifentanil and propofol 
Background
Although cisatracurium has many advantages in anesthetic practices, the best choice of a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent that can replace succinylcholine is rocuronium. However, it is reported that remifentanil with propofol might provide reliable intubating condition, even without a neuromuscular blocking agent; therefore, it might improve the intubating condition with cisatracurium. This study examined intubating conditions after administering rocuronium or cisatracurium in a rapid sequence induction with remifentanil-propofol.
Methods
Fifty two ASA physical status 1 or 2 adult patients scheduled for an elective surgery were enrolled in a randomized double-blinded trial. Anesthesia was induced in all patients with propofol 2.0 mg/kg and remifentanil 0.5 µg/kg, administered over 60 seconds. Rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg (3 × ED95, R group, n = 23) or cisatracurium 0.15 mg/kg (3 × ED95, C group, n = 29) was administered after the induction sequence. Laryngoscopy was attempted when the anesthesiologist thought it was 90 seconds after drug administration and appropriate time for intubation. The examiner, another anesthesiologist, recorded the exact time to intubation and suppression of maximal T1 on TOF. The intubating condition was assessed by the first anesthesiologist, as excellent, good, poor or not possible.
Results
The best time to laryngoscopy was predicted by measuring TOF and was found to be significantly longer in the C group (197 ± 53 s) than in the R group (102 ± 49 s) (P value < 0.05). However, time to larygoscopy, intubating condition during the laryngoscopy, and hemodynamic changes after intubation was similar in both groups.
Conclusions
Despite fundamentally slower onset time, cisatracurium can provide quite good intubating conditions, which were comparable to those achieved with equipotent doses of rocuronium, which is more expensive in anesthesia inducted with remifentanil and propofol.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.64.1.34
PMCID: PMC3558647  PMID: 23372884
Cisatracurium; Intubation; Rocuronium; Satisfaction; TIVA
23.  Optimal precurarizing dose of rocuronium to decrease fasciculation and myalgia following succinylcholine administration 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2014;66(6):451-456.
Background
Succinylcholine commonly produces frequent adverse effects, including muscle fasciculation and myalgia. The current study identified the optimal dose of rocuronium to prevent succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and myalgia and evaluated the influence of rocuronium on the speed of onset produced by succinylcholine.
Methods
This randomized, double-blinded study was conducted in 100 patients randomly allocated into five groups of 20 patients each. Patients were randomized to receive 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06 mg/kg rocuronium as a precurarizing dose. Neuromuscular monitoring after each precurarizing dose was recorded from the adductor pollicis muscle using acceleromyography with train-of-four stimulation of the ulnar nerve. All patients received succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg at 2 minutes after the precurarization, and were assessed the incidence and severity of fasciculations, while myalgia was assessed at 24 hours after surgery.
Results
The incidence and severity of visible muscle fasciculation was significantly less with increasing the amount of precurarizing dose of rocuronium (P < 0.001). Those of myalgia tend to decrease according to increasing the amount of precurarizing dose of rocuronium, but there was no significance (P = 0.072). The onset time of succinylcholine was significantly longer with increasing the amount of precurarizing dose of rocuronium (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
Precurarization with 0.04 mg/kg rocuronium was the optimal dose considering the reduction in the incidence and severity of fasciculation and myalgia with acceptable onset time, and the safe and effective precurarization.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2014.66.6.451
PMCID: PMC4085266  PMID: 25006369
Fasciculation; Myalgia; Neuromuscular blockade; Precurarization; Rocuronium; Succinylcholine
24.  A survey of the current use of neuromuscular blocking drugs among the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2013;7(2):146-150.
Background:
This survey aimed to assess the extent of practice of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMB) in 2012.
Methods:
We distributed an electronic survey among 577 members of the Triple-M Middle Eastern Yahoo anesthesia group, enquiring about their practice in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. Questions concerned the routine first choice use of NMB, choice for tracheal intubation, the use of neuromuscular monitoring (NMT), type of NMB used in difficult airway, frequency of using suxamethonium, cisatracurium, rocuronium and sugammadex, observed side effects of rocuronium, residual curarization, and the reversal of residual curarization of rocuronium.
Results:
A total of 71 responses from 22 Middle Eastern institutions were collected. Most of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists were using cisatracurium and rocuronium frequently for tracheal intubation (39% and 35%, respectively). From the respondents, 2/3 were using suxamethonium for tracheal intubation in difficult airway, 1/3 were using rocuronium routinely and 17% have observed hypersensitivity reactions to rocuronium, 54% reported residual curarization from rocuronium, 78% were routinely using neostigmine to reverse the rocuronium, 21% used sugammadex occasionally, and 35% were using NMT routinely during the use of NMB.
Conclusions:
We believe that more could be done to increase the awareness of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists about the high incidence of PROC (>20%) and the need for routine monitoring of neuromuscular function. This could be accomplished with by developing formal training programs and providing official guidelines.
doi:10.4103/1658-354X.114063
PMCID: PMC3737689  PMID: 23956713
Middle East; neuromuscular blockers; residual curarization; survey
25.  Tracheal intubation with rocuronium using a "modified timing principle" 
Korean Journal of Anesthesiology  2013;64(3):218-222.
Background
Rapid sequence induction (RSI) is indicated in various situations. Succinylcholine has been the muscle relaxant of choice for RSI, and rocuronium has become an alternative medicine for patients who cannot be administered succinylcholine for various reasons. Although rocuronium has the most rapid onset time among non-depolarizing muscle relaxants, the standard dose of rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg) takes 60 seconds to achieve appropriate muscle relaxation. We evaluated intubating conditions using the "modified timing principle" with rocuronium and succinylcholine.
Methods
In this prospective controlled blinded study, all patients received 1.5 µg/kg fentanyl intravenously with preoxygenation for 2 minutes and were randomized to receive 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium followed by 1.5 mg/kg propofol or 1.5 mg/kg propofol and 1.5 mg/kg succinylcholine. The rocuronium group was intubated just after confirming loss of consciousness, and the succinylcholine group was intubated 1 minute after injecting succinylcholine. Intubation condition, timing of events, and complications were recorded.
Results
All patients were successfully intubated in both groups. Apnea time of the rocuronium group (38.5 seconds) was significantly shorter than that in the succinylcholine group (100.7 seconds). No significant differences were observed in loss of consciousness time or intubation time. The succinylcholine group tended to show better intubation conditions, but no significant difference was observed. None of the patients complained awareness of the intubation procedure or had respiratory difficulty during a postoperative interview.
Conclusions
The modified RSI with rocuronium showed shorter intubation sequence, acceptable intubation conditions, and a similar level of complications compared to those of conventional RSI with succinylcholine.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2013.64.3.218
PMCID: PMC3611070  PMID: 23560186
Intratracheal; Intubation; Rocuronium; Succinylcholine

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