The cost-effectiveness of sugammadex for the routine reversal of muscle relaxation produced by rocuronium or vecuronium in UK practice is uncertain. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of sugammadex compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate and an economic assessment of sugammadex for the reversal of moderate or profound neuromuscular block (NMB) produced by rocuronium or vecuronium. The economic assessment aimed to establish the reduction in recovery time and the ‘value of time saved’ which would be necessary for sugammadex to be potentially cost-effective compared with existing practice. Three trials indicated that sugammadex 2 mg kg−1 (4 mg kg−1) produces more rapid recovery from moderate (profound) NMB than neostigmine/glycopyrrolate. The economic assessment indicated that if the reductions in recovery time associated with sugammadex in the trials are replicated in routine practice, sugammadex would be cost-effective if those reductions are achieved in the operating theatre (assumed value of staff time, £4.44 per minute), but not if they are achieved in the recovery room (assumed value of staff time, £0.33 per minute). However, there is considerable uncertainty in these results. Sugammadex has the potential to be cost-effective compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate for the reversal of rocuronium-induced moderate or profound NMB, provided that the time savings observed in trials can be achieved and put to productive use in clinical practice. Further research is required to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on patient safety, predictability of recovery from NMB, patient outcomes, and efficient use of resources.
clinical trials; neuromuscular block, recovery; neuromuscular block, rocuronium
Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin which is showing favorable outcomes regarding reversal of neuromuscular blockade, especially by rocuronium. It is designed to encapsulate rocuronium and being considered a new class of drugs as selective relaxant binding agents. It has given countless benefits to the patients at risk of incomplete or delayed recovery after neuromuscular block and has renown for another milestone in anesthesia practice. Recurrence of neuromuscular block has not been reported to be associated with the provided doses of sugammadex that are adequate for selected for reversal. Acceptable profiles are brought to light telling safety of sugammadex. However, some questions related to the twitch characteristics those resembled succinylcholine when reversal, the application for rocuronium anaphylaxis, and the hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis to sugammadex remain and are need of further investigation. It is imperative that potential problems that we need attention may include the patient's history of pulmonary disease and allergic disease for using sugammadex.
Allergy; Hypersensitivity; Neuromuscular blockade; Patient safety; Sugammadex
Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs), such as rocuronium, are widely used in clinical anesthesia and emergency medicine to facilitate endotracheal intubation and artificial ventilation and to allow surgical access to body cavities. Reversal of neuromuscular blockade is important for the acceleration of patient recovery and prevention of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade and reduces the incidence of severe morbidity and mortality associated with anesthesia management. Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA) and has been designed to reverse the steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug rocuronium. Encapsulation of the rocuronium molecule by sugammadex results in a rapid decrease in free rocuronium in the plasma and subsequently at the nicotinic receptor at the motor endplate. After encapsulation, rocuronium is not available to bind to the nicotinic receptor in the neuromuscular junction. This promotes the liberation of acetylcholine receptors, and muscle activity reappears. This new concept of reversal of neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium (or vecuronium) led to impressive results in animal and phase 1 and 2 studies. Sugammadex is currently in phase 3 clinical studies and may be commercially available by 2008.
neuromuscular block; rocuronium; neuromuscular blocking agent; sugammadex; reversal agent
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugammadex compared with neostigmine in reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia.
Patients aged ≥18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1-4, scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this phase III, multicenter, randomized, safety-assessor blinded study. Sevoflurane anesthetized patients received vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.015 mg/kg as required. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg or neostigmine 70 μg/kg with glycopyrrolate 14 μg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic counts. The primary efficacy variable was time from start of study drug administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Safety assessments included physical examination, laboratory data, vital signs, and adverse events.
Eighty three patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (sugammadex, n = 47; neostigmine, n = 36). Geometric mean time to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 15-fold faster with sugammadex (4.5 minutes) compared with neostigmine (66.2 minutes; p < 0.0001) (median, 3.3 minutes with sugammadex versus 49.9 minutes with neostigmine). No serious drug-related adverse events occurred in either group.
Recovery from profound vecuronium-induced block is significantly faster with sugammadex, compared with neostigmine. Neostigmine did not rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block (Trial registration number: NCT00473694).
We report a patient with myotonic dystrophy who showed prolonged rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, although with a fast recovery with sugammadex. During general anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil, the times to spontaneous recovery of the first twitch (T1) of train of four to 10% of control values after an intubating dose of rocuronium 1 mg/kg and an additional dose of 0.2 mg/kg were 112 min and 62 min, respectively. Despite the high sensitivity to rocuronium, sugammadex 2 mg/kg administered at a T1 of 10% safely and effectively antagonized rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in 90 s.
Sugammadex is the first clinical representative of a new class of drugs called selective relaxant binding agents. It has revolutionized the way anesthesiologists think about drug reversal. Sugammadex selectively binds rocuronium or vecuronium, thereby reversing their neuromuscular blocking action. Due to its 1:1 binding of rocuronium or vecuronium, it is able to reverse any depth of neuromuscular block. So far, it has been approved for use in adult patients and for pediatric patients over 2 years. Since its approval in Europe, Japan, and Australia, further insight on its use in special patient populations and specific diseases have become available. Due to its pharmacodynamic profile, sugammadex, in combination with rocuronium, may have the potential to displace succinylcholine as the “gold standard” muscle relaxant for rapid sequence induction. The use of rocuronium or vecuronium, with the potential of reverse of their action with sugammadex, seems to be safe in patients with impaired neuromuscular transmission, ie, neuromuscular diseases, including myasthenia gravis. Data from long-term use of sugammadex is not yet available. Evidence suggesting an economic advantage of using sugammadex and justifying its relatively high cost for an anesthesia-related drug, is missing.
reversal agent; cyclodextrin; PORC; SRBAs
Sugammadex, a γ-cyclodextrin that encapsulates selectively steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, such as rocuronium or vecuronium, has changed the face of clinical neuromuscular pharmacology. Sugammadex allows a rapid reversal of muscle paralysis. Sugammadex appears to be safe and well tolerated. Its blood-brain barrier penetration is poor (< 3% in rats), and thus no relevant central nervous toxicity is expected. However the blood brain barrier permeability can be altered under different conditions (i.e. neurodegenerative diseases, trauma, ischemia, infections, or immature nervous system).
Using MTT, confocal microscopy, caspase-3 activity, cholesterol quantification and Western-blot we determine toxicity of Sugammadex in neurons in primary culture. Here we show that clinically relevant sugammadex concentrations cause apoptotic/necrosis neuron death in primary cultures. Studies on the underlying mechanism revealed that sugammadex-induced activation of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis associates with depletion of neuronal cholesterol levels. Furthermore SUG increase CytC, AIF, Smac/Diablo and CASP-3 protein expression in cells in culture. Potential association of SUG-induced alteration in cholesterol homeostasis with oxidative stress and apoptosis activation occurs. Furthermore, resistance/sensitivity to oxidative stress differs between neuronal cell types.
Sugammadex; apoptosis; CytC; AIF; Smac/Diablo and CASP-3.
Background. The obese patients have differences in body composition, drug distribution, and metabolism. Sugammadex at T2 recovery in a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of real body weight (RBW) can completely reverse the NMB block; in our study we investigated the safety and efficacy of Sugammadex dose based on their ideal body weight (IBW). Methods. 40 patients of both sexes undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery were enrolled divided into 2 groups according to the dose of Sugammadex: the first received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of IBW and the second received a dose of 2 mg kg−1 of RBW. Both were anesthetized with doses calculated according to the IBW: fentanyl 2 μg kg−1, propofol 3 mg kg−1, rocuronium 0,6 mg kg−1, oxygen, air, and desflurane (6–8%). Maintenance doses of rocuronium were 1/4 of the intubation dose. Sugammadex was administrated at T2 recovery. Results. The durations of intubation and maintenance doses of rocuronium were similar in both groups. In IBW group, the T4/T1 value of 0.9 was reached in 151 ± 44 seconds and in 121 ± 55 seconds in RBW group (P = 0.07). Discussion. Recovery times to T4/T1 of 0.9 are surprisingly similar in both groups without observing any postoperative residual curarization. Conclusion. Sugammadex doses calculated according to the IBW are certainly safe for a rapid recovery and absence of PORC.
This survey aimed to assess the extent of practice of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMB) in 2012.
We distributed an electronic survey among 577 members of the Triple-M Middle Eastern Yahoo anesthesia group, enquiring about their practice in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. Questions concerned the routine first choice use of NMB, choice for tracheal intubation, the use of neuromuscular monitoring (NMT), type of NMB used in difficult airway, frequency of using suxamethonium, cisatracurium, rocuronium and sugammadex, observed side effects of rocuronium, residual curarization, and the reversal of residual curarization of rocuronium.
A total of 71 responses from 22 Middle Eastern institutions were collected. Most of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists were using cisatracurium and rocuronium frequently for tracheal intubation (39% and 35%, respectively). From the respondents, 2/3 were using suxamethonium for tracheal intubation in difficult airway, 1/3 were using rocuronium routinely and 17% have observed hypersensitivity reactions to rocuronium, 54% reported residual curarization from rocuronium, 78% were routinely using neostigmine to reverse the rocuronium, 21% used sugammadex occasionally, and 35% were using NMT routinely during the use of NMB.
We believe that more could be done to increase the awareness of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists about the high incidence of PROC (>20%) and the need for routine monitoring of neuromuscular function. This could be accomplished with by developing formal training programs and providing official guidelines.
Middle East; neuromuscular blockers; residual curarization; survey
Sugammadex is a new drug used for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium or vecuronium, a muscle relaxant used as fast acting.
We performed a review of a case of a patient scheduled for osteosynthesis of the ankle with a history of bronchial asthma and sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. After the surgery the patient suffered anaphylaxis, a minute after the use of sugammadex.
We evaluated the drugs used during anesthesia Prick and intradermal, and we obtained positive results with Sugammadex at 1 month, 3 and 6 months. We performed the basophil activation test giving a positive result. Tests show IgE-mediated sensitization with positive skin tests and basophil activation test.
It is believed that prior sensitization may have occurred due to ingestion of cyclodextrins which is present in many foods. The atopic status of this patient may have had some awareness of cyclodextrins. This case has been published as the first documented case of anaphylaxis by sugammadex with normal doses. Our case raises clear that the underlying mechanism of this reaction was an IgE-mediated sensitization.
Neuromuscular blockade, induced by neuromuscular blocking agents, has allowed prescribed immobility, improved surgical exposure, optimal airway management conditions, and facilitated mechanical ventilation. However, termination of the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents has, until now, remained limited. A novel cyclodextrin encapsulation process offers improved termination of the paralytic effects of aminosteroidal non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. Sugammadex sodium is the first in a new class of drug called selective relaxant binding agents. Currently, in clinical trials, sugammadex, a modified gamma cyclodextrin, has shown consistent and rapid termination of neuromuscular blockade with few side effects. The pharmacology of cyclodextrins in general and sugammadex in particular, together with the results of current clinical research are reviewed. The ability of sugammadex to terminate the action of neuromuscular blocking agents by direct encapsulation is compared to the indirect competitive antagonism of their effects by cholinesterase inhibitors. Also discussed are the clinical implications that extend beyond fast, effective reversal, including numerous potential perioperative benefits.
modified cyclodextrin; selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA); sugammadex; encapsulation; muscle relaxants; neuromuscular blockade reversal
Rocuronium produces faster neuromuscular blockade compared with other neuromuscular blocking drugs. It produces comparable intubating conditions to that of succinylcholine, but does not have the short intubation time of the latter. Hence, it may not be preferable for rapid sequence intubation, but rocuronium with priming may produce comparable intubating time and conditions to that of succinylcholine. Rocuronium with priming may be an alternative to succinylcholine in rapid sequence intubation in conditions where succinylcholine is contraindicated. The present study was conducted to compare the intubating conditions and intubation time of rocuronium with and without priming.
Sixty patients of ASA physical status I and II, aged between 18 and 60 years, of both sexes, were divided into priming and control groups of 30 each. Patients in the priming group received 0.06 mg/kg of rocuronium and those in the control group received normal saline. All patients received fentanyl 1 μg/kg, followed by thiopentone 5 mg/kg for induction. Intubating dose of rocuronium 0.54 mg/kg in the priming group and 0.6 mg/kg in the control group were administered 3 min after priming. Onset time of intubation was assessed using a Train of Four stimuli, and the intubating conditions were compared by the Cooper scoring system.
The onset time of intubation was 50.67±7.39 s in the priming group and 94.00±11.62 s in the control group, with excellent intubating conditions in both the groups and without any adverse effects.
Priming with rocuronium provides excellent intubating conditions in less than 60 s with no adverse effects.
Endotracheal intubation; intubating conditions; priming; rocuronium
The aim of this prospective audit was to investigate clinical practice related to muscle relaxant reversal and the impact made by the recent introduction of sugammadex on patient outcome at a tertiary teaching hospital.
Data from all patients intubated at our institution during two epochs of seven consecutive days each was collected prospectively. Directly prior to extubation, the train-of-four (TOF) ratio was assessed quantitatively by an independent observer. Postoperative outcome parameters were complications in the recovery room and radiological diagnosed atelectasis or pneumonia within 30 days.
Data from 146 patients were analysed. Three reversal strategies were used: no reversal, neostigmine or sugammadex. The TOF ratio was less than 0.7 in 17 patients (nine no reversal, eight neostigmine) and less than 0.9 in 47 patients (24 no reversal, 19 neostigmine, four sugammadex). Those reversed with sugammadex showed fewer episodes of postoperative oxygen desaturation (15% vs. 33%; P<0.05). TOF ratios of less than 0.7 (P<0.05) and also <0.9 (P<0.01) were more likely associated with X-ray results consistent with postoperative atelectasis or pneumonia.
Our results suggest a significant impact of residual paralysis on patient outcome. The use of sugammadex resulted in the lowest incidence of residual paralysis.
Neostigmine; residual paralysis; sugammadex
Although cisatracurium has many advantages in anesthetic practices, the best choice of a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent that can replace succinylcholine is rocuronium. However, it is reported that remifentanil with propofol might provide reliable intubating condition, even without a neuromuscular blocking agent; therefore, it might improve the intubating condition with cisatracurium. This study examined intubating conditions after administering rocuronium or cisatracurium in a rapid sequence induction with remifentanil-propofol.
Fifty two ASA physical status 1 or 2 adult patients scheduled for an elective surgery were enrolled in a randomized double-blinded trial. Anesthesia was induced in all patients with propofol 2.0 mg/kg and remifentanil 0.5 µg/kg, administered over 60 seconds. Rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg (3 × ED95, R group, n = 23) or cisatracurium 0.15 mg/kg (3 × ED95, C group, n = 29) was administered after the induction sequence. Laryngoscopy was attempted when the anesthesiologist thought it was 90 seconds after drug administration and appropriate time for intubation. The examiner, another anesthesiologist, recorded the exact time to intubation and suppression of maximal T1 on TOF. The intubating condition was assessed by the first anesthesiologist, as excellent, good, poor or not possible.
The best time to laryngoscopy was predicted by measuring TOF and was found to be significantly longer in the C group (197 ± 53 s) than in the R group (102 ± 49 s) (P value < 0.05). However, time to larygoscopy, intubating condition during the laryngoscopy, and hemodynamic changes after intubation was similar in both groups.
Despite fundamentally slower onset time, cisatracurium can provide quite good intubating conditions, which were comparable to those achieved with equipotent doses of rocuronium, which is more expensive in anesthesia inducted with remifentanil and propofol.
Cisatracurium; Intubation; Rocuronium; Satisfaction; TIVA
Succinylcholine and rocuronium are widely used to facilitate rapid sequence induction (RSI) intubation in intensive care. Concerns relate to the side effects of succinylcholine and to slower onset and inferior intubation conditions associated with rocuronium. So far, succinylcholine and rocuronium have not been compared in an adequately powered randomized trial in intensive care. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of hypoxemia after rocuronium or succinylcholine in critically ill patients requiring an emergent RSI.
This was a prospective randomized controlled single-blind trial conducted from 2006 to 2010 at the University Hospital of Basel. Participants were 401 critically ill patients requiring emergent RSI. Patients were randomized to receive 1 mg/kg succinylcholine or 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium for neuromuscular blockade. The primary outcome was the incidence of oxygen desaturations defined as a decrease in oxygen saturation ≥ 5%, assessed by continuous pulse oxymetry, at any time between the start of the induction sequence and two minutes after the completion of the intubation. A severe oxygen desaturation was defined as a decrease in oxygen saturation ≥ 5% leading to a saturation value of ≤ 80%.
There was no difference between succinylcholine and rocuronium regarding oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine 73/196; rocuronium 66/195; P = 0.67); severe oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine 20/196; rocuronium 20/195; P = 1.0); and extent of oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine -14 ± 12%; rocuronium -16 ± 13%; P = 0.77). The duration of the intubation sequence was shorter after succinycholine than after rocuronium (81 ± 38 sec versus 95 ± 48 sec; P = 0.002). Intubation conditions (succinylcholine 8.3 ± 0.8; rocuronium 8.2 ± 0.9; P = 0.7) and failed first intubation attempts (succinylcholine 32/200; rocuronium 36/201; P = 1.0) did not differ between the groups.
In critically ill patients undergoing emergent RSI, incidence and severity of oxygen desaturations, the quality of intubation conditions, and incidence of failed intubation attempts did not differ between succinylcholine and rocuronium.
ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00355368.
Despite the significant improvements in the pharmacology of muscle relaxants in the past six decades, the search for the ideal muscle relaxant continues, mainly because of the incomplete efficacy and persistent side effects associated with their antagonism. Clinical concerns remain about the residual paralysis and hemodynamic side effects associated with the classic pharmacologic reversal agents, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Although the development of the “ideal muscle relaxant” remains illusory, pharmacologic advancements hold promise for improved clinical care and patient safety. Recent clinical advances include the development of short-acting nondepolarizing muscle relaxant agents that have fast onset and a very rapid metabolism that allows reliable and complete recovery; and the development of selective, “designer” reversal agents that are specific for a single drug or class of drugs. This article reviews recent developments in the pharmacology of these selective reversal agents: plasma cholinesterases, cysteine, and sugammadex. Although each of the selective reversal agents is specific in its substrate, the clinical use of the combination of muscle relaxant with its specific reversal agent will allow much greater intraoperative titrating ability, decreased side effect profile, and may result in a decreased incidence of postoperative residual paralysis and improved patient safety.
selective reversal agents; cysteine; plasma cholinesterases; sugammadex
Surgical conditions in laparoscopic surgery are largely determined by the depth of neuromuscular relaxation. Especially in procedures that are confined to a narrow working field, such as retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery, deep neuromuscular relaxation may be beneficial. Until recently, though, deep neuromuscular block (NMB) came at the expense of a variety of issues that conflicted with its use. However, with the introduction of sugammadex, rapid reversal of a deep NMB is feasible. In the current protocol, the association between the depth of NMB and rating of surgical conditions by the surgeon and anesthesiologist is studied.
This is a single-center, prospective, randomized, blinded, parallel group and controlled trial. Eligible patients are randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) deep NMB (post-tetanic count, one or two twitches; n = 12) and (2) moderate NMB (train-of-four, 1 to 2 twitches, n = 12) by administration of high-dose rocuronium in Group 1 and a combination of atracurium and mivacurium in Group 2. The NMB in Group 1 is reversed by 4 mg/kg sugammadex; the NMB in Group 2 by 1 mg neostigmine and 0.5 mg atropine. Patients are eligible if they are over 18 years, willing to sign the informed consent form, and are scheduled to undergo an elective laparoscopic renal procedure or laparoscopic prostatectomy. A single surgeon performs the surgeries and rates the surgical conditions on a five-point surgical rating scale (SRS) ranging from 1 (poor surgical conditions) to 5 (excellent surgical conditions). The intra-abdominal part of the surgeries is captured on video and a group of five anesthesiologists and ten surgical experts will rate the videos using the same SRS. The primary analysis will be an intention-to-treat analysis. Evaluation will include the association between the level of NMB and SRS, as obtained by the surgeon performing the procedure and the agreement between the scoring of the images by anesthesiologists and surgeons.
We aim to show that under the right conditions the perceived opposing goals of surgeons and anesthesiologists (optimal surgical conditions vs. optimal postoperative conditions) may be met without compromise to either.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01631149.
Anesthesia; Neuromuscular block; Surgical rating scale
We report a case of a patient with tumor of the caecum with coexistent myasthenia gravis (a form according to Osserman II A), requiring general anesthesia for abdominal surgery. To reverse the neuromuscular block induced by vecuronium was used sugammadex.
sugammadex; myasthenia gravis; neuromuscular monitoring; vecuronium
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a hereditary disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness and contracture, and special care during anesthesia is needed in these patients. Because inhalational anesthetics and succinylcholine can cause fatal results, intravenous anesthetics are commonly used. However, monitorings for the pediatric population are not otherwise specified. We report our experience of a 6 year-old boy that underwent muscle biopsy suspicious of muscle dystrophy under general anesthesia. The patient received midazolam, fentanyl, propofol and a small dose of rocuronium. He was monitored with bispectral index (BIS), acceleromyography (TOF). At the end of surgery, recovery of TOF ratio to 90% was evaluated, followed by injection of pyridostigmine and glycopyrrolate. When reversal of neuromuscular block was confirmed quantitatively and clinically, the patient was extubated and he experienced no complication.
Anesthesia; Bispectral index; Monitoring; Muscular dystrophy
Rocuronium is the anesthetic agent most likely to cause anaphylaxis. Immediately after intravenous rocuronium administration, the authors experienced ventilatory impairment due to unilateral bronchospasm (left lung), which was relieved by emergency treatment. However, 80 minutes after beginning laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer, the left lung suddenly re-collapsed under pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position. A postoperative intradermal test revealed that rocuronium, vecuronium, atracurium, succinylcholine, or thiopental could induce anaphylaxis in this patient, but it was not established whether the second incident during surgery was due to endobronchial intubation or anaphylactic bronchospasm. This case cautions that under pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position, patients suspected of being prone to anaphylactic bronchospasm should also be considered at risk of endobronchial intubation.
Anaphylaxis; Bronchial spasm; Laparoscopic surgery; Rocuronium
We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome; electro convulsive therapy; succinyl choline; rocuronium; sugammadex
We investigated the impact of intravenous lidocaine on anesthetic depth, as assessed by Bispectral Index score (BIS), and hemodynamic responses to rapid sequence induction/intubation.
Material and methods
Eighty-four surgical patients with risk factors for regurgitation/aspiration were randomized to receive either lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg or normal saline in a double-blind fashion. Propofol 2 mg/kg, lidocaine or normal saline, followed by rocuronium 1 mg/kg were administered intravenously and trachea was intubated under cricoid pressure application. The BIS scores were recorded before induction of anesthesia, immediately after, at 30 s and 1 min after rocuronium injection and every 30 s after intubation, for 10 min. Systolic/diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured before induction, immediately after and at 1 min following rocuronium administration, and every minute for 10 min after intubation.
Data from 78 patients were analyzed. Demograpic characteristics did not differ between the study groups. A total of 24 BIS scores were recorded for each patient. No difference was found in BIS values between lidocaine and control groups at any time point (F = 2.936, p = 0.91). Also no difference was detected in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at any time point of the study period between the two groups (F = 0.063, p = 0.80, F = 0.007, p = 0.93, F = 0.435, p = 0.51 respectively). No episodes of significant bradycardia occurred and none of the patients reported awareness/recall of the procedure.
Lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg given intravenously during rapid sequence induction does not affect BIS values, or blunt the hemodymanic response to laryngoscopy and intubation.
lidocaine; anesthetic depth; bispectral index; rapid sequence anesthesia
This randomized, prospective, blinded study compared the use of succinylcholine or rocuronium to aid endotracheal intubation of 27 adult sows [mean body weight 261 ± 28 (standard deviation) kg]. Preliminary trials allowed development of the intubation technique and skills. The sows were premedicated with azaperone, atropine, and morphine, and anesthesia was induced with thiopental [6 mg/kg body weight (BW)]. Nine sows each received succinylcholine (1.0 mg/kg BW), rocuronium (0.5 mg/kg BW), or saline (15 mL) after induction. Increments of thiopental (1 mg/kg BW) were used if swallowing impaired intubation. Intubation was performed 45 s after injection of the test drug and was timed and scored. The intubation scores were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA). Time taken for intubation, body weight, and total dose of thiopental were analyzed with ANOVA and Bonferroni’s multiple-comparisons test. No significant differences (at P < 0.05) were found between the groups with regard to intubation score, time taken for intubation, or total thiopental dose. Thus, neuromuscular blocking agents did not aid endotracheal intubation of adult sows anesthetized with thiopental.
Rapid and safe endotracheal intubation is of paramount importance in general anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare the intubating conditions of succinylcholine with rocuronium bromide and vecuronium bromide using “Timing principle”. The timing principle entails administration of a single bolus dose of nondepolarizing muscle relaxant, followed by an induction drug at the onset of clinical weakness.
Patients & Methods:
75 patients were divided into three groups of 25 each. Patients allocated to Groups A and B received rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1 and vecuronium 0.12 mg kg-1 respectively. At the onset of clinical weakness (ptosis), anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.5 mg kg-1; intubation was accomplished after 60 seconds of induction agent in both groups. Patients in Group C received propofol 2.5mg kg-1 followed by succinylcholine 2mg kg-1 and their tracheas were intubated at 60s.Train of four count was assessed at adductor pollicis muscle using nerve stimulator at intubation and time to loss of TOF was observed. in group A and B. Intubating conditions were assessed according to a grading scale and haemodynamic variables were compared at 1,3 and 5 minutes after intubation.
Intubating conditions were either excellent(84% in group A,48% in group B and 88% in group C) or good (16% in group A, 48% in group B and 12 %in group C)and only 4% pt had poor intubating conditions in group B. Patients were interviewed postoperatively, and all were satisfied with the technique of induction of anesthesia.Rocuronium and Vecuronium are haemodynamically stable drugs as compared to Succinylcholine.
Rocuronium 0.6 mg kg-1 provides good to excellent intubating conditions at 60 s comparable to succinylcholine after the induction of anesthesia using the timing principle.
Rocuronium; Vecuronium; Timing Principle; Nerve stimulator
The neuromuscular and hem+odynamic effects of mivacurium 0.15 mg/kg and succinylcholine 1 mg/kg were compared in 26 adult patients (ASA I and II) during nitrous oxide-oxygen-propofol-fentanyl anesthesia. Neuromuscular block was monitored by recording the compound electromyogram of the hypothenar muscle resulting from supramaximal train-of-four stimuli applied to the ulnar nerve. Time to onset of over 95% block and duration to 25% recovery of control twitch after injection of mivacurium were significantly longer than for succinylcholine (201 +/- 37.6 vs 54 +/- 5.2 sec and 13.0 +/- 2.2 vs 8.4 +/- 2.1 min; mean +/- SD). Onset of mivacurium with priming technique was shortened (125 +/- 20.7 sec), but was also slower than that of succinylcholine. Although the recovery index during spontaneous recovery was significantly longer for mivacurium than for succinylcholine (6.9 +/- 1.3 vs 5.1 +/- 0.9 min), antagonism with neostigmine at 25% recovery of twitch height sufficiently facilitated the recovery index of mivacurium (4.5 +/- 1.0 min) to a level similar to that of succinylcholine with no statistical difference. The hemodynamic effects of mivacurium were few as compared to those of succinylcholine. In conclusion, mivacurium is considered to have additional advantages for short procedures when succinylcholine is undesirable.