Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors cannot rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block. Sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent, reverses the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium by encapsulation. This study assessed the efficacy of sugammadex compared with neostigmine in reversal of profound vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block under sevoflurane anesthesia.
Patients aged ≥18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1-4, scheduled to undergo surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this phase III, multicenter, randomized, safety-assessor blinded study. Sevoflurane anesthetized patients received vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg for intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.015 mg/kg as required. Patients were randomized to receive sugammadex 4 mg/kg or neostigmine 70 μg/kg with glycopyrrolate 14 μg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic counts. The primary efficacy variable was time from start of study drug administration to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9. Safety assessments included physical examination, laboratory data, vital signs, and adverse events.
Eighty three patients were included in the intent-to-treat population (sugammadex, n = 47; neostigmine, n = 36). Geometric mean time to recovery of the train-of-four ratio to 0.9 was 15-fold faster with sugammadex (4.5 minutes) compared with neostigmine (66.2 minutes; p < 0.0001) (median, 3.3 minutes with sugammadex versus 49.9 minutes with neostigmine). No serious drug-related adverse events occurred in either group.
Recovery from profound vecuronium-induced block is significantly faster with sugammadex, compared with neostigmine. Neostigmine did not rapidly reverse profound neuromuscular block (Trial registration number: NCT00473694).
Sugammadex 16 mg kg−1 can be used for the immediate reversal of neuromuscular block 3 min after administration of rocuronium and could be used in place of succinylcholine for emergency intubation. We have systematically reviewed the efficacy and cost-effectiveness and made an economic assessment of sugammadex for immediate reversal. The economic assessment investigated whether sugammadex appears cost-effective under various assumptions about the value of any reduction in recovery time with sugammadex, the likelihood of a ‘can't intubate, can't ventilate’ (CICV) event, the age of the patient, and the length of the procedure. Three trials were included in the efficacy review. Sugammadex administered 3 or 5 min after rocuronium produced markedly faster recovery than placebo or spontaneous recovery from succinylcholine-induced block. No published economic evaluations were found. Our economic analyses showed that sugammadex appears more cost-effective, where the value of any reduction in recovery time is greater, where the reduction in mortality compared with succinylcholine is greater, and where the patient is younger, for lower probabilities of a CICV event and for long procedures which do not require profound block throughout. Because of the lack of evidence, the value of some parameters remains unknown, which makes it difficult to provide a definitive assessment of the cost-effectiveness of sugammadex in practice. The use of sugammadex in combination with high-dose rocuronium is efficacious. Further research is needed to clarify key parameters in the analysis and to allow a fuller economic assessment.
complications, intubation tracheal; neuromuscular block, recovery; neuromuscular block, rocuronium; neuromuscular block, succinylcholine
Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs), such as rocuronium, are widely used in clinical anesthesia and emergency medicine to facilitate endotracheal intubation and artificial ventilation and to allow surgical access to body cavities. Reversal of neuromuscular blockade is important for the acceleration of patient recovery and prevention of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade and reduces the incidence of severe morbidity and mortality associated with anesthesia management. Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA) and has been designed to reverse the steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug rocuronium. Encapsulation of the rocuronium molecule by sugammadex results in a rapid decrease in free rocuronium in the plasma and subsequently at the nicotinic receptor at the motor endplate. After encapsulation, rocuronium is not available to bind to the nicotinic receptor in the neuromuscular junction. This promotes the liberation of acetylcholine receptors, and muscle activity reappears. This new concept of reversal of neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium (or vecuronium) led to impressive results in animal and phase 1 and 2 studies. Sugammadex is currently in phase 3 clinical studies and may be commercially available by 2008.
neuromuscular block; rocuronium; neuromuscular blocking agent; sugammadex; reversal agent
Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin which is showing favorable outcomes regarding reversal of neuromuscular blockade, especially by rocuronium. It is designed to encapsulate rocuronium and being considered a new class of drugs as selective relaxant binding agents. It has given countless benefits to the patients at risk of incomplete or delayed recovery after neuromuscular block and has renown for another milestone in anesthesia practice. Recurrence of neuromuscular block has not been reported to be associated with the provided doses of sugammadex that are adequate for selected for reversal. Acceptable profiles are brought to light telling safety of sugammadex. However, some questions related to the twitch characteristics those resembled succinylcholine when reversal, the application for rocuronium anaphylaxis, and the hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis to sugammadex remain and are need of further investigation. It is imperative that potential problems that we need attention may include the patient's history of pulmonary disease and allergic disease for using sugammadex.
Allergy; Hypersensitivity; Neuromuscular blockade; Patient safety; Sugammadex
We report a patient with myotonic dystrophy who showed prolonged rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, although with a fast recovery with sugammadex. During general anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil, the times to spontaneous recovery of the first twitch (T1) of train of four to 10% of control values after an intubating dose of rocuronium 1 mg/kg and an additional dose of 0.2 mg/kg were 112 min and 62 min, respectively. Despite the high sensitivity to rocuronium, sugammadex 2 mg/kg administered at a T1 of 10% safely and effectively antagonized rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in 90 s.
Neuromuscular blockade, induced by neuromuscular blocking agents, has allowed prescribed immobility, improved surgical exposure, optimal airway management conditions, and facilitated mechanical ventilation. However, termination of the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents has, until now, remained limited. A novel cyclodextrin encapsulation process offers improved termination of the paralytic effects of aminosteroidal non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. Sugammadex sodium is the first in a new class of drug called selective relaxant binding agents. Currently, in clinical trials, sugammadex, a modified gamma cyclodextrin, has shown consistent and rapid termination of neuromuscular blockade with few side effects. The pharmacology of cyclodextrins in general and sugammadex in particular, together with the results of current clinical research are reviewed. The ability of sugammadex to terminate the action of neuromuscular blocking agents by direct encapsulation is compared to the indirect competitive antagonism of their effects by cholinesterase inhibitors. Also discussed are the clinical implications that extend beyond fast, effective reversal, including numerous potential perioperative benefits.
modified cyclodextrin; selective relaxant binding agent (SRBA); sugammadex; encapsulation; muscle relaxants; neuromuscular blockade reversal
We report a case of a patient with tumor of the caecum with coexistent myasthenia gravis (a form according to Osserman II A), requiring general anesthesia for abdominal surgery. To reverse the neuromuscular block induced by vecuronium was used sugammadex.
sugammadex; myasthenia gravis; neuromuscular monitoring; vecuronium
Despite the significant improvements in the pharmacology of muscle relaxants in the past six decades, the search for the ideal muscle relaxant continues, mainly because of the incomplete efficacy and persistent side effects associated with their antagonism. Clinical concerns remain about the residual paralysis and hemodynamic side effects associated with the classic pharmacologic reversal agents, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Although the development of the “ideal muscle relaxant” remains illusory, pharmacologic advancements hold promise for improved clinical care and patient safety. Recent clinical advances include the development of short-acting nondepolarizing muscle relaxant agents that have fast onset and a very rapid metabolism that allows reliable and complete recovery; and the development of selective, “designer” reversal agents that are specific for a single drug or class of drugs. This article reviews recent developments in the pharmacology of these selective reversal agents: plasma cholinesterases, cysteine, and sugammadex. Although each of the selective reversal agents is specific in its substrate, the clinical use of the combination of muscle relaxant with its specific reversal agent will allow much greater intraoperative titrating ability, decreased side effect profile, and may result in a decreased incidence of postoperative residual paralysis and improved patient safety.
selective reversal agents; cysteine; plasma cholinesterases; sugammadex
We report a case of presumptive neuroleptic malignant syndrome requiring muscle relaxation for electro-convulsive therapy. short acting muscle relaxation without the use of succinylcholine was achieved using rocvronivm reversed with the novel reversal agent sugammadex. We suggest that this combination is a safe and effective alternative to succinylcholine in such cases.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome; electro convulsive therapy; succinyl choline; rocuronium; sugammadex
Neostigmine augments clindamycin-induced neuromuscular block and antagonizes rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block; however, it remains unclear whether neostigmine enhances the neuromuscular blocking (NMB) that is caused by combinations of rocuronium and clindamycin. The intent of this study was to determine whether neostigmine potentiates the muscle relaxation that is induced by combinations of rocuronium and clindamycin and to estimate whether both clindamycin and rocuronium have synergistic actions on NMB.
Forty-one left phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms (from male Sprague-Dawley rats, 150-250 g) were mounted in Krebs solution. Three consecutive single twitches (ST, 0.1 Hz) and one tetanic tension (50 Hz for 1.9 s) were obtained for each increase in concentration of rocuronium or clindamycin. The concentrations of rocuronium were cumulatively increased until an 80% to 90% reduction in ST was attained in the Krebs solutions pre-treated with 0 (n = 5), 0.1 (n = 1), 0.25 (n = 1), 0.5 (n = 4), or 1.0 (n = 1) mM clindamycin or with 0 (n = 4), 0.1 (n = 1), 0.5 (n = 5), 1.0 (n = 5), or 2.0 (n = 4) mM clindamycin in combination with 250 nM neostigmine, and so were the concentrations of clindamycin in the Krebs solutions pre-treated with 0 (n = 6) or 250 nM (n = 6) neostigmine.
Clindamycin increased the potency of rocuronium for ST and tetanic fade, irrespective of the presence of neostigmine. Neostigmine shifted the concentration-response curve of rocuronium to the right in the presence or absence of clindamycin. The interaction between rocuronium and clindamycin was synergistic when clindamycin concentrations were in excess of 0.5 mM, irrespective of the presence of neostigmine.
Neostigmine may partially antagonize the neuromuscular block that is induced by a combination of clindamycin and rocuronium. Clinicians are advised to be aware that clindamycin synergistically increases the degree of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block, even when neostigmine is present.
Clindamycin; Neostigmine; Neuromuscular block; Reversal; Rocuronium; Synergy
Several neuromuscular blocking (NMB) agents are available for clinical use in anesthesia. The present study was performed in order to identify preferences and behaviors of anesthesiologists for using vecuronium, rocuronium or other NMB agents in their clinical practice.
Material and methods
The cross-sectional survey was applied at the Updated Course of the Colegio Mexicano de Anestesiología performed last year. Of 989, 282 (28.5%) surveys were returned.
Most anesthesiologists were working at both public and private hospitals, performed anesthetic procedures for hospitalized and ambulatory patients, and anesthetized children as well as adults. Respondents did not consider mechanomyography as the gold standard method for neuromuscular monitoring. The T25 was not recognized as a pharmacodynamic parameter that represents the clinical duration of the neuromuscular block. Most answered that vecuronium induces less histamine release than rocuronium, had never used any neuromuscular monitor, did not know the cost of vecuronium and rocuronium, and preferred rocuronium in multiple-sampling vials and vecuronium in either a vial for single or multiple sampling. Rocuronium was preferred for emergency surgery in patients with full stomach only. Almost all of anesthesiologists that conserve the unused drug did it without refrigeration and more than 30% conserve the unused drug in one syringe for further use.
Vecuronium was preferred for most clinical situations, and the decision for this choice was not based on costs. Storage of unused drugs without refrigeration in a single syringe for purpose of future use in several patients represented a dangerous common practice.
Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (NCPE) is a clinical syndrome characterized by simultaneous presence of severe hypoxemia, bilateral alveolar infiltrates on chest radiograph, and no evidence of left atrial hypertension/congestive heart failure/fluid overload. The diagnosis of drug-related NCPE relies upon documented exclusion of other causes of NCPE like gastric aspiration, sepsis, trauma, negative pressure pulmonary oedema, etc. We describe two cases (45-year male and 6-year male), who had undergone elective surgery under general anaesthesia. They developed NCPE within 3-5 minutes after administration of ‘neostigmine-glycopyrrolate’ used to reverse residual neuromuscular blockade. Both patients were treated successfully with mechanical ventilatory support, and adjuvant therapy, viz., frusemide, dopamine, steroids. This report emphasizes that this fatal complication may be seen with neostigmine, the pathogenic mechanism remains unknown, and it probably is a drug-related NCPE.
Drug-related NCPE; neostigmine; reversal; non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema
Neostigmine is commonly used to reverse neuromuscular blockade. A side effect can be parasympathetic stimulation, which may result in heart block. Renal failure can decrease the clearance and increase the half-life of the drug, thus increasing the likelihood of a vagomimetic response. A case is presented where a child with renal failure developed a type I second-degree heart block after neostigmine was given.
Neostigmine is used to antagonize neoromuscluar blocker-induced residual neuromuscular paralysis. Despite a previous meta-analysis, the effect of neostigmine on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) remains unresolved. We reevaluated the effect of neostigmine on PONV while considering the different anticholinergics as potentially confounding factors. We performed a systematic literature search using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, reference listings, and hand searching with no language restriction through December 2004 and identified 10 clinical, randomized, controlled trials evaluating neostigmine's effect on PONV. Data on nausea or vomiting from 933 patients were extracted for the early (0-6 h), delayed (6-24 h), and overall postoperative periods (0-24 h) and analyzed with RevMan 4.2 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) and multiple logistic regression analysis. The combination of neostigmine with either atropine or glycopyrrolate did not significantly increase the incidence of overall (0-24 h) vomiting (relative risk (RR) 0.91 [0.70-1.18], P=0.48) or nausea (RR 1.24 [95% CI: 0.98-1.59], P=0.08). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that that there was not a significant increase in the risk of vomiting with large compared with small doses of neostigmine. In contrast to a previous analysis, we conclude that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that neostigmine increases the risk of PONV.
Vomiting: postoperative, nausea; Statistics: meta analysis; Antagonists (Neuromuscular relaxants): neostigmine; Pharmacology: atropine, glycopyrrolate
The postulated role of the acetylcholine receptor in the formation of neuromuscular synapses during the course of embryonic development was investigated in the superior oblique muscle of white Peking duck embryos. The possibility that the number of receptors could be experimentally lowered by chronic injections of the anticholinesterase agent, neostigmine methylsulfate, was determined using 125I-alpha- bungarotoxin. The total number of acetylcholine receptors on incubation day 12, 2 d subsequent to the onset of treatment, was reducted 45% as compared to saline-treated controls. A similar reduction in total receptor content (49%) was also observed on day 19. Radioautographic preparations showed that clusters of acetylcholine receptors were rare and that the grain density of extrajunctional receptors was also reduced. Hence, chronic treatment with neostigimine during development was observed to exert an effect on both the number and distribution of receptors in the developing superior oblique muscle. These changes occurred in the absence of any apparent effect on muscle differentiation in general. Myoblasts and myotubes were present on day 14 and further differentiated into myofibers by day 18 in both neostigmine and saline-treated muscles. The cytology of the develop;ing muscle cells also appeared normal. This is in contradistinction to the striking morphological changes that take place in adult mammalian and avian muscle after anticholinesterase treatment. More significantly, the decreased total receptor content and sparsity of clusters had no apparent effect on the formation of developing neuromuscular junctions at the electron microscopic level. The frequency of neuromuscular junctions in neostigmine-treated muscles was similar to that of the controls. It is concluded that acetylcholine receptor clusters are not required for the events leading to the morphological formation of neuromuscular junctions during in vivo development.
Neostigmine is a parasympathomimetic drug that acts as a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Clinically it is used in patients with acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO or Ogilvie's syndrome, which is a gastrointestinal motility disorder characterized by marked dilatation of the colon in the absence of mechanical obstruction), postoperative ileus, urinary retention, myasthenia gravis, and in anesthesia to reverse the effects of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Both bolus and infusion are noted to be effective and lead to prompt evacuation of flatus or stool with a reduction in abdominal distention on physical examination. Median duration is noted to be 4–30 minutes in some trials. Here we present our experience of using 2 mg of intravenous neostigmine to help relieve the severe abdominal distention and ileus in a patient with severe fecal impaction when all conservative measures had been futile. The most frequent side effect of the drug is abdominal pain/cramping, which was noted in our patient as well. Other complications include bradycardia which is very infrequently symptomatic to require atropine. Overall, the drug is a simple, safe, and effective strategy; and as pointed out in the previous studies, the drug appears to be underused in patients who do not have a true contraindication to its use.
The antimuscarinic effects of atropine were studied in 46 patients to whom neostigmine had been given after operation to reverse the action of a muscle relaxant. Neostigmine was given to alternate patients three minutes after, or together with, atropine, and the effects of the two procedures were compared by measuring the secretions which collected in the buccal and oropharyngeal cavities and observing the heart rate.
It was found that the glands of the oral cavity were stimulated to a greater extent when neostigmine was given with atropine than after atropine. Any dose of atropine sufficient to inhibit peristaltic movements of the bowel is more than enough to block completely secretion by the salivary glands, and the appearance of some secretion in all cases after the administration of neostigmine suggests that the bowel was at liberty to react to the neostigmine in every case, but perhaps particularly so when atropine and neostigmine were given mixed. The integrity of an anastomosis of the bowel could be endangered by vigorous peristalsis in the early postoperative period.
Electrocardiograms in about half the patients from each group confirmed earlier work that the muscarinic effects of neostigmine on the heart can be prevented by giving the atropine either before or together with the neostigmine.
Neostigmine is a frequently used acetylcholinesterase inhibitor administered to reverse muscular relaxation caused by nondepolarizing neuromuscular relaxants in patients recovering from general anesthesia. Severe allergic reactions and urticaria are rarely reported following the use of neostigmine bromide, and never with methylsulfate-containing drugs. In this case, bigeminal premature ventricular contractions added to urticaria provides a warning about the possibility of a life-threatening situation.
We report the case of a 23-year-old Persian woman who presented with bigeminal premature ventricular contractions along with urticarial lesions on her arm and trunk as soon as she was administered neostigmine methylsulfate after undergoing a laparoscopy for ectopic pregnancy.
This case report could be of value not only for anesthesiologists who routinely use neostigmine but also for others who administer the pharmaceutical preparation in other situations. The report presents a rare case of drug reaction following neostigmine use. As a result, one should consider any drug a probable cause of drug reaction. The preparation of resuscitative facilities, therefore, is necessary prior to the prescription of the medication.
In unanaesthetized patients atropine and neostigmine in doses normally used by anaesthetists to reverse muscle relaxants produced a pronounced increase in bowel activity. This response occurred whether atropine was given before or simultaneously with neostigmine.
The response still occurred in 38% of patients anaesthetized without halothane, and possibly this increase in motility might endanger a recently constructed anastomosis. The ileum appeared particularly prone to neostigmine stimulation, and anastomoses involving ileum would seem especially at risk. When halothane was used during anaesthesia the response was completely inhibited during the period studied.
Patients undergoing total colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis were divided into two groups depending on whether neostigmine was administered during the anaesthetic to reverse the muscle relaxant. Those receiving neostigmine showed a postoperative anastomotic leakage rate of 36%. In the group not receiving neostigmine the leak rate was 4%, an apparently highly significant difference. Neostigmine may produce this effect by causing contractions of the gut musculature or by vasoconstriction of the blood vessels to the suture line, resulting in local ischaemia.
Intrathecal neostigmine produces analgesia, but also severe nausea. In contrast, epidural neostigmine enhances opioid and local anesthetic analgesia without causing nausea. Previous studies examined only single epidural neostigmine bolus administration and did not assess the efficacy of continuous epidural infusion or several aspects of maternal and fetal safety. We therefore tested the hypothesis that epidural neostigmine in combination with bupivacaine by continuous infusion during labor would reduce the amount of bupivacaine required.
Twelve healthy women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery were assigned to receive epidural neostigmine, 40 μg (first 6 subjects) or 80 μg (second 6 subjects) as a single bolus, with fetal heart rate and uterine contractions monitored for 20 minutes. In a subsequent experiment, 40 healthy laboring women were randomized to receive bupivacaine 1.25 mg/mL alone or with neostigmine 4 μg/mL by patient-controlled epidural analgesia. The primary outcome measure was hourly bupivacaine use.
Epidural neostigmine bolus did not alter baseline fetal heart rate, induce contractions or produce nausea. Epidural neostigmine infusion reduced bupivacaine requirement by 19% in all patients and 25% in those with > 4 hours of treatment (P<0.05 for both), but might have contributed to the incidence of mild sedation. Mode of delivery, incidence of maternal nausea and fetal heart rate abnormality were similar between groups.
These data show that adding epidural neostigmine 4 μg/mL reduces the hourly bupivacaine requirement by 19% to 25% with patient-controlled epidural analgesia during labor. Administered as a bolus and by continuous infusion at the studied doses, epidural neostigmine does not cause nausea and does not induce uterine contractions or fetal heart rate abnormalities, but mild sedation can occur.
This study was carried out to assess the effect of nitroglycerine (transdermal) on intrathecal neostigmine with bupivacaine on postoperative analgesia and note the incidence of adverse effects, if any. After taking informed consent, 120 patients of ASA Grade I and II were systematically randomised into four groups of 30 each. Patients were premedicated with midazolam 0.05 mg/kg intravenously and hydration with Ringer's lactate solution 10ml/kg preoperatively in the holding room. Group I patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 1ml of normal saline and transdermal placebo patch. Group II patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 5 mcg of neostigmine and transdermal placebo patch. Group III patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 1ml of normal saline with transdermal nitroglycerine patch (5 mg/24 hours). Group IV patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 5mcg of neostigmine and transdermal nitroglycerine patch (5 mg/24 hours), applied on a non anaesthetised area after 20 minutes. Groups were demographically similar and did not differ in intraoperative characteristics like sensory block, motor block, haemodynamic parameters and SpO2. The mean duration of analgesia was 202.17 minutes, 407.20 minutes, 207.53 minutes and 581.63 minutes in control group (I), neostigmine group (II), nitroglycerine group (III) and nitroglycerine neostigmine group (IV) respectively (P<0.01). To conclude, our results show that transdermal nitroglycerine itself does not show any analgesic potential but it enhances the analgesic potential of intrathecal neostigmine.
Abdominal hysterectomy; neostigmine; nitroglycerine; nitric oxide; postoperative analgesia
Nerve ligation injury in rats produces a pain syndrome that includes mechanical allodynia. Intrathecal administration of cholinesterase inhibitors or adenosine receptor agonists have anti-allodynic effects in this model. Therefore, we tested the interaction between intrathecal neostigmine and N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) in a rat behavioral model of neuropathic pain.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared with tight ligation of the spinal nerves for producing allodynia and with a lumbar intrathecal catheter for drug administration. Allodynia thresholds for hindpaw withdrawal against mechanical stimuli were assessed and converted to percent maximal possible effect. Neostigmine (0.3-10 µg) and CHA (0.03-3 µg) were administered to obtain the dose-response curves and the 50% effective dose (ED50). Equal fractions (1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 ED50s) of the two drugs were administered to establish the ED50 of neostigmine-CHA combination. Side effects were also assessed. The drug interaction was evaluated by isobolographic and fractional analyses.
Neostigmine, CHA, and the neostigmine-CHA combination dose-dependently produced anti-allodynia effects. Side effects such as sedation and motor weakness were similar in the three groups. In the isobolographic analysis, the experimental ED50 for the combination of neostigmine-CHA lay far below and to the left of the theoretical additive line. Fractional analysis indicated that the total combination fraction of the two drugs was 0.39.
Intrathecal co-administration of neostigmine and CHA showed a synergistic anti-allodynia effect.
Allodynia; Drug interaction; Intrathecal injection; N6-cyclohexyladenosine; Neostigmine