Recent studies have shown that Bcl-2 functions as a pro-angiogenic signaling molecule in addition to its well-known effect as an inhibitor of apoptosis. The discovery of AT101, a BH3-mimetic drug that is effective and well tolerated when administered orally, suggested the possibility of using a molecularly targeted drug in a metronomic regimen. Here, we generated xenograft squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) with humanized vasculature in immunodeficient mice. Mice received taxotere in combination with either daily 10 mg/kg AT101 (metronomic regimen) or weekly 70 mg/kg AT101 (bolus regimen). The effect of single drug AT101 on angiogenesis, and combination AT101/taxotere on the survival of endothelial cells and SCC cells, were also evaluated in vitro. Metronomic AT101 increased mouse survival (p=0.02), decreased tumor mitotic index (p=0.0009), and decreased tumor microvessel density (p=0.0052), as compared to bolus delivery of AT101. Notably, the substantial potentiation of the anti-tumor effect observed in the metronomic AT101 group was achieved using the same amount of drug and without significant changes in systemic toxicities. In vitro, combination of AT101 and taxotere showed additive toxicity for endothelial cells and synergistic or additive toxicity for tumor cells (SCC). Interestingly, low-dose (sub-apoptotic) concentrations of AT101 potently inhibited the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells. Taken together, these data unveiled the benefit of metronomic delivery of a molecularly targeted drug, and suggested that patients with squamous cell carcinomas might benefit from continuous administration of low dose BH3-mimetic drugs.
Developmental therapeutics; targeted therapy; angiogenesis; Bcl-2; squamous cell carcinoma
Increased levels of hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in human sarcomas correlate with tumor progression and radiation resistance. Prolonged antiangiogenic therapy of tumors not only delays tumor growth but may also increase hypoxia and HIF-1α activity. In our recent clinical trial, treatment with the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) antibody, bevacizumab, followed by a combination of bevacizumab and radiation led to near complete necrosis in nearly half of sarcomas. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of microarrays from pretreatment biopsies found that the Gene Ontology category “Response to hypoxia” was upregulated in poor responders and that the hierarchical clustering based on 140 hypoxia-responsive genes reliably separated poor responders from good responders. The most commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for sarcomas, doxorubicin (Dox), was recently found to block HIF-1α binding to DNA at low metronomic doses. In four sarcoma cell lines, HIF-1α shRNA or Dox at low concentrations blocked HIF-1α induction of VEGF-A by 84–97% and carbonic anhydrase 9 by 83–93%. HT1080 sarcoma xenografts had increased hypoxia and/or HIF-1α activity with increasing tumor size and with anti-VEGF receptor antibody (DC101) treatment. Combining DC101 with HIF-1α shRNA or metronomic Dox had a synergistic effect in suppressing growth of HT1080 xenografts, at least in part via induction of tumor endothelial cell apoptosis. In conclusion, sarcomas respond to increased hypoxia by expressing HIF-1α target genes that may promote resistance to antiangiogenic and other therapies. HIF-1α inhibition blocks this evasive resistance and augments destruction of the tumor vasculature.
Despite their initial promise, anti-angiogenic therapies have been a disappointment in the clinic. One reason is that solid tumors often become resistant to these drugs. Tumors that respond poorly to this type of therapy have increased activation of the hypoxia-induced transcription factor HIF-1α which can enhance tumor survival and progression. In this study, the authors report that this evasive resistance can be overcome by adding low-dose doxorubicin or shRNA to inhibit HIF-1α activity. They are thus developing a clinical trial combining the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab with metronomic doxorubicin in sarcoma patients.
sarcomas; hypoxia; HIF-1α; VEGF-A
Metronomic chemotherapy involves frequent, regular administration of cytotoxic drugs at nontoxic doses, usually without prolonged breaks. We investigated the therapeutic efficacies of metronomic S-1, an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug, and vandetanib, an epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
We compared anti-HCC effects and toxicity in the six treatment groups: control (untreated), maximum tolerated dose (MTD) S-1, metronomic S-1, vandetanib, MTD S-1 with vandetanib, and metronomic S-1 with vandetanib. Tumor microvessel density (MVD) and tumor apoptosis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The expression of VEGF and thrombospondin-1, an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, was analyzed by Western blot.
Metronomic S-1 significantly inhibited tumor growth, which was enhanced by combination with vandetanib. With respect to toxicities, MTD S-1 caused severe body weight loss and myelosuppression, whereas metronomic S-1 did not cause any overt toxicities. Moreover, metronomic S-1 or metronomic S-1 with vandetanib prolonged survival, the latter treatment providing the greatest benefit. Metronomic S-1 and metronomic S-1 with vandetanib decreased MVDs and increased apoptosis in tumor tissues. The expression of VEGF in tumor tissues was upregulated by vandetanib and metronomic S-1 with vandetanib, whereas the expression of thrombospondin-1 was upregulated by metronomic S-1 and metronomic S-1 with vandetanib.
Metronomic S-1 with an antiangiogenic agent seems to be an effective and safe therapeutic strategy for HCC.
PURPOSE: Angiogenesis plays an important role in pancreas cancer pathobiology. Pancreatic tumor cells secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), activating endothelial cell protein kinase C beta (PKCβ) that phosphorylates GSK3β to suppress apoptosis and promote endothelial cell proliferation and microvessel formation. We used Enzastaurin (Enz) to test the hypothesis that inhibition of PKCβ results in radiosensitization of endothelial cells in culture and in vivo. MATERIALS/METHODS: We measured PKCβ phosphorylation, VEGF pathway signaling, colony formation, and capillary sprout formation in primary human dermal microvessel endothelial cells (HDMECs) after Enz or radiation (RT) treatment. Microvessel density and tumor volume of human pancreatic cancer xenografts in nude mice were measured after treatment with Enz, RT, or both. RESULTS: Enz inhibited PKCβ and radiosensitized HDMEC with an enhancement ratio of 1.31 ± 0.05. Enz combined with RT reduced HDMEC capillary sprouting to a greater extent than either agent alone. Enz prevented radiation-induced GSK3β phosphorylation of serine 9 while having no direct effect on VEGFR phosphorylation. Treatment of xenografts with Enz and radiation produced greater reductions in microvessel density than either treatment alone. The reduction in microvessel density corresponded with increased tumor growth delay. CONCLUSIONS: Enz-induced PKCβ inhibition radiosensitizes human endothelial cells and enhances the antiangiogenic effects of RT. The combination of Enz and RT reduced microvessel density and resulted in increased growth delay in pancreatic cancer xenografts, without increase in toxicity. These results provide the rationale for combining PKCβ inhibition with radiation and further investigating such regimens in pancreatic cancer.
The promising but still limited efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors as monotherapies for cancer treatment indicates a need to integrate these agents into existing therapeutic regimens. Presently, we investigate the anti-tumor activity of the small molecule angiogenesis inhibitor axitinib (AG-013736) and its potential for combination with metronomic cyclophosphamide (CPA). Axitinib significantly inhibited angiogenesis in rat 9L tumors grown s.c. in scid mice, but only moderately delayed tumor growth. Combination of axitinib with metronomic CPA fully blocked 9L tumor growth upon initiation of drug treatment. In contrast, metronomic CPA alone required multiple treatment cycles to halt tumor growth. However, in contrast to the substantial tumor regression that is ultimately induced by metronomic CPA, the axitinib/CPA combination was tumor growth static. Axitinib did not inhibit hepatic activation of CPA or export of its activated metabolite, 4-OH-CPA, to extrahepatic tissues; rather, axitinib selectively decreased 9L tumor uptake of 4-OH-CPA by 30–40%. The reduced tumor penetration of 4-OH-CPA was associated with a decrease in CPA-induced tumor cell apoptosis and a block in the induction of the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor TSP-1 in tumor-associated host cells, which may contribute to the absence of tumor regression with the axitinib/CPA combination. Finally, axitinib transiently increased 9L tumor cell apoptosis, indicating that its effects are not limited to the endothelial cell population. These findings highlight the multiple effects that may characterize anti-angiogenic agent–metronomic chemotherapy combinations, and suggest that careful optimization of drug scheduling and dosages will be required to maximize anti-tumor responses.
anti-angiogenesis; axitinib (AG-013736); metronomic cyclophosphamide; combination therapy
Metronomic chemotherapy is a continuous low-dose administration of chemotherapeutic agents to minimize toxicity and target tumor-associated endothelial cells. This therapy is beneficial to anti-angiogenic efficacy which is linked to the inhibition of tumor growth. In the present study, we compared the anti-angiogenicity of temozolomide in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) between conventional and metronomic treatment. Metronomic treatment of temozolomide (TMZ) (6.25 and 12.5 μM) showed increased inhibition of the proliferation of HUVECs compared to an equivalent conventional treatment of TMZ. The differential effects between conventional and metronomic treatment of TMZ were also noted in cell migration and angiogenic tube formation. Notably, the expression level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was markedly reduced in the HUVECs treated with metronomic TMZ (12.5 and 25 μM) compared to cells treated with conventional treatment of TMZ. Accordingly, HUVECs treated with metronomic treatment of TMZ were more sensitive to TMZ treatment. Taken together, metronomic chemotherapy with TMZ enhances the inhibition of angiogenesis accompanied by the down-regulation of MGMT expression in endothelial cells when compared to conventional chemotherapy.
metronomic chemotherapy; anti-angiogenicity; human umbilical vein endothelial cells; temozolomide; O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase
To evaluate the antitumor and antiangiogenic activity of metronomic ceramide analogs and their relevant molecular mechanisms.
Human endothelial cells [human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC)] and pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1 and MIA PaCa-2) were treated with the ceramide analogs (C2, AL6, C6, and C8), at low concentrations for 144 hours to evaluate any antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects and inhibition of migration and to measure the expression of caveolin-1 (CAV-1) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) mRNAs by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Assessment of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and Akt phosphorylation and of CAV-1 and cyclin D1 protein expression was performed by ELISA. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) gemcitabine was compared against metronomic doses of the ceramide analogs by evaluating the inhibition of MIA PaCa-2 subcutaneous tumor growth in nude mice.
Metronomic ceramide analogs preferentially inhibited cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in endothelial cells. Low concentrations of AL6 and C2 caused a significant inhibition of HUVEC migration. ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation were significantly decreased after metronomic ceramide analog treatment. Such treatment caused the overexpression of CAV-1 and TSP-1 mRNAs and proteins in endothelial cells, whereas cyclin D1 protein levels were reduced. The antiangiogenic and antitumor impact in vivo of metronomic C2 and AL6 regimens was similar to that caused by MTD gemcitabine.
Metronomic C2 and AL6 analogs have antitumor and antiangiogenic activity, determining the up-regulation of CAV-1 and TSP-1 and the suppression of cyclin D1.
Metronomic chemotherapy refers to the close, regular administration of conventional chemotherapy drugs at relatively low minimally toxic doses with no prolonged break periods; it is now showing encouraging results in various phase II clinical trials, and is currently undergoing phase III trial evaluation. It is thought to cause anti-tumor effects primarily by antiangiogenic mechanisms, both locally by targeting endothelial cells of the tumor neovasculature and systemically by effects on bone marrow derived cells, including circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs). Previous studies have shown reduction of CEPs by metronomic administration of a number of different chemotherapeutic drugs, including vinblastine, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel, topotecan, and tegafur plus uracil (UFT). However in addition to, or even instead of, anti angiogenic effects, metronomic chemotherapy may cause suppression of tumor growth by other mechanisms such as stimulating cytotoxic T cell responses, or by direct anti-tumor effects. Here we report results evaluating the properties of metronomic administration of an oral prodrug of gemcitabine LY2334737 (LY) in non tumor-bearing mice, and in preclinical models of human ovarian (SKOV3-13) and breast cancer (LM2-4) xenografts. Through daily gavage (at 6mg/kg/day) the schedules tested were devoid of toxicity and caused anti-tumor effects; however, a suppressive effect on CEPs was not detected. Unexpectedly metronomic LY administration caused increased blood flow in luciferase-tagged LM2-4 tumor xenografts; and this effect coincided with a relative increase in tumor bioluminescence. These results highlight the possibility of significant anti-tumor effects mediated by metronomic administration of some chemotherapy drugs without a concomitant inhibition of systemic angiogenesis.
endothelial progenitor cells; blood flow; angiogenesis
Radiotherapy is widely used to treat cancer. While rapidly dividing cancer cells are naturally considered the main target of radiotherapy, emerging evidence indicates that radiotherapy also affects endothelial cell functions, and possibly also their angiogenic capacity. In spite of its clinical relevance, such putative anti-angiogenic effect of radiotherapy has not been thoroughly characterized. We have investigated the effect of ionizing radiation on angiogenesis using in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro experimental models in combination with genetic and pharmacological interventions.
Here we show that high doses ionizing radiation locally suppressed VEGF- and FGF-2-induced Matrigel plug angiogenesis in mice in vivo and prevented endothelial cell sprouting from mouse aortic rings following in vivo or ex vivo irradiation. Quiescent human endothelial cells exposed to ionizing radiation in vitro resisted apoptosis, demonstrated reduced sprouting, migration and proliferation capacities, showed enhanced adhesion to matrix proteins, and underwent premature senescence. Irradiation induced the expression of P53 and P21 proteins in endothelial cells, but p53 or p21 deficiency and P21 silencing did not prevent radiation-induced inhibition of sprouting or proliferation. Radiation induced Smad-2 phosphorylation in skin in vivo and in endothelial cells in vitro. Inhibition of the TGF-β type I receptor ALK5 rescued deficient endothelial cell sprouting and migration but not proliferation in vitro and restored defective Matrigel plug angiogenesis in irradiated mice in vivo. ALK5 inhibition, however, did not rescue deficient proliferation. Notch signaling, known to hinder angiogenesis, was activated by radiation but its inhibition, alone or in combination with ALK5 inhibition, did not rescue suppressed proliferation.
These results demonstrate that irradiation of quiescent endothelial cells suppresses subsequent angiogenesis and that ALK5 is a critical mediator of this suppression. These results extend our understanding of radiotherapy-induced endothelial dysfunctions, relevant to both therapeutic and unwanted effects of radiotherapy.
Endothelial cells (EC) in tumor and normal tissue constitute critical radiotherapy targets. MicroRNAs have emerged as master switchers of the cellular transcriptome. Here, we seek to investigate the role of miRNAs in primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) after ionizing radiation.
The microRNA status in HDMEC after 2 Gy radiation treatment was measured using oligo-microarrays covering 361 miRNAs. To functionally analyze the role of radiation-induced differentially regulated miRNAs, cells were transfected with miRNA precursor or inhibitor constructs. Clonogenic survival and proliferation assays were performed.
Radiation up-regulated miRNA expression levels included let-7g, miR-16, miR-20a, miR-21 and miR-29c, while miR-18a, miR-125a, miR-127, miR-148b, miR-189 and miR-503 were down-regulated. We found that overexpression or inhibition of let-7g, miR-189, and miR-20a markedly influenced clonogenic survival and cell proliferation per se. Notably, the radiosensitivity of HDMEC was significantly influenced by differential expression of miR-125a, -127, -189, and let-7g. While miR-125a and miR-189 had a radioprotective effect, miR-127 and let-7g enhanced radiosensitivity in human endothelial cells.
Our data show that ionizing radiation changes microRNA levels in human endothelial cells and, moreover, exerts biological effects on cell growth and clonogenicity as validated in functional assays. The data also suggest that the miRNAs which are differentially expressed after radiation modulate the intrinsic radiosensitivity of endothelial cells in subsequent irradiations. This indicates that miRNAs are part of the innate response mechanism of the endothelium to radiation.
Standard chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC has reached a therapeutic plateau. More effective strategies must be explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of metronomic chemotherapy combined with an angiogenesis inhibitor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 114 BALB/c nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously with human NSCLC cells (A549), and when xenograft tumors were palpable, mice were randomly injected with saline as controls (Ctrl), or treated with metronomic cyclophosphamide (MET CPA), recombinant human endostatin, Endostar (Endo), MET CPA combined with Endostar (MET CPA + Endo) or maximum tolerance dose of CPA (MTD CPA), respectively. The growth of xenograft tumors and mouse survival were monitored. The frequency of peripheral blood circulating endothelial cells (CECs), microvessel density (MVD) and pericyte coverage was determined using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining. In comparison with the controls, treatment with either drug significantly inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Treatment with MET CPA or Endostar, but not with MTD CPA, significantly reduced the frequency of peripheral blood total and viable CECs and the value of MVD. Endostar also considerably reduced pericyte coverage in xenograft tumors. Moreover, MET CPA combined with Endostar further reduced the frequency of peripheral blood CECs, the value of MVD, and pericyte coverage, with concomitant delay in tumor growth and extension of mouse survival. Our results indicate that MET CPA combined with Endostar results in enhanced anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects in a xenograft model of human lung cancer. Combined therapy with metronomic chemotherapy and an angiogenesis inhibitor may serve as a promising treatment strategy for patients with advanced NSCLC.
non-small cell lung cancer; metronomic chemotherapy; cyclophosphamide; Endostar; angiogenesis
To investigate the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects utilizing a novel therapy regimen of metronomic topotecan and pazopanib, a multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In vitro (Western blot) and in vivo dose-finding experiments were performed following pazopanib therapy in ovarian cancer models. Pazopanib and metronomic (daily) oral topotecan therapy was examined in an orthotopic model of ovarian cancer. Tumor weights, survival, and markers of tumor microenvironment (angiogenesis [CD31 and pericyte coverage]], proliferation [Ki-67], and apoptosis [TUNEL]) were analyzed by immunostaining following therapy. Pazopanib therapy reduced VEGFR-2 activity in vitro and vivo in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to control mice, pazopanib reduced tumor weight by 28-82% (p<0.01 in the SKOV3ip1 model) and metronomic topotecan reduced tumor weight by 40-59% in the HeyA8 (p=0.13) and SKOV3ip1 (p=0.07) models. Combination therapy had greatest effect with 79-84% reduction (p<0.01 for both models). In the SKOV3ip1 and A2780 models, mouse survival was significantly longer (p<0.001 vs. controls) with pazopanib and metronomic topotecan therapy. Pazopanib therapy reduced murine endothelial cell migration in vitro in a dose-dependent manner following VEGF stimulation and decreased tumor microvessel density and pericyte coverage when given in combination with metronomic topotecan. Tumor cell proliferation decreased in all treatment arms compared to controls (p<0.01 for combination groups) and increased tumor cell apoptosis by 4-fold with combination therapy. Pazopanib therapy in combination with metronomic topotecan therapy demonstrated significant anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic properties in preclinical ovarian cancer models and warrants further investigation as a novel therapeutic regimen in clinical trials.
VEGFR-2; ovarian carcinoma; pazopanib; angiogenesis
Docetaxel (DTX), usually administered according to maximum tolerated dosing (MTD), can inhibit endothelial cell (EC) proliferation at low nM concentrations. DTX may exert antiangiogenic effects if dosed so plasma levels are maintained at low nM concentrations over a prolonged time. We evaluated metronomic and MTD-based dosing of DTX with and without vandetanib (VAN), a VEGFR-2 and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic and anti-tumor activity, in a head and neck xenograft model.
A murine physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model was modified to predict DTX distribution following intraperitoneal administration to design dosing regimens that target pre-specified plasma concentrations, for anti-endothelial effects (metronomic), or exposure, to mimic 30mg/m2 (weekly/MTD) DTX in humans. Animals were treated for 28 days with 1mg/kg/day (DTX1) or 6mg/kg q4d (DTX6) DTX with or without VAN (15 mg/kg/day p.o.) in mice bearing UMSCC2 tumor xenografts.
The DTX1 dosing scheme was adjusted to treatment for 10 days followed by 9 days off due to severe GI toxicity. All treatment groups significantly reduced tumor volume, tumor proliferation (Ki-67) and tumor EC proliferation (Ki-67/vonWillebrand factor) compared with control. Addition of VAN to DTX treatment significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibition over single agent therapy.
A positive correlation of tumor EC proliferation with tumor growth rates demonstrates VAN and DTX antiangiogenic effects. Due to the morbidity observed with DTX1 treatment it is difficult to clearly ascertain if metronomic schedules will be effective for treatment. DTX with VAN is effective in treating UMSCC2 xenografts at concentrations relevant to exposures in humans.
pharmacokinetic modeling; docetaxel; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; head and neck cancer; xenograft
Metronomic chemotherapy refers to the administration of chemotherapy at low, nontoxic doses on a frequent schedule with no prolonged breaks. The aim of the study is to rationally develop a CPT-11 metronomic regimen in preclinical settings of colon cancer. In vitro cell proliferation, apoptosis and thrombospondin-1/vascular endothelial growth factor (TSP-1/VEGF) expression analyses were performed on endothelial (HUVEC, HMVEC-d) and colorectal cancer (HT-29, SW620) cells exposed for 144 h to metronomic concentrations of SN-38, the active metabolite of CPT-11. HT-29 human colorectal cancer xenograft model was used, and tumour growth, microvessel density and VEGF/TSP-1 quantification was performed in tumours. In vitro and in vivo combination studies with the tyrosine inhibitor semaxinib were also performed. SN-38 preferentially inhibited endothelial cell proliferation alone and interacted synergistically with semaxinib; it induced apoptosis and increased the expression and secretion of TSP-1. Metronomic CPT-11 alone and combined with semaxinib significantly inhibits tumour growth in the absence of toxicity, which was accompanied by decreases in microvessel density and increases in TSP-1 gene expression in tumour tissues. In vitro results show the antiangiogenic properties of low-concentration SN-38, suggesting a key role of TSP-1 in this effect. In vivo, the CPT-11 metronomic schedule is effective against tumour and microvessel growth without toxic effect on mice.
metronomic chemotherapy; angiogenesis; irinotecan; semaxinib; colon cancer
Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) preferentially target the established but abnormal tumor vasculature, resulting in extensive intratumoral hypoxia and cell death. However, a rim of viable tumor tissue remains from which angiogenesis-dependent regrowth can occur, in part via mobilization and tumor colonization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs). Co-treatment with an agent that blocks CEPs, such as VEGF-pathway targeting biologic antiangiogenic drugs, results in enhanced anti-tumor efficacy. We asked whether an alternative therapeutic modality – low-dose metronomic (LDM) chemotherapy could achieve the same result, given its CEP targeting effects.
We studied the combination of the VDA OXi-4503 with daily administration of CEP-inhibiting, low-dose metronomic (LDM) cyclophosphamide to treat primary orthotopic tumors using the 231/LM2-4 breast cancer cell line and MeWo melanoma cell line. In addition, CEP mobilization and various tumor characteristics were assessed.
We found that daily oral LDM cyclophosphamide was capable of preventing the CEP spike and tumor colonization induced by OXi-4503; this was associated with a decrease in the tumor rim and marked suppression of primary 231/LM2-4 growth in nude as well as SCID mice. Similar results were found in MeWo bearing nude mice. The delay in tumor growth was accompanied by significant decreases in micro-vessel density, perfusion and proliferation, and a significant increase in tumor cell apoptosis. No overt toxicity was observed.
The combination of OXi-4503 and metronomic chemotherapy results in prolonged tumor control, thereby expanding the list of therapeutic agents that can be successfully integrated with metronomic low-dose chemotherapy.
OXi-4503; low-dose cyclophosphamide; breast cancer; melanoma; endothelial progenitor cells
Increased levels of hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) in human sarcomas correlate with tumor progression and radiation resistance. Prolonged anti-angiogenic therapy of tumors can delay tumor growth but may also increase hypoxia and HIF-1α activity. In our recent clinical trial, treatment with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) antibody, bevacizumab, followed by a combination of bevacizumab and radiation led to near complete necrosis in nearly half of sarcomas. Gene set enrichment analysis of microarrays from pre-treatment biopsies found the Gene Ontology category “Response to hypoxia” was upregulated in poor responders, and hierarchical clustering based on 140 hypoxia-responsive genes reliably separated poor responders from good responders. The most commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for sarcomas, doxorubicin (Dox), was recently found to block HIF-1α binding to DNA at low metronomic doses. In 4 sarcoma cell lines, HIF-1 shRNA or Dox at low concentrations blocked HIF-1α induction of VEGF-A by 84–97%, and carbonic anhydrase 9 by 83–93%. HT1080 sarcoma xenografts had increased hypoxia and/or HIF-1α activity with increasing tumor size and with anti-VEGF receptor antibody (DC101) treatment. Combining DC101 with HIF-1α shRNA or metronomic Dox had a synergistic effect in suppressing growth of HT1080 xenografts, at least in part via induction of tumor endothelial cell apoptosis. In conclusion, sarcomas respond to increased hypoxia by expressing HIF-1α-target genes which may promote resistance to anti-angiogenic and other therapies. Adding HIF-1α inhibition blocks resistance and augments destruction of the tumor vasculature.
The aim of the present study was to clarify the antitumor efficacy of metronomic chemotherapy using irinotecan (CPT-11) combined with or without bevacizumab against colon cancer, and the significance of circulating endothelial cell (CECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs) as a surrogate marker for metronomic chemotherapy. KM12SM cells were implanted into the subcutis of nude mouse. After confirming that the implanted tumors had grown 5 mm in size, group A received an intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg CPT-11 every two weeks for 4 weeks [conventional maximum-tolerated dose (MTD)], group B received 10 mg/kg twice weekly (metronomic), group C received 10 mg/kg twice weekly combined with 5 mg/kg bevacizumab twice weekly (metronomic + anti-angiogenic), and the control group received 0.2 ml of PBS every week. Serial changes of CECs and CEPs in peripheral blood and microvessel density (MVD) in the tumor tissues were evaluated. The results showed that the antitumor activity in group B and in group C was significantly higher than that in group A. A significant inhibition in CEPs on day 15 in the metronomic therapy groups B and C was noted when compared to that in the control group, while there was no significant difference in CECs and CEPs between the groups on days 4 and 8. The MVD on day 15 in metronomic groups was significantly lower than that in group A. In conclusion, metronomic chemotherapy of CPT-11 with or without bevacizumab for colon cancer was more effective than the MTD therapy via anti-angiogenic effects. Sequential measurement of CEPs may be a predictive factor for the efficacy and a decisive factor for the optimal dose of metronomic therapy in colon cancer.
circulating endothelial cell; irinotecan; anti-angiogenesis; maximum-tolerated dose; surrogate marker for angiogenesis
The chemotherapeutic agent etoposide is a topoisomerase II inhibitor widely used for cancer therapy. Low-dose oral etoposide, administered at close regular intervals, has potent anti-tumor activity in patients who are refractory to intravenous etoposide; however, the mechanism remains unclear. Since endothelial cells may be more sensitive than tumor cells to chemotherapy agents, we determined the effects of etoposide alone and in combination with oral cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ ligands on angiogenesis and tumor growth in xenograft tumor models. Optimal anti-angiogenic (metronomic) and anti-tumor doses of etoposide on angiogenesis, primary tumor growth and metastasis were established alone and in combination therapy. Etoposide inhibited endothelial and tumor cell proliferation, decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by tumor cells and suppressed endothelial tube formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations. In our in vivo studies, oral etoposide inhibited fibroblast growth factor 2 and VEGF-induced corneal neovascularization, VEGF-induced vascular permeability and increased levels of the endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor endostatin in mice. In addition, etoposide inhibited Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and human glioblastoma (U87) primary tumor growth as well as spontaneous lung metastasis in a LLC resection model. Furthermore, etoposide had synergistic anti-tumor activity in combination with celecoxib and rosiglitazone, which are also oral anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor agents. Etoposide inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by indirect and direct mechanisms of action. Combining etoposide with celecoxib and rosiglitazone increases its efficacy and merits further investigation in future clinical trials to determine the potential usefulness of etoposide in combinatory anti-angiogenic chemotherapy.
etoposide; tumor angiogenesis; metronomic chemotherapy; oral combination therapy; peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor
A lack of strategy to counteract hypoxia (pO2< 10–15 mmHg) and technique to repeatedly measure tumor pO2 has restricted therapeutic optimization. We report the results obtained with an innovative anti-angiogenic strategy of recurrent low-dose (metronomic) chemotherapy to modulate hypoxia and growth of the Head and Neck tumor xenografts.
The FaDu tumors were established in the flank of immune deficient mice and EPR oximetry with lithium phthalocyanine crystals was used to follow the temporal changes in tumor pO2 on treatment with gemcitabine including controls for three weeks. The FaDu tumors were hypoxic with a baseline (pre-treatment) pO2 of 2–8 mmHg. A transient increase in the tumor pO2 was evident on day 3 on treatment with a conventional schedule of gemcitabine (150 mg/kg, dl, d8, d15). No significant change in the tumor pO2 on treatment with metronomic gemcitabine (25 mg/kg on dl, d3, d5 for 3 weeks) was observed. However, tumor pO2 increased significantly on d15–dl8 during treatment with a metronomic schedule of 15 mg/kg gemcitabine (dl, d3, d5 for 3 weeks). A modest decrease in the tumor growth was evident on treatment with conventional gemcitabine. Notably, tumor growth was significantly inhibited by metronomic (25 and 15 mg/kg) gemcitabine treatment. The immuno-histochemistry (IHC) analyses of the tumor samples indicate a decrease in HIF-la and TSP-1 on treatment with metronomic gemcitabine.
In conclusion, a significant inhibition of tumor growth on treatment with metronomic gemcitabine was observed; however, the increase in pO2 was dose dependent. EPR oximetry can be used to follow the temporal changes in tumor pO2 to identify a therapeutic window on treatment with metronomic chemotherapy for potential combination with radiotherapy.
Chemotherapy; Anti-angiogenesis; Vascular normalization; Head and neck cancer; Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2); Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry; Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF); Thrombospondin (TSP)
One of the most significant developments in medical oncology practice has been the approval of various antiangiogenic drugs for the treatment of a number of different malignancies. These drugs include bevacizumab (Avastin®), the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody. Thus far, bevacizumab appears to induce clinical benefit in patients who have advanced metastatic disease only or primarily when it is combined with conventional chemotherapy. The reasons for the chemo-enhancing effects of bevacizumab are unknown, and this is a subject that we have been actively studying along with additional ways that antiangiogenic drugs may be combined with chemotherapy. In this respect, we have focused much of our effort on metronomic low dose chemotherapy. We have been studying the hypothesis that some chemotherapy drugs at maximum tolerated doses or other cytotoxic- like drugs such as acute "vascular disrupting agents" (VDAs) can cause an acute mobilization of proangiogenic cells from the bone marrow which home to and colonize the treated tumors, thus accelerating their recovery. These cells include endothelial progenitor cells. This systemic process can be largely blocked by a targeted antiangiogenic drug, e.g. anti-VEGFR-2 antibodies. In addition, metronomic chemotherapy, i.e., close regular administration of chemotherapy drugs at low non-toxic doses with no breaks, over prolonged periods of time not only prevents the acute CEP bone marrow response, but can even target the cells. This potential antiangiogenic effect of metronomic chemotherapy can also be boosted by combination with a targeted antiangiogenic agent. Treatment combinations of metronomic chemotherapy and an antiangiogenic drug have moved into phase II clinical trial testing with particularly encouraging results thus far reported in metastatic breast and recurrent ovarian cancer. Oral chemotherapy drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CTX), methotrexate are the main chemotherapeutics used for such trials. Oral 5-FU prodrugs such as UFT would also appear to be highly suitable based on long term adjuvant therapy studies in patients. Recent preclinical results using metronomic cyclophosphamide and metronomic UFT in models of advanced metastatic breast cancer suggest that this type of combination might be particularly promising for metronomic chemotherapy in this indication, particularly when combined with a targeted antiangiogenic drug.
Tumor angiogenesis; Antiangiogenic therapy; Metastasis; Breast cancer; Endothelial progenitor cells; VEGF; Vascular disrupting agents; Cyclophosphamide; UFT
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an intrinsically chemotherapy refractory malignancy. Development of effective therapeutic regimens would be facilitated by improved preclinical HCC models. Currently, most models consist of subcutaneous human tumor transplants in immunodeficient mice; however, these do not reproduce the extensive liver disease associated with HCC or metastasize. To address this deficiency, we developed an orthotopic model. Human HCC cells were transfected with the gene encoding secretable β-subunit human choriogonadotropin (β-hCG), which was used as a surrogate marker of tumor burden. The HCC cells were implanted into the left liver lobe of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, after which the efficacy of different therapies was evaluated on established, but liver-confined human Hep3B cell line HCC. Treatments included sorafenib or metronomic chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide (CTX), UFT, an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug, or doxorubicin either alone or in various combinations, with or without an antiangiogenic agent, DC101, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antibody. Sorafenib inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner but caused severe weight loss in SCID mice, thus necessitating use of DC101 in subsequent experiments. Although less toxicity was observed using either single or doublet metronomic chemotherapy without any added antiangiogenic agent, none, provided survival benefit. In contrast, significantly improved overall survival was observed using various combinations of metronomic chemotherapy regimens such as UFT + CTX with DC101. In conclusion, using this model of liver-confined but advanced HCC suggests that the efficacy of a targeted antiangiogenic drug or metronomic chemotherapy can be mutually enhanced by concurrent combination treatment.
Cisplatin is a commonly used drug for chemotherapy, however, whether it may be used synergistically with radiotherapy remains unclear. The present study investigated the underlying mechanisms of synergistic killing by radiosensitization and cisplatin, with a focus on the growth inhibition, apoptosis and autophagy of non-small cell human lung cancer cells in vitro and in a tumor xenograft in vivo. A549 cells were used for the in vitro experiments and divided into the following four treatment groups: Sham-irradiated; conventional radiotherapy (CRT) of five doses of 2 Gy every day; hyperfractionated radiotherapy of five doses of 2 Gy (1 Gy twice a day at 4 h intervals) every day; and CRT plus cisplatin. A xenograft tumor-bearing C57BL/6 model was established for the in vivo experiments and the above-mentioned treatments were administered. MTT and colony formation assays were used to detect cell viability and western blotting was performed to detect the levels of protein expression. Monodansylcadaverine staining and the immunofluorescence technique were used to analyze the autophagy rate, while flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the expression levels of the genes associated with apoptosis and autophagy, including microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAPLC3)-II, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) III, Beclin1, phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT), damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein, caspase-3 and p21. The MTT assay demonstrated that cisplatin exhibits a dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 cells and synergizes with radiation to promote the cell-killing effect of radiation. In the xenograft mouse model of Lewis cells, cisplatin plus ionizing radiation (IR) (five doses of 2 Gy) yielded the most significant tumor suppression. The autophagic vacuoles, the ratio of MAPLC3-II to MAPLC3-I (LC3-II/LC3-I) and the levels of Beclin1 were found to increase in all treatment groups, with the most marked upregulation observed in the CRT plus cisplatin treatment group. In addition, caspase-3 processing was enhanced in the group treated with the combination of cisplatin with radiation, compared with the group treated with radiation alone. Fractionated IR resulted in a significant increase in p21 expression, which was further enhanced when combined with cisplatin. Furthermore, treatment with cisplatin and fractionated IR resulted in a significant elevation of the expression of the autophagy-related genes, PI3KIII, Beclin1 and DRAM1. However, the levels of p-AKT were observed to decline following exposure to fractionated IR in the presence or absence of cisplatin. As for the apoptosis signaling genes, the combination of cisplatin and fractionated IR therapy resulted in a significant decrease in Bcl-2 expression and a marked upregulation of p21 expression. The current study offers strong evidence that the combination of cisplatin with radiation strengthens the killing effect of radiation via pro-apoptotic and pro-autophagic cell death.
cisplatin; radiosensitivity; synergistic killing; lung cancer; autophagy; apoptosis
Metronomic cyclophosphamide given on an intermittent, 6-day repeating schedule, but not on an exposure dose-equivalent daily schedule, activates an anti-tumor innate immune response that leads to major regression of large implanted gliomas, without anti-angiogenesis.
Methods and approach
Mice bearing implanted 9L gliomas were used to investigate the effects of this 6-day repeating, immunogenic cyclophosphamide schedule on myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are pro-angiogenic and can inhibit anti-tumor immunity, and to elucidate the mechanism whereby the innate immune cell-dependent tumor regression response to metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is blocked by several anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Intermittent metronomic cyclophosphamide scheduling strongly increased glioma-associated CD11b+ immune cells but not CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells, while bone marrow and spleen reservoirs of the suppressor cells were decreased. The inhibition of immune cell recruitment and tumor regression by anti-angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, previously observed in several brain tumor models, was recapitulated in the 9L tumor model with the VEGFR2-specific inhibitory monoclonal antibody DC101 (p < 0.01), implicating VEGFR2 signaling as an essential step in metronomic cyclophosphamide-stimulated immune cell recruitment. In contrast, sorafenib, a multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with comparatively weak VEGF receptor phosphorylation inhibitory activity, was strongly anti-angiogenic but did not block metronomic cyclophosphamide-induced innate immunity or tumor regression (p > 0.05).
The interference by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the immunogenic actions of intermittent metronomic chemotherapy is not a consequence of anti-angiogenesis per se, as demonstrated in an implanted 9L tumor model. Furthermore, this undesirable interaction with tyrosine kinase inhibitors can be avoided by using anti-angiogenic drugs that spare the VEGFR2 pathway.
VEGFR2; Metronomic chemotherapy; Innate immunity; DC101; Sorafenib
For patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) who progressed on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, the orally administered mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus has been shown to prolong progression free survival. Intriguingly, inhibition of mTOR also promotes expansion of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) that can inhibit anti-tumor immune responses in a clinically relevant way in various tumor types including RCC. This study intends to investigate whether the antitumor efficacy of everolimus can be increased by preventing the detrimental everolimus induced expansion of Tregs using a metronomic schedule of cyclophosphamide.
This phase I-II trial is a national multi-center study of different doses and schedules of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in combination with a fixed dose of everolimus in patients with mRCC not amenable to or progressive after a VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor containing treatment regimen. In the phase I part of the study the optimal Treg-depleting dose and schedule of metronomic oral cyclophosphamide when given in combination with everolimus will be determined. In the phase II part of the study we will evaluate whether the percentage of patients progression free at 4 months of everolimus treatment can be increased from 50% to 70% by adding metronomic cyclophosphamide (in the dose and schedule determined in the phase I part). In addition to efficacy, we will perform extensive immune monitoring with a focus on the number, phenotype and function of Tregs, evaluate the safety and feasibility of the combination of everolimus and cyclophosphamide, perform monitoring of selected angiogenesis parameters and analyze everolimus and cyclophosphamide drug levels.
This phase I-II study is designed to determine whether metronomic cyclophosphamide can be used to counter the mTOR inhibitor everolimus induced Treg expansion in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and increase the antitumor efficacy of everolimus.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01462214, EudraCT number 2010-024515-13, Netherlands Trial Register number NTR3085.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hypervascular highly angiogenic tumor usually associated with liver cirrhosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a critical role in vascular development in HCC. In contrast to the treatment of early-stage HCC, the treatment options for advanced HCC are limited and prognosis is often poor, which contributes to this tumor type being the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Metronomic chemotherapy, which was originally designed to inhibit angiogenesis, involves low-dose chemotherapeutic agents administered in a frequent regular schedule with no prolonged breaks and minimizes severe toxicities. We reviewed the potential effects and impact of metronomic chemotherapy in preclinical studies with HCC models and in patients with advanced HCC, especially when combined with a molecular targeted agent. Metronomic chemotherapy involves multiple mechanisms that include antiangiogenesis and antivasculogenesis, immune stimulation by reducing regulatory T cells and inducing dendritic cell maturation, and possibly some direct tumor cell targeting effects, including the cancer stem cell subpopulation. The total number of preclinical studies with HCC models shows impressive results using metronomic chemotherapy-based protocols, especially in conjunction with molecular targeted agents. Four clinical trials and two case reports evaluating metronomic chemotherapy for HCC indicate it to be a safe and potentially useful treatment for HCC. Several preclinical and clinical HCC studies suggest that metronomic chemotherapy may become an alternative type of chemotherapy for advanced unresectable HCC and postsurgical adjuvant treatment of HCC.