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1.  A clinical study of Panchakola Siddha Yavagu in the management of Agnimandya 
Ayu  2011;32(1):70-75.
This research is carried out with the aim to study Agnidipana effect of Panchakola Siddha Yavagu which comprises Pippali (Piper longum), Pippalimula (root of Piper longum), Chavya (Piper chaba Hunter), Chitraka (Plumbago zelynica) and Nagara (Zingiber officinale) which are all in equal proportion processed in six times of water. A randomized open clinical trial on 47 patients of Agnimandya has been screened on the basis of clinical findings and the patients were allocated to two groups. Group A having 29 cases received the trial drug (Panchakola Siddha Yavagu) and 18 cases in Group B received simple Yavagu with roasted rice powder as the control group. Special scoring pattern was done for the assessment of Agnimandya state. Complete cure of the patient was found in 17.24% of the patients, 34.48% patients were improved moderately as well as markedly, whereas mild improvement was observed in 13.80% patients by treatment with Panchakola Yavagu.
PMCID: PMC3215422  PMID: 22131761
Agnimandya; Agnidipana; Panchakola; Yavagu
2.  A clinical trial of Sri Lankan traditional decoction of Pitawakka Navaya in the treatment of Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola 
Ayu  2010;31(3):268-271.
Authentic Ayurvedic texts mention 11 types of Shiro Roga (diseases in the head). Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola, which occurs due to vitiation of Kapha and Vata Dosha, is one of them. Chronic sinusitis is a chronic inflammation of the sinuses. It can be correlated with Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola. Decoction of Pitawakka Navaya consists of nine ingredients; these are: Bhoomyamalaka, Haritaki, Barangi, Chavya, Pippali, Salarka, Guduchi, Shunthi and Maricha. These herbs, which pacify vitiated Vata Dosha and Kapha Dosha, are used by traditional physicians in Sri Lanka to treat Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola (chronic sinusitis). However, no scientific studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Pitawakka Navaya in the treatment of Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola. Hence, this clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the decoction of Pitawakka Navaya in the treatment of Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola. Sixty patients suffering from Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola were selected and examined. These patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each. The first group was treated with 120 ml of decoction of Pitawakka Navaya twice a day for 14 days. The second group was treated with 120 ml of placebo twice a day for 14 days. After treatment, most of the patients’ symptoms were completely or partially relieved. In <10% of the patients, some symptoms were unchanged or aggravated. It is observed that the traditional decoction Pitawakka Navaya is beneficial for Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola (chronic sinusitis).
PMCID: PMC3221057  PMID: 22131725
Chronic Sinusitis; Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola; Decoction of Pitawakka Navaya
3.  A clinical trial of Sri Lankan traditional decoction of Pitawakka Navaya in treatment of Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola (chronic sinusitis) 
Ayu  2010;31(2):193-196.
Authentic Ayurvedic texts mention eleven types of Shiro Roga (diseases in head). Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola, which occurs due to vitiation of Kapha and Vata Dosha, is one of them. Chronic sinusitis is a chronic inflammation of sinuses. It can be correlated with Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola. Decoction of Pitawakka Navaya consists of nine ingredients. They are Bhoomyamalaka, Haritaki, Bharangi, Chavya, Pippali, Salarka, Guduchi, Shunti and Maricha. These herbs, which pacify vitiated Vata Dosha and Kapha Dosha, are used by traditional physicians in Sri Lanka to treat Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola (chronic sinusitis). However, no scientific studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Pitawakka Navaya in treatment of Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola. Hence, this clinical study has been conducted to evaluate its efficacy.. Sixty patients suffering from Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola were selected and examined. These patients were randomly divided into two groups of thirty patients each. First group was treated with 120 ml of decoction of Pitawakka Navaya twice a day for fourteen days. The second group was treated with 120 ml of placebo twice a day for fourteen days. After treatment, most of the patients’ symptoms were completely or partially relieved. In less than 10% of patients, some symptoms were unchanged or aggravated. It is observed that traditional decoction Pitawakka Navaya is beneficial for Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola (chronic sinusitis).
PMCID: PMC3215363  PMID: 22131709
Chronic sinusitis; decoction of Pitawakka Navaya; Kaphaja Shirsha Shoola
4.  A comparative study on Vamana Karma with Madanaphala and Krutavedhana in Ekakushtha (Psoriasis) 
Ayu  2011;32(4):487-493.
Vamana Karma (therapeutic emesis) is the best therapy for the elimination of vitiated Kapha Dosha. In the present clinical practice Madanaphala (Randia dumetorum) is mainly used for Vamana Karma. Apart from Madanaphala, five other drugs, and in total 355 formulations are described in Charaka Samhita; one of them is Krutavedhana (Luffa acutangula) kalpa (formulations). Krutavedhana is specially indicated in Gadha (compact) Dosha condition like Kushtha (skin diseases), Garavisha (slow poison), and so on, for Vamana Karma. The present study aimed to observe the effect on Vamana Karma and by that its effect on Ekakushtha (Psoriasis). Krutavedhana Beeja Churna (seed powder) was given with Madhu (honey) and Saindhava (rock salt) as Vamana Yoga (emetic formulation), to compare it with Madanaphala Pippali Churna (seed powder). After the Sansarjana Krama (special dietetic schedule), Panchatikta Ghrita (medicated ghee) was given as Shamana Sneha (pacifying oleation). An average dose of Krutavedhana was 5.9 g. Krutavedhana could produce a good number of Vega (bouts), Pittanta Lakshana (bile coming out at the end of Vamana), and Pravara Shuddhi (maximum cleansing) in a majority of patients. Madanaphala is the best among all Vamaka (emetic) drugs, but Krutavedhana showed a similar to higher effect on Vamana Karma in terms of Antiki, Maniki, Vaigiki, and Laingiki Shuddhi (cleansing criteria). Vamana Karma by Krutavedhana showed better relief in Matsyashakalopamam (silvery scale), Kandu (itching), and Rukshataa (dryness), while Madanapahala showed better relief in Krishnaruna Varna (erythema). After completion of the Shamana (pacifying) treatment, both the groups showed nearly the same effect on Asvedanam (lack of perspiration), Matsyashakalopamam, Kandu, Rukshataa, Krishnaruna Varna, and Mahaavaastu (bigger lesion).
PMCID: PMC3361923  PMID: 22661842
Ekakushtha; Krutavedhana; Madanaphala; Panchatikta Ghrita; Psoriasis; Vamana Karma
5.  Clinical evaluation of Rasayana compound as an adjuvant in the management of tuberculosis with anti-Koch's treatment 
Ayu  2012;33(1):38-43.
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to intimidate the human race since time immemorial not only due to its effects as a medical malady, but also by its impact as a social and economic tragedy. At the dawn of the new millennium, we are still mute witnesses to the silent yet efficient march of this sagacious disease, its myriad manifestations and above all its unequalled, vicious power. Through the millennia, TB never ever disappeared from the developing world. In 1991, the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution recognized TB as a major global public health problem. The DOTS strategy was launched in 1994, and became the global recommended strategy for TB control since then. The present study deals with clinical evaluation of Rasayana drugs considering of Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia willd.), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) Dunal, Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Pippali (Piper longum Linn.), Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.), Kustha (Saussurea lappa Falc.), Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Kulinjan (Alpinia galangal Linn.) as an adjuvant therapy with anti-Koch's treatment. The results obtained revealed that Rasayana compound was found to decrease cough (83%), fever (93%), dyspnea (71.3%), hemoptysis (87%) and increase body weight (7.7%) with statistically highly significant (P<0.001).
PMCID: PMC3456861  PMID: 23049182
Anti-Koch's treatment; DOTS; Rasayana; tuberculosis
6.  Anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) 
Ayu  2012;33(2):307-310.
The present study has beenundertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali in acute and sub-acute experimental models of inflammation in albino rats. Four different market samples of each variety of Pippali were procured from different regions of India. The samples collected from South India which have given more extractive values were selected for screening of anti-inflammatory activity. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg and the activity was compared with standard anti-inflammatory drugs in both models. Among the two different test samples studied, it was found that Chhoti variety of Pippali suppressed inflammation of both acute and sub acute phase, while Badi variety of Pippali only of acute phase. Thus for the therapeutic utility, Chhoti variety of Pippali may be considered over the Badi variety.
PMCID: PMC3611634  PMID: 23559810
Anti-inflammatory; carrageenan; Chhoti Pippali; Pippali; plethysmograph
7.  Adverse drug reaction and concepts of drug safety in Ayurveda: An overview 
Drug safety is a very basic and fundamental concept in medical practice. ADRs play an important role in assessing patient safety in any system of medicine. Pharmacovigilance study is thus significant to understand treatment outcomes. Current raised issue with respect to complementary and alternative system medicine (CAM) like Ayurveda is increased in number of safety reports along with report misinterpretation; this generates the negative impact on system. Although, Ayurveda which is holistic system of medicine from India has elaborated the causes and methods of drug-induced consequences along with preventive measures the available data in classical texts is scattered. The compilation and analysis along with modern concept drug safety is need of the hour. Present literature review was conducted from various compendium of Ayurveda and electronic data base with search terms of ‘Vyapad’, ‘Viruddha’, ‘Ahita’, ‘herb–herb interaction’, ‘idiosyncrasy’, ‘Prakritiviruddha’ etc. The reported information was analysed for the possible correlation on concept of ADR and Pharmacovigilance of current science. Overall review demonstrated that drug interaction, iatrogenic, over dose, administration of unsuitable drugs, reprehensive drug administration with respect to disease, complication from five procedural therapies (Panchakarma) and reprehensible preparation of mineral drug are nearer to the modern causes of ADR. Thus, concept of drug safety and ADR is not new to the Ayurveda. The concept “Drug which is not appropriate to be used as medicine”(Abheshaja) of Ayurveda sounds similar as that of modern pharmacovigilance.
PMCID: PMC3930110  PMID: 24563588
Pharmacovigilance; ADR; Ayurveda; Drug safety; Abheshaja
8.  A clinical study of Haritaki and Saindhava Lavana in Kaphaja Kasa with special reference to Samyoga Guna 
Ayu  2011;32(3):357-360.
In clinical practice, Guna which are to be with Bhisak are mainly the Paradi Gunas which can also be called as Miscellaneous Gunas. As rightly quoted by Acarya Caraka, for getting success in the treatment Paradi Gunas are the best. The Sutra quotes “Sidhyupaya Cikitsayam” which means that Cikitsa i. e. Dhatusamya will be done mainly with the help of Paradi Gunas. Thus in this study an attempt was made to know the comparative effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana alone and Samyukta effect in Kaphaja Kasa. Three groups were made for proper evaluation of the therapy. In Group-A Haritaki Tablet 2 gm/ twice a day (500 mg tablet × 4), In Group-B Saindava Lavana Curna 2 gm/ twice a day and in Group-C Haritaki + Saindhava lavana Tablet 4 gm/twice a day (500 mg tablet × 8) was given. Results were assessed after 7 days with the help of a specially prepared proforma. The hematological, Urine and Stool investigations were carried out. In subjective and objective criterias, significant results were found in Group-C as compared to Group-A and Group-B. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the combined (Samyoga) effect of Haritaki and Saindhava lavana is much efficient than the single drug therapy.
PMCID: PMC3326882  PMID: 22736910
Guna; Haritaki; Paradi Guna; Saindhava lavana; Samyoga
9.  PA01.67. Clinical study on role of Guduchyadi pippali yoga in sukra kshaya w.s.r. Oligospermia 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S117.
An estimated 15% couples are infertile. In this male factor is 30%, female factor is 30%, both factors are 30% and idiopathic causes are 10%. Among them shukra kshaya [oligospermia] is the major cause. Infertility severely affects the couple in their Psychological harmony, Sexual life and social activity. So the qualitative and quantitative increase in sukra is the main purpose of this study.
The study was conducted with an open trial with randomised selection. Guduchyadi pippali yoga consists of Guduchi satva, pippali churna, Ela churna, Abraka bhasma, Loha bhasma and sita and it was given in 500mg tab form mixed with honey and ksheera as anupana. This drug has been given for 45 days and patient was asked to review in every 15 days with the help of subjective parameters from the patient and objective parameters from a laboratory the results were assessed.
The results are encouraging in both subjective and objective parameters. Among 30 patients 5 patients reported that their partner got conceived.
The sperm count and sperm motility are markedly improved. No side effects have been reported. Thus it finally noticed that Ayurveda has proper answer to male infertility which is caused by oligospermia. So the purpose of this study is fulfilled.
PMCID: PMC3800871
10.  Clinical study of the Immunoglobululin Enhancing effect of “Bala compound” on Infants 
Ancient Science of Life  2009;28(3):18-22.
Kaumarbhritya a branch of Asthanga Ayurveda deals with neonatal, infant and child health care. Multicentric studies conducted in various developed and developing countries have indicated that Infant Mortality Rate (I.M.R.) is very high in developing countries, and infection has been observed as the major cause. Immune system in neonates is not yet fully functional. Bala compound having the ingredients of Atibala (Abutilon indicum Linn), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Linn), Vidanga (Emblica ribes burn), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Welld Miers), Pippali (Piperlongum linn), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn), Shankhapuspi (Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois ), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn), Musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn) and Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall) are Medhya as well as Rasayana drugs mention in Ayurvedic classics. ‘Bala compound” was tried in infants in the form of oral drops for a period of six months and result was assessed for serum immuoglobulins IgG, IgM, IgA for three months of interval of two follow ups (i.e., third and six month of infant). There is significant increase of immunoglobulins observed after six months administration of ‘Bala compoumd”
PMCID: PMC3336317  PMID: 22557316
11.  PA01.80. The review of herbal anti-allergy and anti-histaminic drugs 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S130.
The symptoms of an allergic reaction communicate sensitization to certain antigens in the environment. Initiation of antigen reaction stimulates mast cells to release histamine into the blood which interacts with the cells to produce most of the symptoms of the allergy. Drugs that block only the action of histamine are known as antihistaminic while the drugs preventing mast cells from releasing histamine are considered as anti allergic agents. Ayurveda considers Mandagni (Jadharagni in hypofunctional state) as the root cause of the all diseases which produces Ama (Antigen/Visha). Drugs possessing Deepan, Pachan, and Vishaghna properties may prevent histamine release and allergic reactions. Udardaprashamana, Kandughna, Swasahara group of drugs may prevent acute histaminic reaction. Keeping this concept in view a critical review was made about the herbs mentioned in the classical Ganas and aushadhyogas of compilatory works of medieval India in addition to reported activities during 20th century research works. The study aims to identify herbs with Antihistaminic and Antiallergy activity and to discuss safety and efficacy of herbal anti histaminics over the drugs of modern medicine which may produce certain adverse effects like nausea, drowsiness, nasal burning etc.
Analysis of drugs mentioned in the management of pratishyaya, shwas, kasa, and skin conditions like Seetpitta, Udarda, Vicharchika etc. was made. Review of research data mentioned in various journals and monographs was also analysed.
Vishaghna and Udardaprashamana dashemani may have profound activity in controlling allergic reactions. Kandughna Dashemani may be useful to control fungal and allergic skin diseases. Pippali, Tulsi, Kantakari may be useful in the management of allergic disease of respiratory tract. Azadirachta indica (Nimba), Albezzia lebbeck (Shirish), Glycerrhyza glabra (Yashtimadhu) etc. have provided ample scientific evidence for antihistaminic activity.
Recent researches confirmed Anti histaminic and Anti allergic activity of Adhatoda vasica (vaasaa), Aloe vera (kumari), Azadirachta indica (nimba), Curcurma zedoaria (karchura), Nigella sativa (upakunchikaa), Inula racemosa (pushkarmoola), Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi), Benincasa hispida (krushmanda) etc. which are safer to use.
PMCID: PMC3800886
12.  Conceptual and applied study of Snigdha and Ruksa Guna with special reference to Rasa-raktagata Sneha (hyperlipidemia) 
Ayu  2011;32(2):200-206.
Ayurveda as well as Philosophy accepted the Guna as the basic entity of the Sristi. The Maha Gunas, i.e., Sattva, Raja, and Tama are the prime energy, from where the universe evolves, along with human beings. Dravya and Guna both have a Samavayi relationship in which Gunas reside in Dravya and have a secondary place to it. Guna has multifold meanings according to its use, in social, cultural, philosophical, and literary fields. The concepts of Ayurveda are expressed with Gunas. Samanya and Visesa are usually expressed in terms of Gunas; the classification, description, and function of Dravyas depends upon Guna; Karmas are manifested forms of Guna and Samavaya is the eternal, intimate relation of Dravya and Guna. The principles like Triskandha (Hetu, linga, ousadhi) of Ayurveda also narrated by Gunas, Hetus are narrated in the terms of Guna; the Laksanas are the reflections in the status of Gunas of bodily elements, and Cikitsa is in the form of administration of Viparita Gunas. The increased elements are treated by opposite Guna. So if Ruksa Guna is increased then it is to be managed by Snigdha Guna and vice-versa. So diseases can be treated by applying the Gunas, and drugs for the required patient can be selected by applying these Gunas. In support of the above concept, a study on the persons of Rasa-raktagata Sneha (hyperlipidemia) has been carried out assuming that the condition is an increased state of Snigdha Guna and treatment is done using Ruksa property drugs. Patients were divided into two groups, i.e., treatment group (Ruksa Guna drugs) and control group (placebo). The results were assessed after 45 days with the help of a specially prepared pro forma. All the important hematological, biochemical, and urine investigations were done. According to subjective and objective criteria, significant results were found for Group A as compared to Group B.
PMCID: PMC3296341  PMID: 22408303
Ayurveda; Guna; hyperlipidemia; Rasa-raktagata Sneha; Ruksa Guna
13.  OA02.04. Wound healing property of Kanchanara [Bauhinia variegata Linn] - An experimental study. 
Ancient Science of Life  2013;32(Suppl 2):S10.
Wound a clinical entity, is commonly seen as a result of various etiological factors like trauma etc. Kanchanara a plant origin drug. Many of the Nighantu's have mentioned vrana shodhana and vrana ropana properties of Kanchanara. Hence present study of evaluating wound healing property of Kanchanara bark in the form of churna and ointment [sikta taila base] preparations has been taken up.
Albino rats were the experimental model. 36 albino rats were selected and divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each. 3 groups were used for excision wound model and remaining 3 groups were used for incision wound model, one group being served as the control and remaining two group for the trial drug. Churna and ointment were used for both excision and incision groups. Albino rats were wounded under aseptic conditions using wound techniques suggested by Marton and Malone [1972] and also by hunts model[1969]. In case of excision wound area of wound was measured once in 4 days by using graph sheet. In case of incision wound tensile strength was found out by using tensinometer on 10th post wounding day.
The statistical values of both groups were compared with control group and it showed that: 1. Kanchanara ointment promoted epithelization, wound contraction and period of epithelization was reduced in case of excision wound. 2. In incision wound also Kanchanara ointment helps in increasing collagenation and tensile strength. Both ointment and churna group are highly significant when compared with control group. On comparison of ointment group with churna group it statistically showed insignificance. No untoward side effects were noticed during the trial and the wound, healed with minimal scar.
Kanchanara ointment and its churna is an effective, safe and well tolerated therapy in the treatment of both excision and incision wound.
PMCID: PMC4147478
14.  Conditional Depletion of KasA, a Key Enzyme of Mycolic Acid Biosynthesis, Leads to Mycobacterial Cell Lysis 
Journal of Bacteriology  2005;187(22):7596-7606.
Inhibition or inactivation of InhA, a fatty acid synthase II (FASII) enzyme, leads to mycobacterial cell lysis. To determine whether inactivation of other enzymes of the mycolic acid-synthesizing FASII complex also leads to lysis, we characterized the essentiality of two β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthases, KasA and KasB, in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Using specialized transduction for allelic exchange, null kasB mutants, but not kasA mutants, could be generated in Mycobacterium smegmatis, suggesting that unlike kasB, kasA is essential. To confirm the essentiality of kasA, and to detail the molecular events that occur following depletion of KasA, we developed CESTET (conditional expression specialized transduction essentiality test), a genetic tool that combines conditional gene expression and specialized transduction. Using CESTET, we were able to generate conditional null inhA and kasA mutants. We studied the effects of depletion of KasA in M. smegmatis using the former strain as a reference. Depletion of either InhA or KasA led to cell lysis, but with different biochemical and morphological events prior to lysis. While InhA depletion led to the induction of an 80-kDa complex containing both KasA and AcpM, the mycobacterial acyl carrier protein, KasA depletion did not induce the same complex. Depletion of either InhA or KasA led to inhibition of α and epoxy mycolate biosynthesis and to accumulation of α′-mycolates. Furthermore, scanning electron micrographs revealed that KasA depletion resulted in the cell surface having a “crumpled” appearance, in contrast to the blebs observed on InhA depletion. Thus, our studies support the further exploration of KasA as a target for mycobacterial-drug development.
PMCID: PMC1280301  PMID: 16267284
15.  PA01.25. Clinical evaluation of chitrakadi churna and kshar basti in the management of amavata with special reference to rheumatoid arthritis 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S75.
The disease Amavata can be presented as very similar to Rheumatoid Arthritis. Rheumatoid Arthritis is chronic in nature and affects mostly middle aged people. For this disease there is no satisfactory medicine is available till date. But in Ayurveda there are many drugs described for Amavata which are cost effective and easily available with no side effects. The present clinical study evaluated the effect of Chitrakadi Churna and Kshar Basti in the management of Amavata.
30 clinically diagnosed patient of Amavata were registered and completed the trial. In this 15 patients (Group A) administered Chitrakadi Churna 4gm twice daily with lukewarm water after meal. Another 15 patients (Group B) administered Chitrakadi Churna 4gm twice daily with lukewarm water after meal and Kshar Basti as per Kalbasti krama i.e 16days followed by local Snehan Swedan.
Results of this trial were encouraging as there is improvement in each symptom of patient like pain, stiffness, swelling, and tenderness. Group A in which only Chitrakadi Churna was administered there was no significant improvement seen statistically. But Group B in which Chitrakadi Churna as well as Kshar Basti was administered highly significant improvement seen statistically. Details of the Statistical test and other important will be discussed at the time of paper presentation.
From present clinical trial it is concluded that this therapy is very useful for pain, swelling, tenderness and stiffness, which were chief complaint of the patient. Chronicity more than 3 years did not show marked improvement. And also this drug is supposed to be very good combination of Vedanashamaka, Shothaghna, Amapachaka Dravyas. No untoward effects were seen except mild loss of weight.
PMCID: PMC3800956
16.  Evaluation of Anti-Secretory and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activities of Avipattikar Churna on The Peptic Ulcers in Experimental Rats 
Background: Avipattikar churna, a poly-herbal formulation, is one of the popular ayurvedic formulations which is used for peptic ulcer diseases but the scientific documentation with regards to its effect for the indication is lacking.
Aims: This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-secretory and the anti-ulcerogenic activities of the churna and to compare its activity with that of ranitidine in a pyloric ligated model of rats.
Material and methods: Four groups of rats with 6 animals in each served as the ulcer controls, churna low dose (500 mg/kg), churna high dose (750mg/kg) and ranitidine (25mg/kg). The control group rats received only vehicle (2% (v/v) gum acacia), while the rats of the other groups received the respective dose of the churna or ranitidine which was suspended in the vehicle. The treatments were given twice a day, orally, for two days. After 1 hour of the last dose, pyloric ligations were performed and the rats were sacrificed for evaluation after four hours of the ligations. The gastric contents were collected and its volume, pH and acidity were measured. The numbers of ulcers and their lengths were measured which were used to calculate the gastric irritancy index and the curative ratio. The histological examinations of the gastric tissues were also performed.
Results: The churna, in both doses, significantly decreased the volumes of the gastric contents, the ulcer score, the length of the ulcer, the gastric irritancy index and pH increased as compared to those in the control group. The effects of the churna were comparable to that of ranitidine. The histopathological evaluation of the gastric tissue also supported the results.
Conclusion: Avipattikar churna has anti-secretory and anti-ulcerogenic effects which are comparable to those of ranitidine in peptic ulcer diseases.
PMCID: PMC3708215  PMID: 23905120
Avipattikar churna; Gastric acid; Peptic ulcer; Pyloric ligation; Ranitidine, Rats
17.  A Clinical study of Matra Vasti and an ayurvedic indigenous compound drug in the management of Sandhigatavata (Osteoarthritis) 
Ayu  2010;31(2):210-217.
Sandhigatavata is described under vatavyadhi in all ayurvedic classical texts. Osteoarthritis is the most common articular disorder which begins asymptomatically in the second and third decades and is extremely common by age 70. Here Matra Vasti (therapeutic enema) was given with Bala taila as Vasti is the best treatment for vatavyadhies. It has vatashamaka and rasayana properties. Indigenous compound drug containing Guggulu, Shallaki, Yastimadhu, Pippali, Guduchi, Nirgundi, Kupilu and Godanti was given in one group along with Matra Vasti. In this study, 33 patients of Sandhigatavata completed the treatment. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixteen patients in Group-A (sarvanga Abhyanga-swedana + matravasti) and 17 patients in Group-B (sarvanga Abhyanga–swedana+ matravasti + indigenous compound drug). The results of the study indicate that the patients of both the groups obtained highly significant relief in almost all the signs and symptoms of Sandhigatavata.
PMCID: PMC3215366  PMID: 22131712
Abhyanga; indigenous compound drug; Matra Vasti; osteoarthritis; Sandhigatavata; swedana; vatavyadhi; therapeutic enema.
18.  Role of Sattvavajaya Chikitsa (Trance therapy) in the management of Manasa-Dosha Ajeerna  
Ayu  2012;33(1):78-84.
In Ayurveda, three modes of healing are narrated, viz. Daiva-Vyapashraya, Yukti-Vyapashraya, and Sattvavajaya Chikitsa. In the present study, an effort has been made to assess the effect of Sattvavajaya Chikitsa on both Shareera and Manasa Doshas. Similarly, the impact of Yukti-Vyapashraya Chikitsa on both kinds of Doshas has been observed. The psychosomatic disease selected for the study was Manasa-Dosha Ajeerna. The standard drug taken for Ajeerna was Shunthi, while for Sattvavajaya “Trance/Clinical Hypnosis” was applied on the patients. The study was carried out on 27 patients suffering from Ajeerna and having a significant stress score. Patients were divided into two groups with simple random sampling method: Group S was treated with Shunthi tablet, while in group PS, placebo (rice powder tablet) along with Sattvavajaya Chikitsa was provided to the patients. Duration of the treatment was 10 days. Classical signs and symptoms of Ajeerna were studied before and after treatment. Amongst the registered patients, 25 patients completed the course of treatment while 2 dropped out. Group S had shown significant improvement in Vataja and Kaphaja symptoms, while group PS showed significant effect on Pittaja symptoms. In Tamasika Manobhavas causing Ajeerna, group PS had shown significant improvement, while group S showed significant and highly significant effect on Rajasika and Tamasika Bhavas, respectively.
PMCID: PMC3456870  PMID: 23049189
Dosha; Manasa-Dosha Ajeeerna; Sattvavajaya
19.  PA01.07. Evaluation of anti hyperglycemic potential of piper longum root (linn.) On alloxan induced diabetic mice 
Ancient Science of Life  2012;32(Suppl 1):S56.
Since the Vedic age's ayurvedic system of medicine has been known for its exemplary value in the treatment of various ailments. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) leading to spillage of glucose into the urine. Owing to the increasing incidence of side effects associated with synthetic oral hypoglycemic agents, ayurvedic medicines have started to gain importance in antidiabetic therapy. Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from Piper longum (popularly known as pipali in the ayurvedic literature) dried roots in alloxan induced diabetic mice.
Diabetes mellitus was induced in overnight fasted (12h) Albino mice by single intraperitonial injection of freshly prepared solution of alloxain monohydrate (150mg/kg BW) in physiological saline followed by administration of 5% glucose in their drinking water for the first 24 h to counter any initial hypoglycemia. Treatment with appropriate dose of ethanol extract of Piper longum started 7days after alloxan injection. At the end of the selected period of study the blood glucose level, body weight and lipid profile was evaluated and the data obtained was compared with those obtained for normal control and diabetic control. All the data were subjected to ANOVA test.
Bioactive Piper longum extract, on evaluation demonstrated significant decline in blood glucose content (P<0.05), along with significantly improved lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Also an improvement was observed in glycogen content and serum insulin content in the mice fed on the bioactive extract compared to the control mice. The extract also was found to counteract weight loss associated with diabetes.
The study thus concludes that Piper longum extract has a potential hypoglycemic efficacy therefore justifying its use as antidiabetic agent.
PMCID: PMC3800936
20.  Management of Vyanga (facial melanosis) with Arjuna Twak Lepa and Panchanimba Churna 
Ayu  2014;35(1):50-53.
Vyanga is one of the Kshudraroga, characterized by the presence of Niruja (painless) and Shavavarna Mandalas (bluish-black patches) on face. It is one of the most common diseases as regards the face is concerned. On the basis of clinical features, it can be compared with facial melanosis, one of the hyper pigmented disorders. Drugs with Rakta Prasadaka, Twak Prasadaka and Varnyakara properties are helpful in the management of Vyanga, that pacifies aggregated Doshas and help in Raktashodhana (blood purification).
To evaluate the efficacy of Arjunatwak Lepa and Panchanimba Churna in Vyanga.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, the trial drugs used were Arjunatwak Churna for Lepa (tropical application) and Panchanimba Churna for oral administration. A total 30 patients of Vyanga were selected from outpatient department and inpatient department of Shalakya Tantra Department and allotted randomly in two groups. In group-A, the patients were treated with external application of Arjunatwak Churna and Madhu for 21 days, while in group-B, patients received Panchanimba Churna orally for 21 days in addition to Arjunatwak Churna for Lepa. Effect of therapy on chief complaint i.e., bluish-black pigmentation in Group A was 60% relief, while in Group B 80% relief was found.
The clinical study has shown that combined therapy gives better results than topical treatment.
PMCID: PMC4213969  PMID: 25364200
Arjunatwak Churna; facial melanosis; Panchanimba Churna; Vyanga
21.  A clinical study on Krimidanta with reference to dental caries and its management with Jatipatradi Gutika and Yavanadi Churna 
Ayu  2010;31(2):223-227.
Dental caries is progressive destruction of enamel, dentine and cementum, initiated by microbial activity at the tooth surface. It is one of the major problems in dentistry. On the basis of clinical features, it can be compared with Krimidanta which is one among the eight diseases of tooth. In the management of Krimidanta, Krimighna, Vataghna and Ushna Veerya dravyas are to be used which can relieve the toothache and discoloration. In this study, the trial drugs used were Jatipatradi Gutika for Pratisarana and Yavanadi Churna for oral administration. In this study, the patients of Krimidanta (dental caries) were selected from OPD of Shalakya Department and allotted randomly in different groups. In Group A, the patients were treated with Jatipatradi Gutika for Pratisarana for 30 days. In Group B, the patients were treated with Yavanadi Churna orally and Group C patients were treated with combined therapy for 30 days. The clinical study has shown that combined therapy gives better results than individual therapies.
PMCID: PMC3215368  PMID: 22131714
Dental caries; Jatiptradi Gutika; Krimidanta; Pratisarana; Yavanadi Churna
22.  Therapeutic efficacy of Bifidobacterium longum-mediated human interleukin-2 with endostatin or TRAIL in transplanted tumors in mice 
Interleukin-2 (IL-2), as an important cytokine in immune response, has been demonstrated to have therapeutic activity in several cancer models. In our previous study, we showed that the pBV22210 vector containing a chloramphenicol resistance gene and the cryptic plasmid, pMB1, from the Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) strain could stably replicate and did not significantly affect the biological characteristics of B. longum. In this study, B. longum was transfected by electroporation with pBV22210 containing IL-2 (B. longum-pBV22210-IL-2), its growth curve was determined, and its inhibitory effect on tumor xenografts in mice was examined. The results showed that B. longum-pBV22210-IL-2 reduced the tumor size and prolonged the survival time of H22 tumor-bearing mice. In addition, when cyclophosphamide (CTX), B. longum-pBV22210-endostatin, or B. longum-pBV22210-TRAIL was combined with B. longum-pBV22210-IL-2, the antitumor effect was significantly enhanced. The survival times of the mice in the combination groups of B. longum-pBV22210-endostatin or B. longum-pBV22210-TRAIL were longer than those of the mice in the B. longum-pBV22210-IL-2 alone group. However, when CTX was added, the survival times of the mice showed no statistically significant difference compared with those of the mice in the dextrose-saline solution group. These results suggest that B. longum-pBV22210-IL-2 has potent antitumor effects that could be enhanced when combined with chemotherapeutic drugs or other antitumor genes.
PMCID: PMC3438716  PMID: 22969915
Bifidobacterium longum; interleukin-2; endostatin; tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand; tumor; gene therapy; synergistic interactions
23.  Toxicological study of Balacaturbhadrika churna 
Balacaturbhadrika churna has an important place in pediatric practice in Ayurveda. Millennia of use of this formulation bears testimony to its safety when used for prolonged duration in children. This prompted us to initiate a long-term, acute oral toxicity evaluation of Balacaturbhadrika churna in rats. The study was carried out by administering Balacaturbhadrika churna orally once only in a dose up to 2000 mg/kg. For long-term toxicity, Balacaturbhadrika churna was administered in doses of 450 and 900 mg/kg orally for 45 consecutive days. The effects of the drug on ponderal changes, hematological, biochemical and histological parameters were noted. The acute toxicity experiment showed that the drug did not produce any signs and symptoms of toxicity (or mortality) up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. Long-term toxicity results showed that, even at higher dose of 900 mg/kg, Balacaturbhadrika churna did not affect the parameters studied, to a significant extent. The doses employed for these toxicity studies were several times higher than normal clinical doses of Balacaturbhadrika churna, hence the observed changes will probably not become apparent at therapeutic dose level.
PMCID: PMC3131776  PMID: 21760693
Aconitum heterophyllum; acute toxicity; Balacaturbhadrika churna; long-term toxicity
24.  Role of Kasahara Dashemani Vati in Kasa and Vyadhikshamatva in children with special reference to recurrent respiratory tract infections 
Ayu  2013;34(3):281-287.
The present single-centered randomized control trial (RCT) was carried out with the prime aim of assessing the effect of Kasahara Dashemani Vati (trial drug) on Kasa and Vyadhikshamatva in the children suffering from recurrent respiratory tract infections and comparing it with the efficacy of Indukanta Vati. The clinical trial included 40 patients belonging to age group of 3-12 years. The drugs were administered in a daily dose fixed as per “Clark's Rule” along with honey for duration of 60 days. The effect of treatment on the signs and symptoms of Kasa was assessed on the 15th day, whereas the effect on Vyadhikshamatva was assessed on the 60th day. The patients were under follow-up for a period of 60 days after completing the treatment course for evaluation of any recurrence. Effect of the therapy on the individual signs and symptoms of Kasa, laboratory parameters, immunoglobulin (Ig) biomarkers, status of Atura Bala, and prevention of recurrence during follow-up period were the parameters used to assess the overall effect of therapy. The observed data were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis for testing the statistical significance. Kasahara Dashemani provided relief in all symptoms of Kasa irrespective of Doshic involvement and on the parameters of Atura Bala. All the changes were statistically highly significant. The control group also showed similar effects which were statistically highly significant. The trial group was found to have a direct influence on serum Ig status. No patient has reported any adverse drug reactions during the treatment and follow-up periods.
PMCID: PMC3902595  PMID: 24501524
Immunoglobulin; Indukanta Vati; Kasahara Dashemani Vati; Recurrent respiratory tract infection; Vyadhikshamatva
25.  A clinical review of different formulations of Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) on Tamaka Shwasa (asthma) 
Ayu  2010;31(4):520-524.
Vasa (Adhatoda vasica Linn.) is a well known and easily available drug in almost all the seasons. Easy availability of any drug gains popularity among physicians as well as pharmaceuticals and this is the reason why almost every Kalpana of Vasa is found described in the Ayurvedika text. The different dosage forms of Vasa like Kvatha, Avaleha, Sneha, and Sandhana have been used for the treatment of Shwasa Roga. A number of research studies have been performed on different formulations of Vasa and its effect on Shwasa Roga. Therefore, a review study has been carried out on the Vasa extract, Vasa Avaleha (prepared from Svarasa and Kvatha), Vasa Ghrita, Vasarishta, and Vasakasava on Shwasa Roga, to know which formulation is better. It was found in the review that Vasa Ghana, Vasa Ghrita (1), and Vasa Avaleha have shown good results on Tamaka Shwasa.
PMCID: PMC3202261  PMID: 22048552
Ghana (extract); Avaleha; Shwasa; Asava; Arishta; Tamaka Shwasa; Adhatoda vasica

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