PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (659427)

Clipboard (0)
None

Related Articles

1.  Disease Biomarkers in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with First-Onset Psychosis 
PLoS Medicine  2006;3(11):e428.
Background
Psychosis is a severe mental condition that is characterized by a loss of contact with reality and is typically associated with hallucinations and delusional beliefs. There are numerous psychiatric conditions that present with psychotic symptoms, most importantly schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and some forms of severe depression referred to as psychotic depression. The pathological mechanisms resulting in psychotic symptoms are not understood, nor is it understood whether the various psychotic illnesses are the result of similar biochemical disturbances. The identification of biological markers (so-called biomarkers) of psychosis is a fundamental step towards a better understanding of the pathogenesis of psychosis and holds the potential for more objective testing methods.
Methods and Findings
Surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry was employed to profile proteins and peptides in a total of 179 cerebrospinal fluid samples (58 schizophrenia patients, 16 patients with depression, five patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, ten patients with Alzheimer disease, and 90 controls). Our results show a highly significant differential distribution of samples from healthy volunteers away from drug-naïve patients with first-onset paranoid schizophrenia. The key alterations were the up-regulation of a 40-amino acid VGF-derived peptide, the down-regulation of transthyretin at ~4 kDa, and a peptide cluster at ~6,800–7,300 Da (which is likely to be influenced by the doubly charged ions of the transthyretin protein cluster). These schizophrenia-specific protein/peptide changes were replicated in an independent sample set. Both experiments achieved a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 80% or 88% in the initial study and in a subsequent validation study, respectively.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the application of modern proteomics techniques, particularly mass spectrometric approaches, holds the potential to advance the understanding of the biochemical basis of psychiatric disorders and may in turn allow for the development of diagnostics and improved therapeutics. Further studies are required to validate the clinical effectiveness and disease specificity of the identified biomarkers.
Protein profiles from 179 cerebrospinal fluid samples yield differences between patients with psychotic disorders and healthy volunteers, suggesting that such biomarkers could assist in the early diagnosis of mental illness.
Editors' Summary
Background.
Psychosis is an abnormal mental state characterized by loss of contact with reality, often associated with hallucinations, delusions, personality changes, and disorganized thinking. Psychotic symptoms occur in several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and psychotic depression. It is not clear what the underlying biological abnormalities in the brain are, and whether they are the same for the different psychotic illnesses. The hope is that recent advances in brain imaging and systematic characterization of genetic activity and protein composition in the brain might help to shed light on mental diseases, eventually leading to better diagnosis, treatment, and possibly even prevention.
Why Was This Study Done?
This study was carried out in order to search for biomarkers for psychosis and schizophrenia by comparing the protein composition in the cerebrospinal fluid (the clear body fluid that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord) of patients with different psychotic disorders and normal individuals who served as controls.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers used a technique called surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, which allows a comprehensive analysis of the protein composition of a particular sample, on a total of 179 cerebrospinal fluid samples. The samples came from 90 individuals without mental illness who served as controls, 58 people with schizophrenia who were very recently diagnosed and had not yet taken any medication, 16 patients with depression, five patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and ten patients with Alzheimer disease. All of the patients gave their informed consent to participate in the study. The researchers found that samples from treatment-naïve schizophrenic patients had a number of characteristic changes compared with samples from control individuals, and that those changes were not found in the patients with other mental illnesses. The researchers then wanted to test whether they would see the same pattern in a separate set of patients with schizophrenia versus controls, which turned out to be the case. Two of the changes in the cerebrospinal fluid that were associated with schizophrenia, namely higher levels of parts of a protein called VGF and lower levels of a protein called transthyretin, were also found in post-mortem brain samples of patients with schizophrenia compared with samples from controls. Lower levels of transthyretin were also found in serum (blood) of first-onset drug naïve schizophrenia patients.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These results suggest that this approach has the potential to find biomarkers for psychosis and, possibly, schizophrenia that might help in the understanding of the molecular basis for these conditions. If shown, in future studies, to be directly involved in causing the disease symptoms, they would be important targets for treatment and prevention efforts, and might also be useful for diagnostic purposes. Overall, there are promising examples, such as this study, suggesting that new molecular techniques can yield fresh insights into psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Additional studies are needed to confirm the findings presented here and to address many open questions, and would seem well justified given these results.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030428.
MedlinePlus entries on psychosis and schizophrenia
The National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression
The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill
The Schizophrenia Society of Canada
Wikipedia entries on psychosis and schizophrenia (note that Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia that anyone can edit)
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030428
PMCID: PMC1630717  PMID: 17090210
2.  Psychotic Illness in First-Time Mothers with No Previous Psychiatric Hospitalizations: A Population-Based Study 
PLoS Medicine  2009;6(2):e1000013.
Background
Psychotic illness following childbirth is a relatively rare but severe condition with unexplained etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal background characteristics and obstetric factors on the risk of postpartum psychosis, specifically among mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations.
Methods and Findings
We investigated incidence rates and potential maternal and obstetric risk factors of psychoses after childbirth in a national cohort of women who were first-time mothers from 1983 through 2000 (n = 745,596). Proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate relative risks of psychoses during and after the first 90 d postpartum, among mothers without any previous psychiatric hospitalization and among all mothers. Within 90 d after delivery, 892 women (1.2 per 1,000 births; 4.84 per 1,000 person-years) were hospitalized due to psychoses and 436 of these (0.6 per 1,000 births; 2.38 per 1,000 person-years) had not previously been hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder. During follow-up after the 90 d postpartum period, the corresponding incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were reduced to 0.65 for all women and 0.49 for women not previously hospitalized. During (but not after) the first 90 d postpartum the risk of psychoses among women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization was independently affected by: maternal age (35 y or older versus 19 y or younger; hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.7); high birth weight (≥ 4,500 g; hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.0); and diabetes (hazard ratio 0).
Conclusions
The incidence of psychotic illness peaks immediately following a first childbirth, and almost 50% of the cases are women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization. High maternal age increases the risk while diabetes and high birth weight are associated with reduced risk of first-onset psychoses, distinctly during the postpartum period.
Unnur Valdimarsdóttir and colleagues studied the risk factors for psychiatric illness following childbirth and found that, for women who had never previously been hospitalized for a psychiatric illness, the risk of mental illness was greatly increased following childbirth.
Editors' Summary
Background.
The first cries of a new life echo around the delivery suite: this is a time of great joy for most women. Yet, in the following days and weeks (the postpartum period), up to 80% of new mothers experience some sort of mental disturbance. Usually, this is the “baby blues,” a normal reaction to childbirth that is characterized by short-lived mood swings or postnatal depression. However, about one in 1,000 women develop postpartum psychosis, a serious mental disorder that needs immediate medical attention. Postpartum psychosis usually develops suddenly in the first 2–3 weeks after delivery and, like other forms of psychosis, is characterized by a loss of contact with reality. Women with postpartum psychosis may have false ideas about current events and about themselves (delusions) and see and hear things that are not there (hallucinations). They sometimes stop eating or sleeping and may become anxious and agitated. In the worst cases, they can have suicidal thoughts or even threaten their baby's life. Treatment for postpartum psychosis includes antipsychotic drugs, counseling, and hospital admission if the woman is a danger to herself or others.
Why Was This Study Done?
Women with a personal or family history of psychosis have an increased risk of developing postpartum psychosis, but what causes this disorder is unknown. The rapid changes in hormone levels that occur after delivery are likely to be involved—but might social circumstances, stress, other illnesses, or the birth itself also affect whether a woman develops postpartum psychosis? If additional risk factors for postpartum psychosis could be identified, it might be possible to prevent some cases of this serious mental disorder. In this study, the researchers investigate the incidence rate (the rate at which new cases occur in a population) and risk factors for psychotic illnesses diagnosed among first-time mothers registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry between 1983 and 2000.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The researchers identified three-quarters of a million first-time mothers and, from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry, found that 892 of these women (1.2 per 1,000 births) had been admitted to hospital because of psychosis within 90 days of giving birth. Put another way, the incidence rate of psychosis over the first 90 days postpartum in this population was 4.84 per 1,000 person-years. Almost half of the women who developed postpartum psychosis had not been previously admitted to hospital for any psychiatric disorder. Among this subset of women, the incidence rate of postpartum psychosis was highest during the first month after delivery but dropped to less than a tenth of this initial rate after 90 days postpartum. Furthermore, the risk of developing psychosis during the first 90 days postpartum (but not after) increased with age—women older than 35 years were more than twice as likely to develop psychosis than those aged 19 years or less—but was reduced in women who had large babies or who had diabetes. Many other factors (including smoking and not living with the infant's father) did not affect the risk of psychosis during the first 90 days postpartum in these women.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that the occurrence of psychotic illness severe enough to require hospitalization peaks shortly after giving birth for the first time, even in women with no previous psychiatric illness. Indeed, women with no history of mental disorders account for almost half the women admitted to hospital for postpartum psychosis, at least in Sweden. The timing of the peak of postpartum psychosis supports the idea that either giving birth or the hormonal changes that occur shortly after may trigger the development of psychosis, and the findings that maternal diabetes and high infant birth weight reduce the risk of postpartum psychosis whereas increasing maternal age increases the risk provide new clues about the causes of postpartum psychosis. Most importantly, however, these findings highlight the importance of carefully monitoring women for psychosis during the first month after delivery.
Additional Information.
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000013.
This paper is further discussed in a PLoS Medicine Perspective by Phillipa Hay
The MedlinePlus Encyclopedia contains a page on MedlinePlus encyclopedia psychosis (in English and Spanish); MedlinePlus also provides links to information on psychotic disorders
The UK National Health Service Direct Health encyclopedia has information on psychosis and on postnatal depression
Mental Health America has a fact sheet on postpartum disorders
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000013
PMCID: PMC2637917  PMID: 19209952
3.  Psychotic symptoms and Gray Matter Deficits In Clinical Pediatric Populations 
Schizophrenia research  2012;140(1-3):149-154.
Background
Neuroanatomic studies have not yet addressed how subtle phenotypic distinctions in psychosis alter the underlying brain changes, and whether there is evidence for psychosis as a dimensional construct. We explored the relationship of cortical GM thickness to psychotic phenotypes in children.
Methods
Cross-sectional comparison of anatomic brain imaging between patients referred as childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) but ruled out after a drug free inpatient observation. Groups included: patients with no evidence of psychosis (n=22) after drug free observation, patients with psychosis not otherwise specified (PNOS; total n=29) further divided into those without other axis I diagnoses (n=13) and those with other axis I comorbidities (n=16), age/sex matched COS patients (n=48), and 51 matched healthy controls. GM cortical thickness was compared between the groups, and regressed on patients’ SAPS, SANS and GAS scores.
Results
Patients with no evidence of psychosis showed no cortical GM deficits. Presence of psychosis (PNOS with or without co-morbidities) showed some areas of temporal and prefrontal deficits, more subtle compared to the extensive bilateral cortical deficits seen for COS. GAS SAPS and SANS scores showed a relationship with cortical GM thickness although it did not survive adjustment for multiple comparisons.
Conclusions
These results highlight the need for careful phenotypic characterization, as subtle diagnostic distinctions appear to reflect distinct underlying patterns of brain deficits. The incremental nature of cortical deficits from no psychosis to PNOS to COS may further support dimensional model for psychosis.
doi:10.1016/j.schres.2012.07.006
PMCID: PMC3448116  PMID: 22835806
adolescence; psychosis; brain imaging; schizophrenia; gray matter; pediatrics
4.  Predictors of Psychosis Remission in Psychotic Disorders That Co-occur With Substance Use 
Schizophrenia Bulletin  2006;32(4):618-625.
Objective: To examine rates and predictors of psychosis remission at 1-year follow-up for emergency admissions diagnosed with primary psychotic disorders and substance-induced psychoses. Method: A total of 319 patients with comorbid psychosis and substance use, representing 83% of the original referred sample, were rediagnosed at 1 year postintake employing a research diagnostic assessment. Remission of psychosis was defined as the absence of positive and negative symptoms for at least 6 months. Likelihood ratio chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were the main means of analysis. Results: Of those with a baseline diagnosis of primary psychotic disorder, 50% were in remission at 1 year postintake, while of those with a baseline diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis, 77% were in remission at this time point. Lower Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) symptom levels at baseline, better premorbid functioning, greater insight into psychosis, and a shorter duration of untreated psychosis predicted remission at 1 year in both diagnostic groups. No interaction effects of baseline predictors and diagnosis type were observed. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression holding baseline diagnosis constant revealed the duration of untreated psychosis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95, 0.997), total PANSS score (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 0.987), Premorbid Adjustment Scale score (OR = 0.13; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.88), and Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorders unawareness score (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.71, 0.993) as key predictors of psychosis remission. Conclusions: The association of better premorbid adjustment, a shorter duration of untreated psychosis, better insight into psychotic symptoms, and lower severity of psychotic symptoms with improved clinical outcome, reported previously in studies of schizophrenia, generalizes to psychosis remission in psychotic disorders that are substance induced.
doi:10.1093/schbul/sbl007
PMCID: PMC2632269  PMID: 16873441
primary psychosis; substance-induced psychosis; outcome
5.  A Review of Postpartum Psychosis 
Journal of women's health (2002)  2006;15(4):352-368.
Objective
The objective is to provide an overview of the clinical features, prognosis, differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of postpartum psychosis.
Methods
The authors searched Medline (1966–2005), PsycInfo (1974–2005), Toxnet, and PubMed databases using the key words postpartum psychosis, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, organic psychosis, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. A clinical case is used to facilitate the discussion.
Results
The onset of puerperal psychosis occurs in the first 1–4 weeks after childbirth. The data suggest that postpartum psychosis is an overt presentation of bipolar disorder that is timed to coincide with tremendous hormonal shifts after delivery. The patient develops frank psychosis, cognitive impairment, and grossly disorganized behavior that represent a complete change from previous functioning. These perturbations, in combination with lapsed insight into her illness and symptoms, can lead to devastating consequences in which the safety and well-being of the affected mother and her offspring are jeopardized. Therefore, careful and repeated assessment of the mothers’ symptoms, safety, and functional capacity is imperative. Treatment is dictated by the underlying diagnosis, bipolar disorder, and guided by the symptom acuity, patient’s response to past treatments, drug tolerability, and breastfeeding preference. The somatic therapies include antimanic agents, atypical antipsychotic medications, and ECT. Estrogen prophylaxis remains purely investigational.
Conclusions
The rapid and accurate diagnosis of postpartum psychosis is essential to expedite appropriate treatment and to allow for quick, full recovery, prevention of future episodes, and reduction of risk to the mother and her children and family.
doi:10.1089/jwh.2006.15.352
PMCID: PMC3109493  PMID: 16724884
6.  Burden of mental disorders and unmet needs among street homeless people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
BMC Medicine  2014;12(1):138.
Background
The impact of mental disorders among homeless people is likely to be substantial in low income countries because of underdeveloped social welfare and health systems. As a first step towards advocacy and provision of care, we conducted a study to determine the burden of psychotic disorders and associated unmet needs, as well as the prevalence of mental distress, suicidality, and alcohol use disorder among homeless people in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia.
Methods
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among street homeless adults. Trained community nurses screened for potential psychosis and administered standardized measures of mental distress, alcohol use disorder and suicidality. Psychiatric nurses then carried out confirmatory diagnostic interviews of psychosis and administered a locally adapted version of the Camberwell Assessment of Needs Short Appraisal Schedule.
Results
We assessed 217 street homeless adults, about 90% of whom had experienced some form of mental or alcohol use disorder: 41.0% had psychosis, 60.0% had hazardous or dependent alcohol use, and 14.8% reported attempting suicide in the previous month. Homeless people with psychosis had extensive unmet needs with 80% to 100% reporting unmet needs across 26 domains. Nearly 30% had physical disability (visual and sensory impairment and impaired mobility). Only 10.0% of those with psychosis had ever received treatment for their illness. Most had lived on the streets for over 2 years, and alcohol use disorder was positively associated with chronicity of homelessness.
Conclusion
Psychoses and other mental and behavioural disorders affect most people who are street homeless in Addis Ababa. Any programme to improve the condition of homeless people should include treatment for mental and alcohol use disorders. The findings have significant implications for advocacy and intervention programmes, particularly in similar low income settings.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12916-014-0138-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12916-014-0138-x
PMCID: PMC4147171  PMID: 25139042
Homelessness; Rooflessness; Mental illness; Severe mental disorder; Prevalence; Unmet needs; Low- and middle-income country; Ethiopia
7.  Neuropsychological Functioning Predicts Community Outcomes in Affective and Non-Affective Psychoses: A 6-month follow-up 
Schizophrenia research  2013;148(0):34-37.
Introduction
Neurocognitive dysfunction is a major symptom feature of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A prognostic relationship between cognition and community outcomes is well-documented in schizophrenia and increasingly recognized in bipolar disorder. However, specific associations amongst neurocognition, diagnosis, state symptomatology, and community functioning are unclear, and few studies have compared these relationships amongst patients with affective and non-affective psychoses in the same study. We examined neurocognitive, clinical, and community functioning in a cross-diagnostic sample of patients with psychotic disorders over a 6-month follow-up interval.
Method
Neurocognitive, clinical and community functioning were assessed in participants with schizophrenia (n=13), schizoaffective disorder (n=17), or bipolar disorder with psychosis (n=18), and healthy controls (n=18) at baseline and 6 months later.
Results
Neurocognitive functioning was impaired in all diagnostic groups and, despite reductions in primary symptoms, did not recover on most measures over the follow-up period. Neurocognitive impairment was not associated with diagnosis or clinical improvement. Several neurocognitive scores at baseline (but not diagnosis or clinical baseline or follow-up scores) predicted community functioning at follow-up.
Discussion
In one of the few studies to longitudinally examine neurocognition in association with clinical and outcomes variables in a cross diagnostic sample of psychotic disorders patients, neurocognitive deficits were pronounced across diagnoses and did not recover on most measures despite significant reductions in clinical symptoms. Baseline neurocognitive functioning was the only significant predictor of patients’ community functioning six months later. Efforts to recognize and address cognitive deficits, an approach that has shown promise in schizophrenia, should be extended to all patients with psychosis.
doi:10.1016/j.schres.2013.05.012
PMCID: PMC3751391  PMID: 23791391
Bipolar; Schizophrenia; Schizoaffective; neurocognitive; comparative; longitudinal
8.  Schizophrenia and Violence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 
PLoS Medicine  2009;6(8):e1000120.
Seena Fazel and colleagues investigate the association between schizophrenia and other psychoses and violence and violent offending, and show that the increased risk appears to be partly mediated by substance abuse comorbidity.
Background
Although expert opinion has asserted that there is an increased risk of violence in individuals with schizophrenia and other psychoses, there is substantial heterogeneity between studies reporting risk of violence, and uncertainty over the causes of this heterogeneity. We undertook a systematic review of studies that report on associations between violence and schizophrenia and other psychoses. In addition, we conducted a systematic review of investigations that reported on risk of homicide in individuals with schizophrenia and other psychoses.
Methods and Findings
Bibliographic databases and reference lists were searched from 1970 to February 2009 for studies that reported on risks of interpersonal violence and/or violent criminality in individuals with schizophrenia and other psychoses compared with general population samples. These data were meta-analysed and odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using random-effects models. Ten demographic and clinical variables were extracted from each study to test for any observed heterogeneity in the risk estimates. We identified 20 individual studies reporting data from 18,423 individuals with schizophrenia and other psychoses. In men, ORs for the comparison of violence in those with schizophrenia and other psychoses with those without mental disorders varied from 1 to 7 with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 86%). In women, ORs ranged from 4 to 29 with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 85%). The effect of comorbid substance abuse was marked with the random-effects ORs of 2.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–2.7) without comorbidity, and an OR of 8.9 (95% CI 5.4–14.7) with comorbidity (p<0.001 on metaregression). Risk estimates of violence in individuals with substance abuse (but without psychosis) were similar to those in individuals with psychosis with substance abuse comorbidity, and higher than all studies with psychosis irrespective of comorbidity. Choice of outcome measure, whether the sample was diagnosed with schizophrenia or with nonschizophrenic psychoses, study location, or study period were not significantly associated with risk estimates on subgroup or metaregression analysis. Further research is necessary to establish whether longitudinal designs were associated with lower risk estimates. The risk for homicide was increased in individuals with psychosis (with and without comorbid substance abuse) compared with general population controls (random-effects OR = 19.5, 95% CI 14.7–25.8).
Conclusions
Schizophrenia and other psychoses are associated with violence and violent offending, particularly homicide. However, most of the excess risk appears to be mediated by substance abuse comorbidity. The risk in these patients with comorbidity is similar to that for substance abuse without psychosis. Public health strategies for violence reduction could consider focusing on the primary and secondary prevention of substance abuse.
Please see later in the article for Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background
Schizophrenia is a lifelong, severe psychotic condition. One in 100 people will have at least one episode of schizophrenia during their lifetime. Symptoms include delusions (for example, patients believe that someone is plotting against them) and hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there). In men, schizophrenia usually starts in the late teens or early 20s; women tend to develop schizophrenia a little later. The causes of schizophrenia include genetic predisposition, obstetric complications, illegal drug use (substance abuse), and experiencing traumatic life events. The condition can be treated with a combination of antipsychotic drugs and supportive therapy; hospitalization may be necessary in very serious cases to prevent self harm. Many people with schizophrenia improve sufficiently after treatment to lead satisfying lives although some patients need lifelong support and supervision.
Why Was This Study Done?
Some people believe that schizophrenia and other psychoses are associated with violence, a perception that is often reinforced by news reports and that contributes to the stigma associated with mental illness. However, mental health advocacy groups and many mental health clinicians argue that it is a myth that people with mental health problems are violent. Several large, population-based studies have examined this disputed relationship. But, although some studies found no increased risk of violence among patients with schizophrenia compared with the general population, others found a marked increase in violent offending in patients with schizophrenia. Here, the researchers try to resolve this variation (“heterogeneity”) in the conclusions reached in different studies by doing a systematic review (a study that uses predefined search criteria to identify all the research on a specific topic) and a meta-analysis (a statistical method for combining the results of several studies) of the literature on associations between violence and schizophrenia and other psychoses. They also explored the relationship between substance abuse and violence.
What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
By systematically searching bibliographic databases and reference lists, the researchers identified 20 studies that compared the risk of violence in people with schizophrenia and other psychoses and the risk of violence in the general population. They then used a “random effects model” (a statistical technique that allows for heterogeneity between studies) to investigate the association between schizophrenia and violence. For men with schizophrenia or other psychoses, the pooled odds ratio (OR) from the relevant studies (which showed moderate heterogeneity) was 4.7, which was reduced to 3.8 once adjustment was made for socio-economic factors. That is, a man with schizophrenia was four to five times as likely to commit a violent act as a man in the general population. For women, the equivalent pooled OR was 8.2 but there was a much greater variation between the ORs in the individual studies than in the studies that involved men. The researchers then used “meta-regression” to investigate the heterogeneity between the studies. This analysis suggested that none of the study characteristics examined apart from co-occurring substance abuse could have caused the variation between the studies. Importantly the authors found that risk estimates of violence in people with substance abuse but no psychosis were similar to those in people with substance abuse and psychosis and higher than those in people with psychosis alone. Finally, although people with schizophrenia were nearly 20 times more likely to have committed murder than people in the general population, only one in 300 people with schizophrenia had killed someone, a similar risk to that seen in people with substance abuse.
What Do These Findings Mean?
These findings indicate that schizophrenia and other psychoses are associated with violence but that the association is strongest in people with substance abuse and most of the excess risk of violence associated with schizophrenia and other psychoses is mediated by substance abuse. However, the increased risk in patients with comorbidity was similar to that in substance abuse without psychosis. A potential implication of this finding is that violence reduction strategies that focus on preventing substance abuse among both the general population and among people with psychoses might be more successful than strategies that solely target people with mental illnesses. However, the quality of the individual studies included in this meta-analysis limits the strength of its conclusions and more research into the association between schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violence would assist in clarifying how and if strategies for violence reduction are changed.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000120.
The US National Institute of Mental Health provides information about schizophrenia (in English and Spanish)
The UK National Health Service Choices Web site has information for patients and carers about schizophrenia
The MedlinePlus Encyclopedia has a page on schizophrenia; MedlinePlus provides links to other sources of information on schizophrenia and on psychotic disorders (in English and Spanish)
The Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Alliance of America provides information and support for people with schizophrenia and their families
The time to change Web site provides information about an English campaign to reduce the stigma associated with mental illness
The Schizophrenia Research Forum provides updated research news and commentaries for the scientific community
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000120
PMCID: PMC2718581  PMID: 19668362
9.  Psychiatric Disorders in Youth in Juvenile Detention 
Archives of general psychiatry  2002;59(12):1133-1143.
Background
Given the growth of juvenile detainee populations, epidemiologic data on their psychiatric disorders are increasingly important. Yet, there are few empirical studies. Until we have better epidemiologic data, we cannot know how best to use the system’s scarce mental health resources.
Methods
Using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3), interviewers assessed a randomly selected, stratified sample of 1829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (1172 males, 657 females, ages 10–18) arrested and detained in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs). We present six-month prevalence estimates by demographic subgroups (gender, race/ethnicity, and age) for the following disorders: affective disorders (major depressive episode, dysthymia, manic episode), anxiety (panic, separation anxiety, overanxious, generalized anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders), psychosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive behavior disorders (oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder) and substance use disorders (alcohol and drug).
Results
Nearly two thirds of males and nearly three quarters of females met diagnostic criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders. Excluding conduct disorder (common among detained youth), nearly 60% of males and over two thirds of females met diagnostic criteria and had diagnosis-specific impairment for one or more psychiatric disorders. One half of males and almost one half of females had a substance use disorder, and over 40% of males and females met criteria for disruptive behavior disorders. Affective disorders were also prevalent, especially among females; 20% of females met criteria for a major depressive episode. Rates of many disorders were higher among females, non-Hispanic whites, and older adolescents.
Conclusion
These results suggest substantial psychiatric morbidity among juvenile detainees. Youth with psychiatric disorders pose a challenge for the juvenile justice system and, after their release, for the larger mental health system.
PMCID: PMC2861992  PMID: 12470130
10.  Obsessions and Compulsions in the Community: Prevalence, Interference, Help-Seeking, Developmental Stability, and Co-Occurring Psychiatric Conditions 
The American journal of psychiatry  2009;166(3):10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08071006.
Objective
It is unclear how many people in the community have obsessions and compulsions and associated levels of interference. It is also unknown what variables predict help-seeking for these symptoms, whether they are developmentally stable, and whether they increase the risk of mental disorders.
Method
The authors analyzed data from the prospective longitudinal Dunedin study of an unselected birth cohort. The presence of obsessions and compulsions and mental disorders was assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) at ages 11, 26, and 32. Data on interference and help-seeking were obtained at ages 26 and 32.
Results
Obsessions and compulsions were frequent in individuals with mental disorders other than obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and among people without mental disorders. Even in the latter group, these symptoms caused significant interference. The presence of anxiety/depression and of obsessions (particularly aggressive and shameful thoughts), but not compulsions, was associated with help-seeking. Harm/checking was the most prevalent symptom dimension. Symptom dimensions were temporally stable and associated with increased comorbidity. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms at age 11 predicted a high risk of an adult OCD diagnosis as well as elevated adult symptom dimensions.
Conclusions
Obsessions and compulsions are common in the adult population, have their roots in childhood, and are associated with interference, risk for disorders, and help-seeking. Subclinical obsessions and compulsions should be taken into account in research, intervention, and DSM-V.
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08071006
PMCID: PMC3818089  PMID: 19188283
11.  COMORBID PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN YOUTH IN JUVENILE DETENTION 
Archives of general psychiatry  2003;60(11):1097-1108.
Objective
To estimate six-month prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among juvenile detainees by demographic subgroups (gender, race/ethnicity, and age).
Design
Epidemiologic study of juvenile detainees. Master’s level clinical research interviewers administered the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3) to randomly selected detainees.
Setting
A large temporary detention center for juveniles in Cook County, Illinois (which includes Chicago and surrounding suburbs).
Participants
Randomly selected, stratified sample of 1829 African American, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic youth (1172 males, 657 females, ages 10–18) arrested and newly detained.
Main Outcome Measures
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC 2.3).
Results
Significantly more females (56.5%) than males (45.9%) met criteria for 2 or more of the following disorders: major depressive, dysthymic, manic, psychotic, panic, separation-anxiety, overanxious, generalized anxiety, obsessive compulsive, attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional-defiant, alcohol, marijuana, and other substance; 17.3% of females and 20.4% of males had only one disorder. We also examined types of disorder: affective, anxiety, substance use and ADHD/behavioral. The odds of having comorbid disorders were higher than expected by chance for most demographic subgroups, except when base rates of disorders were already high, or when cell sizes were small. Nearly 14% of females and 11% of males had both a major mental disorder (psychosis, manic episode, or major depressive episode) and a substance use disorder. Compared to participants with no major mental disorder (the residual category), those with a major mental disorder had significantly greater odds (1.8–4.1) of having substance use disorders. Nearly 30% of females and over 20% of males with substance use disorders had major mental disorders. Rates of some types of comorbidity were higher among non-Hispanic whites and older adolescents.
Conclusion
Comorbid psychiatric disorders are a major health problem among detained youth. We recommend directions for research and discuss how to improve treatment and reduce health disparities in the juvenile justice and mental health systems.
doi:10.1001/archpsyc.60.11.1097
PMCID: PMC2893728  PMID: 14609885
12.  A Review of Executive Function Deficits and Pharmacological Management in Children and Adolescents 
Objective:
To review both the functions and dysfunction of the executive system (ES) focusing on the extent of executive function (EF) deficits in most psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents and the possibility of such deficits acting as markers for pharmacological management.
Method:
A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE, Psychinfo, CINAHL, PsychArticles and PubMed with the following keywords: executive function or dysfunction, pediatric or children or adolescents, psychopharmacology, psychotropic medications, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Due to the limited amount of specific information obtained for some childhood disorders, the search was broadened to include relevant adult literature where information was extrapolated.
Results:
Abundant literature was found on the nature of the ES and the executive dysfunctions in most psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, but not so much on the use of medication. EF deficits were found to be more consistent in disorders such as ADHD, ASD and FASD than in the other disorders but were not specific enough for use as clinical markers for those disorders. For children with ADHD and ASD there was adequate information on the use of psychotropic medications and impact on some EF domains but information on the impact of medication on EF in the other disorders in children and adolescents was fairly limited. Medications acting on the dopaminergic system also showed positive effects on EF deficits and are commonly used in the treatment of EF disorders such as ADHD, ASD and FASD.
Conclusion:
Existing literature indicates that EF deficits underlie most psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. However, there are so many executive functions linked to so many activities and circuits in the brain that it is hard to quantify them in a particular disorder for use as specific markers for that disorder. The ES uses dopamine as its main neurotransmitter and this has implications for clinical management. Dopamine agonists (e.g. stimulants) and antagonists (e.g. neuroleptics) are medications that have direct impact on the ES and are commonly used to treat EF disorders in children and adolescents while serotonergic medications e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have not been very successful in treating such disorders. Identifying EF deficits early could be useful in guiding management including the use of medication in those disorders.
PMCID: PMC3413474  PMID: 22876270
executive; function; deficits; children; adolescents; pharmacology
13.  Obsessive compulsive disorder 
Clinical Evidence  2012;2012:1004.
Introduction
Obsessions or compulsions that cause personal distress or social dysfunction affect about 1% of adult men and 1.5% of adult women. About half of adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have an episodic course, whereas the other half have continuous problems. Prevalence in children and adolescents is 2.7%. The disorder persists in about 40% of children and adolescents at mean follow-up of 5.7 years.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of initial treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults? What are the effects of initial treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents? What are the effects of maintenance treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults? What are the effects of maintenance treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents? What are the effects of treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults who have not responded to initial treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 43 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: addition of antipsychotics to serotonin reuptake inhibitors, behavioural therapy alone or with serotonin reuptake inhibitors, cognitive therapy or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (alone or with serotonin reuptake inhibitors), electroconvulsive therapy, optimum duration of maintenance treatment, psychosurgery, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, or sertraline), and transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Key Points
Obsessions or compulsions that cause personal distress or social dysfunction affect about 1% of adult men and 1.5% of adult women. Prevalence in children and adolescents is 2.7%. About half of adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have an episodic course, whereas the other half have continuous problems. Up to half of adults show improvement of symptoms over time. The disorder persists in about 40% of children and adolescents at mean follow-up of 5.7 years.
In adults, CBT and behavioural therapy improve symptoms of OCD compared with a waiting list control or placebo treatments. Behavioural therapy may be as effective at improving symptoms as CBT, but we don't know how they compare with SRIs (SSRIs and clomipramine).
SRIs improve symptoms of OCD in adults compared with placebo. Abrupt withdrawal of SRIs is associated with adverse effects.
We don't know whether combining SRIs and cognitive therapy or behavioural therapy improves symptoms compared with each treatment alone.
We don't know whether electroconvulsive therapy improves symptoms in adults with OCD.
In children and adolescents, CBT and SRIs improve symptoms of OCD. We don't know whether CBT in combination with SRIs is more effective than CBT alone, but it may be more effective than SRIs alone.
We don't know whether behavioural therapy improves symptoms in children and adolescents with OCD.
We don't know which is the most effective SRI to use, or for how long maintenance treatment should continue in adults or children and adolescents.
Adding antipsychotic drugs to SRIs may improve symptoms in adults who did not respond to SRIs alone, although RCTs have given conflicting results.
We don't know whether psychosurgery improves OCD because we found no studies of sufficient quality to assess its effectiveness.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is not likely to improve symptoms of OCD. The quality of evidence is limited with trials being small.
CAUTION: SSRIs have been associated with an increase in suicidal ideation in children and adolescents.
PMCID: PMC3285220  PMID: 22305974
14.  Obsessive compulsive disorder 
Clinical Evidence  2009;2009:1004.
Introduction
Obsessions or compulsions that cause personal distress or social dysfunction affect about 1% of adult men and 1.5% of adult women. About half of adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have an episodic course, whereas the other half have continuous problems. Prevalence in children and adolescents is 2.7%. The disorder persists in about 40% of children and adolescents at mean follow-up of 5.7 years.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of initial treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults? What are the effects of initial treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents? What are the effects of maintenance treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults? What are the effects of maintenance treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder in children and adolescents? What are the effects of treatments for obsessive compulsive disorder in adults who have not responded to initial treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 70 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: addition of antipsychotics to serotonin reuptake inhibitors; behavioural therapy alone or with serotonin reuptake inhibitors; cognitive therapy or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (alone or with serotonin reuptake inhibitors); electroconvulsive therapy; serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, or sertraline); and optimum duration of maintenance treatment.
Key Points
Obsessions or compulsions that cause personal distress or social dysfunction affect about 1% of adult men and 1.5% of adult women. Prevalence in children and adolescents is 2.7%. About half of adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) have an episodic course, whereas the other half have continuous problems. Up to half of adults show improvement of symptoms over time. The disorder persists in about 40% of children and adolescents at mean follow-up of 5.7 years.
In adults,CBT and behavioural therapy improve symptoms of OCD compared with a waiting list control. Behavioural therapy may be as effective at improving symptoms as CBT, but we don't know how they compare with SRIs (SSRIs and clomipramine). Behavioural therapy may be more effective than relaxation.
SRIs improve symptoms of OCD in adults compared with placebo. Abrupt withdrawal of SRIs is associated with adverse effects. SRIs seem more effective at reducing symptoms compared with other antidepressants, including tricyclic antidepressants (other than clomipramine) or MAOIs.We don't know whether SRIs are more effective than venlafaxine.
We don't know whether combining SRIs and cognitive therapy or behavioural therapy improves symptoms compared with each treatment alone.
We don't know whether electroconvulsive therapy improves symptoms in adults with OCD.
In children and adolescents, CBT and SRIs improve symptoms of OCD. We don't know whether CBT in combination with SRIs is more effective than CBT alone, but it may be more effective than SRIs alone.
We don't know whether behavioural therapy improves symptoms in children and adolescents with OCD.
We don't know which is the most effective SRI to use, or for how long maintenance treatment should continue in adults or children and adolescents.
Adding antipsychotic drugs to SRIs may improve symptoms in adults who did not respond to SRIs alone, although RCTs have given conflicting results.
CAUTION: SSRIs have been associated with an increase in suicidal ideation in children and adolescents.
PMCID: PMC2907809
15.  Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Bipolar and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Depends on History of Psychosis Rather Than Diagnostic Group 
Schizophrenia Bulletin  2009;37(1):73-83.
Objectives: Neurocognitive dysfunction is milder in bipolar disorders than in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, supporting a dimensional approach to severe mental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of lifetime history of psychosis for neurocognitive functioning across these disorders. We asked whether neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar and schizophrenia spectrum disorders depends more on history of psychosis than diagnostic category or subtype. Methods: A sample of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 102), schizoaffective disorder (n = 27), and bipolar disorder (I or II) with history of psychosis (n = 75) and without history of psychosis (n = 61) and healthy controls (n = 280), from a large ongoing study on severe mental disorder, were included. Neurocognitive function was measured with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Results: Compared with controls, all 3 groups with a history of psychosis performed poorer across neurocognitive measures, while the bipolar group without a history of psychosis was only impaired on a measure of processing speed. The groups with a history of psychosis did not differ from each other but performed poorer than the group without a history of psychosis on a number of neurocognitive measures. These neurocognitive group differences were of a magnitude expected to have clinical significance. In the bipolar sample, history of psychosis explained more of the neurocognitive variance than bipolar diagnostic subtype. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar and schizophrenia spectrum disorders is determined more by history of psychosis than by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) diagnostic category or subtype, supporting a more dimensional approach in future diagnostic systems.
doi:10.1093/schbul/sbp034
PMCID: PMC3004191  PMID: 19443616
neurocognition; verbal memory; working memory; verbal fluency; interference control; schizoaffective disorder
16.  The Brief Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (BOCS): A self-report scale for OCD and obsessive–compulsive related disorders 
Nordic Journal of Psychiatry  2014;68(8):549-559.
Background
The Brief Obsessive Compulsive Scale (BOCS), derived from the Yale–Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the children’s version (CY-BOCS), is a short self-report tool used to aid in the assessment of obsessive–compulsive symptoms and diagnosis of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). It is widely used throughout child, adolescent and adult psychiatry settings in Sweden but has not been validated up to date.
Aim
The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the BOCS amongst a psychiatric outpatient population.
Method
The BOCS consists of a 15-item Symptom Checklist including three items (hoarding, dysmorphophobia and self-harm) related to the DSM-5 category “Obsessive–compulsive related disorders”, accompanied by a single six-item Severity Scale for obsessions and compulsions combined. It encompasses the revisions made in the Y-BOCS-II severity scale by including obsessive–compulsive free intervals, extent of avoidance and excluding the resistance item. 402 adult psychiatric outpatients with OCD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder and other psychiatric disorders completed the BOCS.
Results
Principal component factor analysis produced five subscales titled “Symmetry”, “Forbidden thoughts”, “Contamination”, “Magical thoughts” and “Dysmorphic thoughts”. The OCD group scored higher than the other diagnostic groups in all subscales (P < 0.001). Sensitivities, specificities and internal consistency for both the Symptom Checklist and the Severity Scale emerged high (Symptom Checklist: sensitivity = 85%, specificities = 62–70% Cronbach’s α = 0.81; Severity Scale: sensitivity = 72%, specificities = 75–84%, Cronbach’s α = 0.94).
Conclusions
The BOCS has the ability to discriminate OCD from other non-OCD related psychiatric disorders. The current study provides strong support for the utility of the BOCS in the assessment of obsessive–compulsive symptoms in clinical psychiatry.
doi:10.3109/08039488.2014.884631
PMCID: PMC4221004  PMID: 24568661
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Autism; Assessment; Compulsive behaviour; Obsessions
17.  Psychogenic Psychosis Revisited: A Follow up Study 
Background:
Although brief and acute psychoses are usually dramatic in presentation, they usually have benign course. Studies investigating clinical features and changes in diagnosis between psychotic episodes have differed in design. However, some consistent findings have emerged. This study seeks to clarify and extend these features by describing and comparing clinical diagnostic stability in a group of subjects with first episode psychosis diagnosed as acute psychotic disorder (psychogenic psychosis) followed up for 6 years.
Methods:
The study comprises a retrospective evaluation of case records of 161 patients admitted for the first time with first episode psychosis. Among this group a subgroup of 69 psychogenic psychoses were followed up with special reference to stability of diagnosis within a period of 6 years.
Results:
Forty-six patients (67.6%) were male, 22 (32.4%) were female and data were missing in one case-record. There was no significant statistical difference between gender and diagnosis. The mean age was 27.5 years (13–45 years). There were criteria, which distinguish acute psychotic disorder (psychogenic psychosis). These criteria include acute onset with short duration of untreated psychosis, precipitating factors, adjusted pre-morbid personality, no family history of mental disorder, short duration of admission, full recovery in most of cases, with no further admission. Nearly 80% of the patients have never been admitted again in 6 years time.
Conclusions:
Our findings show a high level of agreement with the original concept of psychogenic psychosis; however, these bear little relationship to the DSM-IV (1994) and ICD-10 (WHO, 1993) criteria for brief or acute psychotic disorder.
PMCID: PMC3068793  PMID: 21475510
18.  Childhood catatonia, autism and psychosis past and present: is there an ‘iron triangle’? 
Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica  2013;128(1):21-33.
Objective
To explore the possibility that autism, catatonia and psychoses in children are different manifestations of a single underlying form of brain pathology – a kind of ‘Iron Triangle’ of symptomatology – rather than three separate illnesses.
Method
Systematic evaluation of historical case literature on autism to determine if catatonic and psychotic symptoms accompanied the diagnosis, as is found in some challenging present-day cases.
Results
It is clear from the historical literature that by the 1920s all three diagnoses in the Iron Triangle – catatonia, autism and childhood schizophrenia – were being routinely applied to children and adolescents. Furthermore, it is apparent that children diagnosed with one of these conditions often qualified for the other two as well. Although conventional thinking today regards these diagnoses as separate entities, the presence of catatonia in a variety of conditions is being increasingly recognized, and there is also growing evidence of connections between childhood-onset psychoses and autism.
Conclusion
Recognition of a mixed form of catatonia, autism and psychosis has important implications for both diagnosis and treatment. None of the separate diagnoses provides an accurate picture in these complex cases, and when given single diagnoses such as ‘schizophrenia’, the standard treatment options may prove markedly ineffective.
doi:10.1111/acps.12082
PMCID: PMC3714300  PMID: 23350770 CAMSID: cams3194
autistic disorder; catatonia; child psychiatry; schizophrenia; childhood; nosology
19.  Testing the Psychopathology of Psychosis: Evidence for a General Psychosis Dimension 
Schizophrenia Bulletin  2012;39(4):884-895.
Background: Psychiatric taxonomists have sometimes argued for a unitary psychosis syndrome and sometimes for a pentagonal model, including 5 diagnostic constructs of positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognitive disorganization, mania, and depression. This continues to be debated in preparation for impending revisions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases. We aimed to identify general and specific dimensions underlying psychopathological features of psychosis. Methods: The samples comprised 309 patients admitted to psychiatric services in the acute phase of their first or second episode of psychosis and 507 patients with enduring psychosis recruited from community mental health teams. Patients’ symptoms were assessed on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Analyses compared unitary, pentagonal, and bifactor models of psychosis. Results: In both samples, a bifactor model including 1 general psychosis factor and, independently, 5 specific factors of positive symptoms, negative symptoms, disorganization, mania, and depression gave the best fit. Scores of general and specific symptom dimensions were differentially associated with phase of illness, diagnosis, social functioning, insight, and neurocognitive functioning. Conclusions: The findings provide strong evidence for a general psychosis dimension in both early and enduring psychosis. Findings further allowed for independent formation of specific symptom dimensions. This may inform the current debate about revised classification systems of psychosis.
doi:10.1093/schbul/sbr182
PMCID: PMC3686436  PMID: 22258881
classification; DSM-V; dimensions; item response modeling; psychosis; schizophrenia
20.  Children of parents with affective and non-affective psychoses: A longitudinal study of behavior problems 
The American journal of psychiatry  2010;167(11):1331-1338.
Objective
It is generally accepted that children of parents with schizophrenia or other forms of psychosis are at heightened risk for a range of behavioral problems. However, it remains unclear whether offspring of parents with different forms of psychosis (e.g., schizophrenia, other non-affective psychoses, and affective psychoses) have distinct forms of behavioral problems (i.e., internalizing and externalizing).
Method
Behavioral observations at ages 4 and 7 years of children of parents with psychosis (n = 281) and parents without psychosis (n=188) were examined.
Results
There were no significant differences between groups in behavior observed at age 4. At age 7, compared to children of unaffected parents, children of parents with psychosis had an adjusted odds ratio of 2.8 (95% CI = 1.5, 5.6) for externalizing problems, in particular for children of parents with schizophrenia (adjusted OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 1.7, 12.5). This increase in risk for externalizing problems was observed for females only (adjusted OR = 8.1; 95% CI = 2.5, 26.3). In contrast, male children were at increased risk for internalizing problems (adjusted OR = 3.6; 95% CI = 1.6, 8.3).
Conclusions
Children of parents with various forms of psychosis are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems by age 7; this risk varies by gender of the offspring. Implications for treatment of parents with psychotic disorders and high-risk children are discussed.
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.09020241
PMCID: PMC3684627  PMID: 20843870
21.  Adult onset tic disorders 
BACKGROUND—Tic disorders presenting during adulthood have infrequently been described in the medical literature. Most reports depict adult onset secondary tic disorders caused by trauma, encephalitis, and other acquired conditions. Only rare reports describe idiopathic adult onset tic disorders, and most of these cases represent recurrent childhood tic disorders.
OBJECTIVE—To describe a large series of patients with tic disorders presenting during adulthood, to compare clinical characteristics between groups of patients, and to call attention to this potentially disabling and underrecognised neurological disorder.
METHODS—Using a computerised database, all patients with tic disorders who presented between 1988 and 1998 to the movement disorders clinic at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center after the age of 21 were identified. Patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographic information, age of onset of tics, tic phenomenology, distribution, the presence of premonitory sensory symptoms and tic suppressibility, family history, and associated psychiatric features. These patients' videotapes were reviewed for diagnostic confirmation and information was obtained about disability, course, and response to treatment in a structured follow up interview.
RESULTS—Of 411 patients with tic disorders in the database, 22 patients presented for the first time with tic disorders after the age of 21. In nine patients, detailed questioning disclosed a history of previous childhood transient tic disorder, but in 13patients, the adult onset tic disorder was new. Among the new onset cases, six patients developed tics in relation to an external trigger, and could be considered to have secondary tic disorders. The remaining patients had idiopathic tic disorders. Comparing adult patients with recurrent childhood tics and those with new onset adult tics, the appearance of the tic disorder, the course and prognosis, the family history of tic disorder, and the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder were found to be similar. Adults with new onset tics were more likely to have a symptomatic or secondary tic disorder, which in this series was caused by infection, trauma, cocaine use, and neuroleptic exposure.
CONCLUSIONS—Adult onset tic disorders represent an underrecognised condition that is more common than generally appreciated or reported. The clinical characteristics of adults newly presenting to a movement disorder clinic with tic disorders are reviewed, analysed, and discussed in detail. Clinical evidence supports the concept that tic disorders in adults are part of a range that includes childhood onset tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome.


doi:10.1136/jnnp.68.6.738
PMCID: PMC1736950  PMID: 10811697
22.  Clinical and psychosocial correlates of non-suicidal self-injury within a sample of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder 
Journal of affective disorders  2010;125(1-3):89-97.
Background
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP).
Methods
Four hundred-thirty two youth with a diagnosis of BP and their parents, including 193 children and 239 adolescents, completed a diagnostic interview and instruments to assess youth clinical and illness history, youth comorbidity, parental mood disorder, and psychosocial functioning.
Results
Approximately 22% of children and 22% of adolescents reported NSSI during the course of their most recent mood episode. In a multivariate model controlling for global impairment, among children, a BPI or BPII diagnosis (versus BPNOS), psychosis, separation anxiety disorder, and greater severity of depressive symptoms were found to be associated with NSSI. Among adolescents, a mixed episode, a suicide attempt, greater severity of depressive symptoms, and poor psychosocial functioning were found to be associated with NSSI. Neither the presence of a youth comorbid disruptive behavior disorder nor a parental mood disorder was associated with NSSI.
Limitations
The primary limitations of this study include the use of a cross-sectional study design, lack of a control group, and limited generalizability of study results to non-clinical and ethnically diverse samples.
Conclusions
NSSI is not uncommon among youth with BP, particularly those who present with BPI or BPII, psychosis, a mixed episode, suicidal behavior, severe depressive symptoms, separation anxiety, and/or poor psychosocial functioning. However, the relative importance of these factors in relation to NSSI may vary with age. Treatments for BP that are developmentally sensitive, examine the function of NSSI for each youth, and teach adaptive skills to address emotional and social needs, may prove to be most successful.
doi:10.1016/j.jad.2009.12.029
PMCID: PMC2888943  PMID: 20089313
Bipolar Disorder; Self-Injury; Suicide; Comorbidity; Psychosocial
23.  Frequency and relevance of psychoeducation in psychiatric diagnoses: Results of two surveys five years apart in German-speaking European countries 
BMC Psychiatry  2013;13:170.
Background
Psychoeducation has been shown to reduce relapse rates in several psychiatric disorders. Studies investigating for which psychiatric diagnoses psychoeducation is offered and assessing its perceived relevance compared to other interventions are lacking.
Methods
A two-part questionnaire addressing these questions was sent to the heads of all psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Results were compared with those from a similar survey 5 years earlier.
Results
289 of 500 (58%) institutions responded. Significantly (p = 0,02) more institutions (93%) offer any type of psychoeducation as compared to 5 years before (86%). Psychoeducation is mainly offered for schizophrenia (86%) and depression (67%) and less frequently for anxiety disorders (18%) and substance abuse (17%). For the following specific diagnoses it is offered by less than 10% of the institutions: Personality disorder, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, dementia, obsessive compulsive disorder, sleeping disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia plus substance abuse, pain, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and early psychosis. 25% offer diagnosis-unspecific psychoeducation. ‘Pharmacotherapy’ (99%), ‘basic occupational therapy’ (95%) and ‘psychoeducation for patients’ (93%) were the therapies being most often, ‘light therapy’ (24%) and ‘sleep deprivation’ (16%) the therapies being least often perceived as relevant by the respondents when asked about the value of different interventions offered in their hospitals. Art therapy (61%) and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy (59%), two therapies with a smaller evidence base than light therapy or sleep deprivation, were perceived as relevant by more than the half of the respondents.
Conclusion
Psychoeducation for patients is considered relevant and offered frequently in German-speaking countries, however, mostly only for schizophrenia and depression. The ranking of the perceived relevance of different treatment options suggests that the evidence base is not considered crucial for determining their relevance.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-170
PMCID: PMC3698181  PMID: 23777594
Psychoeducation; Survey; Schizophrenia; Depression; Interventions
24.  Childhood antecedents of schizophrenia and affective illness: social adjustment at ages 7 and 11. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;309(6956):699-703.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the social adjustment in childhood of people who as adults have psychiatric disorders. DESIGN--Subjects in a prospectively followed up cohort (the national child development study) who had been admitted as adults to psychiatric hospitals were compared with the rest of the cohort on ratings of social behaviour made by teachers at the ages of 7 and 11 years. SUBJECTS--40 adult patients with schizophrenic illnesses, 35 with affective psychoses, and 79 with neurotic illness who had been admitted for psychiatric reasons by the age of 28. 1914 randomly selected members of the cohort who had never been admitted for psychiatric treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall scores and scores for overreaction (externalising behaviour) and underreaction (internalising behaviour) with the Bristol social adjustment guide at ages 7 and 11. RESULTS--At the age of 7 children who developed schizophrenia were rated by their teachers as manifesting more social maladjustment than controls (overall score 4.3 (SD 2.4) v 3.1 (2.0); P < 0.01). This was more apparent in the boys (5 (2.6)) than the girls (3.4 (1.8)) and related to overreactive rather than underreactive behaviour. At both ages prepsychotic (affective) children differed little from normal controls. By the age of 11 preneurotic children, particularly the girls, had an increased rating of maladjustment (including overreactions and underreactions). CONCLUSION--Abnormalities of social adjustment are detectable in childhood in some people who develop psychotic illness. Sex and the rate of development of different components of the capacity for social interaction are important determinants of the risk of psychosis and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood.
PMCID: PMC2540822  PMID: 7950522
25.  Differential diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive symptoms from delusions in schizophrenia: A phenomenological approach 
World Journal of Psychiatry  2013;3(3):50-56.
Several studies suggest increased prevalence-rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and even of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with schizophrenic disorders. Moreover, it has been recently proposed the existence of a distinct diagnostic sub-group of schizo-obsessive disorder. However, the further investigation of the OCS or OCD-schizophrenia diagnostic comorbidity presupposes the accurate clinical differential diagnosis of obsessions and compulsions from delusions and repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. In turn, this could be facilitated by a careful comparative examination of the phenomenological features of typical obsessions/compulsions and delusions/repetitive delusional behaviours, respectively. This was precisely the primary aim of the present investigation. Our examination included seven features of obsessions/delusions (source of origin and sense of ownership of the thought, conviction, consistency with one’s belief-system, awareness of its inaccuracy, awareness of its symptomatic nature, resistance, and emotional impact) and five features of repetitive behaviours (aim of repetitive behaviours, awareness of their inappropriateness, awareness of their symptomatic nature, and their immediate effect on underlying thought, and their emotional impact). Several of these clinical features, if properly and empathically investigated, can help discriminate obsessions and compulsive rituals from delusions and delusional repetitive behaviours, respectively, in patients with schizophrenic disorders. We comment on the results of our examination as well as on those of another recent similar investigation. Moreover, we also address several still controversial issues, such as the nature of insight, the diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD, the conceptualization and differential diagnosis of compulsions from other categories of repetitive behaviours, as well as the diagnostic weight assigned to compulsions in contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems. We stress the importance of the feature of mental reflexivity for understanding the nature of insight and the ambiguous diagnostic status of poor insight in OCD which may be either a marker of the chronicity of obsessions, or a marker of their delusionality. Furthermore, we criticize two major shortcomings of contemporary psychiatric diagnostic systems (DSM-IV, DSM-V, ICD-10) in their criteria or guidelines for the diagnosis of OCD or OCS: first, the diagnostic parity between obsessions and compulsions and, second, the inadequate conceptualization of compulsions. We argue that these shortcomings might artificially inflate the clinical prevalence of OC symptoms in the course of schizophrenic disorders. Still, contrary to a recent proposal, we do not exclude on purely a priori grounds the possibility of a concurrence of genuine obsessions along with delusions in patients with schizophrenia.
doi:10.5498/wjp.v3.i3.50
PMCID: PMC3832861  PMID: 24255875
Schizophrenia; Obsessive-compulsive symptoms; Obsessions; Compulsions; Delusions; Clinical features; Phenomenological approach; Differential diagnosis

Results 1-25 (659427)