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1.  Preventable long-term complications of suprapubic cystostomy after spinal cord injury: Root cause analysis in a representative case report 
Background
Although complications related to suprapubic cystostomies are well documented, there is scarcity of literature on safety issues involved in long-term care of suprapubic cystostomy in spinal cord injury patients.
Case Presentation
A 23-year-old female patient with tetraplegia underwent suprapubic cystostomy. During the next decade, this patient developed several catheter-related complications, as listed below: (1) Suprapubic catheter came out requiring reoperation. (2) The suprapubic catheter migrated to urethra through a patulous bladder neck, which led to leakage of urine per urethra. (3) Following change of catheter, the balloon of suprapubic catheter was found to be lying under the skin on two separate occasions. (4) Subsequently, this patient developed persistent, seropurulent discharge from suprapubic cystostomy site as well as from under-surface of pubis. (5) Repeated misplacement of catheter outside the bladder led to chronic leakage of urine along suprapubic tract, which in turn predisposed to inflammation and infection of suprapubic tract, abdominal wall fat, osteomyelitis of pubis, and abscess at the insertion of adductor longus muscle
Conclusion
Suprapubic catheter should be anchored securely to prevent migration of the tip of catheter into urethra and accidental dislodgment of catheter. While changing the suprapubic catheter, correct placement of Foley catheter inside the urinary bladder must be ensured. In case of difficulty, it is advisable to perform exchange of catheter over a guide wire. Ultrasound examination of urinary bladder is useful to check the position of the balloon of Foley catheter.
doi:10.1186/1754-9493-5-27
PMCID: PMC3212915  PMID: 22032689
2.  Hourglass urinary bladder in a spinal cord injury patient - unusual late complication of suprapubic cystostomy: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:6866.
Introduction
Suprapubic cystostomy is performed in spinal cord injury patients in order to prevent complications associated with long-term urethral catheter drainage. We report a patient in whom suprapubic catheter did not drain urine satisfactorily and imaging studies revealed hourglass bladder.
Case presentation
A female patient sustained paraplegia in a traffic accident in 1994 at the age of seventeen years. When she was discharged from spinal unit, she was performing self- catheterisations. In 1995, indwelling urethral catheter drainage was instituted, as she was not able to cope up with self-catheterisations. Intravenous urography, performed in 1994, 1997, 2000 and 2003 showed urinary bladder of normal shape. In 2004, this patient developed frequent blockages and bypassing of catheter; therefore, suprapubic cystostomy was performed. In 2005, she was leaking urine per urethra; therefore, an indwelling catheter was inserted; both suprapubic and urethral catheters drained urine. In 2008, suprapubic catheter failed to drain any urine. Cystogram revealed hourglass bladder. The balloon of suprapubic Foley catheter was located in the upper compartment of hourglass bladder whereas the urethral catheter was placed in the inferior compartment. Ultrasound examination of urinary bladder showed two compartments of hourglass bladder separated by a narrow waist. Computed tomography cystogram delineated smaller superior and larger inferior compartment of the hourglass bladder. At present this patient is happy to manage her bladder with suprapubic and urethral catheters.
Conclusion
When prompt replacement of a mal-functioning suprapubic catheter fails to rectify the problem, computer tomography cystography should be performed to check precise location of suprapubic catheter and structural abnormalities of urinary bladder. In this patient, cystogram revealed hourglass bladder. Possible reasons for development of hourglass bladder in spinal cord injury patients are: traction applied to dome of urinary bladder by Foley balloon when suprapubic catheter is taped tightly to anterior abdominal wall for several months; uncoordinated contractions of detrusor muscle; chronic cystitis leading to hypertrophy of bladder wall.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-6866
PMCID: PMC2740240  PMID: 19829874
3.  Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Suprapubic Cystostomy Tract With Bladder Involvement 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(9):638-640.
Herein we report a case of a squamous cell carcinoma of a well-healed suprapubic cystostomy tract scar involving the bladder mucosa in a 56-year-old man. He presented with a spontaneous suprapubic urinary leak from a suprapubic cystostomy tract scar. He had a history of urethral stricture and failed urethroplasty. Preoperative cystoscopy suggested a bladder mass. Transurethral biopsy of the bladder mass revealed a squamous cell carcinoma confined to the suprapubic cystostomy tract involving the bladder mucosa. The patient died 6 months after the start of radiation therapy after lung metastasis and pneumonia.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.9.638
PMCID: PMC3773596  PMID: 24044100
Cystostomy; Squamous cell carcinoma; Urinary bladder neoplasms
4.  Inadvertent positioning of suprapubic catheter in urethra: a serious complication during change of suprapubic cystostomy in a spina bifida patient - a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:9372.
Introduction
Spinal cord injury patients are at risk for developing unusual complications such as autonomic dysreflexia while changing suprapubic cystostomy. We report a male patient with spina bifida in whom the Foley catheter was placed in the urethra during change of suprapubic cystostomy with serious consequences.
Case presentation
A male patient, born in 1972 with spina bifida and paraplaegia, underwent suprapubic cystostomy in 2003 because of increasing problems with urethral catheter. The patient would come to spinal unit for change of suprapubic catheter every four to six weeks. Two days after a routine catheter change in November 2009, this patient woke up in the morning and noticed that the suprapubic catheter had come out. He went straight to Accident and Emergency. The suprapubic catheter was changed by a health professional and this patient was sent home. But the suprapubic catheter did not drain urine. This patient developed increasing degree of pain and swelling in suprapubic region. He did not pass any urine per urethra. He felt sick and came to spinal unit five hours later. About twenty ml of contrast was injected through suprapubic catheter and X-rays were taken. The suprapubic catheter was patent; the catheter was not blocked. The Foley catheter could be seen going around in a circular manner through the urinary bladder into the urethra. The contrast did not opacify urinary bladder; but proximal urethra was seen. The tip of Foley catheter was lying in proximal urethra. The balloon of Foley catheter had been inflated in urethra. When the balloon of Foley catheter was deflated, this patient developed massive bleeding per urethra. A sterile 22 French Foley catheter was inserted through suprapubic track. The catheter drained bloody urine. He was admitted to spinal unit and received intravenous fluids and meropenem. Haematuria subsided after 48 hours. The patient was discharged home a week later in a stable condition.
Conclusion
This case shows that serious complications can occur during change of suprapubic catheter in patients with neuropathic bladder. After inserting a new catheter, health professionals should observe spinal cord injury patients for at least thirty minutes and ensure that (1) suprapubic catheter drains clear urine; (2) patients do not develop abdominal spasm or discomfort; (3) symptoms and signs of sepsis or autonomic dysreflexia are absent.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-9372
PMCID: PMC2804015  PMID: 20062546
5.  Bladder management methods and urological complications in spinal cord injury patients 
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics  2011;45(2):141-147.
Background:
The optimal bladder management method should preserve renal function and minimize the risk of urinary tract complications. The present study is conducted to assess the overall incidence of urinary tract infections (UTI) and other urological complications in spinal cord injury patients (SCI), and to compare the incidence of these complications with different bladder management subgroups.
Materials and Methods:
545 patients (386 males and 159 females) of traumatic spinal cord injury with the mean age of 35.4±16.2 years (range, 18 – 73 years) were included in the study. The data regarding demography, bladder type, method of bladder management, and urological complications, were recorded. Bladder management methods included indwelling catheterization in 224 cases, clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) in 180 cases, condom drainage in 45 cases, suprapubic cystostomy in 24 cases, reflex voiding in 32 cases, and normal voiding in 40 cases. We assessed the incidence of UTI and bacteriuria as the number of episodes per hundred person-days, and other urological complications as percentages.
Results:
The overall incidence of bacteriuria was 1.70 / hundred person-days. The overall incidenceof urinary tract infection was 0.64 / hundered person-days. The incidence of UTI per 100 person-days was 2.68 for indwelling catheterization, 0.34 for CIC, 0.34 for condom drainage, 0.56 for suprapubic cystostomy, 0.34 for reflex voiding, and 0.32 for normal voiding. Other urological complications recorded were urethral stricture (n=66, 12.1%), urethritis (n=78, 14.3%), periurethral abscess (n=45, 8.2%), epididymorchitis (n=44, 8.07%), urethral false passage (n=22, 4.03%), urethral fistula (n=11, 2%), lithiasis (n=23, 4.2%), hematuria (n=44, 8.07%), stress incontinence (n=60, 11%), and pyelonephritis (n=6, 1.1%). Clean intermittent catheterization was associated with lower incidence of urological complications, in comparison to indwelling catheterization.
Conclusions:
Urinary tract complications largely appeared to be confined to the lower urinary tract. The incidence of UTI and other urological complications is lower in patients on CIC in comparison to the patients on indwelling catheterizations. Encouraging CIC; early recognition and treatment of the UTI and urological complications; and a regular follow up is necessary to reduce the medical morbidity.
doi:10.4103/0019-5413.77134
PMCID: PMC3051121  PMID: 21430869
Spinal cord injury; urinary bladder; clean intermittent catheterization; urological complications; indwelling catheterization
6.  Suprapubic Cystostomy: Risk Analysis of Possible Bowel Interposition Through the Percutaneous Tract by Computed Tomography 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(10):709-712.
Purpose
The most serious complication of suprapubic cystostomy is bowel injury. By computed tomography (CT), we investigated the risk factors of possible bowel interposition through the percutaneous suprapubic cystostomy tract.
Materials and Methods
From September to October 2009, we consecutively reviewed 795 abdominopelvic CT scans of adult patients performed for various reasons in our hospital. From these scans, we selected the films wherein the urinary bladder was distended more than 6 cm above the symphysis pubis. We then determined whether the bowel was interposed between the bladder and the skin at the routine puncture site of suprapubic cystostomy (the midline of the abdomen 3 cm above the upper margin of the symphysis pubis). We analyzed which factors influenced the possibility of the bowel being interposed between the bladder and the skin at the suprapubic puncture site.
Results
A total of 226 CT (148 males, 78 females) scans were selected. The mean patient age was 63 years (range, 26-84 years). The mean distance between the upper margin of the symphysis pubis and the umbilicus was 14.4 cm (range, 7.2-21.0 cm). In the multivariate analysis, obesity, a positive history of radical pelvic surgery, and a short distance (≤11 cm) between the symphysis pubis and the umbilicus had significant correlations with bowel interposition in the assumed tract.
Conclusions
When performing a suprapubic cystostomy, extreme caution is needed to avoid possible bowel injury in patients who are obese, had a previous radical pelvic operation, or have a short distance between the upper margin of the symphysis pubis and the umbilicus.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.10.709
PMCID: PMC2963785  PMID: 21031092
Complications; Cystostomy; Punctures
7.  Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder Mimicking Interstitial Cystitis and Voiding Dysfunction 
Case Reports in Urology  2013;2013:924918.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder is a relatively uncommon cause of bladder cancer accounting for <5% of bladder tumors in the western countries. SCC has a slight male predominance and tends to occur in the seventh decade of life. The main presenting symptom of SCC is hematuria, and development of this tumor in the western world is associated most closely with chronic indwelling catheters and spinal cord injuries. A 39-year-old Caucasian female presented with bladder and lower abdominal pain, urinary frequency, and nocturia which was originally believed to be interstitial cystitis (IC) but was later diagnosed as SCC of the bladder. Presentation of SCC without hematuria is an uncommon presentation, but the absence of this symptom should not lead a practitioner to exclude the diagnosis of SCC. This case is being reported in an attempt to explain the delay and difficulty of diagnosis. Background on the risk factors for SCC of the bladder and the typical presenting symptoms of bladder SCC and IC are also reviewed.
doi:10.1155/2013/924918
PMCID: PMC3810310  PMID: 24224109
8.  Fatal Septicaemia Following Suprapubic Cystostomy in a Paraplegic Patient: Never Do a Cystostomy without Prior Urine Culture and Appropriate Antibiogram! 
Case Reports in Medicine  2010;2010:461514.
Neuropathic urinary bladder is often colonised by multidrug-resistant bacteria. We report a 64-year-old male spinal cord injury patient with paraplegia, who received gentamicin on empirical basis before undergoing suprapubic cystostomy, as antibiotic sensitivity report of urine was not available. This patient developed fulminate septicaemia. Although appropriate antibiotic therapy (meropenem) was started when this patient manifested features of sepsis, acute renal failure occurred and he expired. Inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy was the major contributory factor for this patient's mortality. Learning points from this case are (1) never do a cystostomy without prior urine culture and appropriate antibiogram; (2) in a chronic spinal cord injury patient, full blood count, liver function tests, albumin level, and albumin to globulin ratio should be performed before any surgical procedure.
doi:10.1155/2010/461514
PMCID: PMC2892669  PMID: 20589219
9.  Inadvertent suprapubic gastrostomy: Report of a unique complication of blind percutaneous suprapubic trocar cystostomy 
Emergency percutaneous trocar suprapubic cystostomy is a common surgical procedure for acute urinary retention. Although uncommon it can be associated with a few complications. The most dangerous complication is iatrogenic bowel injury. Literature shows reported cases of small and large bowel injuries. We report a case of inadvertent placement of suprapubic catheter into a dilated and ptotic stomach. This is the first reported case of this complication of suprapubic cystostomy.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.105771
PMCID: PMC3579130  PMID: 23450184
Inadvertent bowel injury; iatrogenic bowel injury; suprapubic cystostomy
10.  A peculiar complication of suprapubic catheterization: Recurrent ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis 
Context
Suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) catheterization is a common and important technique for the management of vesicular drainage, especially in patients with neurogenic bladder. Some serious complications include bowel perforation and obstruction.
Findings
A 55-year-old man with C6 American Spinal Injury Association B tetraplegia and a urethral stricture requiring a chronic SPC was admitted for recurrent urosepsis. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed severe right hydronephrosis and hydroureter due to obstruction of the right distal ureter by the SPC tip. The SPC (30 French/10-mm silicone catheter with a 10-ml balloon) was removed and replaced with a similar suprapubic catheter (30 French/10-mm silicone catheter with an 8-ml balloon). Symptoms recurred 2 months later and he was readmitted for urosepsis. CT of the abdomen again revealed severe right hydronephrosis and hydroureter due to obstruction of the right distal ureter by the SPC tip. The SPC was removed, and the patient was given a 14 French/4.67-mm urethral silicone catheter with a 5-ml balloon. Follow-up CT of the abdomen 2 months later showed complete resolution of the hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Of note, urodynamic studies 2 years earlier revealed an extremely small bladder with a capacity less than 20 ml.
Conclusion
This case illustrates that obstruction of the ureter by the tip of an SPC can be a cause of recurrent hydronephrosis and urosepsis.
doi:10.1179/2045772312Y.0000000080
PMCID: PMC3595967  PMID: 23809534
Cystostomy; Hydronephrosis; Hydroureter; Spinal cord injuries; Tetraplegia; Ureteral obstruction; Urinary bladder; Neurogenic; Urosepsis
11.  Intraperitoneally Placed Foley Catheter via Verumontanum Initially Presenting as a Bladder Rupture 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(9):1241-1243.
Since urethral Foley catheterization is usually easy and safe, serious complications related to this procedure have been rarely reported. Herein, we describe a case of intraperitoneally placed urethral catheter via verumontanum presenting as intraperitoneal bladder perforation in a chronically debilitated elderly patient. A 82-yr-old male patient was admitted with symptoms of hematuria, lower abdominal pain after traumatic Foley catheterization. The retrograde cystography showed findings of intraperitoneal bladder perforation, but emergency laparotomy with intraoperative urethrocystoscopy revealed a tunnel-like false passage extending from the verumontanum into the rectovesical pouch between the posterior wall of the bladder and the anterior wall of the rectum with no bladder injury. The patient was treated with simple closure of the perforated rectovesical pouch and a placement of suprapubic cystostomy tube.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.9.1241
PMCID: PMC3172665  PMID: 21935283
Urethral Catheter; Complication; Bladder Perforation; Intraperitoneal
12.  Use of open-ended Foley catheter to treat profuse urine leakage around suprapubic catheter in a female patient with spina bifida who had undergone closure of urethra and suprapubic cystostomy: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:6851.
Introduction
Leakage of urine around a catheter is not uncommon in spinal cord injury patients, who have indwelling urethral catheter. Aetiological factors for leakage of urine around a catheter are bladder spasms, partial blockage of catheter, constipation, and urine infection. Usually, leakage of urine subsides when the underlying cause is treated. Leakage of urine around a suprapubic catheter is very rare and occurs in patients, in whom the urethra is closed due to severe stricture or previous surgery.
Case presentation
We describe a 35-year-old female patient with spina bifida and paraplegia, who had undergone suprapubic cystotomy followed by urethral closure for leakage of urine per urethra. She developed leakage of urine around suprapubic Foley catheter, which did not subside even after changing the catheter, ruling out vesical calculus, and ensuring that there was no kink in catheter or drainage tube. As a desperate measure, we punched a large hole at the tip of a Foley catheter and used this catheter for suprapubic drainage. Leakage of urine around suprapubic catheter stopped and the patient was greatly relieved.
Conclusion
Leakage of urine around a catheter requires prompt attention in spinal cord injury patients; otherwise patients can develop maceration of neuropathic skin and pressure sore. Management of spinal cord injury patients with leakage of urine around a suprapubic catheter should include (i) changing the catheter, (ii) prescribing anticholinergic drugs to control bladder spasm, (iii) treating constipation and urine infection when present, (iv) imaging studies or flexible cystoscopy to look for vesical calculus. If leakage of urine persists despite all these measures, use of a modified Foley catheter in which, a large hole has been made at the tip, is worth trying.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-6851
PMCID: PMC2740262  PMID: 19829871
13.  Some Observations on Carcinoma of the Prostate, with Special Reference to Treatment 
It is thought that valuable data should be obtained from a correlation of the clinical and histological features, when dealing with a large number of cases of carcinoma of the prostate. As a result it should be possible to elaborate a system of grouping, each group being characterized by a definite clinical syndrome, pathological features and individual prognosis.
To be of value, a record of the end-results of treatment should be on this basis.
Malignant disease of the prostate is not infrequently associated with benign hypertrophy, and not infrequently arises in a lateral or median lobe.
Cystoscopy may be of definite value in the diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate.
The perineal method of approach is the operation of choice in the small fibrous type of prostate, especially that which is suspected of being malignant.
The results so far recorded in this country, in the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate by radium, are not encouraging.
As a palliative method of treatment, trans-urethral diathermy should seldom be employed.
The most satisfactory palliative method of treatment is a suprapubic cystostomy. Under certain circumstances, a radical perineal excision is justifiable and satisfactory results may be anticipated.
PMCID: PMC2205014  PMID: 19989820
14.  Urethral obstruction from dislodged bladder Diverticulum stones: a case report 
BMC Urology  2012;12:31.
Background
Secondary urethral stone although rare, commonly arises from the kidneys, bladder or are seen in patients with urethral stricture. These stones are either found in the posterior or anterior urethra and do result in acute urinary retention. We report urethral obstruction from dislodged bladder diverticulum stones. This to our knowledge is the first report from Nigeria and in English literature.
Case presentation
A 69 year old, male, Nigerian with clinical and radiological features of acute urinary retention, benign prostate enlargement and bladder diverticulum. He had a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and was lost to follow up. He re-presented with retained urethral catheter of 4months duration. The catheter was removed but attempt at re-passing the catheter failed and a suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Clinical examination and plain radiograph of the penis confirmed anterior and posterior urethral stones. He had meatotomy and antegrade manual stone extraction with no urethra injury.
Conclusions
Urethral obstruction can result from inadequate treatment of patient with benign prostate enlargement and bladder diverticulum stones. Surgeons in resource limited environment should be conversant with transurethral resection of the prostate and cystolithotripsy or open prostatectomy and diverticulectomy.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-12-31
PMCID: PMC3520759  PMID: 23134722
Urethral obstruction; Diverticulum stones; Urinary retention
15.  Guardian ad litem, a potentially expensive invitation to either the mismanagement or management of patients with cognitive disorders 
The children of a multiple sclerosis (MS) patient filed a guardian ad litem case to be brought against the patient. The basis for the petition was that the MS patient had a significant reduction is his mental competence. The children were not aware that hyperthermia could adversely affect the brain of MS patients. The patient’s urologist recommended he have a suprapubic cystostomy done in a hospital. Passage of the two channel Foley catheter into his bladder immediately resolved his urinary tract infection, fever, and difficulty in communicating. Despite this dramatic improvement in his health from the urologic treatment, he was now faced with resolving his children’s petition for a guardian ad litem that would allow them to control his estate including his residence and financial retirement assets. A judge supported this petition by requesting that the patient with MS pay for his children’s attorney fees, 24 hour nursing home services that duplicated his own hired personal care assistants, the salary of the guardian ad litem, the attorney fees for the guardian ad litem, and payment for a psychological evaluation. The state law should be changed to require that the petitioner have adequate income to pay for his/her attorney as well as the salary of the guardian ad litem to prevent mismanagement of patients with cognitive disorders. In addition, the guardian ad litem should be an attorney or a registered nurse. The care of disabled individuals subjected to litigation should be coordinated by an attorney or registered nurse.
doi:10.2147/CIA.S15072
PMCID: PMC2998244  PMID: 21179591
multiple sclerosis; infection control; law; nurse
16.  The Transurethral Suprapubic endo-Cystostomy (T-SPeC): A Novel Suprapubic Catheter Insertion Device 
Journal of Endourology  2013;27(7):880-885.
Abstract
Background and Purpose
Current methods of suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) catheter insertion may be difficult for patients in poor health and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. These include a highly invasive open procedure, as well as the use of the percutaneous trocar punch methods, commonly associated with short-term SPC. We present the first human experience with the Transurethral Suprapubic endo-Cystostomy (T-SPeC®) device, a novel disposable device used for introducing a suprapubic catheter via a retrourethral (inside-to-out) approach similar to the Lowsley technique.
Patients and Methods
Four men at St. Mary's General Hospital in Kitchener Ontario, Canada, received the T-SPeC device (model T7) under general anesthesia.
Results
Patients had no complications from catheterization using the T-SPeC T7 Surgical System. The mean surgical time of the four procedures was 9.7 minutes, with a range of 7.9 to 13.5 minutes, including instrument preparation and cystoscopy. All four procedures were highly accurate and rapid. There were no complications and minimal blood loss from the procedure.
Conclusions
We found that the T-SPeC device allows for efficient and safe insertion of a suprapubic catheter in an outpatient setting and may be a useful addition to the urologic armamentarium. The T-SPeC Surgical System facilitates rapid and precise suprapubic catheter placement.
doi:10.1089/end.2013.0053
PMCID: PMC3708625  PMID: 23488708
17.  Self-Inflicted Male Bladder Foreign Body: Its Endoscopic Removal Using a Rigid Cystoscope and a Suprapubic Forceps 
Case Reports in Urology  2013;2013:729013.
Introduction. Herein we present an interesting technique for the removal of bladder foreign body (BFB) in which a combination of endoscopic and suprapubic cystostomy was used. Case Presentation. The patient was a case of illicit drug abuser who self-introduced an electrical wire into his bladder. After its failed cystoscopic removal, the foreign body was removed suprapubically without open bladder surgery. Discussions. Bladder foreign bodies are not uncommon. Based on the literature review, mainly open surgeries were used for their treatment. Using of our less invasive technique is a good way for escaping from open cystostomy. Conclusion. Endoscopic removal of the bladder foreign bodies is possible without any need for open bladder surgery.
doi:10.1155/2013/729013
PMCID: PMC3600214  PMID: 23533932
18.  Use of Flexible Cystoscopy to Insert a Foley Catheter over a Guide Wire in Spinal Cord Injury Patients: Special Precautions to be Observed 
Advances in Urology  2011;2011:538750.
When urethral catheterisation is difficult or impossible in spinal cord injury patients, flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire can be performed on the bedside, thus obviating the need for emergency suprapubic cystostomy. Spinal cord injury patients, who undergo flexible cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire, may develop potentially serious complications. (1) Persons with lesion above T-6 are susceptible to develop autonomic dysreflexia during cystoscopy and urethral catheterisation over a guide wire; nifedipine 5–10 milligrams may be administered sublingually just prior to the procedure to prevent autonomic dysreflexia. (2) Spinal cord injury patients are at increased risk for getting urine infections as compared to able-bodied individuals. Therefore, antibiotics should be given to patients who get haematuria or urethral bleeding following urethral catheterisation over a guide wire. (3) Some spinal cord injury patients may have a small capacity bladder; in these patients, the guide wire, which is introduced into the urinary bladder, may fold upon itself with the tip of guide wire entering the urethra. If this complication is not recognised and a catheter is inserted over the guide wire, the Foley catheter will then be misplaced in urethra despite using cystoscopy and guide wire.
doi:10.1155/2011/538750
PMCID: PMC3205766  PMID: 22110492
19.  Tubularized Penile-Flap Urethroplasty Using a Fasciocutaneous Random Pedicled Flap for Recurrent Anterior Urethral Stricture 
Archives of Plastic Surgery  2012;39(3):257-260.
This report describes the use of a tubularized random flap for the curative treatment of recurrent anterior urethral stricture. Under the condition of pendulous lithotomy and suprapubic cystostomy, the urethral stricture was removed via a midline ventral penile incision followed by elevation of the flap and insertion of an 18-Fr catheter. Subcutaneous buried interrupted sutures were used to reapproximate the waterproof tubularized neourethra and to coapt with the neourethra and each stump of the urethra, first proximally and then distally. The defect of the penile shaft was covered by advancement of the surrounding scrotal flap. The indwelling catheter was maintained for 21 days. A 9 month postoperative cystoscopy showed no flap necrosis, no mechanical stricture, and no hair growth on the lumen of the neourethra. The patient showed no voiding discomfort 6 months after the operation. The advantages of this procedure are the lack of need for microsurgery, shortening of admission, the use of only spinal anesthesia (no general anesthesia), and a relatively short operative time. The tubularized unilateral penile fasciocutaneous flap should be considered an option for initial flap urethroplasty as a curative technique.
doi:10.5999/aps.2012.39.3.257
PMCID: PMC3385341  PMID: 22783537
Urethra; Penis; Urethral stricture; Recurrence; Surgical flaps
20.  Burrowing of urinary bladder wall by the tip of a size 22 Fr silicone foley catheter in an adult male patient with multiple sclerosis and suprapubic cystostomy: should caution be exercised in using a size 22 Fr silicone foley catheter for long-term drainage of neuropathic bladder? 
Cases Journal  2008;1:25.
Introduction
Silicone Foley catheters tend to become stiffer as size of the catheter increases. Whereas the tip of a size 12 French silicone, Foley catheter is soft and flexible, a size 24 French silicone, Foley catheter is distinctly stiff. Chronically inflamed neuropathic bladders are susceptible to perforation by the tip of a Foley catheter. We report a patient with multiple sclerosis and moderately severe chronic cystitis, in whom a size 22 French Foley catheter burrowed through the dome of urinary bladder.
Case presentation
A 55-year-old, Caucasian male suffering from multiple sclerosis underwent suprapubic cystostomy in January 2007. Initially, a size 16 Fr. silicone, Foley, catheter was inserted. During subsequent catheter changes, silicone Foley catheters of progressively increasing sizes were inserted and in July 2007, a size 22 Fr. catheter was used in order to prevent blockages and consequent bypassing of urine. In April 2008, he had an uneventful change of suprapubic catheter; but a week later, this patient developed profuse bypassing. On examination, suprapubic catheter contained fresh blood; there was hardly any urine in the leg bag, which was attached to suprapubic catheter. Cystogram showed localised extravasation of contrast on the superior aspect of urinary bladder around the tip of Foley catheter, which protruded beyond the dome of urinary bladder. The size 22 Fr. catheter was removed and a size 20 Fr silicone, Foley, catheter was inserted ensuring that the tip of catheter pointed towards bladder neck. This patient received gentamicin intravenously and he was prescribed ciprofloxacin for five days. He did not develop temperature or other features of sepsis. Bypassing stopped completely.
Conclusion
In this patient, bladder biopsy had shown moderately severe chronic inflammation and congestion. We learn from this case that we should have used a smaller size catheter, which has a softer texture and changed the catheter at shorter intervals rather than insert a larger bore catheter, and run the risk of perforation of neuropathic bladder by the tip of a stiff Foley catheter.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-25
PMCID: PMC2467398  PMID: 18611260
21.  The method of bladder drainage in spinal cord injury patients may influence the histological changes in the mucosa of neuropathic bladder – a hypothesis 
BMC Urology  2002;2:5.
Background
In spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, no correlation was found between the number of bladder infections per year, the period since injury, the neurologic level of the spinal cord lesion and the histopathology of the urinary bladder mucosa. The use of chronic indwelling urethral and/or suprapubic catheters in SCI patients is often associated with inflammatory and proliferative pathological conditions in neuropathic bladder.
Presentation of the hypothesis
We propose a hypothesis that the type of bladder drainage in SCI patients influences the histological changes in the mucosa of neuropathic bladder. This hypothesis implies that SCI patients with long-term indwelling urinary catheters develop certain histological changes in bladder mucosa, which are seen less frequently in SCI patients, who do not use long-term indwelling catheters. The latter group includes patients, who perform regular intermittent catheterisation and those, who wear a penile sheath and empty their bladders satisfactorily by reflex voiding.
We hypothesise that the following histological lesions are seen more frequently in the neuropathic bladder of SCI patients with long-term indwelling catheters.
(1) Papillary or polypoid cystitis; (2) widespread cystitis glandularis; (3) moderate to severe, acute and chronic inflammatory changes in bladder mucosa; (4) follicular cystitis; (5) squamous metaplasia; and (6) urothelial dysplasia
As per this hypothesis, it is postulated that the above pathological conditions are seen less often in SCI patients, who achieve complete, low-pressure emptying of the neuropathic bladder by regular intermittent catheterisation, and SCI patients with penile sheath drainage, who empty their bladders satisfactorily by reflex voiding.
Testing the hypothesis
A large prospective study of bladder biopsies in SCI patients practising different methods of bladder drainage is required to validate this hypothesis that the histological changes in bladder mucosa are related to the method of bladder drainage in SCI patients.
Implications of the hypothesis
We propose a hypothesis that the method of bladder drainage in SCI patients influences histological changes in the bladder mucosa. If this hypothesis is validated, methods of bladder drainage such as intermittent catheterisation, which do not require the use of chronic indwelling catheters, should be recommended, in order to minimise adverse histological changes in the mucosa of neuropathic bladder of spinal cord injury patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-2-5
PMCID: PMC113259  PMID: 11980583
22.  Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the options? 
The Libyan Journal of Medicine  2010;5:10.3402/ljm.v5i0.5686.
Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in clinical practice. These encrustations can impede deflation of the balloon and therefore cause problems in the removal of the catheter. The options in managing an encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and lithoclast. We describe here another technique of dealing with a stuck and encrustated catheter, via direct crushing of the encrustations with a rigid cystoscope inserted through a suprapubic cystostomy tract.
doi:10.3402/ljm.v5i0.5686
PMCID: PMC3066753  PMID: 21483557
encrustations; bladder; catheter; complications; incarcerated; stuck; urinary
23.  Plausible mechanism of small bowel injury during trocar cystostomy 
BMJ Case Reports  2010;2010:bcr06.2009.1968.
An 86-year-old man presented with urinary retention secondary to detrusor failure and bulbar urethral stricture. He had a non-tender, palpable, grossly distended bladder and a very poor tone in the muscles of the abdominal wall. He did not allow urethral or suprapubic catheterisation under local anaesthesia; hence, a trocar cystostomy was performed under a short general anaesthesia, which led to injury to the small bowel when least expected. We discuss its subsequent management and plausible mechanism underlying this unexpected complication in the given circumstances.
doi:10.1136/bcr.06.2009.1968
PMCID: PMC3029561  PMID: 22408649
24.  Complications of Benchekroun vesicostomy in a spina bifida patient: severe stenosis requiring permanent suprapubic cystostomy, recurrent vesical calculi and abdominal hernia containing ileocystoplasty - a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:9371.
Introduction
In female patients with neuropathic bladder, the urethra is closed permanently in order to avoid urine leak. Then Benchekroun hydraulic ileal valve is attached to urinary bladder, thus providing a continent stoma for performing intermittent catheterisations.
Case presentation
We present a female patient with spina bifida who underwent Benchekroun continent vesicostomy in 1993. This patient developed severe stenosis of Benchekroun stoma and stones in urinary bladder. Dilatation of stoma and vesicolithotomy were carried out in 1995. Vesical calculi recurred; suprapubic cystolithotomy was performed in 1999. In March 2000, catheterisation of stoma was not possible and emergency suprapubic cystostomy was done. In April 2000, endoscopy was attempted through Benchekroun stoma. It was not possible to insert ureterorenoscope beyond two inches. The track was completely blocked. In November 2001, X-ray of abdomen showed several vesical calculi; suprapubic cystolithotomy was performed.
In March 2005, this patient developed pain in abdomen. X-ray of abdomen showed a large vesical calculus. In June 2005, suprapubic catheter was removed and a cystoscope was introduced in to the bladder. Then electrohydraulic lithotripsy was performed. In 2007, this patient was concerned about the increasing swelling in lower abdomen. Computed tomography of abdomen revealed midline, lower abdominal wall hernia, which contained several loops of small bowel and ileal cystoplasty. The large hernia was uncomfortable and tender on coughing, but did not cause obstructive bowel symptoms. Surgical repair of hernia was considered. But this patient would require alternative way of urinary diversion because the current location of suprapubic catheter would almost lead to infection of prosthetic material used in reconstruction of the anterior abdominal wall. After discussing risks of operative procedures with patient and her husband, it was decided not to proceed with surgery.
Conclusion
This case is a poignant reminder to spinal cord physicians that novel surgical techniques should be viewed cautiously, and patients should be informed of potential complications of surgical procedures some of which could be irreversible.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-9371
PMCID: PMC2804014  PMID: 20062545
25.  Immediate endoscopic management of complete iatrogenic anterior urethral injuries: A case series with long-term results 
BMC Urology  2005;5:13.
Background
Urethral injury produces partial or complete disruption of the urethral integrity. Advances in endourology have made endoscopic management of most of these injuries feasible without greatly compromising the final result. We report our institutional experience of immediate endoscopic realignment of complete iatrogenic anterior urethral injury.
Methods
From May 1997 to May 2003, seven patients with complete anterior urethral disruption were managed by immediate endoscopy guided splinting of urethra. Retrograde urethroscopy, combined with fluoroscopic guidance and in some cases antegrade cystoscopy through a suprapubic stab cystostomy was performed. A guide wire was negotiated across the disruption. Later, a 16 F Foley catheter was placed for 1–3 weeks. Patients were followed up at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and then yearly to assess the long-term outcome of endoscopic management.
Results
Immediate endoscopic realignment was achieved in all patients. Three patients developed recurrence at six months; that was treated by optical urethrotomy. Only one patient developed multiple recurrences over an average follow-up of 49.2 months (range 7 to 74 months). He was offered open end-to-end urethroplasty at twenty months after third recurrence. Thus immediate endoscopic realignment avoided any further intervention in four patients (57.14%); while after an additional optical urethrotomy, urethroplasty could be avoided in six patients (87.2%).
Conclusion
Immediate endoscopic realignment of traumatic urethral disruption is a feasible, safe and effective treatment modality for management of patients with iatrogenic complete anterior urethral injuries.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-5-13
PMCID: PMC1310535  PMID: 16281970

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